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THRESHOLD 1 – The Big Bang

Big history to present – 13.8 billion years of timeline

Origin Story
1. Creation model/theory - there was a beginning in the universe, and by cause-and-
effect correlation

the universe displays intricate design that supports life suggesting

that there is creative intelligence behind it all

Judeo-Christians believes this origin story and that the universe

was made by an omnipotent omniscient being
2. Steady State model/theory - states the universe always existed, there’s no need to explain
a beginning

Fred Hoyle developed a mathematical model that represents

Steady State model of origin and states that the universe did
not start in a massive expansion

The matter is continuously created at a rate that keeps the

average density of the universe the same as it expands
Today, Steady state theory is discredited

Stephen Hawking stated that God is not necessary to explain

the origin of universe because of the physical laws such as
3. Eternal Inflation model/theory - continuous expansion of the universe never stops

physicists Paul Steinhardt and Ister Vilenkin showed

inflationary models that are eternal, they also presented
Multiverse – different universes lying side-by-side coexisting with each other with different
space-time and different laws of physics
Cosmos – universes that goes through cycles of inflation and deflation
4. Big bang model/theory - Fred Hoyle accidentally coined the term Big Bang.

Expansion of space
Currently considered as by far the most likely scenario of origin

Big bang or Primordial singularity provided the raw materials for

everything around us
Father George Lemaitre suggested that the universe began with a
cosmic atom or the superatom
Quark-gluon plasma is a mixture made of matter’s fundamental
building blocks – quarks and gluons.

Clouds of quark-gluon plasma combined in gravity in halos of dark


Clustering matter heats as it collapses together/ nuclear fusion

resulting to stars later forming into gravitational attractions into
Universe – is made up of dark matter and dark energy (96% of the universe)
Dark matter – produces and attractive force (gravity) (23% of the universe)
Acts to slow down the expansion of the universe
Dark energy – produces repulsive force (antigravity) (73% of the universe)
Also named cosmological constant or quintessence
It is also responsible in accelerate the expansion of the universe

When the inflationary period (expansion) ends, universe consists mostly of energy in form of
photons – particle of visible light.
Protons and neutrons were held by quarks (the tiniest indivisible particle)

Threshold of Complexity – the turning point in new things and new level of complexity
appears, from simple to complex to another complexity
Goldilocks Conditions – combination of right ingredients

These are perfect conditions, at each threshold, to increase of

Energy is needed to build complexity

Second law of thermodynamics - The second law of thermodynamics states that the total
entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time. The total entropy of a system
and its surroundings can remain constant in ideal cases where the system is in
thermodynamic equilibrium, or is undergoing a (fictive) reversible process.

Stephen Hawking stated that “to talk about causation or creation implicitly assumes there
was a time before the big bang singularity”