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Conveyor 101

National Stone Sand & Gravel


2014 Con Expo

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Announcements

• Emergency Doors

• Bathrooms

• Security

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Conveyor 101

National Stone Sand & Gravel


2014 Con Expo

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Conveyor 101

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OUR GOAL

• 1. History of Conveyors
• 2. Safety History of Conveyors
• 3. Design Concepts
• 4. Conveyor Components Selection
• 5. Good Conveyor Practices

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Our Goal

• 1. History of Conveyors
• 2. History of Safety for Conveyors
• 3. Design Concepts or Rules
• 4. Conveyor Components Selection
• 5. Good Conveyor Practices

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History

• “The development of belt conveyors, capable of


transporting virtually any bulk material at
thousands of tons per hour in a continuous and
uniform stream, has been one of the most
important innovations for modern industry.”
• (CEMA, 6th Edition, XI)

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History

• Transport of Bulk Material by conveyor systems


dates back to 1795.
• Conveyor System integral part of Material
Handling for over 100 years
• In 1891 rubber belt conveyors are born, before -
belt made of leather.

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History

• The combination of cotton-rubber belts and steel


equal rolls idlers by Thomas Edison and
Thomas Robbins, Sr respectively, became the
foundation for modern belt conveyors.
• CEMA & Hewitt Robbins Co are founded around
the same time.
• Hymle Goddard, of Logan Co., receives first
patent for roller conveyor in 1908.

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History

• During the 1920’s bulk transport on longer


distances was a goal.
• In the 20’s, one underground installation carried
runs of mine coal for eight miles.
• Today, one of the longest conveyor is 60 miles
long located in the phosphate mines in Western
Sahara. (last recorded data available)

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History

• WWII synthetic materials are used to make


belting
• Today, there is an endless list of synthetic
polymers and fabrics available
• Usage of conveyors broadened and..
• Today it is the Primary Bulk Material Transport in
Mining Operations.

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OUR GOAL

• 1. History of Conveyors
• 2. Safety History of Conveyor
• 3. Design Concepts or Rules
• 4. Conveyor Components
• 5. Good Conveyor Practices

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Safety

• First Standard involving conveyor safety was


issued in 1947 by the American Standard
Association (ASA)
• The Industry embraces the standard and is
committed to safety.
• In 1970 OSHA is born and one of their first
priority issues; conveyor high noise levels.

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Safety

• Manufacturers responded by developing and


using precision bearings, quiet rollers and long
lasting parts to eliminate premature wear.
• Technological advancements related to
maintenance and system controls start
flourishing.

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Our Goal

• 1. History of Conveyors
• 2. History Conveyor Safety
• 3. Design Concepts
• 4. Conveyor Components Selection
• 5. Good Conveyor Practices

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Basic Common Rules
(There are exceptions)

• You don’t push with a rope, you pull.


• Conveyors shorter than 100 feet with less than
20 HP only need two pulleys; Head and Tail
Pulleys
• Conveyors with low HP < 30 don’t need a Snub
Pulley. (Careful with Feeder Belts)
• HP needs to be calculated correctly; don’t forget
pinch points in the system.

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Basic Common Rules

• Idler height needs to be uniform, if not the same,


on a conveyor belt.
• Idler spacing is critical and needs to be verified
for idler loading.
• Focus on maximizing manufacturing parts to
save on Maintenance Inventory Cost.

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Basic Common Rules

• Channel stringer is the most economical section


up to 20 ft. of lift, beyond that truss frames are
cheaper, the longer the span the cheaper they
become.
• Dual drive conveyors only have one backstop
rated for the total HP in the conveyor.
• High Tension belts need special attention to
minor details that can be forgiving on Low
Tension belts.

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Basic Common Rules

• Long Conveyors need an expansion joint in the


frame every +/- 500 ft.
• Based on conveyor components cost and
availability, sometimes is cheaper to operate
and maintain multiple chain conveyors than one
long conveyor. Always do a cost analysis of the
proposed system.
• End user(s) have become more demanding on
conveyor’s capacity.

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DESIGN CONCEPT - FORCES

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Design Concept - Forces

• The pulley(s) is a rotating structural component


that has minor influence on the conveyor
resistance to movement. However, the friction
contribution is transmitted through the pulley as
torque. (CEMA 6 Edition Ch. 5)
th

• The torque in turn provides the necessary forces


to move the components in the system.

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Design Concept - Forces
• From a Design point of view, the most difficult
part is determining the Forces or Tensions in the
system.
• Tension is developed by the Motor that defines
the maximum forces to be generated on the
conveyor system.
• HP calculation addresses the necessary forces
for overcoming: Parts Friction, and Horizontal
and Vertical forces necessary for the movement
and elevation of materials.

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Design Concepts - Forces

• These Forces are referred as Belt Tensions.


• Tension impacts or has direct influence on:
– Energy Required to Transport Material
– Size and Rating of Conveyor Components
– Management of Max and Min Tensions for efficient
operation
– Belt Tension can impact belt SAG that in turn, can
impact idler life and material movement on a
conveyor belt.

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Design Concepts - Forces

• Once HP is known the simplest formula for


calculating TENSION(s) is:
Te = 33,000 x HP / Belt Speed
T2 = Te x Wrap Factor
TT = Te + T2
Te - Effective Tension - lbf.
T2 - Slack Side Tension - lbf.
TT - Total Tension - lbf.

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Design Concepts - Forces

• Did you notice that as the Belt Speed Increases


the Tension Decreases?

• Te for 100 HP @ 300 FPM = 11,000 lbf


• Te for 100 HP @ 400 FPM = 8,250 lbf 75%
• Te for 100 HP @ 500 FPM = 6,600 lbf 60%

• Good to remember for those times that Belt PIW


in an upgrade is critical.

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Design Concepts - Forces

Belt Speed (FPM) – Rule of Thumb:

• Primary Belts, Material > 10” 250 to 300 FPM


• Secondary Belts, Material >4” 350 to 400 FPM
• Other Belts, Material < 4” 400 to 500 FPM
Important:
Belt Speed needs to be adjusted for the material
being moved and needs to be reviewed with belt
manufacturer.

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Design Concepts - Forces

• To determine the Design Belt PIW:


– Total Tension (TT) from the previous formula and the
Belt Width are used

• PIW = TT / PIW

• PIW used for Belt Carcass Selection

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Design Concepts - Forces

PIW also determines the General Pulley


Construction (Suggested Pulley Class)
Class PIW

CEMA 220 and less

Mine Duty Extra 221 to 800

Engineered 801 and up

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Design Forces
• Some Root Cause or Reasons that cause
Conveyors problems:
– Not Enough Information Provided or Gathered
– Erroneous Information Obtained
– Poor Engineering Analysis
– Fictitious Savings
– Pushing Manufacturer’s Limits or Specs Out of
Range.
– OTHER

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Design Concepts - Forces

For more on Horsepower and Design Forces


calculations see:

• CEMA’s Manual - “Belt Conveyors for Bulk


Materials”, 6th Edition, Chapter 6 covers in
depth, with examples, Conveyor Belt Tension
Theory and Formulas.

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OUR GOAL

• 1. History of Conveyors
• 2. Safety History of Conveyors
• 3. Design Concepts
• 4. Conveyor Components Selection
• 5. Good Conveyor Practices

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Conveyor Components

• Conveyors are made of two major components:


– STATIONARY – Structural Components
– MOVING - Pulleys, shafts, bearings, idlers, reducer,
drive and other.
• This segment will address the MOVING
component of a conveying system.

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Conveyor Components Selection

Sub - Topics for this Segment:

1. Pulleys & Shafts


2. Idlers
3. Belting

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Conveyor 101

Sub - Topics for this Segment:

1. Pulleys & Shafts


2. Idlers
3. Belting

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Pulleys & Shafts
As mentioned before:
• The pulley(s) is a rotating structural component
that has minor influence on the conveyor
resistance to movement. However, the friction
contribution is transmitted through the pulley as
torque. (CEMA 6 Edition Ch. 5)
th

• So we could say that “One of the most


important components on a belt conveyor are
the pulleys”.

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Pulleys & Shafts

• Pulley Diameter selection affects belt life.


• Transitions from throughing to pulley face is
critical and needs to be discussed with belt
manufacturers.
• When transitions are not correct the Edge
Tension will start ripping the belt.
• Particular attention needs to be taken to high
tensions belts and effect on crown pulleys to
avoid ply separation.

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Pulleys & Shafts
On Crown Faced Pulley the
Belt is stretched on the
center (as is a longer
distance than to the edge)
due to the rim curvature.

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Shaft Deflection

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Pulleys & Shafts
DEFLECTION

Tan (alpha) = RA(B-2A)


4EyI
LIMITS: CEMA .0023 in/in
Engineered Fabric Belt .0015 in/in
Engineered Steel Cable Belt .0010 in/in

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Pulleys & Shafts
Alternating End Disc Stresses
(Stress from shaft deflection)

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Pulleys & Shafts
Static Bending Stress
(Stress from bushing installation)
Installation Sequence
1. Bushing to shaft grip > Bushing to hub grip
2. Therefore bushing locks to shaft first
3. Further tightening moves discs apart (Bellows)

Movement of discs creates stress in welds


•Larger taper angle minimizes movement
•Larger taper angle minimizes stress
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Pulleys & Shafts

• The Deflection Factor used determines if the


Pulley is a FLEXIBLE or RIGID designed pulley.
• RIGID Designed Pulleys absorb better the
Stress Cycles.
• Large HP Conveyors requires RIGID Designed
pulleys as well as, small deflection factors on
the shaft.

LIMITS: CEMA .0023 in/in


Engineered Fabric Belt .0015 in/in
Engineered Steel Cable Belt .0010 in/in

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Pulleys & Shafts
CAPACITY COMPARISON
16 X 32 PULLEY WITH 2-15/16" SHAFT AND 40" BEARING CENTERS
CEMA SHAFT LOAD RATING - 6000 LB (3000 LB Tension at 180 Degrees)
END DISC RIM OVERALL CAPACITY ABOVE COST FACTOR
PULLEY TYPE CAPACITY (LB) CAPACITY (LB) CAPACITY (LB) SHAFT LOAD RATING PULLEY ASSEMBLY
HEAVY DUTY 6570 6780 6570 10% 1.00 1.00
MINE DUTY 7610 26750 7610 27% 1.73 1.14
MINE DUTY EXTRA 30630 26750 26750 346% 1.85 1.16

20 X 44 PULLEY WITH 3-15/16" SHAFT AND 58" BEARING CENTERS


CEMA SHAFT LOAD RATING - 8400 LB (4200 LB Tension at 180 Degrees)
END DISC RIM OVERALL CAPACITY ABOVE COST FACTOR
PULLEY TYPE CAPACITY (LB) CAPACITY (LB) CAPACITY (LB) SHAFT LOAD RATING PULLEY ASSEMBLY
HEAVY DUTY 10350 19330 10350 23% 1.00 1.00
MINE DUTY 17130 32520 17130 104% 1.80 1.14
MINE DUTY EXTRA 34910 32520 32520 287% 2.00 1.18

36 X 57 PULLEY WITH 4-15/16" SHAFT AND 69" BEARING CENTERS


CEMA SHAFT LOAD RATING - 16400 LB (8200 LB Tension at 180 Degrees)
END DISC RIM OVERALL CAPACITY ABOVE COST FACTOR
PULLEY TYPE CAPACITY (LB) CAPACITY (LB) CAPACITY (LB) SHAFT LOAD RATING PULLEY ASSEMBLY
HEAVY DUTY 33186 44600 33186 102% 1.00 1.00
MINE DUTY 30725 62980 30725 87% 1.55 1.17
MINE DUTY EXTRA 85954 62980 62980 284% 1.58 1.18

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Pulleys & Shaft

• When ordering or selecting Pulleys and Shafts


its important to provide Manufacturer with a
Specification.
• Minimum data that needs to be included on the
Specification provided to Manufacturers for the
design of pulleys is as follows:

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Pulley Specifications
• Customer Supplied
– Can vary from no specifications to hundreds of pages
– Establishes expectations, durability and warranties for
product(s) ordered.
– Always use deflection factor to differentiate and
compare pulleys among manufacturers.

• Manufacturers can:
– recommended pulley specifications
– Help in understating what is being used by the mining
industry for projects they are involved in.

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Pulley Specifications
CLASS IV III II I
Belt Type Fabric Fabric Fabric, Steel, Kevlar Fabric, Steel, Kevlar
Recommended kN/m up to 140 kN/m up to 218 kN/m above 218 kN/m above 437 kN/m
Recommended PIW up to 800 PIW up to 1,250 PIW above 1,250 PIW above 2,500 PIW
Design Welded Hub Integral Hub / Profiled Turbine T-Section
Hub to Disc Weld Fillet None None None
Disc to Rim Weld Fillet Fillet Fillet Groove
Locking Assembly HE HE / Keyless Keyless Keyless

LAGGING
Drive Pulley Type Herringbone Herringbone Herringbone Diamond
Drive Pulley Thickness 13mm (0.5 in.) 13mm (0.5 in.) 13mm (0.5 in.) 25mm (1.0 in.)
Non-Drive Pulley Type Plain Plain Plain Plain
Non-Drive Pulley Thickness 10mm (0.375 in.) 10mm (0.375 in.) 10mm (0.375 in.) 13mm (0.5 in.)
Shore A Durometer 60 60 60 60
Compound SBR SBR SBR D-LAG

KB Factors
Drive Pulleys w/ OHL 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Drive Pulleys w/o OHL 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Non-Drive Pulleys 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
KT Factor 1 1 1 1
Deflection (mm/mm or in/in) 0.0023 0.0015 0.0015 0.001

Machined Rim NO >139 kN/m (800PIW) YES YES


Machined Lagging NO >139 kN/m (800PIW) YES YES
Static Balance NO NO YES YES
Stress Relieve NO NO YES YES
M.P. Weld Test NO NO YES YES
U.T. Weld Test NO NO YES YES

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Pulley Specifications
Class IV Class III Class III (Engineered) Class II Class I

NOTE: Only drive pulley shafts with HE locking assemblies are key
seated.

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Pulleys & Shafts
• Heavy Duty and Mine Duty
– Welded hub design
– Drums and wings
– DF = .0023 in/in
• Mine Duty Extra
– Integral hub design
– Drums and wings
– DF = .0015 in/in
• Engineered Class
– Welded hub design
– Integral hub design
• Rigid
• Profiled
• Turbine
• T-section
– DF = .0010 in/in
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Pulleys & Shafts

DATA INCLUDED ON PULLEY SPECIFICATIONS

• Diameter & Width • Tensions (Te, T2 & TT)


• Crown and Pulley Type • Type of Take Up
• Lagged or Unlagged • Drive Pulley Lagging
• Shaft Diameter • Drive Pulley Arc of
• Hub Size and Type Contact
• Bearing Centers • FPM
• Belt Width • HP
• Pulley Position • TPH
• Arc of Contact • Lift
• Length
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Pulleys & Shafts – Manufacturer Forms

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Heavy Duty Wing Pulleys

Mine Duty and


Mine Duty Extra
Wing Pulleys

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Pulleys & Shafts
Exclusive HE
(High Endurance)
14˚ Taper Bushing System

XT
9.5˚ Taper Bushing System

Taper Lock
8˚ Taper Bushing System

Q.D.
4˚ Taper Bushing System

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5
Engineered Class Pulleys
FROM CEMA “BELT CONVEYORS FOR BULK MATERIALS”
• Engineered pulleys are specifically designed to meet load
conditions of a particular conveyor.
• Common reasons for using engineered pulleys are:
1. Belt tensions and resultant loads exceed CEMA standards
B105.1 and B501.1.
2. Pulley diameter, face width, and shaft diameter combination
falls out of size ranges defined in CEMA standards B105.1
and B501.1.
3. Conveyor belt uses steel cable, steel mesh, aramid, or other
high modulus carcass.
4. It is desired to control project costs by optimizing pulleys for
their intended use.
5. Conveyors operate at high speeds with nearly continuous
service.
6. Transient belt tensions greater than 50% more than steady
state running tensions.

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Pulleys & Shafts

• Rubber Lagging DUROMETER rating has to be


lower than the Conveyor Belt Durometer Rating.
• In recent years new Pulley Lagging has been
introduced with more durable materials such as
Ceramics.

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Pulleys & Shafts
Plain Herringbone

Ceramic Diamond

• Grooves shed water and increase traction

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Pulleys & Shafts – Suggested Pulley
Diameter per HP
HP Head Lag Snub Bend GTU Tail
10 - 15 18 ½” - - - 16

20 - 30 24 ½” - 18 18 20

40 - 50 24 ½” 18 ** 18 18 20

60 - 100 30 1” 20 20 20 24

125 - 150 36 1½” 24 24 24 30

200 48 1½” 30 30 30 36
** Check for Fit
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Pulleys & Shafts

• In short, the design of a conveyor is a Tension


Oriented Exercise.
• Always provide and have a Company wide
established Pulley’s & Shaft Specification.
• Specifications establish a benchmark for
durability and performance tied to
WARRANTIES.
• For a Maximum return on investment

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Conveyor 101

Sub - Topics for this Segment:

1. Pulleys & Shafts


2. Idlers
3. Belting

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Common Idler Styles

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Basic Common Rules

• One 20 degree transition idler is needed at the


Tail & Head Pulleys. (Factor x BW)
• Minimum distance between center of Tail Pulley
to first Throughing Idler approximately 4 ft.
• Training Idlers spaced every 100 ft.

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Idlers - Evolution of Bearing Life

• Prior to October 1996 idler rating was based on


90,000 hrs. Bearing Life (Bu) @ 500 rpm.
• Values were approximately 3X larger than
Bearing Life (L10)
• Prior to CEMA publication 502-1996, idler
selection was adjusted using “K Factors” for
Adjusting Idler Life cycle.
• Some of the “K Factors” were independent of
Idler Loading and L10 Bearing Life.

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Idlers

• Today, bearing rating is the only variable, for


which test have provided standard values, thus
CEMA uses Bearing L10 Life as a guide for
establishing bearing ratings.
• Per CEMA, the L10 Bearing Life definition for
Conveyor Idlers is:
– Basic rated life (number of operating hours @ 500 rpm) based on a
statistical model which is expressed as the total of revolutions 90
percent of the bearings in an apparently identical group of bearings
subjected to identical operating conditions will attain or exceed before
a defined area of material fatigue (flaking, spalling) occurs on its rings
or rolling elements. (CEMA 6th Edition, Chapter 5, p 74)

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Idlers
• Basic Rated Life based on number of
operating hours at 500 rpm.
• Based on a statistical model which is
expressed as the total of revolutions 90% of
the bearings are subject to identical operating
conditions.
• In an apparently identical group of bearings
subjected to identical operating conditions.
• They will attain or exceed before a defined
area of material fatigue (flaking, spalling)
occurs on its rings or rolling elements.
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Why Do Rollers Fail?
• Bearing Contamination
o Roller Sealing Systems
• Shell Wear / Abrasion
o Misalignment
• Bearing Load
o Shaft & Tube Deflection

• Rollers Jamming
o Material Spillage
– Roller Construction

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Why Do Rollers Fail?

Impact Zones
Spillage at Transfer Points
Wash‐down Areas
Constant Moisture
Fine Particulate Contaminants
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Idlers

Sealing, Sealing, Sealing
Triple Labyrinth Seal
Rubber Dust Shield 2RS C3 Bearing

ABS Polymer Bearing Housing

Labyrinth Cover

Felt Ring

Shell Painted 
Inside
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Idlers

• Idler frame might in some cases be a limiting


factor.
• CEMA only addresses ROLLER Bearing Idlers
• BALL bearings are not subject or mentioned on
the CEMA book.

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CEMA Idler Classification
Classification Roll Diameter (in) Belt Width (in)
B4 4 18-48
B5 5 18-48
C4 4 18-60
C5 5 18-60
C6 6 24-60
D5 5 24-72
D6 6 24-72
E6 6 36-96
E7 7 36-96
F6 6 60-96
F7 7 60-96
F8 8 60-96

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Idlers

• L10 Life is also associated with 90% reliability


for a single bearing under certain load.

Load Rating Belt Widths Min. Required


RPM
Lbs. Available L10 Life

CEMA B Up to 400 lbs. @ 500 RPM 18” – 48” 30,000 hrs.

CEMA C Up to 900 lbs. @ 500 RPM 18” – 60” 30,000 hrs.

CEMA D Up to1200 lbs. @ 500 RPM 24” – 72” 60,000 hrs.

CEMA E Up to 1800 lbs @ 500 RPM 36” – 120” 60,000 hrs.

CEMA F Up to 3000 lbs. @ 500 RPM 60” – 120” 60,000 hrs.

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Idlers

• Some of the Conditions that affect Idler Life:

• Type of Material Handled (dry, wet, abrasive, etc.)


• Idler Load
• Effect of Load on Predicted Bearing L10 Life
• Belt Speed
• Roll Diameter
• Environmental, Maintenance & Special Conditions

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Idlers

CEMA L10 Bearing Life based on 500 rpm

Roll Diameter (in) Belt Speed (fpm)


4 534
5 654
6 785
7 916
8 1,047
(CEMA, 6th Edition, Chapter 5, Table 5-20)

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Idlers
• Selection Procedure requires calculating:
• Calculated Idler Load; CIL = WB x Si + IML
• Bearing L10 Life Correction based on Effects of:
Load = K2 = CIL / ILR
Belt Speed = K3A = rpm = BS x 12 / Roll Dia X Pi
Diameter = K3B = Figure 5.26
• Potential Idler Life:
Maintenance = K4A = Figure 5.27
Environmental = K4B = Figure 5.28
Operating Conditions = K4C = Figure 5.29
Impact Force = W + (2 x k x WH)1/2
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Idlers
• Idler Height Misalignment is critical for
maintaining L10 Bearing Life.

Si Si

IML = (D x T) / (6 x Si) D = Misalignment Distance


IML = (1/8” x 15,180) / (6 x 4) = ~ 80 lb. Si = Idler Spacing

T = Belt Tension

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Idlers
• Manufacturers have different idler’s Height.
• Other K Factors for Idler calculations were
mentioned earlier.
• CEMA only addresses ROLLER Bearing idlers,
there is no mention on the 6th Edition of BALL
Bearings.
• As such, formulas used on L10 Bearing Life
Calculations was developed for roller bearings.
• Load Carrying of Roller Bearings compensated
by installing a larger bearing on the idler.

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Idler Cutaway
RE-GREASABLE 1. EXTERNAL SHIELD
2. FLINGER
3. GREASE HOR.
LABYRINTH
4. GREASE VER.
LABYRINTH
5. CONTACT LIP SEAL
6. REAR SEAL

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Idler Cutaway
SEAL FOR LIFE

End Disc

Seal

Shaft

Bearing

Tube

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Bearing Styles

• Ball Roller

Outer Ring Cup


Cage
Ball Rollers
Inner Ring Cone
Seals

Cage

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Spacing of Idlers
Belt Width Weight of Material Return Idlers
(in) (lbs/cu ft) (ft)
30 50 75 100 150 200 10.0
18 5.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.5 4.5 10.0
24 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 10.0
30 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 10.0
36 5.0 4.5 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.5 10.0
42 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 3.0 10.0
48 4.5 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.0 3.0 10.0
54 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.5 3.0 3.0 10.0
60 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 10.0
72 4.0 3.5 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.5 8.0
84 3.5 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 8.0

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Belt Speeds at 500 rpm

Roll Diameter (in) Belt Speed (fpm)


4 534
5 654
6 785
7 916
8 1,047

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Load Rating: CEMA C

Belt Width (in) Trough Angle Return Rolls


20 35 45 Single Double
Roll Roll
18 900 900 900 475
24 900 900 900 325 500
30 900 900 900 250 500
36 900 837 810 200 500
42 850 791 765 150 500
48 800 744 720 125 500
54 750 698 675 500
60 700 650 630 500

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Load Rating: CEMA D

Belt Width (in) Trough Angle Return Rolls


20 35 45 Single Double
Roll Roll
24 1200 1200 1200 600
30 1200 1200 1200 600
36 1200 1200 1200 600 850
42 1200 1200 1200 500 850
48 1200 1200 1200 428 850
54 1200 1116 1080 375 850
60 1150 1070 1035 280 850
72 1050 977 945 155 850

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Load Rating: CEMA E

Belt Width (in) Trough Angle Return Rolls


20 35 45 Single Double
Roll Roll
36 1800 1800 1800 1000 1300
42 1800 1800 1800 1000 1300
48 1800 1800 1800 1000 1300
54 1800 1800 1800 925 1300
60 1800 1800 1800 850 1300
72 1800 1800 1800 700 1300
84 1800 1674 1620 550 1300
96 1750 1628 1575 400 1300

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Impact Idler Spacing Factor

Impact Idler Spacing (ft) Impact Idler Spacing Factor


(f)
1.0 0.5
1.5 0.7
2.0 0.9
> 2.0 1.0
Three roll rubber disc impact idlers.

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Minimum Energy Ratings for Impact
Idlers

CEMA Series WH (lbf-ft) Max Lump Size


(in)
B 40 4
C 160 6
D 240 8
E 460 12
F 870 18
Three roll rubber disc impact idlers.

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87 87
What makes a belt mistrack?

• Un-level conveyor
• Misaligned
components
• Poor belting

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Conveyor 101

Sub - Topics for this Segment:

1. Pulleys & Shafts


2. Idlers
3. Belting

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Conveyor 101

Sub - Topics for this Segment:

1. Pulleys & Shafts


2. Idlers
3. Belting

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Belting

• A belt conveyor system is composed of many


parts, none is more economically important than
the conveyor belt itself, which can represent a
substantial part of the initial cost.
(CEMA, 6th Edition, Chapter 7)

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Belting

• Care must be exercised when selecting the belt


for an application. It is suggested that the
following questions are answered:
– Can the selected Belt withstand the PIW forces?
– Are the Covers standard or run of the Mill?
– What warranty is being offered?

• A Complete Force Analysis is required for a belt


application.

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Belting Specification

• It shall cover: • It shall cover:


– Material Conveyed – Take-Up Type
– Max. Loading Rate – Idlers
– Belt Width – Loading Arrangement
– Belt Speed – Lowest Cold Weather
– Conveyor Profile – Type of Belt Splice
– Drive(s) – Type of Belt Cleaners
– Pulley Diameters – Anticipated
Warranties

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Design Basics – Rubber Fabric Belt
Top Cover
• Abrasion resistance from material
• Cut and gouge resistance
• Protect carcass

Carcass
• Provide tension to ~2000 PIW
• Impact, Tear Resistance
• Support load over idlers
Pulley Cover
• Protect carcass
• Provide abrasion resistance from idler contact
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4
Rubber Fabric Conveyor Belt
Rubber Top Cover

Rubber Skims
Fabric Ply 1

Fabric Ply 2

Fabric Ply 3

Fabric Ply 4

Rubber Pulley Cover

Carcass = Fabric Plies + Rubber www.conexpoconagg.com


Skims 95
95 9
Fabric Components

• Fabric Plies
• Warp - Tensile Strength
• Fill (weft) - Fastener
Holding, Impact
Resistance, Rip & Tear
Resistance

Warp
• Skims
• Rubber Between the
Plies
• Adhesion
• Load Support Fill
(weft)
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Tension Ranges

• Rubber + Fabric
• 220 – 2000 PIW

• Rubber + Steel Cord


• 600 – 9520 PIW

• PVC + Fabric
• 40 – 1200 PIW

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97 97
Compounds

• Manufacturers design a broad variety of cover


compounds to meet individual customer
requirements.
• Most common compounds include:
– RMA I: High Abrasive Resistance
– RMA II: Durable and Abrasive Resistant
– Fire Resistant (Above Ground and Underground)
– Oil Resistant: MOR, ROR, Nitrile
– Fire and Oil Resistant
– Heat Resistant

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Place of Manufacturer and QC

• All domestically manufactured belts are branded


every 50 ft to identify spec, identify brand,
ensure quality and help end user with
replacement. Unbranded belts makes
assumptions and potential failure.

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Conveyor Belt Testing

• Tensile • Adhesions
• Durometer • Compression Test
• Elongation • Tension Rating
• Oil Resistance • Ultimate Break
• Ozone Resistance • Covers Compound
• Static Conductivity
• Flame Resistant

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Conveyor 101

• Conclusions:
– Do have a Specification for Conveyor Components;
such as: Pulleys, Shafts, Bearings, Idlers, Belting and
others.
– As a minimum, the Specification needs to address
Warranties as they relate to: Operating Hours & Total
Tons Run before a replacement.
– Have a Standard developed for Conveyor
Components with an aim in reducing replacement
parts inventory.
– When comparing manufacturer’s products have a
perfomance
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1
Conveyor 101

• When comparing manufacturer’s products have a


performance data sheet with equivalent data fields.

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2
END

QUESTIONS??

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3
Pulleys & Shafts

EXAMPLE OF SHAFT
CALCULATION

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4
Pulleys & Shafts

• For sizing Pulleys & Shafts the Tensions needs


to be calculated. In the example that follows we
will solve for:
• Te - Effective Tension
• T2 - Slack Side Tension
• TT - Total Tension
Once the Tensions are known published tables
can be used for determining shaft diameter of all
pulleys.

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5
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 1

Example Calculations:
Given: Te = 33,000 x HP/
HP = 100 SPEED
BW = 42”
BRNG CTR. = 60” Te = 33,000 x 100 / 300
WRAP = 210 degree
SPEED = 300 fpm Te = 11,000 #
LAGGED Or from Table I
AUTO TAKE-UP

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6
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7
Design Forces

• Once Te is known calculate the Slack Side


Tension:

Te = 11,000 lbf. Step 1


T2 = Te x Wrap Factor (K)
TT = Te + T2

Te - Effective Tension - lbf.


T2 - Slack Side Tension - lbf.
TT - Total Tension - lbf.

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Pulleys & Shafts – Step 2
Snubbed Drive, Automatic GTU and 210 Wrap then:
K =.38 OR Table II
T2 = Te x WRAP FACTOR
T2 = 11,000 lbf. x .38
T2 = 4,180 lbf

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9
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 2

• Once HP is known the simplest formula for


calculating tension are:

Te = 11,000 lbf. Step 1


T2 = 4,180 lbf. Step 2
TT = Te + T2

Te - Effective Tension - lbf.


T2 - Slack Side Tension - lbf.
TT - Total Tension - lbf.

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0
Design Forces – Step 3

• Once HP is known the simplest formula for


calculating tension are:

Te = 11,000 lbf. Step 1


T2 = 4,180 lbf. Step 2
TT = 15,180 lbf. Step 3

Te - Effective Tension - lbf.


T2 - Slack Side Tension - lbf.
TT - Total Tension - lbf.

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1
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 4

• From Table III and using the ARC of Contact on


NON Drive Pulleys we determine the FACTOR
to be used from for determining the resultant
load for each NON Drive Pulley.
Pulley Degree of Factor T2 or TT R Shaft
Wrap Diameter

Drive 210

Snub 30 4,180 lbf

Bend 90 4,180 lbf

GTU 180 4,180 lbf

Tail 180 4,180 lbf


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2
Pulleys & Shafts
TAIL HEAD

BEND BEND SNUB

WRAP ANGLE
PULLEY WRAP ANGLE GTU Slack side tension
HEAD – 210 is adjusted by the
SNUB - 20 to 30 amount of weight
on the gravity take
BEND - 90 WEIGHT up pulley.
GTU - 180
TAIL - 180

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3
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 4

Resultant = T2 x Factor
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4
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 4

• Snub Pulley Factor – 0.51764 (Table III)


Pulley Arc Factor T2 or TT R Shaft
Contact Diameter

Drive 210

Snub 30 0.51764 4,180 lbf. 2,164 lbf

Bend 90 4,180 lbf.

GTU 180 4,180 lbf.

Tail 180 4,180 lbf.

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5
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 4

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6
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 4

• Bend Pulley Factor – 1.41422 (Table III)


Pulley Arc Factor T2 or TT R Shaft
Contact Diameter

Drive 210

Snub 30 0.51764 4,180 lbf. 2,164 lbf

Bend 90 1.41422 4,180 lbf. 5,911 lbf

GTU 180 4,180 lbf.

Tail 180 4,180 lbf.

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7
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 4

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8
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 4

• GTU and Tail Pulley Factor – 2.00000 (Table III)


Pulley Arc Factor T2 or TT R Shaft
Contact Diameter

Drive 210

Snub 30 0.51764 4,180 lbf. 2,164 lbf

Bend 90 1.41422 4,180 lbf. 5,911 lbf

GTU 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf

Tail 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf

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9
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5

• What about the Head Pulley?


Pulley Arc Factor T2 or TT R Shaft
Contact Diameter

Drive 210

Snub 30 0.51764 4,180 lbf. 2,164 lbf

Bend 90 1.41422 4,180 lbf. 5,911 lbf

GTU 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf

Tail 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf

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Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5

• For Drive Pulleys the Factor is from Table IV and


is calculated as a ratio between the Total
Tension (TT) and the Slack Side Tension (T2)
which equals:

TT = Te + T2 = 11,000 + 4,180
TT = 15,180 lbf
R = 15,180 / 4180
R = 3.63157

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Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5

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2
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5
• Drive Pulley Resultant from Table IV and using
Interpolation we get:
Ratio Factor
(TT/T2)
Subtract Subtract

3.60 4.4940
X
.03
.20 .1988
3.63 X

3.80 4.6928

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Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5

By Interpolation:

0.03 / 0.20 = x / 0.1988


X = 0.02982

Factor = 4.4940 + .02982

Factor = 4.5238
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4
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5

• What about Shaft Diameter?


Pulley Arc Factor T2 or TT R Shaft
Contact Diameter

Drive 210 4.52382 4,180 lbf 18,909 lbf

Snub 30 0.51764 4,180 lbf. 2,164 lbf

Bend 90 1.41422 4,180 lbf. 5,911 lbf

GTU 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf

Tail 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf

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5
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5

• Once all the Resultant Forces ( “R”) are


determined Tables VIa & Vib are used for
determining the Shaft Diameter.
• To use those tables is it necessary to calculate
the distance from the Pulley Face (Table V) to
the Bearing Center.

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6
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 6

• Table V is provided for assisting on the Pulley


Face or Width dimension.

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7
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 7

• Rule of Thumb:
– BW + 12” + 6” or 8” would be a safe bearing center
distanced if none know at the time.
• Bearing Centers = BW + 12 + 6
• B = 42 + 12 + 6
• B =60”

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8
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 7

• B = 60”; Pulley Face = 44”

• A = B – Pulley Face
• A = 60” – 44”
• A = 16”
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9
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 7
To determine the shaft diameter Tables VIa & VIb
are provided. One is for CTX & QD Hubs (VIa) &
the other for Taper Lock Hubs (VIb).
• Tables are for Non Drive Pulleys Shafts and are
based on 8,000 psi allowable stress. To convert
to Drive Pulley Shafts of 6,000 psi divide R by
.75 to obtain the correct R value.
• At this stage the selection bearings centers
have to be established.

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Pulleys & Shafts – Step 7

• Head Pulley we use 75% of the 8,000 psi Shaft’s


allowable bending stress or 6,000 psi.

• R = 18,909 / .75
• R = 25,212 lbf
• From Table VIa we determine that:
• A 6” shaft with 60” bearing centers minus face of
16” has a load rating of 27,697 lbf which is the
smallest available without dropping below the
25,212 lbf.
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Pulleys & Shafts – Step 7

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Pulleys & Shafts – Step 7

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3
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5

• What about Shaft Diameter?


Pulley Arc Factor T2 or TT R Shaft
Contact Diameter

Drive 210 4.52382 4,180 lbf 25,212 lbf 75%

Snub 30 0.51764 4,180 lbf. 2,164 lbf

Bend 90 1.41422 4,180 lbf. 5,911 lbf

GTU 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf

Tail 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf

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4
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 7

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5
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 5

• From previous Calculations the R load was


determined for each Pulley:
Pulley Arc Factor T2 or TT R Shaft
Contact Diameter

Drive 210 4.52382 4,180 lbf 27,697 lbf 6.0000

Snub 30 0.51764 4,180 lbf. 2,164 lbf 2.0625

Bend 90 1.41422 4,180 lbf. 5,911 lbf 3.9375

GTU 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf 4.4375

Tail 180 2.00000 4,180 lbf. 8,360 lbf 4.4375

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6
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 7
• Using Tables VIa or VIb and previous R value
calculations we determine that:
• Bend Pulleys with an R load of 5,911 lbf & A of
16” - Table VIa indicates the bearing size to be
3 15/16”.
• Snub with an R load of 2,164 lbf & A value of
16” shaft comes to be 2 1/16”.
• Tail & Take Up with an R load of 8,360 lbf shaft
and A of 16” comes out to be 4 7/16”

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7
Pulleys & Shafts

• What about Pulley Diameters?


• Two more tables are provided.
• Table VII sizes the Pulley diameter based on the
belt PIW.
• Table VIII sizes the Pulley diameter based on
shaft sizes.

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8
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 8

Determine the Maximum Belt Tension or PIW per


pulley.
• PIWTT = 15,180 / 42 = 361PIW (lbs/in) –Drive
• PIWT2 = 4,180 / 42 = 100 PIW (lbs/in) –Non
Drive

VII

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9
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 8

• Per Table VII the Slack side pulleys @ 100 PIW


could be 6” in diameter but, it is not
recommended.
• Use a diameter 6” smaller for the other Slack
Side Pulleys to maintain belt geometry and avoid
stressing the belt carcass as it bends around the
pulley.

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0
Pulleys & Shafts – Step 8

• To determine the Pulley Diameter the Tensions


are used once again with Table VIII by finding
the maximum shaft size as large or larger than
the computed size.

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1
Pulleys & Shafts

• Select the larger of the two Pulley Diameters


found in Tables VII & VIII.
• The other alternative is to use proven Pulley
Diameters based on HP. (Previous Table)

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2
Pulleys & Shafts – Suggested Pulley
Diameter per HP
HP Head Lag Snub Bend GTU Tail
10 - 15 18 ½” - - - 16

20 - 30 24 ½” - 18 18 20

40 - 50 24 ½” 18 ** 18 18 20

60 - 100 30 1” 20 20 20 24

125 - 150 36 1½” 24 24 24 30

200 48 1½” 30 30 30 36
** Check for Fit
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3
END

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4
CONVEYOR GLOSSARY

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5
Conveyor Upgrade Example

1970 Capacity of 2,200 tph per belt, 125 HP, 340 fpm
2013 Capacity of 4,400 tph per belt, 400 HP, 690 fpm
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7
What If Scenarios
Impact on Conveyor Components

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8
What If Scenarios
Impact on Conveyor Components
EXAMPLE #1 - Original Design: 800TPH, 400FPM, Screw Take-up

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9
What If Scenarios
Impact on Conveyor Components
EXAMPLE #1A - 800TPH changed to 1000TPH, 400FPM Gravity Take-up

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0
What If Scenarios
Impact on Conveyor Components
EXAMPLE #2 - Original Design: 800TPH, 400FPM Gravity Take-up

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1
What If Scenarios
Impact on Conveyor Components
EXAMPLE #2A - 800TPH Changed to 1000TPH, 400FPM Gravity Take-up

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2
Conveyor Design Changes
Potential Impact on Components
Think about SAFETY before you change
a Conveyor’s Operating Parameters

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3
Conveyor Design Changes
Potential Impact on Components
Think about SAFETY if
you see these operating conditions

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4
Conveyor Design Changes
Potential Impact on Components
Think about SAFETY if
you see these operating conditions

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5
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6
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7
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8
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