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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Сибирская государственная автомобильно-дорожная академия (СибАДИ)

Кафедра иностранных языков

ГРАММАТИКА В УПРАЖНЕНИЯХ Ч. 4. Инфинитив, герундий, причастие

сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка

Составитель М.В. Цыгулева

Омск

Издательство СибАДИ

2007

3

УДК 42

ББК 81.432.1

Рецензент доктор филологических наук, зав. каф. русского языка ОМГУ Л.О. Бутакова

Работа одобрена редакционно-издательским советом академии в качестве сборника упражнений по грамматике английского языка для студентов специальности «Перево- дчик в сфере профессиональных коммуникаций».

Грамматика в упражнениях. Ч. 4. Инфинитив, герундий, причастие: Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка / Сост. М. В. Цыгулева. – Омск: Изд-во СибАДИ, 2007. – 68 с.

Сборник содержит упражнения по наиболее трудным разделам английской грамма- тики: неличным формам глагола. Упражнения способствуют овладению грамматически правильной английской речью.

Библиогр.: 13 назв.

Составитель М. В. Цыгулева, 2007

4

Учебное издание

ГРАММАТИКА В УПРАЖНЕНИЯХ

Ч. 4. Инфинитив, герундий, причастие

Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка

Составитель Маргарита Викторовна Цыгулева

Редактор Н.И. Косенкова

Подписано к печати 10.05.2007 Формат 60x90 1/16. Бумага писчая Оперативный способ печати Гарнитура Таймс Усл. п. л. 4,25, уч.-изд. л. 4,25 Тираж 100 экз.

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Отпечатано в ПЦ издательства СибАДИ 644099, г. Омск, ул. П. Некрасова, 10

5

Грамматика в упражнениях

Г Е Р У Н Д И ИНФИНИТИВ ПРИЧАСТИЕ
Г
Е
Р
У
Н
Д
И
ИНФИНИТИВ
ПРИЧАСТИЕ

Й

Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка

GERUND, INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLES

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1. Copy the tables in your notebook and try to remember them!

 

Common Verbs Followed By The Gerund

 

acknowledge

delay

endure

give up

 

postpone

regret

admit

deny

enjoy

(stop)

practice

report

appreciate

detest

escape

imagine

prevent

resent

avoid

discontinue

explain

justify

 

prohibit

resist

can’t help

discuss

feel like

keep

(con-

quit

risk

celebrate

dislike

finish

tinue)

recall

suggest

consider

dispute

forgive

mention

recommend

understand

mind

(ob-

ject to)

miss

 

Common Verbs Followed By The Infinitive

 

afford

can't afford

expect

learn

 

plan

request

agree

can't wait

fail

manage

prepare

seem

appear

choose

help

mean

 

pretend

want

ask

consent

hope

need

promise

wish

arrange

decide

hurry

offer

refuse

would like

attempt

deserve

intend

pay

Common Verbs Followed By The Gerund or The Infinitive

begin

forget*

 

love

start

can’t stand

hate

prefer

stop*

continue

like

remember*

 

try

* These verbs can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitive. But there is a big difference in meaning.

Common Adjective + Preposition Expressions Followed By The Gerund
Common Adjective + Preposition Expressions Followed By The Gerund

Common Adjective + Preposition Expressions Followed By The Gerund

be accustomed to be afraid of be amazed at/by be angry at be ashamed of be aware of be awful at be bad at be bored with/by be capable of

be curious about be excited about be famous for be fond of be glad about be good at be happy about be interested in be nervous about be opposed to

be sad about be safe from be satisfied with be sick of be slow at be sorry for/about be surprised at/about/by be terrible at be tired of be used to

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be careful of be concerned about be content with

be pleased about be ready for be responsible for

be worried about

Common Verb + Preposition Combination Followed By The Gerund

Common Verb + Preposition Combination Followed By The Gerund

Common Verb + Preposition Combination Followed By The Gerund

admit to advise against apologize for approve of believe in choose between complain about

admit to advise against apologize for approve of believe in choose between complain about
admit to advise against apologize for approve of believe in choose between complain about
admit to advise against apologize for approve of believe in choose between complain about
admit to advise against apologize for approve of believe in choose between complain about
admit to advise against apologize for approve of believe in choose between complain about

count on deal with dream about/of feel like insist on look forward to object to

count on deal with dream about/of feel like insist on look forward to object to
count on deal with dream about/of feel like insist on look forward to object to
count on deal with dream about/of feel like insist on look forward to object to
count on deal with dream about/of feel like insist on look forward to object to
count on deal with dream about/of feel like insist on look forward to object to

plan on

rely on

resort to

succeed in

talk about

think about

2. Read these messages from an online bulletin board about smoking. What

grammar material are there in the messages? Re: Can't Stand Seeing Those Signs!

Posted by Cigarman on February 16, 2000, at 15:30:03 I can't stand seeing all the new No Smoking signs. Eating in a restaurant and traveling by plane are no fun anymore! Junk food (нездоровая пища) is worse than smoking. But I bet the government won't prohibit ordering burgers and fries for lunch! Reply posted by Nuffsed on February 17, 12:15:22 Hey, Cigarman – I don't get sick when my boyfriend goes to McDonald’s, but sitting in a room full of his cigarette smoke makes my hair and clothing stink. Reply posted by Swissfriend on February 17, 20:53:11 Hello, U.S. Smokers! I am a member of Freunde der Tabak, a Swiss group of smokers and nonsmokers. We suggest practicing courtesy to nonsmokers and tolerance of smokers. I enjoy smoking, but I understand not wanting to inhale (вдыхать) second-hand smoke. Reply posted by Cleanaire on February 18, 9:53:11 Friend – Have you ever tried to stop smoking? If so, then you know you are addicted to nicotine. The younger you start smoking, the harder it is to quit.

3. Read part of an article from a health newsletter. Underline the words

ending in-ing that are gerunds. YOUR HEALTH Swimming is great exercise. It's healthy, fun, and relaxing. Because swim- ming is a "low-impact" sport, most people enjoy participating in this activity

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without fear of injury to bones or muscles. Jogging, a "high-impact" activity, can at times be harmful. I know this from personal experience. Last year while I was jogging, I injured my right knee. I don't go jogging anymore. After a painful month of recovery, I stopped running and switched to water sports. I'm now considering joining a swimming team and competing in races.

4. Complete these statements with gerunds. Use the verbs in the box.

increase

smoking

eat

do

walk

swim

go

run

1. ………………. is bad for your heart and lungs.

2. …………………. too much fat and sugar is also unhealthy.

3. Doctors suggest …………… the number of fruits and vegetables in your diet.

4. Avoid ……………

ing rope. Instead, consider ……………. in a pool every day. It’s an excellent is

better than low-impact sport.

5. Many health experts think that ………………… is better than …………….

because there is less stress on your body when your feet come into contact with the ground.

to the doctor or dentist, but regular

checkups are important.

6. Many people postpone ………………

too many high-impact sports such as jogging and jump-

5. Take a group survey. How many students agree with the statements be-

low? Write the numbers in the appropriate column. Discuss your survey re- sults.

 

Agree

Disagree

Don't

know

Seeing someone with a cigarette turns me off (disgusts me).

     

I'd rather date people who don't smoke. (If your groupmate doesn't date, change the statement to "I'd rather be married to someone who doesn't smoke.)

     

It's safe to smoke for only a year or two.

     

Smoking can help you when you're bored.

     

Smoking helps reduce stress.

     

Smoking helps keep your weight down.

     

I strongly dislike being around smokers.

     

Example: Ten people say that seeing someone smoke turns them off.

6. Work in small groups. Discuss this poster (pic. 1). Complete some of the

sentences below to help you in the discussion.

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Pic. 1 The message of this poster is The man wants/doesn’t want to quit… The

Pic. 1

The message of this poster is

The man wants/doesn’t want to

quit…

The camel enjoys …

The camel keeps

Lighting up a cigarette …

After six years, most people can’t

resist …

I can’t imagine …

I can’t stand …

This poster makes me feel like …

Smoking is…

7. Many people agree with laws that prohibit smoking in all public places.

What is your opinion? Work in small groups. Think of arguments for and against allowing smoking in public places. Take notes. Example:

Going outside to smoke wastes a lot of time at work.

8. Write a letter to a friend who wants to stop smoking. Give your friend

tips on to quit. Use gerunds. Example:

Avoid being around people who smoke.

9. Student Council wrote a letter to Ana Rivera, the president of the college.

Read the letter and underline all the preposition + gerund combinations. October 4, 1999 Dear President Rivera:

We, the members of the Student Council, would like to share with you the thoughts and concerns of the general student body. As you probably know,

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many students are complaining about life on campus. We are interested in meet- ing with you to discuss our ideas for dealing with these complaints. We know that you are tired of hearing students complain, and that you are not used to working with the Student Council. However, if you really believe in giving new ideas a try, we hope you will think about speaking with our repre- sentatives soon. We look forward to hearing from you soon. Respectfully submitted, The Student Council

10. Read the school newspaper. Complete the students' statements. Choose the appropriate preposition from the box. (You will use one of the preposi- tions several times.) Add the gerund form of the verb in parentheses.

at

on

in

to

about

for

March 1. 2001

Vol. 5, issue 24

The banner

It's almost time for spring break! We asked students: "What are your plans for spring break?" Here are some of their answers:

1. I'm very interested …………………. (listen) to jazz. I'm going to attend the

Spring Jazz Festival.

Lisa Suarez

2. I don't have any plans, but I'm not concerned …………………… (get) bored.

I can always take a walk or something.

Jim Hsu

3. My friends and I are driving to New Orleans. I'm excited …………………

(go), but I'm nervous ……………… (drive).

Emilia Leale

4. I'm really looking forward …………(stay) at home and …………… (relax). Don Pitt

5. We're driving to Quebec City. It's famous ……………… (have) great food. Omar Sisane

(learn) them. I'm worried

……………. (not do) well in my Japanese class, so I'm studying over the break. Claire Kapian 7. My friends and I are going camping, but my little brother insists

6. I love languages, but I’m not good ……………

………………. (come) with us. A lot of fun that’ll be!

Eun Ko

8. My girlfriend plans ………………. (read) and ……………… (go) movies, so

I guess I'll read a lot and see a lot movies.

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Tim Riley

11. Combine the following pairs of sentences to make statements about school life. Use the prepositions in parentheses.

1. You can't walk on campus late at night. You have to worry about your safety.

You can't walk on campus late at night, without worrying about your safety. (without)

2. We can make changes. We can tell the administration about our concerns. (by) …………………………………………………………………………

3. The administration can help. It can listen to our concerns. (by) …………………………………………………………………………

4. In some cases, students just complain. They don't make suggestions for im-

provements!

(instead of) …………………………………………………………………

5. Students get annoyed with some teachers. Some teachers come late to class.

(for) ………………………………………………………………………

6. You can improve your grades. Study regularly. (by) …………………………………………………………………………

12. Lorry Jones quit school after high school and had various jobs. Then he

decided to go to college. That was a big change for him. Complete the sen- tences about Lorry. Use the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses.

1. Larry used to ………………. (be)a student, but he quit after high school.

2. He used to ………………

3. In fact, he used to ………………

4. When he went back to college, he had to get used to ……………

dent again.

(have) a job.

(have) a lot of different jobs.

(be) a stu-

5.

He wasn't used to ………………… (go) to school every day.

 

6.

He

had

to

get

used

to

……………

(do)

homework

again

and

……………….(study) for tests.

7. When Larry was working, he used to ………………

money. He used to …………… used to ………………. (spend) less.

8. It hasn't been easy, but now Larry has gotten used to ……………… (live) a

student’s life again.

(spend) everything, too. Now he has to get

(earn) quite a bit of

13. Pretend you are running for president of the Student Council. Prepare

your campaign speech and read it to the group. Answer some of these ques- tions. Then have an election.

What are you most interested in? What do you believe in? What will you insist on? Example:

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What are you opposed to? What are you excited about? What are you good at?

Vote for me. I'm interested in making our lives better by improving

14. Below are some life events, both positive and negative, that can lead to

stress. Work by yourself and rank them from most stressful (1) to least

stressful (7). Then in small groups compare and discuss your lists. Use BE USED TO and GET USED TO to explain your choices.

starting college moving to a new city changing jobs or institutes getting married

Example:

getting divorced having or adopting a baby death of a close family member getting fired at work

I think getting married is the third most stressful life event. You have to get used to living with another person.

15. Read this letter to the editor of a school newspaper. Then complete the

exercise below. TO THE EDITOR.

I have been attending Longtree College for a year. I am an international stu-

dent in the Chemistry Department. I am very happy about studying here. How- ever, I have had some problems with academic advisors. The academic advisors are not used to talking to international students, so they get nervous about under- standing us. In addition, the school delays looking at the records of transfer students. I at- tended a university in Ukraine for two years, and I took several chemistry courses. The Chemistry Department has not yet looked at my records. My advi- sor recommends taking basic courses, but I am afraid of repeating courses and

wasting my time.

I suggest giving a workshop for advisors. In the workshop they can practice

talking clearly and organizing their information for international students. I also recommend looking at student records as soon as possible.

Respectfully,

Galina Terela

16. Mark the following statements True (T) or False (F). 1. Galina is complaining about being a chemistry student. 2. The advisors have a lot of experience in talking to international students. 3. They feel confident about communicating with international students. 4. Galina is a freshman. 5. The Chemistry Department has been slow in reviewing Galina's records. 6. Galina objects to taking basic chemistry courses.

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7. Galina thinks that advisors should learn about dealing with international student.

17. Write a letter to the editor of your institute newspaper. Write about the

things you like and dislike about your institute. Use Galina's letter as a model.

18. Read this entry in a personal diary. Underline all the verbs + infinitive

and the verbs + object + infinitive. Annie advised me to join a club or take a class, and I finally did it! I de- cided to join the school's Outdoor Adventure Club, and I went to my first meet- ing last night. I'm really excited about this. The club is planning a hiking trip next weekend. I definitely want to go. I hope it won't be too hard for my first ad- venture. Last night they also decided to go rafting in the spring. At first I didn’t

want to sign up, but the leader was so nice. He urged me not to miss this trip, so I put my name on the list. After the meeting, a group of people asked me to go out with them. We went to a coffee shop and talked for hours. Well, I hoped to make some new friends when I joined this club, but I didn’t expect everyone to be so friendly. I'm glad Annie persuaded me not to give up.

19. Work in pairs. Tell each other about your parents.

What did they encourage you to do? How did they encourage you to do that? What didn't they allow you to do? What did they force you to do? What did they advise you to do? Why did they advise you to do that? What would they like you to do? What do they expect you to do? What would you prefer to do? Why would you prefer to do that? Example:

My parents encouraged me to learn other languages.

20. Discuss how people in your culture socialize. Do young men and women

go out together? If so, do they go out in couples or in groups? What are some ways people meet their future husbands or wives?

21. Imagine you would like to meet one of the people in these personal ads.

Write a letter to that person and introduce yourself. Use verbs followed by

infinitives.

Example:

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Dear Nice Boy, I'm a friendly female student. I like to take walks in the country…

300

Women Seeking Men

Can’t wait to meet you! – friendly, but lonely, foreign student would like to meet a nice, thoughtful boy who en- joys good conversation, books, music, and the out- doors. Please, send note. 3512

We deserve to be to- gether – I love to travel, but I also like to stay home with friends, and family. My hob- bies include tennis, dancing, and gardening. You are a nice boy with many interests. Please write me about them.

6534

310

Men Seeking Women

Nice Boy-would like to meet warm, friendly female who enjoys the city, country, reading, movies and travel- ing. You don’t need to send a photo, but please write. 3543

Attractive single male – refuses to believe that the woman of his dreams does not exist! She is smart, funny, and has a warm heart.

Send note with photo, please.

2073

Want to dance? – ath- letic man wants to meet part- ner for dancing,

22. Look at Yoke's list of things to do. Then write a phrase to answer each

question. To Do

- Get gas

- Make dental appointment

- Buy batteries

- Withdraw $100

- Invite Rika and Taro to dinner

- Buy milk and eggs

1. Why did she call Dr. Towbins office? To make a dental appointment.

2. Why did she go to the bank?

3. Why did she call Mrs. Watanabe?

4. Why did she go to the supermarket?

5. Why did she go to the electronics store?

6. Why did she go to the service station?

23. Read Yoko's journal entry. Find and correct six mistakes.

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I went to Dr. Towbin for getting my teeth cleaned. While I was waiting, I used my Datalator to study for the TOEFL. Then I used it to helps me pronounce “novocaine” and “dental floss” for my appointment. After the dentist, I checked my schedule and saw “Rika and Taro, dinner, 7:30.” I should use it in order to not forget appointments! Luckily, my recipes are already on the Datalator, so I used them for making a quick shopping list. When I got home, there was a note on my door – “Call bldg. super.” I checked the Datalator dictionary to find “bldg. super.” The “building superintendent” wanted to come up in order fix the doorbell! Rika and Taro and I played with the Datalator all evening. You can program it for to play computer games, too. I don’t know how I lived with- out it.

24. Work in groups. Think of uses for the following objects (pic. 2). Use the

infinitive of purpose and your imagination!

2). Use the infinitive of purpose and your imagination! 1 Example: 2 3 4 Pic. 2

1

Example:

the infinitive of purpose and your imagination! 1 Example: 2 3 4 Pic. 2 5 6

2

the infinitive of purpose and your imagination! 1 Example: 2 3 4 Pic. 2 5 6

3

4

Pic. 2

of purpose and your imagination! 1 Example: 2 3 4 Pic. 2 5 6 You can

5

of purpose and your imagination! 1 Example: 2 3 4 Pic. 2 5 6 You can

6

You can use a shell to hold coins, to keep soap in, or to eat from.

25. Look at the sentences and tables below. What can you say about Verbals

according to the information you have read? INFINITIVE To read English is a great pleasure. He likes to read English. His task was to read an English text. To know English you must work hard.

This is a good book to read.

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A C T I V E I N F I N I T I V
A
C
T
I
V
E
I
N
F
I
N
I
T
I
V
E
Present (Simple)
Present Cont.
Perfect
Perfect Cont.
одновременно одновременно,
процесс
раньше раньше,
I’m happy to help
you.
I’m happy to
be helping
them.
I’m happy to
have helped
him.
процесс
He seemed to have
been waiting for my
help.
I want to show you
I know her to
a book.
be translating
an article.
She seems to
have lost
weight.
I rang the bell, and
the man answered
with remarkable
promptness; he
seemed to have
been waiting for it
to ring.
P A S S I V E I N F I N I T I
P
A
S
S
I
V
E
I
N
F
I
N
I
T
I
V
E
Present (Simple)
Perfect
одновременно раньше
He was glad to be
helped.
He was glad to have been helped.
I want to be asked
this question.
I know the letter to have been sent yesterday.

GERUND Reading is his hobby. Do you like reading? My aim is learning English. Will you ring me up before leaving? I don’t understand your way of learning English words.

A C T I V E G E R U N D Present (Simple) одновременно
A
C
T
I
V
E
G
E
R
U
N
D
Present (Simple)
одновременно
Perfect
раньше

17

I’m looking forward to sending my child to the country. I’m surprised at your having
I’m looking forward to sending
my child to the country.
I’m
surprised
at
your
having
missed
so
many
lectures
this
term.
He was good at gathering mush-
rooms.
Godfrey felt guilty at having gos-
siped to Oliver about Letty.
P A S S I V E G E R U N D Present (Simple)
P
A
S
S
I
V
E
G
E
R
U
N
D
Present (Simple)
одновременно
I’m looking forward to being sent
to London.
Perfect
раньше
The boy didn’t like having been
left alone.
Raymond didn’t like being called
Ray.
I won’t go there. I didn’t remem-
ber having been invited.

PARTICIPLE I He is speaking now. While translating the article, the student consulted the dictionary. Take the letter showing the prices for our products.

A C T I V E P A R T I C I P L
A
C
T
I
V
E
P
A
R
T
I
C
I
P
L
E
I
Present (Simple)
одновременно
She is a loving mother.
Perfect
раньше
Having
lost
the
key,
the
boy
couldn’t get into the house.
She saw the director working at his
office.
Having
eaten
ice-cream,
they
went home.
P A S S I V E P A R T I C I P
P
A
S
S
I
V
E
P
A
R
T
I
C
I
P
L
E
I
Present (Simple)
одновременно
Perfect
раньше

18

Being left alone, he went on with his work. This book is out-of-date, having been
Being left alone, he went on with his
work.
This book is out-of-date, having
been written in 1940.
I heard my poem being recited and
felt happy.
The contract having been signed,
our managers went home.

PARTICIPLE II

Tables are made of wood. I want to have my car repaired. Jill had the roof repaired yesterday. The constructed road was 15 miles long. The road constructed here is 15 miles long. When constructed, the road was carefully tested. Metal bars become longer if heated.

26. Read this transcript of a radio talk show about voting rights for people

under age eighteen. What do you think about it? Smith: Welcome to Voice of the People. I'm Ed Smith, and tonight our topic is youth voting rights. Kyle, you're only sixteen. For someone your age, is getting the vote really important enough to fight for? Kyle: Sure. Without it, teenagers are too powerless for politicians to listen to. Smith: I don't get it. In the 1960s when military service was required, eighteen- year-olds had an argument -"if we're old enough to fight for our country, we're old enough to vote." What's your argument?

Tina: Well, there are a lot of laws that discriminate against us. Micah: For example, my parents are divorced. I see my father every week. I don't want to, but the law says I'm too young to decide. Kyle: My city has curfew laws. I'm responsible enough to work and pay taxes, but too immature to stay out until 10:00. That's fair? Tina: Women, racial minorities, and people with disabilities have already won their civil rights. Now it's our turn. Micah: That's right. Things are changing, but not quickly enough for us to get anything out of it.

27. People have different opinions about public issues. Read each statement

of opinion. Then choose the sentence (a. or b) that summarizes that opinion.

1. Teenagers are responsible enough to stay out past 10:00 p.m.

a. Teenagers should have permission to stay out past 10:00 p.m.

b. Teenagers shouldn't have permission to stay out past 10:00 p.m.

2. Teenagers are too immature to vote.

a. Teenagers should be able to vote.

19

b. Teenagers shouldn't be able to vote.

3. Women are strong enough to be good soldiers.

a. Women can be good soldiers.

b. Women can't be good soldiers.

4. Children are mature enough to choose which parent to live with.

a. Children can choose which parent to live with.

b. Children can't choose which parent to live with.

5. Teenagers are responsible enough to use the Internet without censorship.

a. Teenagers can use the Internet without censorship.

b. Teenagers can't use the Internet without censorship.

6. Adults are too afraid of change to listen to children's ideas.

a. Adults can listen to children's ideas.

b. Adults can't listen to children's ideas.

7. People with disabilities have worked too hard to give up the fight for equal

rights.

a.

People with disabilities can give up the fight for equal rights.

b.

People with disabilities can't give up the fight for equal rights.

8. At age seventy, people are not too old to work.

a. At age seventy, people can work.

b. At age seventy, people can't work.

28. Match the pictures (pic. 3) with the sentences below.

a. The buttons are too high for him to reach.

b. The buttons are low enough.

c. The steps are too steep for him to get up.

d. The box is too heavy.

e. The street is too busy for them to cross.

f. The traffic is slow enough for them to cross.

g. She's too old to join the army.

h. She is too young to vote.

i. She is old enough to vote.

them to cross. g. She's too old to join the army. h. She is too young

1

2

20

3

4 5 6 7 8 9 Pic. 3 4. Discuss one of these questions. Then

4

5

4 5 6 7 8 9 Pic. 3 4. Discuss one of these questions. Then vote

6

4 5 6 7 8 9 Pic. 3 4. Discuss one of these questions. Then vote

7

4 5 6 7 8 9 Pic. 3 4. Discuss one of these questions. Then vote

8

9

Pic. 3

4. Discuss one of these questions. Then vote on your opinions. • At what age should people start to vote? • Should towns have curfews for people younger than age eighteen? Example:

A: I think fifteen-year-olds are mature enough to vote. They can read newspa- pers and understand issues. B: I disagree. I don't think fifteen-year-olds are concerned enough about politics to vote.

29. What do you think these expressions mean? When would you use them? Discuss your ideas in small groups.

She's old enough to know better.

Life is too short to worry about every little thing.

You're never too old to try.

It looks good enough to eat.

It’s too hot to handle.

21

30.

Complete the following sentences. In small groups, compare your opin-

ions.

1. Elderly people are too Example:

A: People over age seventy are too old to drive. B: Oh, I don't agree. Some elderly people drive better than young people.

2. The leaders of this country are powerful enough

3. Teenagers are too crazy

4. Guns are too

5. Taxes aren't high enough

6. Women are strong enough

7. Radio and TV broadcasters speak (or don't speak) clearly enough

8. Time goes by too quickly

31. What are your strategies for remembering names? Read this excerpt

from a magazine article. STOP FORGETTING Marta wanted to go to the party. She's friendly and enjoys meeting people. But as Marta looked at the invitation, part of her kept saying, "I won't know anyone there! How will I remember all those new names?" Marta's problem is not unusual. Remembering names is a problem for many people. For interna- tional travelers like Marta (she's a Mexican student studying in the United States), it is even harder to recall unfamiliar foreign names. What can Marta and others like her do? Here are some tips from memory experts:

Decide to remember. Making an effort can really help.

Listen carefully when you hear someone's name for the first time. It's important to pay attention.

Keep repeating the name. Calling the person by name more than once will help fix the name in your mind.

Write the name down. Putting things in writing is the most common

memory aid. Don't hesitate to ask the person to repeat the name. Most people don't mind doing this. And last, but not least,

Stop worrying. Anxiety only makes the problem worse.

32. Read the first sentence. Then decide if the second sentence is True (T) or

False (F).

1. Marta remembered meeting Mr. Jackson.

Marta has already met Mr. Jackson.

22

2.

Richard stopped smoking. Richard doesn't smoke anymore.

3. She didn't remember to buy a cake for the party. She bought a cake.

4. She stopped eating desserts.

She

used to eat desserts.

5. Richard forgot to invite his boss to the party. Richard invited his boss.

6. Richard forgot inviting his neighbor to the party. Richard invited his neighbor.

7. Richard thinks giving a party is fun. Richard thinks it's fun to give a party.

8. Marta likes going to parties. Marta likes to go to parties.

33. Circle the correct words to complete these ideas from a book called Su-

per Memory.

1. Get in the habit of (repeating)/ to repeat things aloud.

2. Never rely on someone else’s memory. Learn trusting / to trust your own.

3. It’s easy forgetting / to forget what you don't want remembering / to remem-

ber.

4. Study immediately before going / to go to sleep. You'll remember a lot more

the next day.

5. Our memories are filled with things we never even meant remembering / to

remember.

6. Make it a habit to pass in front of your car every time you get out, and you'll

never forget turning off / to turn off your headlights.

7. Playing / To play games is a fun way of improving / to improve your memory

skills.

Douglas J. Hermann, Super Memory:

A Quick Action Program for Memory Improvement (Avenel, NJ: Wings Books, 1991).

34. Complete this advice. Use the gerund or infinitive form of the verb in

parentheses.

(try)

(Study) for an exam is different from

(remember) someone's name. Here are some tips:

• Group information by dates, people, or places. It may help (make) a chart.

• Color

(Use) colored pens helps many people retain new

information.

23

• Use different senses. Try (read),

(write),

(listen). Some people need

(learn) new information by (speak), and (use) two or more

senses.

• Remember

(review) frequently. It’s important

(go

over) information again and again.

35. Marta and Lev are on their first date. They agree on everything. Read

one person’s pinion and write the other's. If the first person used the ger-

und, use the infinitive. If the first person used the infinitive, use the gerund.

1. Marta: It’s fun to meet new people. Lev: I agree. Meeting new people is fun.

2. Marta: Remembering names is hard, though. Lev: I know. It's hard to remember names.

3. Marta: It's difficult to make new friends. Lev: That's

4. Marta: It’s important to relax. Lev: You're

5. Marta: Dancing is fun. Lev: I

6. Marta: It's nice to get to know someone like you. Lev: I feel the same

7. Lev: Being with you is wonderful. Marta:

, too.

36. How do you feel and act in new social situations? Complete these sen-

tences. Use the gerund or the infinitive. Then discuss your answers with a

partner. When I'm in a new social situation, I 1) enjoy 2) always expect 3) never hesitate 4) dislike 5) don’t mind 6) am afraid of 7) avoid 8) often regret 9) keep 10) always try 11) believe it's important 12) feel nervous about

24

37.

Work in small groups. Discuss these questions:

1. Do you have trouble remembering people’s names?

2. Do you follow any of the experts’ memory tips?

3. What other things do you have trouble remembering?

4. What tricks do you use to remember things?

Example:

A: I sometimes forget to pay my rent. B: Oh, I always make a note on my calendar when the rent is due.

38. Fill in the correct form of the infinitives.

1. My boss expects me

2. The suspect claimed

3. Jill's teacher is worried about her as she seems

to work

(work) overtime. (watch) TV at the time of the robbery.

(have) diffi-

culty coping with her studies.

4. Young children often ask

5. The

seems

(take) to the zoo.

window

as

burglars

must

have

lock

(force). (pass) my driving test two years ago, you

come

in

through

the

the

6. "I happen

know," he said.

7. Robert is expecting

ther dies. 8. "Mark appears passed him!"

(inherit) a large house when his grandfa-

(overtake) John on the last lap. Yes, he's

9.

Leslie seems

(enjoy) her new job.

10.

I'd like

(book) a return ticket to Denver, please.

11.

Stop pretending

(eat) your food – just finish it up, please.

12.

The manager seems

(get) impatient with the interviewee.

39.

Fill in with the appropriate preposition or particle and -ing forms. Dear Sir/Madam,

As

I

dine

out

regularly

in

good

quality

restaurants

I

am

accus-

tomed

(receive) service of the highest standard. The staff at

your establishment could certainly not be accused

this! In addition served us was also guilty wife was also very upset

impatient. The chef too, seemed incapable

(provide)

(be) extremely rude, the waitress who (get) our order wrong twice. My (be) told that she shouldn't be so

(do) anything right.

As well

(forget) to heat up our soup, he burnt my steak and

overcooked

my

wife's

vegetables.

All

I

can say

is

that

he

is

obviously

used

(cook) for very uncritical diners. To make matters

worse, the waitress tried to prevent us rant because we hadn't left a tip! I'm not interested

25

(leave) the restau- (get) my

money back but I am looking forward

near future with a full apology to my wife and myself

(spoil) our 25th wedding anniversary. Yours faithfully, Michael Crawford

(hear) from you in the

40.

Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.

the

The Jackal is known

(be) one of the most dangerous criminals in (rob) banks is his speciality, although he also enjoys

(kidnap) every now and again. So far, the police have failed

(re-

ceive) any information that could lead to his arrest. The public have been

warned

gun son are unlikely future. He was last seen

he

per-

(not/approach) the Jackal if they see him, as he has a

(catch) him, and they would be very happy

doesn't

mind

and

(use)

it.

The

last

(try) to arrest him was shot in the foot. Fortunately, we (come across) the Jackal in this country in the near (sunbathe) on a beach in Brazil.

41. Complete the sentences using an infinitive or an -ing form.

1. City life is too busy for me; I really miss

in the country.

2. We had to postpone

3. She goes

4. If you will keep

5. She's been training so hard recently that she deserves

6. He couldn't sleep, so I suggested his

7. Because of his fear of jellyfish, he doesn't like

8. I'd really like

tennis because of the bad weather.

at the pool every weekend.

so much, you're bound to get fat.

the race. some warm milk. in the sea.

my uncle in Chicago one day.

9. That man seems to be having trouble don't you give him a push?

10. Mr Roberts is much too old

11. Before the interview, I was required

12. The dog seems

13. Becoming an Olympic athlete involves

14. Would you ever consider

15. I much prefer

16. Let me be the first

17. I'm sorry

18. He said he would prefer his mother's old car.

19. It's no use

20. I think you should give up

his car. Why

climbing like he used to. an application form. hungry – you'd better feed him. for years.

married to someone twice your age?

on the telephone. you on your remarkable success.

letters to

that I'll be unable to attend the meeting tomorrow.

the train to London rather than

to university if you don't intend to study. because you have a very poor voice.

26

42.

Complete the sentences by using an Infinitive or an -ing form.

He heard the phone

When I entered his room I saw him Then I saw him

away. As they were walking past the house, they saw it

I saw Gary Lineker

ringing

but it stopped before he could answer it.

the house,

his homework. into

his car and

into flames.

the winning goal in the FA Cup Final.

43. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.

The best way

to

explore

(explore) China is by land. Anyone who has

been

there,

will

(tell)

you

what

a

great

experience

it is.

 

(Travel) round China involves

 

(cover)

great distances as the country is enormous. As a result, some tourists would

rather

(fly),

as

it

is

quicker

and

they consider

(sit) on a bus or train a waste of time. For those who don't

mind

(take)

a

bit

longer,

there

is so much

(see) which is not visible from a plane. From a bus you

can

(see) women

 

(work) in the rice

fields. You can even spend some time nese phrases. Few can resist

nest

soup,

though

you

may

(learn) a few Chi- (taste) the local delicacy – bird's

in

(have)

difficulty

(acquire) a taste for one-hundred-year-old eggs!!

44. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive. There has been a bomb scare in central London. The police advise every-

body

to

stay

(stay) clear of the area. You are recommended

not

(travel) by tube as the service has been suspended. We'd

recommend

 

(take) the bus, but only if your journey is essential.

The police require any members of the public with any information relating to

this incident

(come forward).

45. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.

1. Tom stopped

to pick up

(pick up) his washing on the way home. (smoke), you'll make yourself ill.

(phone) John at the office if he's not at home. (finish), but there just wasn't enough time.

(become) a company di-

2. If you don't stop

3. Try

4. I tried my best

5. He was promoted in 1990 and went on

rector.

6. The band went on

7. "Why is the baby crying?" "I think he wants

8. Sharon wants

9. Jane was afraid

(play) even after the lights had gone out.

(feed)."

(talk) to you. (show) her school report to her parents.

27

10.

I'm afraid of

(lose) my way in the forest.

11.

What do you mean

(do) with all that money?

12.

Playing a musical instrument well means

(practise) for years.

13.

I regret

(inform) you that your husband has been arrested.

14.

She regrets

(spend) so much money on her new dress.

15.

Do you remember

(ride) a bicycle for the first time?

16.

Remember

(post) the letters on your way home.

17.

I'd prefer

(pretend) I didn't hear what you just said.

18.

I prefer

(borrow) books from the library to

(buy) them.

19.

Don't forget

(bring) some cash in case they don't accept credit cards.

20.

I was sorry

(hear) about you failing the exam.

21.

He said he was sorry for

22.

Oh no! I totally forgot

(speak) to you so rudely. (turn off) the cooker.

23.

I'll never forget

(sail) through that storm in the Atlantic.

46.

Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.

Kim: I'll never forget

bly excited although I was trying Tom: I know. I remember (go) there too.

Kim: Yes, I know. I was a bit over the top, wasn't I? I'm sorry for (behave) so badly.

Tom: Yes, you were! You just went on

going

(go) to America for the first time. I was incredi- (act) cool and casual. (be) quite envious because I wanted

(talk) about America con-

stantly.

It was quite funny though when I think back. You hardly let

me

(say) a word.

Kim: I'm sorry, but you know that in my excitement I nearly left a lot of things behind like my camera and my money.

Tom: I didn't know you had such a bad memory. Kim: I'm not usually so forgetful. I had a lot on my mind. Anyway, I don't re-

member actually

Tom: How did you feel when you first arrived there?

Kim: I remember wanted

Tom: So where did you go first?

Kim: Well, we started in New York. At first, the traffic was so bad that I was

afraid

Building and the Statue of Liberty and lots of other things. It was incredible! I love New York!

(cross) the road. But it got easier. I saw the Empire State

(worry) about what to do and where to go. I

(leave) anything behind in the end.

(see) everything but I didn't know where

(begin).

47. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive infinitive or -ing form.

1. We are waiting for his first novel

to be punished

(publish) in English.

2. His music seems

(influence) by the rock culture of the seventies.

28

3.

(hurt) badly in the past, she found it very difficult to trust any-

one again.

4. Don't tease him any more. He doesn't enjoy

(laugh at).

5. Many film stars now hire bodyguards because they want

(pro-

tect).

6.

(award) an Oscar was the most memorable event in the actor's

life.

7. Ann claimed

America.

(invite) to Tom Cruise's wedding while she was in

8. I was very upset when I failed the audition, so you can imagine how de-

(give) a second chance. (approach) by complete strangers

9. I'm not used to

lighted I was

asking for my autograph.

10. Listen carefully because I don't want

11. I wouldn't phone her after midnight. She won't like

12. I don't remember

(misunderstand). (wake up).

(tell) the news before. Are you sure you

mentioned it yesterday?

13.

Ten more people have asked

(include) in the conference.

14.

He always wears such outrageous clothes because he wants

(notice).

15.

I see that

(send) to prison for five years has taught you nothing.

16.

Actors consider

(see) on television as the first step to fame.

48.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate participle.

Carla has been

interested

(interest) in dancing since she was a little girl.

When she put on her own "performances" at home for her relatives, they were

all

around in her home-made costumes. No one guessed, however, that by the age

(entertain) spectacle for a much lar- (thrill) to attend a Royal Per- (excite) debut. Carla (frighten) than

herself was more

she'd ever been in her life. Her climb to fame had been extremely

(reward). And now, here she was, dancing for the Queen. How

(please) she felt! But the the next day were even more

(amaze) reviews she received (thrill).

(entertain) by the sight of the young girl twirling

of eighteen she would be an ger audience. Carla's family were formance and to witness their little girl's

(excite) and

49. Put the verbs in brackets in the -ing form or the to-infinitive.

I've been trying

to

get

(find) a method that has not ended in disaster. Two (go) to karate classes. On the second day I broke

(swim). At first I

(race) my friend up and down the pool. But I re-

(get) fit for years but it has been impossible

years ago I started

my arm. When I had recovered from that, I took up

really enjoyed

29

gret

side and cracked my head on the tiles. I needed

make my head stop

(say) that it wasn't long before, I slipped over on the pool

(go) to hospital to

(bleed). A few months later a friend advised

me

(try)

aerobics.

That

didn't

last

long

either,

because

I

hate

(listen) to loud disco music. Then last month I bought a bicy-

cle. I had always loved

gret

hospital with two broken legs. I have decided

(cycle) ever since I was a child. I really re-

(buy) that bike, though. At this very moment, I am lying in

(give up) trying

concentrate

(get)

fit.

From

now

on,

I'm

going

to

on

(stay) alive.

50. Work in groups. Make up as many sentences to the picture (pic. 4) as possible using Verbals.

(stay) alive. 50. Work in groups. Make up as many sentences to the picture (pic. 4)

Pic. 4

30

INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

 

There is AN AGENT in the infinitive construc- tion itself (независимый)

There is NO AGENT in the infinitive construction itself (зависимый)

Absolute

In-

ob-

Complex Sub- ject

For + Noun + Infinitive

finitive

Con-

Complex

 
 

struction

ject

INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION WITH NO AGENT

I’m sorry to have lectured at this club.

Я сожалею, что я читала лекции в этом клубе.

We still cannot say to have solved the problem.

Мы все еще не можем сказать, что мы решили эту проблему.

INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION AS A PARENTHESIS

То anticipate a little, these data prove that

Забегая

несколько

вперед,

заметим…

Galileo, Newton, Huygens – to men- tion only the most prominent men of science – were the founders of classi- cal mechanics.

Галилей, Ньютон, Гюйгенс – мы называем лишь наиболее видных ученых – были создателями клас- сической механики.

to begin with

начнем с того, что для начала

;

прежде всего;

to be sure

конечно, несомненно

 

needless to say

не стоит и говорить, само собой ра- зумеется

to put (it) in another way

другими словами

 

so to say

так сказать

to say the least

не говоря большего, по меньшей мере

ABSOLUTE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

We asked him to help us, the work to be done in a week.

Мы попросили его помочь нам, так как работа должна быть сделана через неделю.

We shall make the experiment with the raw materials to be taken from another lab.

Мы проведем этот эксперимент, причем исходные материалы будут взяты из другой лаборатории.

31

COMPLEX OBJECT

We expect the scientist to be involved in the work.

Мы предполагаем, что ученого привлекут к этой работе.

I know them to work hard.

Я знаю, что они много работают.

During the experiment we saw the temperature fall rapidly.

Мы видели во время опыта, как температура быстро падала.

They believe the substance to have dissolved.

Они полагают, что вещество рас- творилось.

COMPLEX SUBJECT (говорят (to be said); известно (to be known); принимается (to be taken); счи- тается (to be considered, believed); предполагается (to be assumed); наверня- ка (to be sure); возможно (to be apt); безусловно (to be certain); вероятно (to be likely); казаться (seem, appear); оказываться (prove, turn out); случаться (happen, chance))

The lifetime of the equipment is as- sumed to be 30 years.

Предполагается, что срок службы этого оборудования составляет 30 лет.

The method is reported to give good results.

Сообщается, что этот метод дает хорошие результаты.

This student is known to work hard.

Известно, что этот студент много работает.

They are likely to come here.

Вероятно, они придут сюда.

 

Dr. Meyer is supposed to arrive at 10.

Полагают, что д-р Мейер приедет в

10.

Д-р Мейер должен приехать в 10.

The acid seems to be likely to dis- solve the precipitate.

Эта кислота, по-видимому, может растворить осадок.

Water was considered to be an ele- ment.

Считали,

что

вода

является

эле-

ментом.

This substance was not observed to possess radioactive properties.

Радиоактивных свойств у этого вещества не наблюдали.

This substance is believed not to ex- hibit radiation.

Считают, что это вещество не ра- диоактивно.

FOR + NOUN + INFINITIVE

For this method to be valuable it must be improved.

Чтобы этот метод был полезным, его надо усовершенствовать.

There is a possibility for him to at- tend the conference.

У него есть возможность присутст- вовать на этой конференции.

For a force to exist there must be two objects involved.

Для того чтобы существовала сила, необходимо, чтобы было два пред-

32

 

мета.

The temperature was too low for the substance to decompose.

Температура была слишком низка, для того чтобы вещество разложи- лось (могло разложиться).

51. Translate the following sentences paying attention to absolute infinitive

constructions.

1. We are going to overcome this difficulty with various means to be tried.

2. It was like someone playing with only the family to listen.

3. There are two approaches to the solution of the problem, one to be used in

analytical investigations, the other in simulation.

4. With these many steps to perform, a general-purpose processor can require

many cycles to perform the transfer of each word.

5. The program uses very simple data structures and algorithms almost every-

where, with a few key techniques to take advantage of hierarchy.

6. A brief overview is given in this paper of some concepts required for applying

formal methods to soft ware design, with examples to show how they may be used.

7. It also meant that the machine could work on different tasks by simply install-

ing the required set of instructions and data, with a mechanism to select the ap- propriate set when needed.

52. Find the Complex Object and translate the sentences.

1. It would be very nice if one could have a computer do the thinking, have a

computer make the decisions and have a computer do the scheduling.

2. If you allow yourself to be victimized once, you will be victimized again.

3. You may lead a horse to the water, but you cannot make him drink.

4. He permitted the treasure to be returned to the people.

5. One intriguing approach is to get the computer play games against itself.

6. The pulse method enables thermodynamic equations to be formulated in a

simple manner.

7. The technique permitted problems to be solved that had been regarded as in-

tractable.

8. This sequence causes digitized images to be stored in core memory.

9. If we can get the student to ask, "Why?" instead of just "What?" we will have

made an essential step in his education. 10. We are interested in forcing the student to make his own decisions from a

wide range of choices.

53. What do you know about the Subject? Translate the following sen- tences.

1. People's knowledge is assumed to be well-organized and to facilitate the un-

33

derstanding of new information.

2. This process was expected to be more effective.

3. These stages are assumed to occur sequentially.

4. The data on the dispersion have been found to be in good agreement with the

theoretical dispersion.

5. The approach was reported to apply.

6. From now on this model will be assumed to be adequate.

7. The talks are intended to give the latest advanced ideas in this field.

54. Sometimes Complex Subjects with the Infinitive are used in subordinate

clauses. Give the translation of the sentences below.

1. It has to be admitted that the conclusion does not always seem to be a logi-

cally inevitable one.

2. The substances which are accepted to be present in the mixture should reveal

two absorption bands.

3. It is supposed that no very convincing mechanism appears to have been of-

fered for a hypothesis of this nature.

4. This technique is related to the criteria supposed to be built into the machine.

5. The esters now known to exhibit this behaviour are listed in Table IV.

6. Of the numerous methods of conducting similar experiments to be found in

literature, the following are among those which have been proved to be most useful.

7. Whether the person said to be Dmitry were really such is a question which

can now never be settled.

8. The proposal that seemed to evoke general approval was unfortunately re-

jected.

9. No line is to be seen when its intensity is predicted to be zero.

10. The device known to be built by Charles Babbage is now considered to be

the parent of modern computers.

11. The proposal known to have been advanced by our delegate was unani-

mously greeted.

12. The latter category includes the data known to have been derived from quite

different sources.

55. Find the construction «for + Noun + Infinitive». Translate the sentences.

1. Clearly, for classroom reading to be effective we have to take account of the

interest factor.

2. The language of specialists is often difficult for the layman to read.

3. Two years were sufficient for the work to be done.

4. The problem is far too involved for one to be able to solve it.

5. Two hours were sufficient for the reaction to occur.

34

6.

It took a long time for mathematicians to realize that not all continuous func-

tions have a derivative.

7. It is necessary for the investigator to apply the knowledge gained from his

library to the exploration problem.

8. Preliminary experiments showed that the time required for the specimen to

reach thermal equilibrium was quite long.

9. It annoys people for us to agree partly or disagree partly.

10. It is possible for computers to handle all types of information.

11. There seems to be a general tendency for industrial problems to become

more complex.

12. For a computer to be programmed each problem must be reduced to a series

of very simple steps.

13.

It remains for us to examine the problem from the point of view of the peas-

ant.

56. Translate the following sentences into Russian stating the syntactic function of the –ing form.

1. Learning without thought is labour lost, thought without learning is perilous.

2. Seeing is believing. 3. Appetite comes with eating. 4. Upon switching off the

current the pressure dropped. 5. Instead of using chlorine, they took bromine. 6.

A committee has been established for the purpose of coordinating the nomencla-

ture. 7. They continued experimenting with the substance. 8. Having access to the code was symbolic. 9. It is worthwhile thinking over the effects I have just described. 10. Besides being useful in general interpolation technique, the pro- cedure can be effectively used to approximate the first coefficients of F. 11. The new opportunities may make life on this planet much more worth living. 12. They were against postponing the meeting and for going on with the discussion

of this problem. 13. We were all for starting the experiment at once. 14. It is no

use speaking of it. 15. Operating conditions differed widely. 16. It is customary

to dry the precipitate (осадок) on the paper without removing it from the funnel

(воронка). 17. They could not help seeing the importance of the process. 18. It

is commonly understood that regular queues before a theatre or a cinema are one

sign that the show is worth seeing. 19. The purpose of the method is determining

system stability. 20. In one's search to understand what happens in this particular case, one cannot help being influenced by the history of quite another problem.

21. We succeeded in building a flexible system. 22. The architects' aim is apply-

ing more plastics for interior decoration. 23. It may well be worthwhile consid- ering the purpose of the investigation. 24. Search theory is potentially applicable to any sort of searching process. 25. Balancing is done by adjusting (регулировать) the position of the rods.

35

57.

Look through the text. What is it its main idea? How many Gerunds

have you found? What is their syntactic function? Our goal should be automating the routine and thereby leave more time for the creative process. With that word of caution, let's proceed by arbitrarily dividing research into three stages and examining each stage to find what functions of the research process might be automated without endangering creativity. Stage one includes the dreams, the ideas, the exploratory work, selecting the problem, setting the objective, testing technical feasibility, and searching the literature. Stage two in- volves planning the experiment, conducting the experiment, checking the alter- nates, data taking, and data evaluation. Stage three is the solution of the problem – drawing conclusions and making recommendations. Although there is a great deal of creativity involved in stage one, there are also opportunities for automation. The burden of keeping up with the literature

even in one's own restricted field is becoming heavier with each passing year. The mass of reading necessary to make a literature search has increased im- mensely. Advances in computer technology have made possible storing and quick retrieving essentially all the scientific literature.

58. Work in groups. Find the Gerund in the sentences below. Why do you

think this word to be the Gerund? 1. There are different ways of solving a problem. 2. The solving of the problem was approved. 3. Everything must have a beginning. 4. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. 5. Wisdom denotes the pursuing of the best end by the best means. 6. Swallow all your learning in the morning, but digest it in company in the evening. 7. Submitting to one wrong brings on another. 8. By this definition the following is meant. 9. We obtained these values in terms of the following formula. 10. This procedure is finding increasing use. 11. A man should be viewed as a free, rational being possessing a free will. 12. The problem, how- ever, is in not dividing the structure finely enough. 13. Before starting the engine it is necessary to test the piping for leakage. 14. Fortran has become a widely accepted programming language of the coding of mathematical applications. 15. After all in sport what really counts is not the winning, but the playing. 16. Two results obtained using the protocol showed an interesting effect worth presenting and discussing here. 17. Frequently, one is watching a sports event involving two teams without any intrinsic (истинный) reason for supporting either. 18. The accumulated bulk of knowledge on how to run a business provides deep un- derstanding of the mechanism of business. 19. A system analyst (системотехник) spends much of a working day interviewing people. 20. The theory also basically improves understanding of a queueing situation enabling better control.

36

59. Translate the sentences. 1. Не avoids being involved in such affairs. 2. He avoided having been involved in that affair. 3. We are interested in the test being carried out repeatedly. 4. The problem deserves being discussed at the session. 5. The problem deserves hav- ing been discussed at that session. 6. We rely on the experiment having been conducted correctly. 7. He is responsible for the program not having been cor- rected in time. 8. The mistake resulted from the device not having been mended before the test. 9. We object to the meeting being postponed.

60. What do you know about gerund constructions? Read the English sen- tences and their Russian equivalents. What is the difference?

I

This metal differs from that one by having a higher melting point.

Этот металл отличается от того ме- талла тем, что он имеет более вы- сокую точку плавления.

In addition to being very interesting this book is of great use.

Кроме того, что эта книга интерес- ная, она еще и очень полезная.

In spite of being very complicated the problem has been solved.

Несмотря на то, что эта проблема очень сложная, ее решили.

These substances are alike in having high melting points.

Эти вещества сходны тем, что они имеют высокие точки плавления.

In spite of not having any university education, Faraday made his great discoveries.

Несмотря на то, что у Фарадея не было университетского образова- ния, он сделал свои великие от- крытия.

II

There is unmistakable proof of Pauling’s having been wrong.

Имеются несомненные доказатель- ства того, что Полинг ошибался.

The accuracy of the definition de- pends on the terms being carefully formulated.

Точность определения зависит от того, насколько тщательно сформу- лированы (все) члены.

This depends on the atomic weights of these substances being equal.

Это зависит от того, что удельные веса этих веществ одинаковы.

Dr. Brown's being absent was very strange.

То, что д-р Браун отсутствовал, бы- ло очень странно.

His having made this experiment is a known fact.

То, что он уже провел этот экспе- римент, является известным фак- том.

We know of their having been satis- fied with Kelly’s explanation of the discrepancies.

Мы знаем, что они были удовле- творены объяснениями расхожде- ний, предложенными Келли.

37

There is no hope of our getting a complete analysis of the measure- ments within 10 days.

Нет надежды, что мы получим пол- ный анализ этих измерений в тече- ние 10 дней.

61. Read the following sentences and find -ing clauses.

1. Pride (гордыня) is therefore pleasure arising from a man's thinking too highly

of himself. 2. There is only one corner of the universe you can be certain of im- proving, and that's your own self. 3. Tolerate others, and refrain from ruling on, or trying to direct, the way they run their lives. 4. Besides being involved this procedure is very costly. 5. The reaction proceeding via another route was a sur- prise. 6. They succeeded in getting reliable information on dealing with this type of error. 7. This was due to the central atom being screened. 8. This is a result of

our not having specified input or output variables for the network. 9. The prob- ability of this finding being due to chance is 1 in 22,600. 10. In spite of having met with failure they continued experimenting. 11. Metals cannot be dissolved without being changed into new substances. 12. In addition to being a tool of science, mathematics is also an art form. 13. No art form can remain static with- out becoming sterile. 14. In addition, they have been designed without suffi- cient consideration having been given to programming issues. 15. He has the reputation of having been a man of piety. 16. There was great danger of the changes being accepted as inevitable and final. 17. Their number depends on the probability of an arriving atom finding another atom on the surface. 18. They insisted on the sample being tested repeatedly. 19. They objected to using greater voltage in this case. 20. The present paper suffers from not having had access to Mr. Hamilton's as yet unpublished papers. 21. Henshaw hoped that a person might receive the benefit of removal to another climate at any season of year while remaining in his own city and without neglecting his employment.

62. Use the required form of the gerund of the verb in brackets.

1. She didn't feel like (to go) unescorted into dinner, which would begin soon. 2.

I inquired of Robinson that afternoon about my book. He neither admitted nor denied (to take) it. 3. Since Tom was his best friend he helped him without (to ask). 4. His latest desire was to discover her age, which he cursed himself for not (to observe) when he had her passport in his hands. 5. He could not help (to know) that there were odious people who called him a snob. 6. Daisy and Gatsby danced. I remember (to be) surprised by his graceful, conservative fox- trot – I had never seen him dance before. 7. When they had finished (to write) this letter they read the whole correspondence from beginning to end. 8. He

would never forgive her for (to play) this game, for over fifty years. 9. He poured milk into a jug from a carton in the refrigerator, then drank some milk himself before (to put) the carton back. 10. It's no good (to deny) that. 11. Try and help the nurses by (to keep) quiet and tidy. 12. From there he had a clear

38

view of the entrance to the room, with the advantage that he could avoid (to ob- serve) himself by (to run) quickly out of sight through the stairway door. 13. The tables were put on one side so that there might be room for (to dance). 14. I don't like (to spy) on. 15. Annette, who heard thousands of names mentioned every year, and had a deplorable memory, could recall (to hear) the name of Fox in connection with something or other, but could not remember exactly what. 16. The porter, also on (to enter), would have tapped out his own code. 17. He sud- denly stopped (to read). There was no point in (to go) on. He looked up and found forty pairs of eyes fixed on him intently. 18. You must excuse me for (to think) you were a gipsy.

63. Complete the sentences using the gerundial complexes from the follow-

ing list:

your thinking, her talking, my bringing, our waiting, his being taken, my not sit-

ting, our keeping, your being left alone, your hearing

Graham," said Daniel. "I find it best to keep him under

to a mental home for treatment. 3. I

to the

to Mrs Leidner as though Mrs Leidner were

her great aunt. 6. I could see that Robinson was making an effort to form some

communal for the period of

your tables this afternoon?" he asked once, when he was walking to the station

, Godfrey. 9. I should have

thought that

with her. 8. There must be something wrong with

like the idea

rules. 5. But that doesn't excuse

my eye." 2. It is true she had prevented

1. "You do not mind

of other projects. 4. Some people it seems don't like

on the island. 7. "You didn't mind

alone has given you a lot of opportunities.

at one of

64. Use the appropriate form of the infinitive or the gerund of the verb in

brackets.

1. Over coffee, he began (to calm) down a little: he made himself useful by (to

hand) round the coffee cups. 2. I wouldn't like you to think that I am in the habit

of (to make) a nuisance of myself. 3. She went on (to read) about how (to stick) plastic flowers on her blouse. 4. The master seized the arms of his chair and grasped them as though (to prevent) himself from (to fall) upon Philip. 5. I re- member (to see) her (to come) on board only a few minutes before the boat

sailed. 6. John had introduced himself to Philip before (to come) in to see Ketty.

7. He seemed (to have) some difficulty in (to start). 8. She tried (to stop) (to go

out) (to see) people. 9. And with an immense effort of the will, he managed (to stand) there, without (to go) down (to open) the door. 10. Can you (to ask) me after (to hear) me (to play)? 11. Thank you for (to let) me (to talk) to you. 12. Ralph began (to disappear) for days and weeks without (to warn). 13. Without (to speak) they went along, and there was no one (to see) either in front or be- hind them. 14. After that they decided (to go) where there was no chance at all of their (to see). 15. He took a silk scarf from his neck and gave it over to me (to

39

use) for a handkerchief, since my own was wet with my (to cry). 16. Once more, Simon started (to piece) the toy together, with the old tune inside it, while Jennie and I went (to make) some tea. 17. When she woke, she rubbed her eyes (to gather) her senses together and gradually she remembered (to go) to the theatre on the previous evening. 18. I taught in a private school in Kensington, for al- most three months, very small children. I didn't know what (to do) with them but I was kept fairly busy (to escort) little boys to the hall and (to tell) the little girls (to use) their handkerchiefs.

65. Analyze the -ing forms stating whether they are gerunds or verbal nouns. 1. I hate the idea of your wasting your time. 2. I was afraid of being called upon to give evidence against her. 3. The twins devotedly gave up their day to the cut- ting of sandwiches. 4. She was put out by being kept waiting. 5. I sat in the sun, extremely tired in my bones after the crossing of the mountain on the previous day. 6. She was angry at being put beside Tom. 7. He was engaged in over- whelming Helen with reproaches for not having told him of Jack's change of sleeping quarters. 8. It was hot walking through the town but the sun was start- ing to go down and it was very pleasant. 9. Godfrey felt guilty at having gos- siped to Olive about Lettie's changes in her will. 10. It was good walking on the road. But it was lovely walking in the woods. 11. Poirot lost no time in visiting M. Hautet. 12. He crossed back into the doorway, and, slowly, to keep down the beating of his heart, mounted the single flight of stairs and rang the bell. 13. There was a tramping of feet. 14. No one ever thought of protecting Isabel. 15. He walked to the edge of the terrace, and looked down into the darkness; he could just see the powdering of the daisies on the unmown lawn. 16. Raising good cotton, riding well, dancing lightly were the things that mattered. 17. It was a habit with him to tell her the doings of his day. 18. He liked dancing quickly. 19. Lewis had offices in Zurich and London, and his comings and go- ings were casual. 20. "I'm not very clever at guessing people's ages," she said coldly.

66. Paraphrase the following sentences using Gerund constructions. А) 1. When I received the letter, I started home at once. 2. You may avoid many mistakes if you observe these rules. 3. When he entered the class, he greeted everybody. 4. After they had sat there a few minutes, they continued their jour- ney. 5. While he was copying the text, he made a few mistakes. 6. I am thankful that I have been stopped in time. 7. I remember that I have read this book. 8. Af- ter she had tried all the keys on the ring, she finally found the right one. 9. He is proud that he has never been beaten at chess by his fellow students. 10. I don't remember that I have ever come across his name before. 11. His arm was not in

40

a sling and showed no sign that it had been injured. 12. You can improve your knowledge of Russian if you read more.

В) 1. Do you mind if I close the window? 2. The doctor insisted that I should stay at home. 3. Will you object if I smoke here? 4. There is a probability that he will be appointed manager of our company. 5. There is no chance that they will call on us tonight. 6. There is no possibility that we shall see him this week. 7. There is no hope that you will receive a letter from him soon. 8. We were in- formed that the train had arrived at the station. 9. You will excuse me if I ask you again. 10. We insisted that he should come with us. 11. Would you mind if he came to your lesson? 12. There is no fear that I shall forget.

67. Translate from Russian into English. 1. У меня нет надежды увидеть его скоро. 2. Мысль (идея) провести кани-

кулы на Волге принадлежит моему отцу. 3. Вы можете улучшить свое про- изношение, читая вслух каждый день. 4. Я не смогу перевести эту статью, не посмотрев нескольких слов в словаре. 5. Я думаю поехать туда летом. 6. Я запишу номер вашего телефона, так как боюсь забыть его. 7. Я помню, что меня уже спрашивали об этом. 8. Доктор велел ей избегать сидеть на солнце. 9. Я зайду к вам перед тем, как уеду из Санкт-Петербурга. 10. При- дя домой, я сразу начал работать. 11. Я поблагодарил его за то, что он ку- пил мне такие интересные книги. 12. Он понимает важность изучения ино- странных языков. 13. Он был занят переводом какой-то статьи, когда я пришел. 14. Он привык вставать рано. 15. Дождь помешал мне придти к вам вчера. 16. Он не способен сделать такую вещь. 17. Он вошел в комна- ту, не постучав. 18. Он потушил свет перед тем, как выйти из комнаты. 19. После того как он закончил свою работу, он лег спать. 20. Получив теле- грамму, я немедленно позвонил директору. 21. Он был награжден за то, что спас жизнь своего товарища. 22. Планируя вашу работу на будущий месяц, вы должны принять это во внимание. 23. Я чувствовал большое удовлетворение, делая эту работу. 24. Имеются специальные суда для пе- ревозки леса. 25. Он выразил большое удивление, услышав это. 26. Нет смысла делать эту работу сейчас. 27. Проверяя ваши сочинения, я нашел очень мало ошибок. 28. Она была сердита на него за то, что он потерял ее сумку. 29. Я предпочитаю жить на севере летом. 30. Он очень любит иг- рать в баскетбол. 31. Вам следует прекратить купаться в море, так как по- года стала очень холодной. 32. Я должен закончить эту работу, прежде чем

я пойду домой. 33. Вы очень помогли мне тем, что дали мне ваши конспек-

ты. 34. Я не могу пойти туда, не сказав ему об том. 35. Я имел удовольст- вие познакомиться с вашим отцом на днях. 36. Он имеет привычку курить

перед завтраком. 37. У вас нет основания (причины) говорить это. 38. Мы не могли не рассмеяться, когда услышали это. 39. Он решил послать ей

41

письмо авиапочтой вместо того, чтобы послать телеграмму. 40. Продол- жайте рассказывать вашу историю. 41. Мой сын очень любит, когда ему рассказывают о морских путешествиях. 42. Я закрою окно, так как боюсь простудиться. 43. Перестаньте разговаривать. 44. Вместо того, чтобы ехать на автобусе, они пошли пешком и опоздали на концерт. 45. Удалось ли вам найти ее адрес? 46. Стоит ли читать эту книгу? 47. Ему удалось закончить свою работу вовремя. 48. Они только что кончили грузить пароход. 49. Я отложил чтение этого неприятного письма до последнего момента. 50. Я поблагодарил его за то, что он помог нам. 51. У меня нет намерения ехать на юг этим летом. 52. Нет возможности достать билет в театр сегодня. 53. После того, как он провел месяц в Москве, он уехал в Санкт-Петербург. 54. Этот фильм стоит посмотреть. 55. Я не возражаю (не имею возражений) поехать туда сегодня. 56. Бесполезно идти туда сейчас. 57. Я (стою) за то, чтобы послать им телеграмму немедленно. 58. Эта работа отнюдь не лег- кая. 59. Он против того, чтобы сообщать им об этом теперь. 60. Я помню, что встречал его где-то. 61. Она вышла из комнаты, не посмотрев на нас. 62. Я благодарен вам за то, что вы так быстро ответили на мое письмо.

68. Translate the following sentences paying attention to gerund construc-

tions.

1. The molecules of a polar substance because of their being reactive combine

with one another. 2. Combustion may be incomplete owing to insufficient oxy- gen being present. 3. Thomson investigated the possibility of these cathode rays being charged particles. 4. Marie Curie's having discovered radium enabled her to isolate other radioactive elements. 5. The inability of phosphorus atoms, be- cause of their large radius, to establish triple bonds among themselves results in the phosphorus molecule having a very different structure from the nitrogen molecule. 6. Besides being important for industry oxygen is also important for medicine. 7. In addition to depending upon the acceleration, force also depends upon the mass of the object. 8. Gamma-rays are not affected by magnetic or electric fields and are identical with X-rays, except in being more penetrating, thus being in fact ordinary light pulses of the shortest wavelength. 9. Oxygen is an active element of the atmosphere, and in addition to being essential for the maintenance of life it is also essential for combustion, the rusting of metals and the decay of organic matter.

69. Find the Gerunds in the sentences below. Prove your answer.

1. So far only the quantum theory has succeeded in giving a satisfactory expla-

nation. 2. These are the chief causes of crude rubber being used. 3. The alkali metals are remarkable in being so light that they float on water. 4. We account for the incompleteness of a reaction by its being reversible. 5. Einstein's being awarded the Nobel Prize in physics soon became widely known. 6. Adding more

42

turns makes the magnetic field stronger. 7. Iron is covered with a thin layer of tin to prevent it from rusting, for tin does not rust on exposure to air. 8. The small physical size of the crystal in relationship to its input capacitance results in the resonant frequency of the input system being higher than when the tube is employed. 9. Most actual crystals are imperfect, owing to being grown under conditions in which solid material is somewhat impeded in reaching and being deposited on certain faces. 10. All alkali metals resemble each other in having low melting points.

70. Read the following -ing words and find the Participles:

Reading; shortcoming; about asking questions; the student’s asking; their asking questions; No smoking!; notwithstanding that; granting that; seeing that; consid- ering that; supposing that; notwithstanding; following; barring; excepting; ac- cording to; considering; regarding; а 'reading 'student; a 'reading lamp; a 'danc-

ing 'girl; a 'dancing girl; a 'drinking man; a 'drinking 'man.

71. Define the syntactic function of the Participle I.

1.

The man is speaking with him. 2. The man speaking with him looks like Bob.

3.

The man speaking with him is Bob. 4. Speaking with him is Bob. 5. The stu-

dent opening the door is Bob. 6. Opening the door the student said, "Good morn- ing!" 7. "Good morning!", the student said opening the door. 8. The student ask- ing questions, we answer them. 9. The student asking questions speaks English. 10. We heard the student asking questions. 11. The student asking questions, we waited. 12. He was seen running. 13. He seemed to be dying.

72. Read the following words and find the Participles:

He worked; he has worked; the wounded; retireds; old-fashioneds; illustrateds;

unwanteds; coloureds; disableds; young marrieds/newly weds; blue-eyed; pro- vided (that); granted (that); granted.

73. Is the word in bold a Participle or a finite verb?

1. The student was asked a question. 2. The student has asked a question. 3. The

student asked a question. 4. The student asked the question did not know the an- swer. 5. The question asked proved difficult. 6. Asked the question, the student did not know the answer. 7. The question asked was difficult.

74. Define the syntactic function of the Participle I.

1. The engines produced… 2. The engines are produced… 3. (When) asked the

question, the student did not know the answer. 4. The student asked the question did not know the answer. 5. The work finished by him, we left. 6. The work fin- ished by him was difficult. 7. I want the work finished. 8. The work finished, we left. 9. He was reported killed. 10. He looked scared. 11. You seem to be inter- ested.

43

75. Translate the following sentences with Gerunds and Participles.

1. Before going out I called Jim. 2. I got home feeling very tired. 3. Feeling

tired, I went to bed early. 4. What did you do after leaving school? 5. Not know- ing her address, I couldn't find her. 6. Jane left without finishing her dinner. 7. She was standing there reading a newspaper. 8. A plane carrying 360 passengers took off. 9. Bob ran three miles without stopping. 10. The police stopped every- one from leaving the bank. 11. The child came in crying. 12. Being unemployed, he has a lot of free time. 13. Taking a key out of her handbag, she opened the door. 14. The child fell asleep watching television. 15. Please forgive me for not writing to you. 16. Did you have any difficulty reading my writing? 17. Being a foreigner, you need a visa. 18. There is no point in buying this book.

76. Read aloud and translate the word phrases below:

1) building site, 2) sleeping boy, 3) sleeping bag, 4) whipping boy, 5) swimming match, 6) floating match, 7) dancing hall, 8) writing man, 9) writing desk, 10) listening man, 11) listening post, 12) dining student, 13) dining room, 14) smok- ing room, 15) washing machine, 16) answering machine, 17) sewing machine, 18) calculating machine, 19) reading glasses.

77. Give the translation of the following sentences.

1. Do you know the girl talking to Jim? 2. Can you hear someone singing? 3.

We didn't know when to go shopping, each shop opening at a different time. 4. It was raining when I got up. 5. Not being able to understand English, the man didn't know what you said. 6. Is there anybody waiting to see me? 7. I've never seen her smoking. 8. The baby was lying on the bed crying. 9. The girl talking to John is American. 10. Mike is having a bath. 11. The bus drivers being on strike, many people had to get to work using other means of transportation. 12. I heard the bell ringing. 13. Who is that man standing near our house? 14. I've heard her playing the piano. 15. The man fell getting off the bus. 16. This time last year I was living in England. 17. We saw Nancy playing tennis. 18. There were some children swimming in the river. 19. The house being constructed poorly, it is re- paired every year.

78. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the words ending by -ed.

1. I want this watch repaired. 2. Is that a four-legged animal? 3. You will soon

see his published work. 4. John started school in 1980. 5. The living, the

wounded, and the dead flew together in the same plane. 6. There was a truck full of wounded men. 7. Parliament was discussing the problem of the unemployed.

8. Yesterday he called three times. 9. He has called twice today. 10. Her brother

is called Jim. 11. Called early, he ate a quick breakfast. 12. There came in a blonde-haired woman. 13. The discussion finished, we went home. 14. He came out of prison a changed man. 15. This substance, discovered almost by accident,

44

has revolutionized medicine. 16. When questioned, she said she did not know the man.

79. Find the participles in the sentences below.

1. Hydrogen is the lightest element known. 2. The technique employed uses a

single probe. 3. The quantity of electricity flowing is directly related to the amounts of material transformed at the electrodes. 4. Everything depends on the proportion of the two substances being distilled. 5. The complexity of the tech- nique involved increased considerably. 6. The rate of a reaction depends on the specific nature of the substances involved. 7. Energy loss has been considered in

Chapter II. The processes involved are ionizing collision and atomic excitations.

8. This half life is a characteristic only of the particular nucleus concerned. 9.

None of the authors concerned had based his experiment on the method dis- cussed.

80. Analyze the tables below.

 

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTIONS

 

There is NO AGENT in the partici- ple clause itself (зависимый)

There is AN AGENT in the participle clause itself (независимый)

Before the word it is re- ferred to

After the word it is referred to

Participle Con- struction as a Parenthesis

Absolute Parti- ciple Construc- tion

Complex Ob-

ject

Complex Sub- ject

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION BEFORE THE WORD IT IS REFERRED TO

Reading this book the student found out many interesting things.

Читая эту книгу, студент обнару- жил много интересного.

Having made the measurements the experimenter then processed the data.

Проведя измерения, эксперимента- тор затем обработал данные.

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION AFTER THE WORD IT IS REFERRED TO

We can use the method suggested by Corner.

Мы можем использовать метод, предложенный Корнером (который предложил Корнер).

This is the book so much spoken about.

Вот книга, о которой так много го- ворят.

45

A number of animals living in the soil feed on plants.

Целый ряд животных, живущих в земле, питаются растениями.

The idea can be pronounced true if tested by experience.

Идея может быть объявлена пра- вильной, если она проверена на опы- те.

This universal motor was adopted (as) being more economical.

Этот универсальный мотор был при- нят, так как он был (является) более экономичным.

PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION AS A PARENTHESIS

Turning to the main laws of me- chanics, the first law of Newton states that

Если обратиться (Обращаясь) к главным законам механики, следует сказать, что первый закон Ньютона гласит, что Обратимся к главным законам меха- ники; первый закон Ньютона гласит, что

Putting it mildly, the experiment was not conducted properly.

Мягко говоря, эксперимент не был проведен должным образом.

That question was not, strictly speaking, a question of dispute at all.

Строго говоря, этот вопрос совсем не был спорным вопросом.

As mentioned above the experiment was a success.

Как упоминалось выше, этот опыт был удачным.

All things considered, we can hardly say that we have the means of measuring directly such changes.

Учтя все (что нам известно), едва ли мы можем сказать, что имеем способ непосредственного измере- ния таких изменений.

COMPLEX OBJECT

They

watched

the

temperature

Они следили (за тем), как постепен- но повышалась температура.

gradually rising.

 

I heard your name mentioned.

Я слышал, как (что) упоминали ваше имя.

We consider matter as being built up of atoms.

Мы считаем, что материя состоит из атомов. Мы считаем материю состоящей из атомов. Мы рассматриваем материю как со- стоящую из атомов.

We disliked the problem being treated in this way.

Нам не нравилось, что эта пробле- ма трактовалась таким образом.

46

We know the problem having been solved long ago.

Мы знаем, что эту проблему уже давно решили.

They thought the reactions as being of the first order.

Они считали, что реакция была пер- вого порядка.

We consider the parameter as util- ized to limit the number of ques- tions asked.

Мы считаем, что этот параметр используется для ограничения числа задаваемых вопросов.

The device has the lens shifted.

У прибора линза смещена.

We have the device repaired.

Нам уже починили прибор.

COMPLEX SUBJECT

They were seen leaving the station.

Видели, как они уходили со станции.

The class of regulators can be thought of as composed of three parts.

Можно сказать, что этот класс ре- гуляторов состоит из трех частей.

Remarks (which were) considered as being wrong are in fact correct.

Замечания, которые, как считалось, были ошибочными, на деле оказыва- ются правильными.

ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION

My colleague being away, I had to take the decision myself.

Так как мой товарищ по работе от- сутствовал, мне пришлось самому принять решение.

Weather permitting, the astronomer will proceed with his observation.

Если погода позволит, астроном продолжит свои наблюдения.

The signal given, the rocket starts immediately.

Когда (как только) дается сигнал, ракета сразу взлетает.

The choice having been made, all the alternatives have been rejected.

После того как выбор был сделан, все другие возможности были от- вергнуты.

Other conditions being equal, the acceleration remains constant.

При прочих равных условиях ускоре- ние остается постоянным.

There being many people in the con- ference hall, we could not enter it.

Так как в зале было много народу, мы не могли войти.

The astronomer proceeded with his observation, the sky having cleared.

Астроном продолжал наблюдение после того, как (так как) небо про- яснилось.

The sodium atom has eleven elec-

У атома натрия одиннадцать элек- тронов, причем одиннадцатый зани- мает положение за пределами вто-

trons,

the

eleventh one

occupying a position outside of the

47

second shell.

рой оболочки.

We continued our work, with our laboratory assistants helping us.

Мы продолжали свою работу, а на- ши лаборанты помогали нам.

Aristotle (384—332 В. С.) exerted tremendous influence on all branches of learning, physics in- cluded.

Аристотель оказал громадное влия- ние на все отрасли знания, включая и физику.

With him confessing to the crime the court decided to commute the sen- tence.

Так как он признался в преступле- нии, суд решил смягчить приговор.

Performance observations were re- corded, with particular attention on the variables.

Наблюдения за работой регистриро- вались, причем особое внимание уделялось переменным величинам.

"PARTICIPLE I + AS IT DOES (DID)" or "PARTICIPLE II + AS IT IS (WAS)"

This subject is rather complicated, belonging as it does to theoretical physics.

Этот предмет довольно сложен, по- скольку он относится к теоретиче- ской физике.

The article, published as it was in a small magazine, remained unknown for a long time.

Поскольку статья была напечатана в небольшом журнале, она остава- лась неизвестной в течение долгого времени.

ATTRIBUTIVE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION

Phenomena occurring during solar flares are thoroughly investigated.

Явления, происходящие во время вспышек на солнце (которые проис- ходят во время вспышек на солнце), тщательно исследуются.

The equipment needed for the ex- periment was carefully checked.

Оборудование, необходимое (кото- рое необходимо) для опыта, было тщательно проверено.

A graph is given showing the de- pendence of pressure on tempera- ture.

Приводится график, иллюстрирую- щий зависимость давления от темпе- ратуры.

This substance was more valuable than that obtained by the previous authors.

Это вещество было более ценно, чем то, которое было получено предше- ствующими исследователями.

The substance thus obtained was pure.

Вещество, полученное таким обра- зом, было чистым.

As ordinarily obtained iron contains some admixtures.

Обычно

получаемое

железо

содер-

жит примеси. Железо в том виде,

48

 

как оно обычно получается (так, как его обычно получают), содержит примеси.

Numerous questions answered by the speaker were related to Plasma Physics.

Многочисленные вопросы, на кото- рые отвечал докладчик, относились к физике плазмы.

ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION

Being invited too late Morrison could not go to the conference.

Так как Моррисона пригласили слишком поздно, он не смог по- ехать на конференцию.

Considered from this point of view the question will be of great interest.

При рассмотрении с этой точки зрения вопрос представит большой интерес.

Having been heated for several hours the substance began to melt.

После того как вещество нагревали в течение нескольких часов, оно начало плавиться.

The energy output was rather low, suggesting some leakage of the cur- rent.

Выход энергии был весьма низким, что (и это) заставляло думать об утечке тока.

Water, having weight and occupying space, is a form of matter.

Вода, поскольку она имеет вес и занимает пространство, является формой материи.

Given its angular diameter, the linear diameter of the Sun depends on its parallax.

Если имеется угловой диаметр, ли- нейный диаметр Солнца зависит от параллакса.

United we stand, divided we fall.

Если мы вместе, мы выстоим, если мы врозь, мы падем.

When carrying out the experiment the scientist noticed …

Проводя опыт, ученый заметил, …

When heated to 100° water boils.

При нагревании до 100° вода ки- пит.

Unless heated this substance does not melt.

Без

нагревания

это

вещество

не

плавится.

 

Не obtained this substance as stated above.

Он получил это вещество, как ука- зано выше.

Unless otherwise specified, the tables are given for a perfect gas.

Если не оговорено особо, эти табли- цы даны для идеального газа.

81. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Participle. 1. Coming events cast their shadows before them. 2. What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies (Aristotle). 3. Another factor influencing the level of

49

detail (степень детализации) is the progress reporting requirements. 4. Using the energy of the atom, we produce electric energy at atomic power plants. 5. The empirical evidence is lacking here. 6. This requirement is not restricting, however. 7. The linking of the molecules is much more flexible, consisting of ad hoc bilateral or multilateral interfaces. 8. It is quite possible that goodness, being a property of a man, is not conditioned by nature. 9. At 210° nitro-diphenyl is formed, indicating that phenyl elimination (выгорание) does take place at this temperature. 10. Electronic computers perform both arithmetic and logical op- erations, making it possible to control the process under rather complicated con- ditions. 11. System design progresses through several stages, becoming more detailed in each stage. 12. Growing science accumulates examples of quantita- tive relations. 13. The yield (выход) was 12% of the dried wood, varying with the amount of hydrochloric acid (соляная кислота) used. 14. When being pure, water is a colourless liquid. 15. This tube is very similar to others, save being a bit wider. 16. Considering the limited scope of the method, it has yet been used by comparatively few workers. 17. The syntax and semantics of these languages are very sophisticated, making the translation to machine language a complex process. 18. The chemical and physical properties of these dimers (димер) are being studied. 19. Sometimes such experiments, even if performed only in the imagination, are convincing even to mathematicians. 20. Strictly speaking, this finding (полученные данные) means that this hypothesis cannot be rejected.

82. Explain the usage of particle forms.

1. This procedure was dropped, having given low yield of end products. 2. Algol

is a system being developed and intended to become a universal programming language. 3. The compound being treated for several hours turned dark red. 4. The experiment having been made, everybody was interested in the results. 5. The approach being based on mathematical methods is concerned with structural considerations. 6. Having introduced a purely mathematical definition of a sys- tem, let us now make precise (точный) another intuitive concept — that of a process. 7. Having been employed abundantly (широко) in many industrial processes electronic computers show a notable example of progress contributing to the development of industry. 8. Having taken everything into consideration he decided not to go there.

83. Translate from Russian into English.

1. Секретарь отправил подписанные директором письма. 2. Мы вниматель-

но прочли присланную Ивановым статью. 3. Мы удовлетворены качеством представленных образцов. 4. Сообщите нам, когда вы намерены поставить заказанные товары. 5. В этом кабинете есть несколько сломанных компью- теров. 6. К сожалению, предложенный товар не удовлетворяет нашим тре- бованиям. 7. Он показал нам фотографию здания музея. 8. Разбитый стакан

50

лежал на столе. 9. Все полученные товары были немедленно отправлены на склад. 10. Платеж за поставленные машины будет произведен в июне. 11. Он принес мне несколько иллюстрированных журналов. 12. Мы посла- ли каталоги по указанному адресу. 13. Его неожиданный ответ удивил нас всех. 14. В настоящее время мы имеем очень ограниченное количество этих деталей на складе.

84. How is the Absolute Participle Construction formed? Give the transla-

tion of the following sentences.

1. My task having been finished, I went home. 2. John being away, Peter had to

do his work. 3. It being very cold, they made a fire. 4. It being very stormy, they stayed at home. 5. All this having been settled, he went home. 6. The prepara- tions being completed, they began to climb up the mountain. 7. The moon being bright, everything was clearly visible. 8. Our petrol being exhausted, we could

go no further. 9. The game having ended, the crowd went home. 10. It was dark, the sun having set an hour before. 11. The performance being over, everyone went away. 12. Nobody being there, I went away. 13. My father having taken the key, I could not enter the house. 14. The negotiations between the American and British representatives were conducted behind closed doors, measures hav- ing been taken that no correspondent should receive any information. 15. Dinner being over, we went into the garden. 16. At last the excitement died down, the captain having assured the passengers, that there was no longer the slightest danger. 17. The letter having been delayed, the news reached us too late. 18. The key having been lost, they could not enter the cottage. 19. The weather being fine, all the windows were opened. 20. The film being very popular, it was diffi- cult to get tickets.

85. Find the Past Participle. What is its function in the sentence?

1. Danger foreseen is half avoided. 2. One cannot shut one's eyes to things not

seen with eyes (Ch. Morgan). 3. The results obtained disagreed with earlier data.

4. Statements, in turn, are strings of symbols from a given alphabet, composed

of letters, digits and special characters. 5. The set of basic operations provided is

not, in general, suited to the execution of commonly needed procedures. 6. The strategies available in the dynamic situation are complicated functions of infor- mation received and actions undertaken in the preceding stages. 7. It was a standpoint shared by many philosophers. 8. Syntax is another major difference, as indicated in the proceeding paragraphs. 9. Ethics is concerned with moral du- ties of a man. 10. Nearly all the assembly line problems as documented in the literature were solved by this method. 11. Science accumulates examples fore- seen and verified through practice. 12. A natural consequence of such behavior should be decreased time for problem solution. 13. Ethics is closely connected with feeling. 14. A "plist" is a list of column names in the order required en-

51

closed in square brackets [ ]. 15. This expedition failed because undertaken in winter. 16. Thus influenced, the author yielded. 17. That lesson, once learned, was never forgotten. 18. Logicians are concerned with inductive logic. 19. The only evidence (we can have) consists of the reports yet unpublished. 20. When properly carried out, microwave determination of depole moment should be of cons