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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Сибирская государственная автомобильно-дорожная академия


(СибАДИ)
Кафедра иностранных языков

ГРАММАТИКА В УПРАЖНЕНИЯХ
Ч. 4. Инфинитив, герундий, причастие
сборник упражнений
по грамматике английского языка

Составитель М.В. Цыгулева

Омск
Издательство СибАДИ
2007

3
УДК 42
ББК 81.432.1

Рецензент доктор филологических наук, зав. каф. русского языка ОМГУ Л.О. Бутакова

Работа одобрена редакционно-издательским советом академии в качестве сборника


упражнений по грамматике английского языка для студентов специальности «Перево-
дчик в сфере профессиональных коммуникаций».

Грамматика в упражнениях. Ч. 4. Инфинитив, герундий, причастие: Сборник


упражнений по грамматике английского языка / Сост. М. В. Цыгулева. – Омск: Изд-во
СибАДИ, 2007. – 68 с.

Сборник содержит упражнения по наиболее трудным разделам английской грамма-


тики: неличным формам глагола. Упражнения способствуют овладению грамматически
правильной английской речью.

Библиогр.: 13 назв.

 Составитель М. В. Цыгулева, 2007

4
Учебное издание

ГРАММАТИКА В УПРАЖНЕНИЯХ

Ч. 4. Инфинитив, герундий, причастие

Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка

Составитель Маргарита Викторовна Цыгулева

  

Редактор Н.И. Косенкова

  

Подписано к печати 10.05.2007


Формат 60x90 1/16. Бумага писчая
Оперативный способ печати
Гарнитура Таймс
Усл. п. л. 4,25, уч.-изд. л. 4,25
Тираж 100 экз.
Заказ . Цена договорная

  

Издательство СибАДИ
644099, г. Омск, ул. П. Некрасова, 10

Отпечатано в ПЦ издательства СибАДИ


644099, г. Омск, ул. П. Некрасова, 10

5
Грамматика
в упражнениях

ИНФИНИТИВ

ПРИЧАСТИЕ
Г
Е
Р
У
Н
Д
И
Й
Сборник упражнений
по грамматике английского языка
GERUND, INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLES
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1. Copy the tables in your notebook and try to remember them!
Common Verbs Followed By The Gerund
acknowledge delay endure give up postpone regret
admit deny enjoy (stop) practice report
appreciate detest escape imagine prevent resent
avoid discontinue explain justify prohibit resist
can’t help discuss feel like keep (con- quit risk
celebrate dislike finish tinue) recall suggest
consider dispute forgive mention recommend understand
mind (ob-
ject to)
miss

Common Verbs Followed By The Infinitive


afford can't afford expect learn plan request
agree can't wait fail manage prepare seem
appear choose help mean pretend want
ask consent hope need promise wish
arrange decide hurry offer refuse would like
attempt deserve intend pay

Common Verbs Followed By The Gerund or The Infinitive


begin forget* love start
can’t stand hate prefer stop*
continue like remember* try
* These verbs can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitive. But there
is a big difference in meaning.

Common Adjective + Preposition Expressions Followed By The Gerund


be accustomed to be curious about be sad about
be afraid of be excited about be safe from
be amazed at/by be famous for be satisfied with
be angry at be fond of be sick of
be ashamed of be glad about be slow at
be aware of be good at be sorry for/about
be awful at be happy about be surprised at/about/by
be bad at be interested in be terrible at
be bored with/by be nervous about be tired of
be capable of be opposed to be used to
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be careful of be pleased about be worried about
be concerned about be ready for
be content with be responsible for

Common Verb + Preposition Combination Followed By The Gerund


admit to count on plan on
advise against deal with rely on
apologize for dream about/of resort to
approve of feel like succeed in
believe in insist on talk about
choose between look forward to think about
complain about object to

2. Read these messages from an online bulletin board about smoking. What
grammar material are there in the messages?
Re: Can't Stand Seeing Those Signs!

Posted by Cigarman on February 16, 2000, at 15:30:03


I can't stand seeing all the new No Smoking signs. Eating in a restaurant and
traveling by plane are no fun anymore! Junk food (нездоровая пища) is worse
than smoking. But I bet the government won't prohibit ordering burgers and fries
for lunch!
Reply posted by Nuffsed on February 17, 12:15:22
Hey, Cigarman – I don't get sick when my boyfriend goes to McDonald’s,
but sitting in a room full of his cigarette smoke makes my hair and clothing
stink.
Reply posted by Swissfriend on February 17, 20:53:11
Hello, U.S. Smokers! I am a member of Freunde der Tabak, a Swiss group
of smokers and nonsmokers. We suggest practicing courtesy to nonsmokers and
tolerance of smokers. I enjoy smoking, but I understand not wanting to inhale
(вдыхать) second-hand smoke.
Reply posted by Cleanaire on February 18, 9:53:11
Friend – Have you ever tried to stop smoking? If so, then you know you are
addicted to nicotine. The younger you start smoking, the harder it is to quit.

3. Read part of an article from a health newsletter. Underline the words


ending in-ing that are gerunds.
YOUR
HEALTH
Swimming is great exercise. It's healthy, fun, and relaxing. Because swim-
ming is a "low-impact" sport, most people enjoy participating in this activity
8
without fear of injury to bones or muscles. Jogging, a "high-impact" activity, can
at times be harmful. I know this from personal experience. Last year while I was
jogging, I injured my right knee. I don't go jogging anymore. After a painful
month of recovery, I stopped running and switched to water sports. I'm now
considering joining a swimming team and competing in races.

4. Complete these statements with gerunds. Use the verbs in the box.
increase smoking eat do walk swim go run

1. ………………. is bad for your heart and lungs.


2. …………………. too much fat and sugar is also unhealthy.
3. Doctors suggest …………… the number of fruits and vegetables in your diet.
4. Avoid …………….. too many high-impact sports such as jogging and jump-
ing rope. Instead, consider ……………. in a pool every day. It’s an excellent is
better than low-impact sport.
5. Many health experts think that ………………… is better than …………….
because there is less stress on your body when your feet come into contact with
the ground.
6. Many people postpone ……………….. to the doctor or dentist, but regular
checkups are important.

5. Take a group survey. How many students agree with the statements be-
low? Write the numbers in the appropriate column. Discuss your survey re-
sults.
Agree Disagree Don't
know
Seeing someone with a cigarette turns me off
(disgusts me).
I'd rather date people who don't smoke. (If your
groupmate doesn't date, change the statement to
"I'd rather be married to someone who doesn't
smoke.)
It's safe to smoke for only a year or two.
Smoking can help you when you're bored.
Smoking helps reduce stress.
Smoking helps keep your weight down.
I strongly dislike being around smokers.

Example: Ten people say that seeing someone smoke turns them off.

6. Work in small groups. Discuss this poster (pic. 1). Complete some of the
sentences below to help you in the discussion.
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The message of this poster is...
The man wants/doesn’t want to
quit…
The camel enjoys …
The camel keeps...
Lighting up a cigarette …
After six years, most people can’t
resist …
I can’t imagine …
I can’t stand …
This poster makes me feel like …
Smoking is…

Pic. 1

7. Many people agree with laws that prohibit smoking in all public places.
What is your opinion? Work in small groups. Think of arguments for and
against allowing smoking in public places. Take notes.
Example:
Going outside to smoke wastes a lot of time at work.

8. Write a letter to a friend who wants to stop smoking. Give your friend
tips on to quit. Use gerunds.
Example:
Avoid being around people who smoke.

9. Student Council wrote a letter to Ana Rivera, the president of the college.
Read the letter and underline all the preposition + gerund combinations.
October 4, 1999
Dear President Rivera:
We, the members of the Student Council, would like to share with you the
thoughts and concerns of the general student body. As you probably know,

10
many students are complaining about life on campus. We are interested in meet-
ing with you to discuss our ideas for dealing with these complaints.
We know that you are tired of hearing students complain, and that you are
not used to working with the Student Council. However, if you really believe in
giving new ideas a try, we hope you will think about speaking with our repre-
sentatives soon.
We look forward to hearing from you soon.
Respectfully submitted,
The Student Council

10. Read the school newspaper. Complete the students' statements. Choose
the appropriate preposition from the box. (You will use one of the preposi-
tions several times.) Add the gerund form of the verb in parentheses.
at on in to about for

March 1. 2001
The banner
Vol. 5, issue 24
It's almost time for spring break! We asked students: "What are your plans
for spring break?"
Here are some of their answers:
1. I'm very interested …………………. (listen) to jazz. I'm going to attend the
Spring Jazz Festival.
Lisa Suarez
2. I don't have any plans, but I'm not concerned …………………… (get) bored.
I can always take a walk or something.
Jim Hsu
3. My friends and I are driving to New Orleans. I'm excited …………………
(go), but I'm nervous ……………… (drive).
Emilia Leale
4. I'm really looking forward …………(stay) at home and …………… (relax).
Don Pitt
5. We're driving to Quebec City. It's famous ……………… (have) great food.
Omar Sisane
6. I love languages, but I’m not good …………….. (learn) them. I'm worried
……………. (not do) well in my Japanese class, so I'm studying over the break.
Claire Kapian
7. My friends and I are going camping, but my little brother insists
………………. (come) with us. A lot of fun that’ll be!
Eun Ko
8. My girlfriend plans ………………. (read) and ……………… (go) movies, so
I guess I'll read a lot and see a lot movies.
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Tim Riley
11. Combine the following pairs of sentences to make statements about
school life. Use the prepositions in parentheses.
1. You can't walk on campus late at night. You have to worry about your safety.
You can't walk on campus late at night, without worrying about your safety.
(without)
2. We can make changes. We can tell the administration about our concerns.
(by) …………………………………………………………………………
3. The administration can help. It can listen to our concerns.
(by) …………………………………………………………………………
4. In some cases, students just complain. They don't make suggestions for im-
provements!
(instead of) …………………………………………………………………
5. Students get annoyed with some teachers. Some teachers come late to class.
(for) ………………………………………………………………………..
6. You can improve your grades. Study regularly.
(by) …………………………………………………………………………

12. Lorry Jones quit school after high school and had various jobs. Then he
decided to go to college. That was a big change for him. Complete the sen-
tences about Lorry. Use the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses.
1. Larry used to ………………. (be)a student, but he quit after high school.
2. He used to ……………….. (have) a job.
3. In fact, he used to ……………….. (have) a lot of different jobs.
4. When he went back to college, he had to get used to …………….. (be) a stu-
dent again.
5. He wasn't used to ………………… (go) to school every day.
6. He had to get used to …………….. (do) homework again and
……………….(study) for tests.
7. When Larry was working, he used to ……………….. (earn) quite a bit of
money. He used to …………….. (spend) everything, too. Now he has to get
used to ………………. (spend) less.
8. It hasn't been easy, but now Larry has gotten used to ……………… (live) a
student’s life again.

13. Pretend you are running for president of the Student Council. Prepare
your campaign speech and read it to the group. Answer some of these ques-
tions. Then have an election.
What are you most interested in? What are you opposed to?
What do you believe in? What are you excited about?
What will you insist on? What are you good at?
Example:
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Vote for me. I'm interested in making our lives better by improving . . .

14. Below are some life events, both positive and negative, that can lead to
stress. Work by yourself and rank them from most stressful (1) to least
stressful (7). Then in small groups compare and discuss your lists. Use BE
USED TO and GET USED TO to explain your choices.
__ starting college __ getting divorced
__ moving to a new city __ having or adopting a baby
__ changing jobs or institutes __ death of a close family member
__ getting married __ getting fired at work

Example:
I think getting married is the third most stressful life event. You have to get used
to living with another person.

15. Read this letter to the editor of a school newspaper. Then complete the
exercise below.
TO THE EDITOR.
I have been attending Longtree College for a year. I am an international stu-
dent in the Chemistry Department. I am very happy about studying here. How-
ever, I have had some problems with academic advisors. The academic advisors
are not used to talking to international students, so they get nervous about under-
standing us.
In addition, the school delays looking at the records of transfer students. I at-
tended a university in Ukraine for two years, and I took several chemistry
courses. The Chemistry Department has not yet looked at my records. My advi-
sor recommends taking basic courses, but I am afraid of repeating courses and
wasting my time.

I suggest giving a workshop for advisors. In the workshop they can practice
talking clearly and organizing their information for international students. I also
recommend looking at student records as soon as possible.
Respectfully,
Galina Terela

16. Mark the following statements True (T) or False (F).


___ 1. Galina is complaining about being a chemistry student.
___ 2. The advisors have a lot of experience in talking to international students.
___ 3. They feel confident about communicating with international students.
___ 4. Galina is a freshman.
___ 5. The Chemistry Department has been slow in reviewing Galina's records.
___ 6. Galina objects to taking basic chemistry courses.
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___ 7. Galina thinks that advisors should learn about dealing with international
student.

17. Write a letter to the editor of your institute newspaper. Write about the
things you like and dislike about your institute. Use Galina's letter as a
model.

18. Read this entry in a personal diary. Underline all the verbs + infinitive
and the verbs + object + infinitive.
Annie advised me to join a club or take a class, and I finally did it! I de-
cided to join the school's Outdoor Adventure Club, and I went to my first meet-
ing last night. I'm really excited about this. The club is planning a hiking trip
next weekend. I definitely want to go. I hope it won't be too hard for my first ad-
venture. Last night they also decided to go rafting in the spring. At first I didn’t
want to sign up, but the leader was so nice. He urged me not to miss this trip, so
I put my name on the list. After the meeting, a group of people asked me to go
out with them. We went to a coffee shop and talked for hours. Well, I hoped to
make some new friends when I joined this club, but I didn’t expect everyone to
be so friendly. I'm glad Annie persuaded me not to give up.

19. Work in pairs. Tell each other about your parents.


What did they encourage you to do?
How did they encourage you to do that?
What didn't they allow you to do?
What did they force you to do?
What did they advise you to do?
Why did they advise you to do that?
What would they like you to do?
What do they expect you to do?
What would you prefer to do?
Why would you prefer to do that?
Example:
My parents encouraged me to learn other languages.

20. Discuss how people in your culture socialize. Do young men and women
go out together? If so, do they go out in couples or in groups? What are
some ways people meet their future husbands or wives?

21. Imagine you would like to meet one of the people in these personal ads.
Write a letter to that person and introduce yourself. Use verbs followed by
infinitives.
Example:
14
Dear Nice Boy,
I'm a friendly female student. I like to take walks in the country…

300 310
Women Seeking Men Men Seeking Women

Can’t wait to meet you! Nice Boy-would like to


– friendly, but lonely, foreign meet warm, friendly female
student would like to meet a who enjoys the city, country,
nice, thoughtful boy who en- reading, movies and travel-
joys good conversation, ing. You don’t need to send a
books, music, and the out- photo, but please write. 3543
doors. Please, send note. 3512 Attractive single male –
We deserve to be to- refuses to believe that the
gether – I love to travel, but I woman of his dreams does
also like to stay home with not exist! She is smart,
friends, and family. My hob- funny, and has a warm heart.
bies include tennis, dancing, Send note with photo, please.
and gardening. You are a nice 2073
boy with many interests. Want to dance? – ath-
Please write me about them. letic man wants to meet part-
6534 ner for dancing,

22. Look at Yoke's list of things to do. Then write a phrase to answer each
question.
To Do
- Get gas
- Make dental appointment
- Buy batteries
- Withdraw $100
- Invite Rika and Taro to dinner
- Buy milk and eggs

1. Why did she call Dr. Towbins office? To make a dental appointment.
2. Why did she go to the bank?
3. Why did she call Mrs. Watanabe?
4. Why did she go to the supermarket?
5. Why did she go to the electronics store?
6. Why did she go to the service station?

23. Read Yoko's journal entry. Find and correct six mistakes.

15
I went to Dr. Towbin for getting my teeth cleaned. While I was waiting, I
used my Datalator to study for the TOEFL. Then I used it to helps me pronounce
“novocaine” and “dental floss” for my appointment. After the dentist, I checked
my schedule and saw “Rika and Taro, dinner, 7:30.” I should use it in order to
not forget appointments! Luckily, my recipes are already on the Datalator, so I
used them for making a quick shopping list. When I got home, there was a note
on my door – “Call bldg. super.” I checked the Datalator dictionary to find
“bldg. super.” The “building superintendent” wanted to come up in order fix
the doorbell! Rika and Taro and I played with the Datalator all evening. You
can program it for to play computer games, too. I don’t know how I lived with-
out it.

24. Work in groups. Think of uses for the following objects (pic. 2). Use the
infinitive of purpose and your imagination!

1 2 3 4 5 6

Pic. 2

Example:
You can use a shell to hold coins, to keep soap in, or to eat from.

25. Look at the sentences and tables below. What can you say about Verbals
according to the information you have read?
INFINITIVE
To read English is a great pleasure.
He likes to read English.
His task was to read an English text.
To know English you must work hard.
This is a good book to read.

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A C T I V E I N F I N I T I V E
Present (Simple) Present Cont. Perfect Perfect Cont.

одновременно одновременно, раньше раньше,


процесс процесс
I’m happy to help I’m happy to I’m happy to He seemed to have
you. be helping have helped been waiting for my
them. him. help.

I want to show you I know her to She seems to I rang the bell, and
a book. be translating have lost the man answered
an article. weight. with remarkable
promptness; he
seemed to have
been waiting for it
to ring.

P A S S I V E I N F I N I T I V E
Present (Simple) Perfect
одновременно раньше
He was glad to be He was glad to have been helped.
helped.

I want to be asked I know the letter to have been sent yesterday.


this question.

GERUND
Reading is his hobby.
Do you like reading?
My aim is learning English.
Will you ring me up before leaving?
I don’t understand your way of learning English words.

A C T I V E G E R U N D
Present (Simple) Perfect
одновременно раньше

17
I’m looking forward to sending I’m surprised at your having
my child to the country. missed so many lectures this
term.

He was good at gathering mush- Godfrey felt guilty at having gos-


rooms. siped to Oliver about Letty.

P A S S I V E G E R U N D
Present (Simple) Perfect
одновременно раньше
I’m looking forward to being sent The boy didn’t like having been
to London. left alone.

Raymond didn’t like being called I won’t go there. I didn’t remem-


Ray. ber having been invited.

PARTICIPLE I
He is speaking now.
While translating the article, the student consulted the dictionary.
Take the letter showing the prices for our products.

A C T I V E P A R T I C I P L E I
Present (Simple) Perfect
одновременно раньше
She is a loving mother. Having lost the key, the boy
couldn’t get into the house.

She saw the director working at his Having eaten ice-cream, they
office. went home.

P A S S I V E P A R T I C I P L E I
Present (Simple) Perfect
одновременно раньше

18
Being left alone, he went on with his This book is out-of-date, having
work. been written in 1940.

I heard my poem being recited and The contract having been signed,
felt happy. our managers went home.

PARTICIPLE II

Tables are made of wood.


I want to have my car repaired. Jill had the roof repaired yesterday.
The constructed road was 15 miles long.
The road constructed here is 15 miles long.
When constructed, the road was carefully tested.
Metal bars become longer if heated.

26. Read this transcript of a radio talk show about voting rights for people
under age eighteen. What do you think about it?
Smith: Welcome to Voice of the People. I'm Ed Smith, and tonight our topic is
youth voting rights. Kyle, you're only sixteen. For someone your age, is getting
the vote really important enough to fight for?
Kyle: Sure. Without it, teenagers are too powerless for politicians to listen to.
Smith: I don't get it. In the 1960s when military service was required, eighteen-
year-olds had an argument -"if we're old enough to fight for our country, we're
old enough to vote." What's your argument?
Tina: Well, there are a lot of laws that discriminate against us.
Micah: For example, my parents are divorced. I see my father every week. I
don't want to, but the law says I'm too young to decide.
Kyle: My city has curfew laws. I'm responsible enough to work and pay taxes,
but too immature to stay out until 10:00. That's fair?
Tina: Women, racial minorities, and people with disabilities have already won
their civil rights. Now it's our turn.
Micah: That's right. Things are changing, but not quickly enough for us to get
anything out of it.

27. People have different opinions about public issues. Read each statement
of opinion. Then choose the sentence (a. or b) that summarizes that opinion.
1. Teenagers are responsible enough to stay out past 10:00 p.m.
a. Teenagers should have permission to stay out past 10:00 p.m.
b. Teenagers shouldn't have permission to stay out past 10:00 p.m.
2. Teenagers are too immature to vote.
a. Teenagers should be able to vote.
19
b. Teenagers shouldn't be able to vote.
3. Women are strong enough to be good soldiers.
a. Women can be good soldiers.
b. Women can't be good soldiers.
4. Children are mature enough to choose which parent to live with.
a. Children can choose which parent to live with.
b. Children can't choose which parent to live with.
5. Teenagers are responsible enough to use the Internet without censorship.
a. Teenagers can use the Internet without censorship.
b. Teenagers can't use the Internet without censorship.
6. Adults are too afraid of change to listen to children's ideas.
a. Adults can listen to children's ideas.
b. Adults can't listen to children's ideas.
7. People with disabilities have worked too hard to give up the fight for equal
rights.
a. People with disabilities can give up the fight for equal rights.
b. People with disabilities can't give up the fight for equal rights.
8. At age seventy, people are not too old to work.
a. At age seventy, people can work.
b. At age seventy, people can't work.

28. Match the pictures (pic. 3) with the sentences below.


a. The buttons are too high for him to reach.
b. The buttons are low enough.
c. The steps are too steep for him to get up.
d. The box is too heavy.
e. The street is too busy for them to cross.
f. The traffic is slow enough for them to cross.
g. She's too old to join the army.
h. She is too young to vote.
i. She is old enough to vote.

1 ________ 2 ________ 3 ________

20
4 ________ 5 ________ 6 ________

7 ________ 8 ________ 9 ________

Pic. 3

4. Discuss one of these questions. Then vote on your opinions.


• At what age should people start to vote?
• Should towns have curfews for people younger than age eighteen?
Example:
A: I think fifteen-year-olds are mature enough to vote. They can read newspa-
pers and understand issues.
B: I disagree. I don't think fifteen-year-olds are concerned enough about politics
to vote.

29. What do you think these expressions mean? When would you use them?
Discuss your ideas in small groups.
 She's old enough to know better.
 Life is too short to worry about every little thing.
 You're never too old to try.
 It looks good enough to eat.
 It’s too hot to handle.

21
30. Complete the following sentences. In small groups, compare your opin-
ions.
1. Elderly people are too . . .
Example:
A: People over age seventy are too old to drive.
B: Oh, I don't agree. Some elderly people drive better than young people.
2. The leaders of this country are powerful enough . . .
3. Teenagers are too crazy . . .
4. Guns are too dangerous. . .
5. Taxes aren't high enough . . .
6. Women are strong enough . . .
7. Radio and TV broadcasters speak (or don't speak) clearly enough . . .
8. Time goes by too quickly . . .

31. What are your strategies for remembering names? Read this excerpt
from a magazine article.
STOP FORGETTING 
Marta wanted to go to the party. She's friendly and enjoys meeting people.
But as Marta looked at the invitation, part of her kept saying, "I won't know
anyone there! How will I remember all those new names?" Marta's problem is
not unusual. Remembering names is a problem for many people. For interna-
tional travelers like Marta (she's a Mexican student studying in the United
States), it is even harder to recall unfamiliar foreign names. What can Marta and
others like her do?
Here are some tips from memory experts:
 Decide to remember. Making an effort can really help.
 Listen carefully when you hear someone's name for the first time.
It's important to pay attention.
 Keep repeating the name. Calling the person by name more than
once will help fix the name in your mind.
 Write the name down. Putting things in writing is the most common
memory aid.
Don't hesitate to ask the person to repeat the name. Most people don't mind
doing this.
And last, but not least,
 Stop worrying. Anxiety only makes the problem worse.
32. Read the first sentence. Then decide if the second sentence is True (T) or
False (F).
1. Marta remembered meeting Mr. Jackson.
__ Marta has already met Mr. Jackson.
22
2. Richard stopped smoking.
___ Richard doesn't smoke anymore.
3. She didn't remember to buy a cake for the party.
___ She bought a cake.
4. She stopped eating desserts.
___She used to eat desserts.
5. Richard forgot to invite his boss to the party.
___ Richard invited his boss.
6. Richard forgot inviting his neighbor to the party.
___ Richard invited his neighbor.
7. Richard thinks giving a party is fun.
___ Richard thinks it's fun to give a party.
8. Marta likes going to parties.
___ Marta likes to go to parties.

33. Circle the correct words to complete these ideas from a book called Su-
per Memory.
1. Get in the habit of (repeating)/ to repeat things aloud.
2. Never rely on someone else’s memory. Learn trusting / to trust your own.
3. It’s easy forgetting / to forget what you don't want remembering / to remem-
ber.
4. Study immediately before going / to go to sleep. You'll remember a lot more
the next day.
5. Our memories are filled with things we never even meant remembering / to
remember.
6. Make it a habit to pass in front of your car every time you get out, and you'll
never forget turning off / to turn off your headlights.
7. Playing / To play games is a fun way of improving / to improve your memory
skills.
Douglas J. Hermann, Super Memory:
A Quick Action Program for Memory Improvement
(Avenel, NJ: Wings Books, 1991).

34. Complete this advice. Use the gerund or infinitive form of the verb in
parentheses.
________ (Study) for an exam is different from _________ (try)
___________
(remember) someone's name. Here are some tips:
• Group information by dates, people, or places. It may help ____________
(make) a chart.
• Color code. ___________ (Use) colored pens helps many people retain new
information.
23
• Use different senses. Try ____________ (learn) new information by
____________ (read), ______________ (write), ____________ (speak), and
____________ (listen). Some people need ___________ (use) two or more
senses.
• Remember ____________ (review) frequently. It’s important _________ (go
over) information again and again.

35. Marta and Lev are on their first date. They agree on everything. Read
one person’s pinion and write the other's. If the first person used the ger-
und, use the infinitive. If the first person used the infinitive, use the gerund.
1. Marta: It’s fun to meet new people.
Lev: I agree. Meeting new people is fun.
2. Marta: Remembering names is hard, though.
Lev: I know. It's hard to remember names.
3. Marta: It's difficult to make new friends.
Lev: That's true. _____________________
4. Marta: It’s important to relax.
Lev: You're right. ____________________
5. Marta: Dancing is fun.
Lev: I agree. ____________________
6. Marta: It's nice to get to know someone like you.
Lev: I feel the same way. ________________________
7. Lev: Being with you is wonderful.
Marta: Thanks. ____________________________________, too.

36. How do you feel and act in new social situations? Complete these sen-
tences. Use the gerund or the infinitive. Then discuss your answers with a
partner.
When I'm in a new social situation, I...
1) enjoy..................................................................................................................
2) always expect.....................................................................................................
3) never hesitate.....................................................................................................
4) dislike.................................................................................................................
5) don’t mind..........................................................................................................
6) am afraid of........................................................................................................
7) avoid...................................................................................................................
8) often regret.........................................................................................................
9) keep....................................................................................................................
10) always try..........................................................................................................
11) believe it's important.........................................................................................
12) feel nervous about.............................................................................................

24
37. Work in small groups. Discuss these questions:
1. Do you have trouble remembering people’s names?
2. Do you follow any of the experts’ memory tips?
3. What other things do you have trouble remembering?
4. What tricks do you use to remember things?
Example:
A: I sometimes forget to pay my rent.
B: Oh, I always make a note on my calendar when the rent is due.

38. Fill in the correct form of the infinitives.


1. My boss expects me ...to work... (work) overtime.
2. The suspect claimed............................ (watch) TV at the time of the robbery.
3. Jill's teacher is worried about her as she seems......................... (have) diffi-
culty coping with her studies.
4. Young children often ask.......................................... (take) to the zoo.
5. The burglars must have come in through the window as the lock
seems.................................. (force).
6. "I happen ............................. (pass) my driving test two years ago, you
know," he said.
7. Robert is expecting......................... (inherit) a large house when his grandfa-
ther dies.
8. "Mark appears ....................... (overtake) John on the last lap. Yes, he's
passed him!"
9. Leslie seems.................................................................... (enjoy) her new job.
10. I'd like.............................................. (book) a return ticket to Denver, please.
11. Stop pretending.............................. (eat) your food – just finish it up, please.
12. The manager seems................................ (get) impatient with the interviewee.

39. Fill in with the appropriate preposition or particle and -ing forms.
Dear Sir/Madam,
As I dine out regularly in good quality restaurants I am accus-
tomed........................... (receive) service of the highest standard. The staff at
your establishment could certainly not be accused............................. (provide)
this! In addition................................. (be) extremely rude, the waitress who
served us was also guilty ............................ (get) our order wrong twice. My
wife was also very upset.................................. (be) told that she shouldn't be so
impatient. The chef too, seemed incapable............................ (do) anything right.
As well............................... (forget) to heat up our soup, he burnt my steak and
overcooked my wife's vegetables. All I can say is that he is obviously
used..................................... (cook) for very uncritical diners. To make matters
worse, the waitress tried to prevent us...................................... (leave) the restau-
rant because we hadn't left a tip! I'm not interested............................ (get) my
25
money back but I am looking forward........................... (hear) from you in the
near future with a full apology to my wife and myself..................................
(spoil) our 25th wedding anniversary.
Yours faithfully,
Michael Crawford

40. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.
The Jackal is known................. (be) one of the most dangerous criminals in
the world. ........................ (rob) banks is his speciality, although he also enjoys
...................... (kidnap) every now and again. So far, the police have failed
.................... (catch) him, and they would be very happy ............................. (re-
ceive) any information that could lead to his arrest. The public have been
warned................................ (not/approach) the Jackal if they see him, as he has a
gun and he doesn't mind ...................................... (use) it. The last per-
son.............................. (try) to arrest him was shot in the foot. Fortunately, we
are unlikely.......................... (come across) the Jackal in this country in the near
future. He was last seen.................................... (sunbathe) on a beach in Brazil.

41. Complete the sentences using an infinitive or an -ing form.


1. City life is too busy for me; I really miss ..................... in the country.
2. We had to postpone .................................. tennis because of the bad weather.
3. She goes............................................ at the pool every weekend.
4. If you will keep ........................................ so much, you're bound to get fat.
5. She's been training so hard recently that she deserves....................... the race.
6. He couldn't sleep, so I suggested his .................................. some warm milk.
7. Because of his fear of jellyfish, he doesn't like................................ in the sea.
8. I'd really like ................................................. my uncle in Chicago one day.
9. That man seems to be having trouble..................................... his car. Why
don't you give him a push?
10. Mr Roberts is much too old ..................................... climbing like he used to.
11. Before the interview, I was required .............................. an application form.
12. The dog seems............................................ hungry – you'd better feed him.
13. Becoming an Olympic athlete involves .......................................... for years.
14. Would you ever consider........................ married to someone twice your age?
15. I much prefer.............................. letters to ........................ on the telephone.
16. Let me be the first........................................ you on your remarkable success.
17. I'm sorry ......................... that I'll be unable to attend the meeting tomorrow.
18. He said he would prefer........................ the train to London rather than
...................... his mother's old car.
19. It's no use ..................................... to university if you don't intend to study.
20. I think you should give up ..................... because you have a very poor voice.

26
42. Complete the sentences by using an Infinitive or an -ing form.
He heard the phone ...ringing... but it stopped before he could answer it.
When I entered his room I saw him ........................ his homework.
Then I saw him ........................ the house,........................ into his car and
.......................... away.
As they were walking past the house, they saw it........................ into flames.
I saw Gary Lineker........................ the winning goal in the FA Cup Final.

43. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.
The best way ...to explore... (explore) China is by land. Anyone who has
been there, will..................... (tell) you what a great experience it is.
.......................... (Travel) round China involves.................................... (cover)
great distances as the country is enormous. As a result, some tourists would
rather................................... (fly), as it is quicker and they consider
............................... (sit) on a bus or train a waste of time. For those who don't
mind........................... (take) a bit longer, there is so much
..................................... (see) which is not visible from a plane. From a bus you
can.................................. (see) women ............................. (work) in the rice
fields. You can even spend some time...................................... (learn) a few Chi-
nese phrases. Few can resist........................... (taste) the local delicacy – bird's
nest soup, though you may ............................. (have) difficulty in
......................... .................. (acquire) a taste for one-hundred-year-old eggs!!

44. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.
There has been a bomb scare in central London. The police advise every-
body ...to stay... (stay) clear of the area. You are recommended
not............................ (travel) by tube as the service has been suspended. We'd
recommend........................ (take) the bus, but only if your journey is essential.
The police require any members of the public with any information relating to
this incident..................................... (come forward).

45. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.
1. Tom stopped ...to pick up... (pick up) his washing on the way home.
2. If you don't stop.................................. (smoke), you'll make yourself ill.
3. Try.................................. (phone) John at the office if he's not at home.
4. I tried my best................................ (finish), but there just wasn't enough time.
5. He was promoted in 1990 and went on.................... (become) a company di-
rector.
6. The band went on............................. (play) even after the lights had gone out.
7. "Why is the baby crying?" "I think he wants .................................. (feed)."
8. Sharon wants.................................. (talk) to you.
9. Jane was afraid.................................. (show) her school report to her parents.
27
10. I'm afraid of.................................. (lose) my way in the forest.
11. What do you mean.................................. (do) with all that money?
12. Playing a musical instrument well means......................... (practise) for years.
13. I regret.............................. (inform) you that your husband has been arrested.
14. She regrets.................................. (spend) so much money on her new dress.
15. Do you remember.................................. (ride) a bicycle for the first time?
16. Remember.................................. (post) the letters on your way home.
17. I'd prefer.................................. (pretend) I didn't hear what you just said.
18. I prefer................. (borrow) books from the library to ................. (buy) them.
19. Don't forget.............. (bring) some cash in case they don't accept credit cards.
20. I was sorry................................ (hear) about you failing the exam.
21. He said he was sorry for............................... (speak) to you so rudely.
22. Oh no! I totally forgot................................. (turn off) the cooker.
23. I'll never forget............................. (sail) through that storm in the Atlantic.

46. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.
Kim: I'll never forget ...going... (go) to America for the first time. I was incredi-
bly excited although I was trying....................... (act) cool and casual.
Tom: I know. I remember.................... (be) quite envious because I wanted
.............. (go) there too.
Kim: Yes, I know. I was a bit over the top, wasn't I? I'm sorry for.......................
(behave) so badly.
Tom: Yes, you were! You just went on....................... (talk) about America con-
stantly. It was quite funny though when I think back. You hardly let
me................. (say) a word.
Kim: I'm sorry, but you know that in my excitement I nearly left a lot of things
behind like my camera and my money.
Tom: I didn't know you had such a bad memory.
Kim: I'm not usually so forgetful. I had a lot on my mind. Anyway, I don't re-
member actually........................ (leave) anything behind in the end.
Tom: How did you feel when you first arrived there?
Kim: I remember..................... (worry) about what to do and where to go. I
wanted..................... (see) everything but I didn't know where............ (begin).
Tom: So where did you go first?
Kim: Well, we started in New York. At first, the traffic was so bad that I was
afraid.................... (cross) the road. But it got easier. I saw the Empire State
Building and the Statue of Liberty and lots of other things. It was incredible! I
love New York!

47. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive infinitive or -ing form.
1. We are waiting for his first novel ...to be punished... (publish) in English.
2. His music seems..................... (influence) by the rock culture of the seventies.
28
3. ....................... (hurt) badly in the past, she found it very difficult to trust any-
one again.
4. Don't tease him any more. He doesn't enjoy..................................... (laugh at).
5. Many film stars now hire bodyguards because they want....................... (pro-
tect).
6. ................. (award) an Oscar was the most memorable event in the actor's
life.
7. Ann claimed................ (invite) to Tom Cruise's wedding while she was in
America.
8. I was very upset when I failed the audition, so you can imagine how de-
lighted I was............................................. (give) a second chance.
9. I'm not used to............................................. (approach) by complete strangers
asking for my autograph.
10. Listen carefully because I don't want.................................... (misunderstand).
11. I wouldn't phone her after midnight. She won't like....................... (wake up).
12. I don't remember......................... (tell) the news before. Are you sure you
mentioned it yesterday?
13. Ten more people have asked................................ (include) in the conference.
14. He always wears such outrageous clothes because he wants.............. (notice).
15. I see that...................... (send) to prison for five years has taught you nothing.
16. Actors consider............................ (see) on television as the first step to fame.

48. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate participle.


Carla has been ...interested... (interest) in dancing since she was a little girl.
When she put on her own "performances" at home for her relatives, they were
all.................................... (entertain) by the sight of the young girl twirling
around in her home-made costumes. No one guessed, however, that by the age
of eighteen she would be an......................... (entertain) spectacle for a much lar-
ger audience. Carla's family were.......................... (thrill) to attend a Royal Per-
formance and to witness their little girl's ......................... (excite) debut. Carla
herself was more....................... (excite) and ................................. (frighten) than
she'd ever been in her life. Her climb to fame had been extremely........................
(reward). And now, here she was, dancing for the Queen. How.............................
(please) she felt! But the......................................... (amaze) reviews she received
the next day were even more ...................................... (thrill).

49. Put the verbs in brackets in the -ing form or the to-infinitive.
I've been trying ...to get... (get) fit for years but it has been impossible
......................................... (find) a method that has not ended in disaster. Two
years ago I started................. (go) to karate classes. On the second day I broke
my arm. When I had recovered from that, I took up.................. (swim). At first I
really enjoyed........................ (race) my friend up and down the pool. But I re-

29
gret......................... (say) that it wasn't long before, I slipped over on the pool
side and cracked my head on the tiles. I needed.................... (go) to hospital to
make my head stop .................... (bleed). A few months later a friend advised
me................. (try) aerobics. That didn't last long either, because I
hate...................... (listen) to loud disco music. Then last month I bought a bicy-
cle. I had always loved..................... (cycle) ever since I was a child. I really re-
gret..................... (buy) that bike, though. At this very moment, I am lying in
hospital with two broken legs. I have decided......................... (give up) trying
.......................... (get) fit. From now on, I'm going to concentrate
on.......................... (stay) alive.

50. Work in groups. Make up as many sentences to the picture (pic. 4) as


possible using Verbals.

Pic. 4

30
INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
There is AN AGENT in the infinitive construc-
tion itself (независимый)
There is NO AGENT in the

ob-

Complex Sub-

For + Noun +
infinitive construction itself Absolute In-
(зависимый) finitive Con-

Infinitive
Complex
struction

ject

ject
INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION WITH NO AGENT
I’m sorry to have lectured at this club. Я сожалею, что я читала лекции в
этом клубе.
We still cannot say to have solved the Мы все еще не можем сказать, что
problem. мы решили эту проблему.

INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION AS A PARENTHESIS


То anticipate a little, these data prove Забегая несколько вперед,
that... заметим…
Galileo, Newton, Huygens – to men- Галилей, Ньютон, Гюйгенс – мы
tion only the most prominent men of называем лишь наиболее видных
science – were the founders of classi- ученых – были создателями клас-
cal mechanics. сической механики.
to begin with начнем с того, что...; прежде всего;
для начала
to be sure конечно, несомненно
needless to say не стоит и говорить, само собой ра-
зумеется
to put (it) in another way другими словами
so to say так сказать
to say the least не говоря большего, по меньшей
мере

ABSOLUTE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION


We asked him to help us, the work to Мы попросили его помочь нам, так
be done in a week. как работа должна быть сделана
через неделю.
We shall make the experiment with Мы проведем этот эксперимент,
the raw materials to be taken from причем исходные материалы будут
another lab. взяты из другой лаборатории.

31
COMPLEX OBJECT
We expect the scientist to be involved Мы предполагаем, что ученого
in the work. привлекут к этой работе.
I know them to work hard. Я знаю, что они много работают.
During the experiment we saw the Мы видели во время опыта, как
temperature fall rapidly. температура быстро падала.
They believe the substance to have Они полагают, что вещество рас-
dissolved. творилось.

COMPLEX SUBJECT
(говорят (to be said); известно (to be known); принимается (to be taken); счи-
тается (to be considered, believed); предполагается (to be assumed); наверня-
ка (to be sure); возможно (to be apt); безусловно (to be certain); вероятно (to
be likely); казаться (seem, appear); оказываться (prove, turn out); случаться
(happen, chance))
The lifetime of the equipment is as- Предполагается, что срок службы
sumed to be 30 years. этого оборудования составляет 30
лет.
The method is reported to give good Сообщается, что этот метод дает
results. хорошие результаты.
This student is known to work hard. Известно, что этот студент много
работает.
They are likely to come here. Вероятно, они придут сюда.
Dr. Meyer is supposed to arrive at 10. Полагают, что д-р Мейер приедет в
10.
Д-р Мейер должен приехать в 10.
The acid seems to be likely to dis- Эта кислота, по-видимому, может
solve the precipitate. растворить осадок.
Water was considered to be an ele- Считали, что вода является эле-
ment. ментом.
This substance was not observed to Радиоактивных свойств у этого
possess radioactive properties. вещества не наблюдали.
This substance is believed not to ex- Считают, что это вещество не ра-
hibit radiation. диоактивно.

FOR + NOUN + INFINITIVE


For this method to be valuable it must Чтобы этот метод был полезным,
be improved. его надо усовершенствовать.
There is a possibility for him to at- У него есть возможность присутст-
tend the conference. вовать на этой конференции.
For a force to exist there must be two Для того чтобы существовала сила,
objects involved. необходимо, чтобы было два пред-
32
мета.
The temperature was too low for the Температура была слишком низка,
substance to decompose. для того чтобы вещество разложи-
лось (могло разложиться).

51. Translate the following sentences paying attention to absolute infinitive


constructions.
1. We are going to overcome this difficulty with various means to be tried.
2. It was like someone playing with only the family to listen.
3. There are two approaches to the solution of the problem, one to be used in
analytical investigations, the other in simulation.
4. With these many steps to perform, a general-purpose processor can require
many cycles to perform the transfer of each word.
5. The program uses very simple data structures and algorithms almost every-
where, with a few key techniques to take advantage of hierarchy.
6. A brief overview is given in this paper of some concepts required for applying
formal methods to soft ware design, with examples to show how they may be
used.
7. It also meant that the machine could work on different tasks by simply install-
ing the required set of instructions and data, with a mechanism to select the ap-
propriate set when needed.

52. Find the Complex Object and translate the sentences.


1. It would be very nice if one could have a computer do the thinking, have a
computer make the decisions and have a computer do the scheduling.
2. If you allow yourself to be victimized once, you will be victimized again.
3. You may lead a horse to the water, but you cannot make him drink.
4. He permitted the treasure to be returned to the people.
5. One intriguing approach is to get the computer play games against itself.
6. The pulse method enables thermodynamic equations to be formulated in a
simple manner.
7. The technique permitted problems to be solved that had been regarded as in-
tractable.
8. This sequence causes digitized images to be stored in core memory.
9. If we can get the student to ask, "Why?" instead of just "What?" we will have
made an essential step in his education.
10. We are interested in forcing the student to make his own decisions from a
wide range of choices.

53. What do you know about the Subject? Translate the following sen-
tences.
1. People's knowledge is assumed to be well-organized and to facilitate the un-
33
derstanding of new information.
2. This process was expected to be more effective.
3. These stages are assumed to occur sequentially.
4. The data on the dispersion have been found to be in good agreement with the
theoretical dispersion.
5. The approach was reported to apply.
6. From now on this model will be assumed to be adequate.
7. The talks are intended to give the latest advanced ideas in this field.

54. Sometimes Complex Subjects with the Infinitive are used in subordinate
clauses. Give the translation of the sentences below.
1. It has to be admitted that the conclusion does not always seem to be a logi-
cally inevitable one.
2. The substances which are accepted to be present in the mixture should reveal
two absorption bands.
3. It is supposed that no very convincing mechanism appears to have been of-
fered for a hypothesis of this nature.
4. This technique is related to the criteria supposed to be built into the machine.
5. The esters now known to exhibit this behaviour are listed in Table IV.
6. Of the numerous methods of conducting similar experiments to be found in
literature, the following are among those which have been proved to be most
useful.
7. Whether the person said to be Dmitry were really such is a question which
can now never be settled.
8. The proposal that seemed to evoke general approval was unfortunately re-
jected.
9. No line is to be seen when its intensity is predicted to be zero.
10. The device known to be built by Charles Babbage is now considered to be
the parent of modern computers.
11. The proposal known to have been advanced by our delegate was unani-
mously greeted.
12. The latter category includes the data known to have been derived from quite
different sources.

55. Find the construction «for + Noun + Infinitive». Translate the sentences.
1. Clearly, for classroom reading to be effective we have to take account of the
interest factor.
2. The language of specialists is often difficult for the layman to read.
3. Two years were sufficient for the work to be done.
4. The problem is far too involved for one to be able to solve it.
5. Two hours were sufficient for the reaction to occur.

34
6. It took a long time for mathematicians to realize that not all continuous func-
tions have a derivative.
7. It is necessary for the investigator to apply the knowledge gained from his
library to the exploration problem.
8. Preliminary experiments showed that the time required for the specimen to
reach thermal equilibrium was quite long.
9. It annoys people for us to agree partly or disagree partly.
10. It is possible for computers to handle all types of information.
11. There seems to be a general tendency for industrial problems to become
more complex.
12. For a computer to be programmed each problem must be reduced to a series
of very simple steps.
13. It remains for us to examine the problem from the point of view of the peas-
ant.

56. Translate the following sentences into Russian stating the syntactic
function of the –ing form.
1. Learning without thought is labour lost, thought without learning is perilous.
2. Seeing is believing. 3. Appetite comes with eating. 4. Upon switching off the
current the pressure dropped. 5. Instead of using chlorine, they took bromine. 6.
A committee has been established for the purpose of coordinating the nomencla-
ture. 7. They continued experimenting with the substance. 8. Having access to
the code was symbolic. 9. It is worthwhile thinking over the effects I have just
described. 10. Besides being useful in general interpolation technique, the pro-
cedure can be effectively used to approximate the first coefficients of F. 11. The
new opportunities may make life on this planet much more worth living. 12.
They were against postponing the meeting and for going on with the discussion
of this problem. 13. We were all for starting the experiment at once. 14. It is no
use speaking of it. 15. Operating conditions differed widely. 16. It is customary
to dry the precipitate (осадок) on the paper without removing it from the funnel
(воронка). 17. They could not help seeing the importance of the process. 18. It
is commonly understood that regular queues before a theatre or a cinema are one
sign that the show is worth seeing. 19. The purpose of the method is determining
system stability. 20. In one's search to understand what happens in this particular
case, one cannot help being influenced by the history of quite another problem.
21. We succeeded in building a flexible system. 22. The architects' aim is apply-
ing more plastics for interior decoration. 23. It may well be worthwhile consid-
ering the purpose of the investigation. 24. Search theory is potentially applicable
to any sort of searching process. 25. Balancing is done by adjusting
(регулировать) the position of the rods.

35
57. Look through the text. What is it its main idea? How many Gerunds
have you found? What is their syntactic function?
Our goal should be automating the routine and thereby leave more time for
the creative process.
With that word of caution, let's proceed by arbitrarily dividing research into
three stages and examining each stage to find what functions of the research
process might be automated without endangering creativity. Stage one includes
the dreams, the ideas, the exploratory work, selecting the problem, setting the
objective, testing technical feasibility, and searching the literature. Stage two in-
volves planning the experiment, conducting the experiment, checking the alter-
nates, data taking, and data evaluation. Stage three is the solution of the problem
– drawing conclusions and making recommendations.
Although there is a great deal of creativity involved in stage one, there are
also opportunities for automation. The burden of keeping up with the literature
even in one's own restricted field is becoming heavier with each passing year.
The mass of reading necessary to make a literature search has increased im-
mensely. Advances in computer technology have made possible storing and
quick retrieving essentially all the scientific literature.

58. Work in groups. Find the Gerund in the sentences below. Why do you
think this word to be the Gerund?
1. There are different ways of solving a problem. 2. The solving of the problem
was approved. 3. Everything must have a beginning. 4. The proof of the pudding
is in the eating. 5. Wisdom denotes the pursuing of the best end by the best
means. 6. Swallow all your learning in the morning, but digest it in company in
the evening. 7. Submitting to one wrong brings on another. 8. By this definition
the following is meant. 9. We obtained these values in terms of the following
formula. 10. This procedure is finding increasing use. 11. A man should be
viewed as a free, rational being possessing a free will. 12. The problem, how-
ever, is in not dividing the structure finely enough. 13. Before starting the engine
it is necessary to test the piping for leakage. 14. Fortran has become a widely
accepted programming language of the coding of mathematical applications. 15.
After all in sport what really counts is not the winning, but the playing. 16. Two
results obtained using the protocol showed an interesting effect worth presenting
and discussing here. 17. Frequently, one is watching a sports event involving
two teams without any intrinsic (истинный) reason for supporting either. 18.
The accumulated bulk of knowledge on how to run a business provides deep un-
derstanding of the mechanism of business. 19. A system analyst
(системотехник) spends much of a working day interviewing people. 20. The
theory also basically improves understanding of a queueing situation enabling
better control.

36
59. Translate the sentences.
1. Не avoids being involved in such affairs. 2. He avoided having been involved
in that affair. 3. We are interested in the test being carried out repeatedly. 4. The
problem deserves being discussed at the session. 5. The problem deserves hav-
ing been discussed at that session. 6. We rely on the experiment having been
conducted correctly. 7. He is responsible for the program not having been cor-
rected in time. 8. The mistake resulted from the device not having been mended
before the test. 9. We object to the meeting being postponed.

60. What do you know about gerund constructions? Read the English sen-
tences and their Russian equivalents. What is the difference?
I
This metal differs from that one by Этот металл отличается от того ме-
having a higher melting point. талла тем, что он имеет более вы-
сокую точку плавления.
In addition to being very interesting Кроме того, что эта книга интерес-
this book is of great use. ная, она еще и очень полезная.
In spite of being very complicated the Несмотря на то, что эта проблема
problem has been solved. очень сложная, ее решили.
These substances are alike in having Эти вещества сходны тем, что они
high melting points. имеют высокие точки плавления.
In spite of not having any university Несмотря на то, что у Фарадея не
education, Faraday made his great было университетского образова-
discoveries. ния, он сделал свои великие от-
крытия.

II
There is unmistakable proof of Имеются несомненные доказатель-
Pauling’s having been wrong. ства того, что Полинг ошибался.
The accuracy of the definition de- Точность определения зависит от
pends on the terms being carefully того, насколько тщательно сформу-
formulated. лированы (все) члены.
This depends on the atomic weights Это зависит от того, что удельные
of these substances being equal. веса этих веществ одинаковы.
Dr. Brown's being absent was very То, что д-р Браун отсутствовал, бы-
strange. ло очень странно.
His having made this experiment is a То, что он уже провел этот экспе-
known fact. римент, является известным фак-
том.
We know of their having been satis- Мы знаем, что они были удовле-
fied with Kelly’s explanation of the творены объяснениями расхожде-
discrepancies. ний, предложенными Келли.
37
There is no hope of our getting a Нет надежды, что мы получим пол-
complete analysis of the measure- ный анализ этих измерений в тече-
ments within 10 days. ние 10 дней.

61. Read the following sentences and find -ing clauses.


1. Pride (гордыня) is therefore pleasure arising from a man's thinking too highly
of himself. 2. There is only one corner of the universe you can be certain of im-
proving, and that's your own self. 3. Tolerate others, and refrain from ruling on,
or trying to direct, the way they run their lives. 4. Besides being involved this
procedure is very costly. 5. The reaction proceeding via another route was a sur-
prise. 6. They succeeded in getting reliable information on dealing with this type
of error. 7. This was due to the central atom being screened. 8. This is a result of
our not having specified input or output variables for the network. 9. The prob-
ability of this finding being due to chance is 1 in 22,600. 10. In spite of having
met with failure they continued experimenting. 11. Metals cannot be dissolved
without being changed into new substances. 12. In addition to being a tool of
science, mathematics is also an art form. 13. No art form can remain static with-
out becoming sterile. 14. In addition, they have been designed without suffi-
cient consideration having been given to programming issues. 15. He has the
reputation of having been a man of piety. 16. There was great danger of the
changes being accepted as inevitable and final. 17. Their number depends on the
probability of an arriving atom finding another atom on the surface. 18. They
insisted on the sample being tested repeatedly. 19. They objected to using
greater voltage in this case. 20. The present paper suffers from not having had
access to Mr. Hamilton's as yet unpublished papers. 21. Henshaw hoped that a
person might receive the benefit of removal to another climate at any season of
year while remaining in his own city and without neglecting his employment.

62. Use the required form of the gerund of the verb in brackets.
1. She didn't feel like (to go) unescorted into dinner, which would begin soon. 2.
I inquired of Robinson that afternoon about my book. He neither admitted nor
denied (to take) it. 3. Since Tom was his best friend he helped him without (to
ask). 4. His latest desire was to discover her age, which he cursed himself for not
(to observe) when he had her passport in his hands. 5. He could not help (to
know) that there were odious people who called him a snob. 6. Daisy and
Gatsby danced. I remember (to be) surprised by his graceful, conservative fox-
trot – I had never seen him dance before. 7. When they had finished (to write)
this letter they read the whole correspondence from beginning to end. 8. He
would never forgive her for (to play) this game, for over fifty years. 9. He
poured milk into a jug from a carton in the refrigerator, then drank some milk
himself before (to put) the carton back. 10. It's no good (to deny) that. 11. Try
and help the nurses by (to keep) quiet and tidy. 12. From there he had a clear
38
view of the entrance to the room, with the advantage that he could avoid (to ob-
serve) himself by (to run) quickly out of sight through the stairway door. 13. The
tables were put on one side so that there might be room for (to dance). 14. I don't
like (to spy) on. 15. Annette, who heard thousands of names mentioned every
year, and had a deplorable memory, could recall (to hear) the name of Fox in
connection with something or other, but could not remember exactly what. 16.
The porter, also on (to enter), would have tapped out his own code. 17. He sud-
denly stopped (to read). There was no point in (to go) on. He looked up and
found forty pairs of eyes fixed on him intently. 18. You must excuse me for (to
think) you were a gipsy.

63. Complete the sentences using the gerundial complexes from the follow-
ing list:
your thinking, her talking, my bringing, our waiting, his being taken, my not sit-
ting, our keeping, your being left alone, your hearing
1. "You do not mind ... Graham," said Daniel. "I find it best to keep him under
my eye." 2. It is true she had prevented ... to a mental home for treatment. 3. I
like the idea ... of other projects. 4. Some people it seems don't like ... to the
rules. 5. But that doesn't excuse ... to Mrs Leidner as though Mrs Leidner were
her great aunt. 6. I could see that Robinson was making an effort to form some
communal for the period of ... on the island. 7. "You didn't mind ... at one of
your tables this afternoon?" he asked once, when he was walking to the station
with her. 8. There must be something wrong with ..., Godfrey. 9. I should have
thought that ... alone has given you a lot of opportunities.

64. Use the appropriate form of the infinitive or the gerund of the verb in
brackets.
1. Over coffee, he began (to calm) down a little: he made himself useful by (to
hand) round the coffee cups. 2. I wouldn't like you to think that I am in the habit
of (to make) a nuisance of myself. 3. She went on (to read) about how (to stick)
plastic flowers on her blouse. 4. The master seized the arms of his chair and
grasped them as though (to prevent) himself from (to fall) upon Philip. 5. I re-
member (to see) her (to come) on board only a few minutes before the boat
sailed. 6. John had introduced himself to Philip before (to come) in to see Ketty.
7. He seemed (to have) some difficulty in (to start). 8. She tried (to stop) (to go
out) (to see) people. 9. And with an immense effort of the will, he managed (to
stand) there, without (to go) down (to open) the door. 10. Can you (to ask) me
after (to hear) me (to play)? 11. Thank you for (to let) me (to talk) to you. 12.
Ralph began (to disappear) for days and weeks without (to warn). 13. Without
(to speak) they went along, and there was no one (to see) either in front or be-
hind them. 14. After that they decided (to go) where there was no chance at all
of their (to see). 15. He took a silk scarf from his neck and gave it over to me (to
39
use) for a handkerchief, since my own was wet with my (to cry). 16. Once more,
Simon started (to piece) the toy together, with the old tune inside it, while Jennie
and I went (to make) some tea. 17. When she woke, she rubbed her eyes (to
gather) her senses together and gradually she remembered (to go) to the theatre
on the previous evening. 18. I taught in a private school in Kensington, for al-
most three months, very small children. I didn't know what (to do) with them but
I was kept fairly busy (to escort) little boys to the hall and (to tell) the little girls
(to use) their handkerchiefs.

65. Analyze the -ing forms stating whether they are gerunds or verbal
nouns.
1. I hate the idea of your wasting your time. 2. I was afraid of being called upon
to give evidence against her. 3. The twins devotedly gave up their day to the cut-
ting of sandwiches. 4. She was put out by being kept waiting. 5. I sat in the sun,
extremely tired in my bones after the crossing of the mountain on the previous
day. 6. She was angry at being put beside Tom. 7. He was engaged in over-
whelming Helen with reproaches for not having told him of Jack's change of
sleeping quarters. 8. It was hot walking through the town but the sun was start-
ing to go down and it was very pleasant. 9. Godfrey felt guilty at having gos-
siped to Olive about Lettie's changes in her will. 10. It was good walking on the
road. But it was lovely walking in the woods. 11. Poirot lost no time in visiting
M. Hautet. 12. He crossed back into the doorway, and, slowly, to keep down the
beating of his heart, mounted the single flight of stairs and rang the bell. 13.
There was a tramping of feet. 14. No one ever thought of protecting Isabel. 15.
He walked to the edge of the terrace, and looked down into the darkness; he
could just see the powdering of the daisies on the unmown lawn. 16. Raising
good cotton, riding well, dancing lightly were the things that mattered. 17. It
was a habit with him to tell her the doings of his day. 18. He liked dancing
quickly. 19. Lewis had offices in Zurich and London, and his comings and go-
ings were casual. 20. "I'm not very clever at guessing people's ages," she said
coldly.

66. Paraphrase the following sentences using Gerund constructions.


А) 1. When I received the letter, I started home at once. 2. You may avoid many
mistakes if you observe these rules. 3. When he entered the class, he greeted
everybody. 4. After they had sat there a few minutes, they continued their jour-
ney. 5. While he was copying the text, he made a few mistakes. 6. I am thankful
that I have been stopped in time. 7. I remember that I have read this book. 8. Af-
ter she had tried all the keys on the ring, she finally found the right one. 9. He is
proud that he has never been beaten at chess by his fellow students. 10. I don't
remember that I have ever come across his name before. 11. His arm was not in

40
a sling and showed no sign that it had been injured. 12. You can improve your
knowledge of Russian if you read more.

В) 1. Do you mind if I close the window? 2. The doctor insisted that I should
stay at home. 3. Will you object if I smoke here? 4. There is a probability that he
will be appointed manager of our company. 5. There is no chance that they will
call on us tonight. 6. There is no possibility that we shall see him this week. 7.
There is no hope that you will receive a letter from him soon. 8. We were in-
formed that the train had arrived at the station. 9. You will excuse me if I ask
you again. 10. We insisted that he should come with us. 11. Would you mind if
he came to your lesson? 12. There is no fear that I shall forget.

67. Translate from Russian into English.


1. У меня нет надежды увидеть его скоро. 2. Мысль (идея) провести кани-
кулы на Волге принадлежит моему отцу. 3. Вы можете улучшить свое про-
изношение, читая вслух каждый день. 4. Я не смогу перевести эту статью,
не посмотрев нескольких слов в словаре. 5. Я думаю поехать туда летом. 6.
Я запишу номер вашего телефона, так как боюсь забыть его. 7. Я помню,
что меня уже спрашивали об этом. 8. Доктор велел ей избегать сидеть на
солнце. 9. Я зайду к вам перед тем, как уеду из Санкт-Петербурга. 10. При-
дя домой, я сразу начал работать. 11. Я поблагодарил его за то, что он ку-
пил мне такие интересные книги. 12. Он понимает важность изучения ино-
странных языков. 13. Он был занят переводом какой-то статьи, когда я
пришел. 14. Он привык вставать рано. 15. Дождь помешал мне придти к
вам вчера. 16. Он не способен сделать такую вещь. 17. Он вошел в комна-
ту, не постучав. 18. Он потушил свет перед тем, как выйти из комнаты. 19.
После того как он закончил свою работу, он лег спать. 20. Получив теле-
грамму, я немедленно позвонил директору. 21. Он был награжден за то,
что спас жизнь своего товарища. 22. Планируя вашу работу на будущий
месяц, вы должны принять это во внимание. 23. Я чувствовал большое
удовлетворение, делая эту работу. 24. Имеются специальные суда для пе-
ревозки леса. 25. Он выразил большое удивление, услышав это. 26. Нет
смысла делать эту работу сейчас. 27. Проверяя ваши сочинения, я нашел
очень мало ошибок. 28. Она была сердита на него за то, что он потерял ее
сумку. 29. Я предпочитаю жить на севере летом. 30. Он очень любит иг-
рать в баскетбол. 31. Вам следует прекратить купаться в море, так как по-
года стала очень холодной. 32. Я должен закончить эту работу, прежде чем
я пойду домой. 33. Вы очень помогли мне тем, что дали мне ваши конспек-
ты. 34. Я не могу пойти туда, не сказав ему об том. 35. Я имел удовольст-
вие познакомиться с вашим отцом на днях. 36. Он имеет привычку курить
перед завтраком. 37. У вас нет основания (причины) говорить это. 38. Мы
не могли не рассмеяться, когда услышали это. 39. Он решил послать ей
41
письмо авиапочтой вместо того, чтобы послать телеграмму. 40. Продол-
жайте рассказывать вашу историю. 41. Мой сын очень любит, когда ему
рассказывают о морских путешествиях. 42. Я закрою окно, так как боюсь
простудиться. 43. Перестаньте разговаривать. 44. Вместо того, чтобы ехать
на автобусе, они пошли пешком и опоздали на концерт. 45. Удалось ли вам
найти ее адрес? 46. Стоит ли читать эту книгу? 47. Ему удалось закончить
свою работу вовремя. 48. Они только что кончили грузить пароход. 49. Я
отложил чтение этого неприятного письма до последнего момента. 50. Я
поблагодарил его за то, что он помог нам. 51. У меня нет намерения ехать
на юг этим летом. 52. Нет возможности достать билет в театр сегодня. 53.
После того, как он провел месяц в Москве, он уехал в Санкт-Петербург. 54.
Этот фильм стоит посмотреть. 55. Я не возражаю (не имею возражений)
поехать туда сегодня. 56. Бесполезно идти туда сейчас. 57. Я (стою) за то,
чтобы послать им телеграмму немедленно. 58. Эта работа отнюдь не лег-
кая. 59. Он против того, чтобы сообщать им об этом теперь. 60. Я помню,
что встречал его где-то. 61. Она вышла из комнаты, не посмотрев на нас.
62. Я благодарен вам за то, что вы так быстро ответили на мое письмо.

68. Translate the following sentences paying attention to gerund construc-


tions.
1. The molecules of a polar substance because of their being reactive combine
with one another. 2. Combustion may be incomplete owing to insufficient oxy-
gen being present. 3. Thomson investigated the possibility of these cathode rays
being charged particles. 4. Marie Curie's having discovered radium enabled her
to isolate other radioactive elements. 5. The inability of phosphorus atoms, be-
cause of their large radius, to establish triple bonds among themselves results in
the phosphorus molecule having a very different structure from the nitrogen
molecule. 6. Besides being important for industry oxygen is also important for
medicine. 7. In addition to depending upon the acceleration, force also depends
upon the mass of the object. 8. Gamma-rays are not affected by magnetic or
electric fields and are identical with X-rays, except in being more penetrating,
thus being in fact ordinary light pulses of the shortest wavelength. 9. Oxygen is
an active element of the atmosphere, and in addition to being essential for the
maintenance of life it is also essential for combustion, the rusting of metals and
the decay of organic matter.

69. Find the Gerunds in the sentences below. Prove your answer.
1. So far only the quantum theory has succeeded in giving a satisfactory expla-
nation. 2. These are the chief causes of crude rubber being used. 3. The alkali
metals are remarkable in being so light that they float on water. 4. We account
for the incompleteness of a reaction by its being reversible. 5. Einstein's being
awarded the Nobel Prize in physics soon became widely known. 6. Adding more
42
turns makes the magnetic field stronger. 7. Iron is covered with a thin layer of
tin to prevent it from rusting, for tin does not rust on exposure to air. 8. The
small physical size of the crystal in relationship to its input capacitance results in
the resonant frequency of the input system being higher than when the tube is
employed. 9. Most actual crystals are imperfect, owing to being grown under
conditions in which solid material is somewhat impeded in reaching and being
deposited on certain faces. 10. All alkali metals resemble each other in having
low melting points.

70. Read the following -ing words and find the Participles:
Reading; shortcoming; about asking questions; the student’s asking; their asking
questions; No smoking!; notwithstanding that; granting that; seeing that; consid-
ering that; supposing that; notwithstanding; following; barring; excepting; ac-
cording to; considering; regarding; а 'reading 'student; a 'reading lamp; a 'danc-
ing 'girl; a 'dancing girl; a 'drinking man; a 'drinking 'man.

71. Define the syntactic function of the Participle I.


1. The man is speaking with him. 2. The man speaking with him looks like Bob.
3. The man speaking with him is Bob. 4. Speaking with him is Bob. 5. The stu-
dent opening the door is Bob. 6. Opening the door the student said, "Good morn-
ing!" 7. "Good morning!", the student said opening the door. 8. The student ask-
ing questions, we answer them. 9. The student asking questions speaks English.
10. We heard the student asking questions. 11. The student asking questions, we
waited. 12. He was seen running. 13. He seemed to be dying.
72. Read the following words and find the Participles:
He worked; he has worked; the wounded; retireds; old-fashioneds; illustrateds;
unwanteds; coloureds; disableds; young marrieds/newly weds; blue-eyed; pro-
vided (that); granted (that); granted.

73. Is the word in bold a Participle or a finite verb?


1. The student was asked a question. 2. The student has asked a question. 3. The
student asked a question. 4. The student asked the question did not know the an-
swer. 5. The question asked proved difficult. 6. Asked the question, the student
did not know the answer. 7. The question asked was difficult.

74. Define the syntactic function of the Participle I.


1. The engines produced… 2. The engines are produced… 3. (When) asked the
question, the student did not know the answer. 4. The student asked the question
did not know the answer. 5. The work finished by him, we left. 6. The work fin-
ished by him was difficult. 7. I want the work finished. 8. The work finished, we
left. 9. He was reported killed. 10. He looked scared. 11. You seem to be inter-
ested.
43
75. Translate the following sentences with Gerunds and Participles.
1. Before going out I called Jim. 2. I got home feeling very tired. 3. Feeling
tired, I went to bed early. 4. What did you do after leaving school? 5. Not know-
ing her address, I couldn't find her. 6. Jane left without finishing her dinner. 7.
She was standing there reading a newspaper. 8. A plane carrying 360 passengers
took off. 9. Bob ran three miles without stopping. 10. The police stopped every-
one from leaving the bank. 11. The child came in crying. 12. Being unemployed,
he has a lot of free time. 13. Taking a key out of her handbag, she opened the
door. 14. The child fell asleep watching television. 15. Please forgive me for not
writing to you. 16. Did you have any difficulty reading my writing? 17. Being a
foreigner, you need a visa. 18. There is no point in buying this book.

76. Read aloud and translate the word phrases below:


1) building site, 2) sleeping boy, 3) sleeping bag, 4) whipping boy, 5) swimming
match, 6) floating match, 7) dancing hall, 8) writing man, 9) writing desk, 10)
listening man, 11) listening post, 12) dining student, 13) dining room, 14) smok-
ing room, 15) washing machine, 16) answering machine, 17) sewing machine,
18) calculating machine, 19) reading glasses.

77. Give the translation of the following sentences.


1. Do you know the girl talking to Jim? 2. Can you hear someone singing? 3.
We didn't know when to go shopping, each shop opening at a different time. 4.
It was raining when I got up. 5. Not being able to understand English, the man
didn't know what you said. 6. Is there anybody waiting to see me? 7. I've never
seen her smoking. 8. The baby was lying on the bed crying. 9. The girl talking to
John is American. 10. Mike is having a bath. 11. The bus drivers being on strike,
many people had to get to work using other means of transportation. 12. I heard
the bell ringing. 13. Who is that man standing near our house? 14. I've heard her
playing the piano. 15. The man fell getting off the bus. 16. This time last year I
was living in England. 17. We saw Nancy playing tennis. 18. There were some
children swimming in the river. 19. The house being constructed poorly, it is re-
paired every year.

78. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the words ending by -ed.
1. I want this watch repaired. 2. Is that a four-legged animal? 3. You will soon
see his published work. 4. John started school in 1980. 5. The living, the
wounded, and the dead flew together in the same plane. 6. There was a truck full
of wounded men. 7. Parliament was discussing the problem of the unemployed.
8. Yesterday he called three times. 9. He has called twice today. 10. Her brother
is called Jim. 11. Called early, he ate a quick breakfast. 12. There came in a
blonde-haired woman. 13. The discussion finished, we went home. 14. He came
out of prison a changed man. 15. This substance, discovered almost by accident,
44
has revolutionized medicine. 16. When questioned, she said she did not know
the man.

79. Find the participles in the sentences below.


1. Hydrogen is the lightest element known. 2. The technique employed uses a
single probe. 3. The quantity of electricity flowing is directly related to the
amounts of material transformed at the electrodes. 4. Everything depends on the
proportion of the two substances being distilled. 5. The complexity of the tech-
nique involved increased considerably. 6. The rate of a reaction depends on the
specific nature of the substances involved. 7. Energy loss has been considered in
Chapter II. The processes involved are ionizing collision and atomic excitations.
8. This half life is a characteristic only of the particular nucleus concerned. 9.
None of the authors concerned had based his experiment on the method dis-
cussed.

80. Analyze the tables below.


PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTIONS

There is NO AGENT in the partici- There is AN AGENT in the participle


ple clause itself (зависимый) clause itself (независимый)
ciple Construc-
Participle Con-

Absolute Parti-
it is referred to
After the word

Complex Sub-
Complex Ob-
struction as a
word it is re-

Parenthesis
Before the

ferred to

tion

ject

ject

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION
BEFORE THE WORD IT IS REFERRED TO
Reading this book the student found Читая эту книгу, студент обнару-
out many interesting things. жил много интересного.
Having made the measurements the Проведя измерения, эксперимента-
experimenter then processed the data. тор затем обработал данные.

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION
AFTER THE WORD IT IS REFERRED TO
We can use the method suggested Мы можем использовать метод,
by Corner. предложенный Корнером (который
предложил Корнер).
This is the book so much spoken Вот книга, о которой так много го-
about. ворят.

45
A number of animals living in theЦелый ряд животных, живущих в
soil feed on plants. земле, питаются растениями.
The idea can be pronounced true if
Идея может быть объявлена пра-
tested by experience. вильной, если она проверена на опы-
те.
This universal motor was adopted Этот универсальный мотор был при-
(as) being more economical. нят, так как он был (является) более
экономичным.

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION AS A PARENTHESIS


Turning to the main laws of me- Если обратиться (Обращаясь) к
chanics, the first law of Newton главным законам механики, следует
states that... сказать, что первый закон Ньютона
гласит, что...
Обратимся к главным законам меха-
ники; первый закон Ньютона гласит,
что...
Putting it mildly, the experiment Мягко говоря, эксперимент не был
was not conducted properly. проведен должным образом.
That question was not, strictly Строго говоря, этот вопрос совсем
speaking, a question of dispute at не был спорным вопросом.
all.
As mentioned above the experiment Как упоминалось выше, этот опыт
was a success. был удачным.
All things considered, we can hardly Учтя все (что нам известно), едва
say that we have the means of ли мы можем сказать, что имеем
measuring directly such changes. способ непосредственного измере-
ния таких изменений.

COMPLEX OBJECT
They watched the temperature Они следили (за тем), как постепен-
gradually rising. но повышалась температура.
I heard your name mentioned. Я слышал, как (что) упоминали ваше
имя.
We consider matter as being built Мы считаем, что материя состоит
up of atoms. из атомов.
Мы считаем материю состоящей из
атомов.
Мы рассматриваем материю как со-
стоящую из атомов.
We disliked the problem being Нам не нравилось, что эта пробле-
treated in this way. ма трактовалась таким образом.
46
We know the problem having been Мы знаем, что эту проблему уже
solved long ago. давно решили.
They thought the reactions as being Они считали, что реакция была пер-
of the first order. вого порядка.
We consider the parameter as util- Мы считаем, что этот параметр
ized to limit the number of ques- используется для ограничения числа
tions asked. задаваемых вопросов.
The device has the lens shifted. У прибора линза смещена.
We have the device repaired. Нам уже починили прибор.

COMPLEX SUBJECT
They were seen leaving the station. Видели, как они уходили со станции.
The class of regulators can be Можно сказать, что этот класс ре-
thought of as composed of three гуляторов состоит из трех частей.
parts.
Remarks (which were) considered Замечания, которые, как считалось,
as being wrong are in fact correct. были ошибочными, на деле оказыва-
ются правильными.

ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION


My colleague being away, I had to Так как мой товарищ по работе от-
take the decision myself. сутствовал, мне пришлось самому
принять решение.
Weather permitting, the astronomer Если погода позволит, астроном
will proceed with his observation. продолжит свои наблюдения.
The signal given, the rocket starts Когда (как только) дается сигнал,
immediately. ракета сразу взлетает.

The choice having been made, all После того как выбор был сделан,
the alternatives have been rejected. все другие возможности были от-
вергнуты.
Other conditions being equal, the При прочих равных условиях ускоре-
acceleration remains constant. ние остается постоянным.
There being many people in the con- Так как в зале было много народу,
ference hall, we could not enter it. мы не могли войти.

The astronomer proceeded with his Астроном продолжал наблюдение


observation, the sky having cleared. после того, как (так как) небо про-
яснилось.
The sodium atom has eleven elec- У атома натрия одиннадцать элек-
trons, the eleventh one тронов, причем одиннадцатый зани-
occupying a position outside of the мает положение за пределами вто-
47
second shell. рой оболочки.
We continued our work, with our Мы продолжали свою работу, а на-
laboratory assistants helping us. ши лаборанты помогали нам.
Aristotle (384—332 В. С.) exerted Аристотель оказал громадное влия-
tremendous influence on all ние на все отрасли знания, включая
branches of learning, physics in- и физику.
cluded.
With him confessing to the crime the Так как он признался в преступле-
court decided to commute the sen- нии, суд решил смягчить приговор.
tence.
Performance observations were re- Наблюдения за работой регистриро-
corded, with particular attention on вались, причем особое внимание
the variables. уделялось переменным величинам.

"PARTICIPLE I + AS IT DOES (DID)" or


"PARTICIPLE II + AS IT IS (WAS)"
This subject is rather complicated, Этот предмет довольно сложен, по-
belonging as it does to theoretical скольку он относится к теоретиче-
physics. ской физике.
The article, published as it was in a Поскольку статья была напечатана
small magazine, remained unknown в небольшом журнале, она остава-
for a long time. лась неизвестной в течение долгого
времени.

ATTRIBUTIVE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION


Phenomena occurring during solar Явления, происходящие во время
flares are thoroughly investigated. вспышек на солнце (которые проис-
ходят во время вспышек на солнце),
тщательно исследуются.
The equipment needed for the ex- Оборудование, необходимое (кото-
periment was carefully checked. рое необходимо) для опыта, было
тщательно проверено.
A graph is given showing the de- Приводится график, иллюстрирую-
pendence of pressure on tempera- щий зависимость давления от темпе-
ture. ратуры.
This substance was more valuable Это вещество было более ценно, чем
than that obtained by the previous то, которое было получено предше-
authors. ствующими исследователями.
The substance thus obtained was Вещество, полученное таким обра-
pure. зом, было чистым.
As ordinarily obtained iron contains Обычно получаемое железо содер-
some admixtures. жит примеси. Железо в том виде,
48
как оно обычно получается (так, как
его обычно получают), содержит
примеси.
Numerous questions answered by Многочисленные вопросы, на кото-
the speaker were related to Plasma рые отвечал докладчик, относились
Physics. к физике плазмы.

ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION


Being invited too late Morrison could Так как Моррисона пригласили
not go to the conference. слишком поздно, он не смог по-
ехать на конференцию.
Considered from this point of view При рассмотрении с этой точки
the question will be of great interest. зрения вопрос представит большой
интерес.
Having been heated for several hours После того как вещество нагревали
the substance began to melt. в течение нескольких часов, оно
начало плавиться.
The energy output was rather low, Выход энергии был весьма низким,
suggesting some leakage of the cur- что (и это) заставляло думать об
rent. утечке тока.
Water, having weight and occupying Вода, поскольку она имеет вес и
space, is a form of matter. занимает пространство, является
формой материи.
Given its angular diameter, the linear Если имеется угловой диаметр, ли-
diameter of the Sun depends on its нейный диаметр Солнца зависит от
parallax. параллакса.
United we stand, divided we fall. Если мы вместе, мы выстоим, если
мы врозь, мы падем.
When carrying out the experiment the Проводя опыт, ученый заметил, …
scientist noticed …
When heated to 100° water boils. При нагревании до 100° вода ки-
пит.
Unless heated this substance does not Без нагревания это вещество не
melt. плавится.
Не obtained this substance as stated Он получил это вещество, как ука-
above. зано выше.
Unless otherwise specified, the tables Если не оговорено особо, эти табли-
are given for a perfect gas. цы даны для идеального газа.

81. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Participle.


1. Coming events cast their shadows before them. 2. What is a friend? A single
soul dwelling in two bodies (Aristotle). 3. Another factor influencing the level of
49
detail (степень детализации) is the progress reporting requirements. 4. Using
the energy of the atom, we produce electric energy at atomic power plants. 5.
The empirical evidence is lacking here. 6. This requirement is not restricting,
however. 7. The linking of the molecules is much more flexible, consisting of ad
hoc bilateral or multilateral interfaces. 8. It is quite possible that goodness, being
a property of a man, is not conditioned by nature. 9. At 210° nitro-diphenyl is
formed, indicating that phenyl elimination (выгорание) does take place at this
temperature. 10. Electronic computers perform both arithmetic and logical op-
erations, making it possible to control the process under rather complicated con-
ditions. 11. System design progresses through several stages, becoming more
detailed in each stage. 12. Growing science accumulates examples of quantita-
tive relations. 13. The yield (выход) was 12% of the dried wood, varying with
the amount of hydrochloric acid (соляная кислота) used. 14. When being pure,
water is a colourless liquid. 15. This tube is very similar to others, save being a
bit wider. 16. Considering the limited scope of the method, it has yet been used
by comparatively few workers. 17. The syntax and semantics of these languages
are very sophisticated, making the translation to machine language a complex
process. 18. The chemical and physical properties of these dimers (димер) are
being studied. 19. Sometimes such experiments, even if performed only in the
imagination, are convincing even to mathematicians. 20. Strictly speaking, this
finding (полученные данные) means that this hypothesis cannot be rejected.

82. Explain the usage of particle forms.


1. This procedure was dropped, having given low yield of end products. 2. Algol
is a system being developed and intended to become a universal programming
language. 3. The compound being treated for several hours turned dark red. 4.
The experiment having been made, everybody was interested in the results. 5.
The approach being based on mathematical methods is concerned with structural
considerations. 6. Having introduced a purely mathematical definition of a sys-
tem, let us now make precise (точный) another intuitive concept — that of a
process. 7. Having been employed abundantly (широко) in many industrial
processes electronic computers show a notable example of progress contributing
to the development of industry. 8. Having taken everything into consideration he
decided not to go there.

83. Translate from Russian into English.


1. Секретарь отправил подписанные директором письма. 2. Мы вниматель-
но прочли присланную Ивановым статью. 3. Мы удовлетворены качеством
представленных образцов. 4. Сообщите нам, когда вы намерены поставить
заказанные товары. 5. В этом кабинете есть несколько сломанных компью-
теров. 6. К сожалению, предложенный товар не удовлетворяет нашим тре-
бованиям. 7. Он показал нам фотографию здания музея. 8. Разбитый стакан
50
лежал на столе. 9. Все полученные товары были немедленно отправлены
на склад. 10. Платеж за поставленные машины будет произведен в июне.
11. Он принес мне несколько иллюстрированных журналов. 12. Мы посла-
ли каталоги по указанному адресу. 13. Его неожиданный ответ удивил нас
всех. 14. В настоящее время мы имеем очень ограниченное количество
этих деталей на складе.

84. How is the Absolute Participle Construction formed? Give the transla-
tion of the following sentences.
1. My task having been finished, I went home. 2. John being away, Peter had to
do his work. 3. It being very cold, they made a fire. 4. It being very stormy, they
stayed at home. 5. All this having been settled, he went home. 6. The prepara-
tions being completed, they began to climb up the mountain. 7. The moon being
bright, everything was clearly visible. 8. Our petrol being exhausted, we could
go no further. 9. The game having ended, the crowd went home. 10. It was dark,
the sun having set an hour before. 11. The performance being over, everyone
went away. 12. Nobody being there, I went away. 13. My father having taken
the key, I could not enter the house. 14. The negotiations between the American
and British representatives were conducted behind closed doors, measures hav-
ing been taken that no correspondent should receive any information. 15. Dinner
being over, we went into the garden. 16. At last the excitement died down, the
captain having assured the passengers, that there was no longer the slightest
danger. 17. The letter having been delayed, the news reached us too late. 18. The
key having been lost, they could not enter the cottage. 19. The weather being
fine, all the windows were opened. 20. The film being very popular, it was diffi-
cult to get tickets.

85. Find the Past Participle. What is its function in the sentence?
1. Danger foreseen is half avoided. 2. One cannot shut one's eyes to things not
seen with eyes (Ch. Morgan). 3. The results obtained disagreed with earlier data.
4. Statements, in turn, are strings of symbols from a given alphabet, composed
of letters, digits and special characters. 5. The set of basic operations provided is
not, in general, suited to the execution of commonly needed procedures. 6. The
strategies available in the dynamic situation are complicated functions of infor-
mation received and actions undertaken in the preceding stages. 7. It was a
standpoint shared by many philosophers. 8. Syntax is another major difference,
as indicated in the proceeding paragraphs. 9. Ethics is concerned with moral du-
ties of a man. 10. Nearly all the assembly line problems as documented in the
literature were solved by this method. 11. Science accumulates examples fore-
seen and verified through practice. 12. A natural consequence of such behavior
should be decreased time for problem solution. 13. Ethics is closely connected
with feeling. 14. A "plist" is a list of column names in the order required en-
51
closed in square brackets [ ]. 15. This expedition failed because undertaken in
winter. 16. Thus influenced, the author yielded. 17. That lesson, once learned,
was never forgotten. 18. Logicians are concerned with inductive logic. 19. The
only evidence (we can have) consists of the reports yet unpublished. 20. When
properly carried out, microwave determination of depole moment should be of
considerable reliability. 21. The model suggested described adequately the
thermodynamic peculiarities studied by Dr. D. 22. The child lacks the experi-
ence required for practical action. 23. Once designed and if designed properly a
relational database is very flexible. 24. The difficulties posed by this problem
are generally recognized. 25. Stated bluntly, a different set could be selected for
this purpose. 26. The basic solvent used prevented lactone information. 27. We
also discuss experiments connected with some related questions.

86. Work in two groups. What participle constructions are there in the
text? Translate the text.
When considered dynamically, the biosphere appears an arena of complex inter-
actions among the essential natural cycles of its major constituents, with con-
tinuous fluxes of these constituents entering the biosphere, or being released by
it. Once brought into being by evolution from an inorganic environment, the liv-
ing matter has profoundly altered the primitive lifeless earth, gradually changing
the composition of the atmosphere, the sea, and the top layers of the solid crust
both on land and under the ocean. Since then, if one were to ascribe a single ob-
jective to evolution, it would be the perpetuation of life. This is the single end
which the entire strategy of evolution is focused on, with evolution dividing the
resources of any location, including its input of energy, among an ever increas-
ing number of different kinds of users, which we recognize as plant and animal
species.

87. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Complex Object with the
Participle.
1. We have already mentioned this method as affording good results. 2. Bohr
recognized the substance as having a condensed-ring system. 3. He conceived
valence as being a property of atoms and to be a constant for each element. 4.
We may think of this molecule as being just like one of benzene. 5. We know
the small NH2 group as conjugated with the ring in durene. 6. Faraday never
considered bodies as existing with nothing between them but distance, and act-
ing on one another according to some function of that distance. 7. The caller can
rely on the service promised by the statement as having been performed. 8. He
regards this concept as being not a simple one. 9. We have the program de-
bugged. 10. He had our research group presented at the last symposium. 11. He
has got himself fooled. 12. I had others consider my opinion.

52
HOME EXERCISES

1. Write the appropriate form of the infinitive.


I went – he is writing –
she has been playing – it is fixed –
he had worked – he will type –
it was read – he was cleaning –
they have been informed – she will be sleeping –

2. Read these conversations. Write a summary sentence for each conversa-


tion. Choose the appropriate verb from the box, and use the gerund form of
the verb in parentheses.
admit avoid consider deny enjoy go mind quit
1. Tom, do you want to go jogging with me before work? - No, thanks, Ann. I
really don't like that kind of exercise.
Summary: Tom doesn't ………………………….………………. (jog)
2. Would you like a cigarette, Martha? - Oh, no, Ralph, thanks. I don't smoke
anymore.
Summary: Marta ………………………………….…………….. (smoke)
3. What are you doing after work, An-ling? - I'm going to that new swimming
pool. Would you like to go with me, Chen?
Summary: An-ling is going to ……………………………………………..
(swim)
4. I smell smoke in here. Ellen, you had a cigarette, didn't you? No, I didn't, Jim.
Summary: Ellen …………………………………………….. (smoke)
5. You're lazy, Mike. You really need to exercise more. - You're right, Irene. I
am lazy.
Summary: Mike …………………………………………….. lazy. (be)
6. Would you like a piece of chocolate cake, Phil? - No, thanks, Monica. I try to
stay away from sweets.
Summary: Phil …………………………………………….. sweets. (eat)
7. I know exercise is important, but I hate it. What about you, Vilma? - Well, I
don't love it, but it's OK, Craig.
Summary: Vilma doesn't …………………………………………… (exercise)
8. We've been working too hard. Maybe we need a vacation, Erik. - A vacation?
Hmm. That's an interesting idea. Do you think we can afford it, Alice?
Summary: Erik and Alice ……………………………………… a vacation.
(take)

3. Complete the article with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses.
Most people make careful plans when they ……………………… (decide / take)
a vacation. Yet when they ……………………… (attempt / find) a mate, they
53
depend on luck. Edward A. Dreyfus, PhD, …………………………….. (warn /
single people / not / leave) love to chance. He ………………………….. (urge /
them / use) his Master Relationship Plan when they search for a life partner.
Remember: when you ………………………………. (fail / plan), you
……………………… (plan / fail).
Step one: Make a list. What kind of person do you …………………………
(wish / meet)? Someone intelligent? Someone who loves sports? List every-
thing.
Step Two: Make another list. What kind of person are you? List all your charac-
teristics. …………………………….. (Ask / two friends / read) this list and
comment on it. ………………………………. (Tell / them / not / worry) about
hurting your feelings. The two lists should match.
Step three: Increase your chances. ……………………………. (Choose / par-
ticipate) in activities you like.
Step four: Ask for introductions. Dr. Dreyfus ………………………… (advise /
people / not / feel) embarrassed to ask. Everyone ……………………… (want /
be) a matchmaker!

4. Rephrase the following using the infinitive or the - ing form as in the ex-
ample:
You have to eat your carrots. I want ...you to eat your carrots.
I must exercise more often. I want...............................................................
She has to take her medicine The doctor wants.............................................
every day. I remember.......................................................
I saw him give you the letter. I want...............................................................
He has to talk to me politely. I don't want......................................................
They mustn't go to bed late. I remember.......................................................
We visited Sue before
Christmas.

5. Read this ad for a remote control.


The SMART Touch 100
You can program this powerful remote to operate up to six video and audio
components – your TV, VCR, stereo, cassette deck, and more. It's easy and con-
venient to use. So, get smart, get the SMART Touch.
Imagine that it could control everything in your house – not only electronic
equipment. Write down what you would use it to do?
Example: I'd use it to turn on the shower, to open the windows…

6. Write an ad for a new electronic gadget. Describe a real item, or invent


one. Use the infinitive of purpose.

54
7. For each short conversation, use a verb from the box, followed by an in-
finitive or an object + infinitive.
agree remind would like invite need forget encourage
1. Karen: (Yawn) Don't you have a meeting tomorrow? Maybe you should go
home and get some sleep. - Tom: It’s only eleven. And Star Wars is on in five
minutes!
Summary: Karen would like Tom to go home.
2. Kurt: Hey, honey, are you planning to buy gas soon? - Lily: I was just leav-
ing.
Summary: Kurt ……………………………………………………
3. John: We're going out for coffee. Would you like to join us? - Mary: I'd love
to.
Summary: John ……………………………………………………
4. Dad: I expect you to come home by 10:30. Do you understand? If you don't,
I'm grounding you for two weeks. - Jason: OK, OK. Take it easy, Dad.
Summary: Jason ……………………………………………………
5. Don: You didn't go to the staff meeting. We missed you. - Jeff: Oh, no! The
staff meeting!
Summary: Jeff ……………………………………………………
6. Mom: Don't be scared, sweetie. Just try once more. You'll love it. - Lisa: I
hate to ice skate. I always fall down.
Summary: Lisa’s Mom ……………………………………………………
7. Brad: Are you using the car tonight? - Terry: Well ... I have a lot of shopping
to do. And I promised Susan I'd give her a ride.
Summary: Terry ……………………………………………………

8. Read the conversation. Underline all the infinitives that express a pur-
pose.
- Its 5:00. Aren't you going home?
- No. I'm staying late to finish this report. What about you? Are you going
straight home?
- No. I'm going to stop at the bank to get some cash. Then I'm going to Lacy’s
Department Store to take advantage of the sale they're having.
- Oh, what are you going to get?
- One of those new electronic organizers they're advertising. I've been looking
for something to help me with my work.
- What's wrong with just a regular calculator?
- Nothing. But sometimes I have to convert other currencies to dollars.
- What else are you going to use it for?
- Oh, to store important names and phone numbers and to balance my check-
book.
- What did we do before they invented all these electronic gadgets?
55
- We made a lot of mistakes!

9. Match each action with its purpose.


Action Purpose
1. He enrolled in Chinese 101 because he a) didn't want to get any phone'
2. She took a bus because she calls.
3. She went to the store because she b) didn't want to be late.
4. We disconnected our phone because c) wanted to store information.
we d) wanted to listen to the news.
5. He turned on the radio because he e) didn't want to worry me.
6. He didn't tell me he was sick because f) needed to buy some dishes.
he g) wanted to learn the language.
7. She bought a Datalator because she

Now combine the sentences. Use the infinitive of purpose.


1. He enrolled in Chinese 101 to learn the language.
2. …………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………
6. …………………………………………………………………
7. …………………………………………………………………

10. Write what each word is followed by: to-infinitive, infinitive without to
or -ing form. Make up 10 sentences using these words.
enjoy + ing-form. resist +
promise + agree +
be made + can +
object to + would like +
it's no use + would +
can't stand + refuse +
can't help + spend time +
had better + avoid +

11. Translate from Russian into English.


1
1. Они продолжали разговаривать, хотя учитель сделал им уже замечание.
2. Тучным людям следует избегать переедания особенно в вечернее время.
3. Мы сожалеем о зря проделанной работе.
4. Из-за плохой погоды нам бы не хотелось рисковать лететь самолетом.
Но, увы, мы взяли билеты.
56
5. Поторопись, Лена! Нам не следует пропускать эту электричку.
6. Я получаю удовольствие, слушая старые записи Сергея Лемешева и
Ивана Козловского.
7. Кристина избегает вступать в дискуссии на темы, касающиеся экономи-
ки.
8. Мы продолжали получать на почте корреспонденцию «до востребова-
ния» (“Post restante”).
9. Вера не представляет себе жизни без своей работы.
10. Я не могу себе представить грузного (тучного) Тома, катающегося на
роликовых коньках.
2
1. Так как задержанный не соглашался подписать протокол, был пригла-
шен его адвокат.
2. Нарушитель общественного порядка (public peace) продолжал отказы-
ваться добровольно (voluntarily) пройти в полицейский участок.
3. Кредитор обещал предоставить заем (to give a loan) нашей фирме в один
миллион долларов в конце месяца.
4. Мне не удалось дойти до последнего экзамена, хотя я работала по 12
часов в сутки.
5. Мы притворялись, что не знаем, что разыграли (to joke at smb) Петю 1
апреля, и не могли удержаться от смеха.
6. Продавец предложил купить комплект видеофильмов из пяти кассет, но
я отказался. Мне нужны были только две.
7. Я надеюсь попасть в театр, хотя у меня и нет билета.
8. Общественность города уверена, что следователю Хинксу удастся рас-
крыть (to solve) это циничное преступление. Он очень опытен.
9. Костя и я сделаем попытку поступить в медицинский институт в сле-
дующем году.
10. Они, кажется, очень устали после такой утомительной (tiring) дискус-
сии.

12. Some teenagers are leaving a concert. Complete their conversations. Use
the words in parentheses with the infinitive and too or enough.
1. – Phish is so cool! Did you catch what Mike Gordon said in that last song? –
No. The guitar was too loud for me to hear (loud / me / hear) the words.
2. – They're playing in Hampton Stadium next month. – Let’s go. The tickets are
_______________ (cheap / us / afford).
3. – I don't think the Stadium has wheelchair access yet. – We'll sit on the grass.
This concert is going to be ____________________ (good / you / miss).
4. – It’s 9:30. Do we have time to get a slice of pizza? – No. It’s
_____________________ (late / stop).

57
5. – I hate this curfew! – Me too! I think we're ________________ (old / stay)
out past 10:00!
6. – Where's Kyle tonight? – Working. He didn't get out _________________
(early / come).
7. – The new recreation center just opened. Do you want to play basketball to-
morrow? – Sure. But I'm still _____________ (slow / beat) you!
8. – We can take my car. My brother repaired it today. – Ummm. Is that thing
really __________________ (safe / drive)?

13. Read this student's journal entry. Find and correct six mistakes in the
use of infinitives with too or enough.
The Phish concert was awesome! Now I’m too excited for sleeping. That Mike
Gordon can really sing. My voice isn't enough good to sing in the shower! After
the concert we were really hungry but it was to late to go for pizza. I HATE this
stupid curfew! It's too weird understand. My friend Todd works and has to pay
taxes, but the law says he's too young for staying out past 10:00! That's crazy
enough to make me want to scream. Well, I'd better try to get some sleep or I'll
be too tired too get up in the morning.

14. Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper.


To the Editor:
I'm in favor of gun control. I believe that guns are too dangerous for ordinary
people to own and use. . .

15. Read these conversations that took place at Richard's party. Complete
the summary statements. Use the gerund or the infinitive.
1. Richard: Hi, Roger. Did you bring the soda? Roger: Yes. Here it is.
Summary: Roger remembered to bring the soda.
2. Frank: Marta, do you remember Natalya and Viktor? Marta: Oh, yes. We met
last year.
Summary: Marta remembers ________________
3. Natalya: Oh, no. Someone spilled grape juice all over the couch. Roger: Don't
look at me! I didn't do it!
Summary: Roger denied _________________________
4. Marta: What do you do in your free time, Natalya? Natalya: I listen to music
a lot.
Summary: Natalya enjoys ________________________
5. Lev: Would you like to go dancing some time? Marta: Sure. I'd like that very
much.
Summary: Lev suggested _________________________
Marta agreed ___________________________
6. Viktor: I'm tired. Let's go home. Natalya: OK. Just five minutes more.
58
Summary: Viktor wants ___________________________
7. Natalya: Marta, can we give you a ride home? Marta: Thanks, but I think I'll
stay a little longer.
Summary: Natalya offered ____________________________
Marta decided __________________________
8. Richard: Good night. Please drive carefully. Viktor: Don't worry. I will.
Summary: Viktor promised _____________________

16. Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or the -ing form.
I hate1) … (sit) in this awful cell day after day. I must admit that I regret 2) …
(rob) that bank but I regret 3) … (be) caught even more! I tried so hard 4) …
(become) a successful criminal because I've never really wanted 5) … (work).
My mother meant 6) … (bring me up) properly, but she failed. I remember 7)
…. (lie) and 8) …. (steal) when I was a teenager and I stopped 9) … (go) to
school when I was 15. I'll never forget the police 10) … (arrest) me for the first
time. I still went on 11) … (break) the law when I got out of prison. Being a
criminal means 12) … (spend) most of your life in prison. When I get out of
here. I'm going to try very hard 13) … (stay) out of trouble.

17. Read Marta's letter about Richard's party. Find and correct six mis-
takes.
Dear Lisa,
I expected hearing from you by now. I hope you're OK. I'm busy but happy. Last
night I went to a party at one of my classmate's homes. I was really nervous. You
know how I usually avoid to go to parties because I have trouble remembering
people's names. Well, last night things were different. Before the party I read a
book about improving your memory, and I practiced doing some of the memory
exercises. They really helped. As a result, I stopped to worry about what people
would think of me, and I tried to pay attention to what people were saying. And
guess what? I had a good time! I'm even planning going dancing with this guy
from my class.
I have an English test tomorrow, so I should stop writing now and start study-
ing! That book I told you about had some pretty good tips, too.
Why don't you consider to visit me? I really miss seeing you.
Please write. I always enjoy to hear from you.
Marta

18. Write a short letter to someone you know. Describe your recent social
activities.
Last week I went to a party. I felt nervous about speaking English, but I enjoyed
dancing......

59
19. Make up sentences using the following words. Do not forget about the
gerund or the infinitive.
1) enjoy................................................................................................................
2) always expect..................................................................................................
3) never hesitate...................................................................................................
4) dislike...............................................................................................................
5) don’t mind.........................................................................................................
6) am afraid of.....................................................................................................
7) avoid..................................................................................................................
8) often regret........................................................................................................
9) keep..............................................................................................................
10) always try.....................................................................................................
11) believe it's important....................................................................................
12) feel nervous about.......................................................................................

20. Fill in the right form of the verbs in brackets.


Waiting for Sara
I looked around the apartment where I ………………… (to spend) most of my
life. The window was open and sounds from the street mixed with the talk show
from the radio that my mother always kept on. It seemed that she …………….
(to turn) the volume up to get her mind off the fact that I ……………..….. (to
leave). She sat in her favorite chair, the one I …………………..(to have to fix)
at least twice a year for as long as I remember. Who would fix it now? I won-
dered absently.
The doorbell …………..……(to ring) and my sister …………….(to enter)
without waiting for someone to let her in. "You sure picked a good day for go-
ing south," she yelled over her shoulder at me as she put the sack of groceries
she was carrying on the table. "Arizona couldn't be any hotter than New York
today."
Nobody …………. (to reply). The heat and the occasion …………(to make) us
quiet. Eleanor continued her monologue. "Where's Sara? When …….. she
……….. (to come)? She should be here by now. …….she ……… (to talk) to
you this morning, Mama?"
The direct question forced Mama to look at my sister. At first she just
………….. (to nod) her head, but then added, "She said she'd be here about
now."
"Well, I hope she comes soon. We need some life in this place. You two are car-
rying on as if it were the end of the world. Look at both of you sitting in your
chairs waiting for doomsday." She …………. (to reach out) and ………… (to
put) her hand on Mama's shoulder. "Come on now, Mama. He's only going to
Flagstaff. That’s not far away. You can still talk to him on the phone. And he
………. (to come back) here and visit, won't you, Dwight?"
60
She ………… (to throw) a quick sharp look in my direction. I …………. (to get
up) from my chair and …………. (to come) over and ……….. (to sit) next to
Mama. "Of course I will. You'll be seeing me every holiday."
"And weekends he'll call you when the rates …………. (to go down)." She put
her hand on my elbow and gave it a squeeze.
"Mama, I ……… (to call) you even if the rates …………… (to be up)."
"Now don't you go wasting your money like that. You've got to learn to save."
The idea of encouraging me toward thrift aroused my mother from her sad state.
She had a purpose again: looking after me.

21. Find the Verbals (Infinitive, Gerund, and Participle) and define their
function in the sentence. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Example: These measurements can be used to classify textures.
Эти измерения могут быть использованы для классификации текстур.

1. Making the experiment we followed their procedure.


2. The circumstances being favourable, we completed the work on time.
3. We know the pressure to decrease as altitude increases.
4. For classroom reading to be effective we have to take account of the interest
factor.
5. He was afraid of not being invited.
6. The considerations being incompatible with our decision, we had to postpone
the discussion.
7. The model having been tested we could recommend it for mass production.
8. Measurements having been carried out, we shall use the results in our work.
9. Conflicting reports have been published.
10. A number of animals living in the soil feed on plants.
11. A living dog is better than a dead lion.
12. When reading books I make notes.
13. Putting it mildly, the experiment was not conducted properly.
14. That question was not, strictly speaking, a question of dispute at all.
15. The question is confusing.
16. Concealed talent brings no reputation.
17. The instrument used is very reliable.
18. All things considered, we can hardly say that we have he means of measur-
ing directly such changes.
19. When frozen water is colorless solid.
20. We disliked the problem being treated in this way.
21. We have the device repaired.
22. Memory is the process of selective forgetting.
23. They could not help using this information.
24. To live long it is necessary to live slowly.
61
25. I know him to have been informed about the meeting.
26. He seems to have given up this view.
27. The effect was considered not to be of any importance.

22. Write a letter to a friend about a frightening experience you had using
words followed by the –ing form or the infinitive.
Dear Al,
I had the most frightening experience of my life yesterday. Ann had suggested
going out...

23. Translate the following sentences. State the syntactic function of the
Gerund.
1. Falling is a case of motion at constant acceleration.
2. Measuring resistance is necessary in many experiments.
3. A phosphorescent material is able to continue glowing in the dark.
4. The ammeter stopped working because the coil was short-circuited.
5. Не insisted on taking part in the conference.
6. Our purpose is to calculate the chance of the electron passing over the dis-
tance x.
7. Would you mind my showing some slides to you.
8. Would you mind answering one more question.
9. In spite of his words I could not help feeling excited.
10. Avoid mixing these two substances.
11. The expansive force of water in freezing is enormous.
12. Metals cannot be dissolved without being changed into new substances.

24. Change the construction of the sentences using the gerund.


Model: She laughed but she did not reply. She laughed without replying.
1. She bowed her head but she did not speak. 2. I like when I do everything my-
self. 3. Philip was tired because he talked too much. 4. She insisted that she
should be called Joyce Emily. 5. Within less than a minute, after she apologized
to her guest, she was in the express lift to the main floor. 6. When he returned
she went immediately into the dining-room. 7. I don't remember that I met him
in London. 8. Little Jane liked when she was clean. 9. After he examined the pa-
tient he said it was simply a case of nerve strain. 10. I'm so tired because I sit at
home. 11. I am still a little afraid to be late. 12. I like to get hold of nice things.

25. Complete the following sentences using gerundial complexes.


1. I didn't mind ... . 2. They objected ... . 3. She prevented ... . 4. I don't remem-
ber .... 5. He entered the room without ... . 6. They insisted ... . 7. I don't like the
idea ... . 8. Do you think there is any use ...? 9. I can't bear the thought ... . 10.
There was no point ... . 11. It was good ... . 12. He could no more resist ... .
62
26. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Я слышал о том, что он назначен директором большой компании. 2. Я не
имею возражений (не возражаю), чтобы они приехали сюда. 3. Я помню,
что он мне говорил об этом несколько дней тому назад. 4. Я был очень
разочарован тем, что они отказались помочь мне. 5. Я настаиваю на том,
чтобы вы ответили им немедленно. 6. Я слышал о том, что его посылают
на юг. 7. Извините, что я не позвонил вам вчера. 8. Вы можете рассчиты-
вать на то, что он даст вам точную информацию. 9. Нет надежды, что он
закончит свою работу к вечеру. 10. Вы не возражаете против того, чтобы я
прочел эту статью вслух? 11. Мой преподаватель настаивает на том, чтобы
я читал вслух каждый день. 12. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я
курил здесь? 13. Мы настаивали на том, чтобы они начали переговоры не-
медленно. 14. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы он зашел к вам се-
годня? 15. Доктор настаивает на том, чтобы он провел осень на юге. 16. Он
ответственен за то, чтобы работа была закончена вовремя.

27. Translate the following sentences. Find the absolute infinitive construc-
tion.
1. We are going to overcome this difficulty with various means to be tried.
2. An initial 15,000 of the 5.6 mm rifles will be introduced this year with the re-
placement program to be completed by 1995.
3. It was like someone playing with only the family to listen.
4. There are two approaches to the solution of the problem, one to be used in
analytical investigations, the other in simulation.
5. With these many steps to perform, a general-purpose processor can require
many cycles to perform the transfer of each word.
6. The program uses very simple data structures and algorithms almost every-
where, with a few key techniques to take advantage of hierarchy.
7. A brief overview is given in this paper of some concepts required for applying
formal methods to soft ware design, with examples to show how they may be
used.
8. It also meant that the machine could work on different tasks by simply install-
ing the required set of instructions and data, with a mechanism to select the ap-
propriate set when needed.
9. There are two types of rules in the proposed system, one to infer descriptors
from features and one to infer parameter values from descriptors.

28. Translate the sentences below paying attention to the Complex Object.
-A-
1. We proved this suggestion to be wrong.
2. There were some reasons to believe it to be the case.

63
3. Jordan supposed the statement not to be obvious and believed it to require a
proof.
4. Aristotle supposes happiness to be associated with some other human activ-
ity.
5. We shall consider a controller to be a system of reactors.
6. We expect the document to serve experienced programmers.
7. The rule requires all arguments to be available before execution can take
place.
8. Unfortunately at the same time another station may have detected the net-
work to be free and started to broadcast its message.
9. Although this quantity is not the same, many workers in the past have as-
sumed it to be so.
10. One would expect the true value to have a 90% chance.
11. We heard the construction of railway facilities benefit fully from the system.
-B-
1. We made this reaction run at reduced pressure.
2. We could not get this product to polymerize.
3. Inevitably the adoption of a database approach causes any single process to
be less efficient.
4. High temperatures allowed the reaction to be carried out in two hours.
5. It is usually rather difficult to get nitrogen to combine with other elements.
6. These properties led him to suggest that they had prepared a novel com-
pound.
7. This causes amorphous phosphates to be hygroscopic.
8. A way to get an interviewee to "open up" is the use of the "open-ended"
questions.
9. A decrease in pressure will cause the original sample to change into two
phases.
10. Have the user participate in writing the manual!

29. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Complex Subject with
the Infinitive.
1. The optimizer is expected to be the determining factor.
2. Many flying balloons are reported to have been observed in the air.
3. They are apt to appeal to principles of liberty.
4. However, the common practice of designing such devices has been shown to
be inadequate.
5. The conditions seem to have been poorly chosen.
6. Such has indeed proved to be the case.
7. The product has been proved to affect the overall yield.
8. The reaction could appear to involve a rearrangement.
9. This investigation is likely to produce good results.
64
10. The above decision-making is certain to proceed smoothly.
11. He is apt to succeed in solving this problem.
12. Amino groups are thought in general not to exist in this form.
13. These reactions were not thought to proceed very violently.
14. This development of such a unit is unlikely to be a success.
15. This particular compound was not thought to react with mercuric oxide.
16. Some solutions seemed promising but all were incomplete or fallacious.
17. Servo-loop instability has not proved to be a problem with a properly set-up
system.
18. The assumed linear relation between energy and pressure is likely to be a
good approximation.
19. All parameters of the problem can be assumed known.
20. The X-rays produced when high-speed electrons hit atoms happen to be
about the right length.
21. Hardly any aspect of economic life is likely to be unaffected, or is likely to
remain unaffected by automation.
22. Work on the iron stabilized material does not seem to have been reported.
23. To define the limits of a field of inquiry may prove, in the long run, to have
been only a gesture.

30. Use the indefinite gerund of the verb in brackets in the active or passive
voice.
1. He looked forward to (to meet) his parents. 2. You can't be afraid of (to hurt)
unless you've been hurt. 3. He took his time about (to answer). 4. Robinson
could not live in the caves. They aren't for (to live). They're for (to go) through.
5. But in fear of (to recognize) she lowered her gaze. 6. So I see. You're good at
(to make) yourself at home. 7. Jack would have gone to his bedroom without (to
see). 8. My sister would never leave without (to see) me. 9. Jennie sat them up to
their dinner, and Jeff presently stopped (to cry). 10. She couldn't help (to like)
the look in his brown eyes. 11. He had got out of the habit of (to ask) questions
by demonstrators. 12. I've always liked (to take) risks. 13. I seem to remember
(to tell) not to grumble by someone. 14. She had not even got round to (to ask)
for anything yet, because she was too busy to tell him about her granddaughter.
15. At his departure Rose had continued to weep, largely through fury at (to
leave) alone with Nurse Williams.

31. State the syntactic functions of the gerundial complexes. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1. She turned round on his entering the room. 2. She can't bear thinking of it or
speaking of it. And your saying that reminded her. 3. But of course someone
might have gone to the table without your noticing? 4. It was no good your do-
ing things by halves. 5. I was too absorbed in my crying. 6. He complained, "I

65
don't like the idea of you all going off from early morning till late at night. I
don't like being alone, quite frankly." 7. She changed the style of her dancing,
her feet moved more quickly, and did not keep so strictly to the ground. 8. I can't
bear the thought of your deserting your post when your presence is so necessary.
32. Underline all the parts of each sentence. What parts of speech are these
parts of sentence expressed by?
1. The regular array of atoms in the lattice results in there being certain sets of
parallel and equally spaced planes in the crystal which will contain large num-
bers of atoms. 2. To a large extent the skilled analyst's productivity may be at-
tributed to his having acquired, through many repetitions, the necessary tech-
nique. 3. Emulsoid particles, instead of being definitely charged, either posi-
tively or negatively, are usually of indefinite or variable charge. 4. Crookes as-
sembled a tube, which, save perhaps being a bit larger, was very similar to other
tubes used by other experimenters for the same purpose. 5. Both selenium and
tellurium are alike in being monatomic at 2000°. 6. In order to calculate the
motion of an electron, we must investigate the accompanying wave motion in-
stead of using classical point mechanics. 7. Most actual crystals are imperfect,
owing to being grown under conditions in which solid material is somewhat im-
peded in reaching and being deposited on certain faces.

33. Translate from Russian into English.


1. Каталоги только что получены. 2. Покажите мне каталоги, полученные
из Москвы. 3. Этот договор подписан представителем фирмы. 4. Мы полу-
чили договор, подписанный представителем фирмы. 5. Эта книга переве-
дена на английский язык. 6. Статья, переведенная Ивановым, очень инте-
ресная.

34. Rewrite the sentences below using participle constructions.


1. While we were crossing the bridge, we saw Charles, who was talking with an
old man. 2. As we were very tired, we refused to go for a walk. 3. As the boys
had climbed the mountains the summer before, they understood the difficulties.
4. A large branch, which had been broken by the wind, lay across the road. 5. At
a conference of the Academy of Sciences, which is now being held in St. Peters-
burg, a number of important scientific problems are being discussed. 6. When he
crossed the bridge, he saw a small village, which was situated at the foot of a
hill. 7. I'll show you the article which has been written by my father. 8. As he
had been taught French by a good teacher, he knew the language well. 9. The
moon was invisible as it was hidden by a cloud. 10. As they had been warned
that the river was rising rapidly, they turned back.

35. Rewrite the sentences below using subordinate clauses.


1. A person bringing good news is always welcome. 2. While skating yesterday
66
he fell and hurt himself. 3. She showed the travellers into the room reserved for
them. 4. The leaves lying on the ground reminded us of autumn. 5. Books read
in childhood seem like old friends.

36. Translate the sentences using the Complex Object with the Infinitive or
Participle II. Explain your choice.
1. Капитан наблюдал, как матросы разгружали пароход. 2. Капитан наблю-
дал, как разгружали пароход. 3. Я видел, как рабочие упаковывали товары.
4. Я видел, как товары упаковывали. 5. Мы наблюдали, как они ремонти-
ровали машину. 6. Мы наблюдали, как ремонтировали машину. 7. Я слы-
шал, как он сказал ей об этом. 8. Я слышал, как она рассказывала ему об
этом. 9. Я слышал, как он кричал что-то с противоположного берега. 10. Я
видел, как он погасил свет и вышел из комнаты. 11. Я наблюдал, как они
спускались с холма. 12. Я слышал, как капитан приказал матросам начать
разгрузку парохода. 13. Я видел, как пароход медленно плыл по реке. 14. Я
видел, как автобус остановился у остановки.

37. Translate the sentences using Participle II.


1. Он хочет, чтобы документы были отосланы авиапочтой. 2. Вы починили
свои часы? 3. Они хотят, чтобы товары были получены в понедельник. 4. Я
должен почистить свои ботинки. 5. Отошлите эти документы сейчас же. 6.
Я слышал, как это было сказано несколько раз. 7. Он отослал посылку вче-
ра.

38. Find the Absolute Participle Construction.


1. The temperature being raised, the kinetic energy is increased. 2. The evapora-
tion increases with the temperature, other things being equal. 3. A new tech-
nique having been worked out, the yields rose. 4. A very basic syntax is used
with assembler language, with each line of coding being composed of two basic
files. 5. The reaction must have taken place, with the data showing a change in
the infrared region. 6. Several extensions of the basic model having been made,
we shall pursue the dynamic programming approach. 7. With the structure of
various companies being different, the model is often inadequate in each particu-
lar case. 8. With the question of representing information settled, the major de-
sign question becomes one of logic operations. 9. Some scientists do not distin-
guish between pure and applied mathematics, the distinction being, in fact, of
recent origin. 10. However, by this means forty-two schools were established by
1722, the principal subjects taught being arithmetic and geometry. 11. The ses-
sion was over, with many aspects of the problem left unsolved. 12. Computers
are considered as the answer to automatic production with the other problems
treated as peripheral in nature. 13. All factors considered, we believe that the
mechanism is the most likely.
67
39. What participle constructions are used in the following sentences?
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. People known as being too proud to ask the way often go astray. 2. The plant
is found growing in the East Indies. 3. This data set should intuitively be consid-
ered as consisting of two clusters. 4. The reaction may be written as proceeding
by the following mechanism. 5. The results were interpreted by Arnauch as
pointing to the formula mentioned. 6. This method, previously mentioned as af-
fording good results, is being widely used. 7. Active centers are not to be envis-
aged as occupying fixed positions on the surface. 8. Only those substances
which can be considered as being mixtures have a depressed melting point. 9. A
quadratic cost function is assumed established for the system. 10. The perma-
nent income is often taken as having been established. 11. The problem can be
thought of as being a multivariable generalization of the classical problem.

40 Translate from Russian into English. Pay attention to the Participle.


A) 1. Я хочу прочитать эту книгу, так как мой приятель, читавший ее, го-
ворит, что она интересная. 2. Я спросил у молодого человека, читавшего
газету, который час. 3. Картина, висевшая в вестибюле, привлекла мое
внимание. 4. Картина, висевшая здесь в прошлом году, сейчас находится в
музее. 5. Студенты, переводившие эту статью, говорят, что она очень
трудная. 6. Он не заметил письма, лежавшего на столе. 7. Ученый, напи-
савший эту статью, сделает доклад в нашем институте. 8. Все студенты,
получившие приглашение на эту лекцию, присутствовали на ней. 9. Мне
сказали, что женщина, сидевшая в коридоре, ждала директора. 10. Он взял
мой словарь, не спросив разрешения. 11. Я не могу перевести эту статью,
не пользуясь словарем. 12. Не зная грамматики, он делал очень много
ошибок в разговоре и письме. 13. Не получая от нее писем, он послал ей
телеграмму. 14. Он уехал, не оставив своего адреса.

B) 1. Я показал ему список книг, прочитанных в этом году слушателями


нашей группы. 2. Человек, написавший эту статью, хорошо знает жизнь
спортсменов. 3. Потеряв ключ, он не мог войти в свою комнату. 4. Повер-
нув налево, мы увидели большое новое здание. 5. Он показал нам список
товаров, экспортируемых этой фирмой. 6. Изучив вопрос детально, он смог
ответить на все вопросы, заданные ему репортером. 7. Завтра мы будем
испытывать машину, сконструированную Петровым. 8. Он тихо закрыл
дверь, не желая будить ее. 9. Узнав, что он все еще в Санкт-Петербурге, я
позвонил ему по телефону. 10. Студенты, окончившие перевод статьи, мо-
гут выйти из аудитории. 11. Не получив от него ответа, он решил написать
ему еще раз. 12. Во время доклада я заметил молодого человека, сидевшего
в углу зала и слушавшего докладчика с большим вниманием. 13. Будучи
очень рассеянным, он сделал несколько ошибок, переписывая текст. 14. «Я
68
должен идти», - сказал он, встав со стула. 15. Ученые, принимавшие уча-
стие в экспедиции, были награждены правительством. 16. Не зная дороги
на вокзал, я решил обратиться к человеку, стоявшему на углу. 17. Он уе-
хал, не обсудив этого вопроса со мной. 18. Зная его очень хорошо, я мог
рекомендовать его как очень хорошего работника. 19. Выяснив, что сле-
дующий поезд уйдет только в 11 часов вечера, я решил поехать утренним
поездом.

69
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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ная английская грамматика. Практический курс. «Вслед за Мерфи»: Учеб-
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М.М. Леменев. – М.: ИНФРА-М, 2001.

70
CONTENTS

GERUND, INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLES………………………..…………..3

HOME EXERCISES……………………………………………….……..…..49

BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………..……………………………........66

71