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H2gO: Portable Water Treatment System

Alexa Leone (Ocean Engineering Major), Isabella Silverman (Ocean Engineering Major),

Ian Hallman (Mechanical Engineering Major)

Advisor: Vinka Oyanedel-Craver, Ph.D. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 USA

Ph.D. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 USA
Background Project Goal Constraints Experimental Design Transport Figure 1 shows how H2gO is carried around
Background
Project Goal
Constraints
Experimental Design
Transport
Figure 1 shows how H2gO is
carried around when it is not
being used. Everything fits in the
suitcase, expect for an effluent
bucket and battery, which we
relied on community members to
have available.
Figure 1. The entire H2gO system packed
compactly in the suitcase.
.2μ
Deploy
Effluent Bucket
(Clean drinking
water)
Influent Bucket
with pump
1
μ 1 μ
5
μ
G.A.C
UV
.
.2
μ
500 watt
inverter
12 volt, 65
amp hour
battery
.2 μ 500 watt inverter 12 volt, 65 amp hour battery Flow Rates and Bacteria Removal

Flow Rates and Bacteria Removal

● This project started during the winter semester of 2018 were we assisted in the
● This project started during the winter semester of 2018 were we assisted in the installation of water
Pre-test trial and preparation
treatment system in an rural elementary school in Cumayasa, Dominican Republic.
Date
Assembly
Location
● During the trip, we made additional visits to two primary schools and connected with local parishes in the
Flow Rate
LPH (GPH)
city of La Romana. Maria Trinidad and Paula Montas (Caleta), both have about 50 students, between the ages
1/4
5->1->1->GAC->UV
Hotel
15 (3.6)
of 4 and 10 years old. The schools have water supply one or two days a week. For drinking water purposes,
Olimpo
they purchase bottled water of dubious quality.
1/4
5->1->0.2->GAC->UV
Hotel
47.4 (12.6)
● Many water sources in the DR are contaminated with Fecal Coliform and other pathogens because the
Olimpo
municipalities do not have proper sewage systems and have poorly maintained infrastructures, such as
damaged pipes.
Figure 4. This Graph is Fecal Coliform Bacteria Colonies of
Other Water Sources. This shows the Fecal Coliform
averages for the Influent and Effluent water sources from
the trials at varying locations tested before. The E Coli
colonies are per 100 mL.
Trials at schools
Date
Assembly
Location
Flow Rate
LPH (GPH)
● H2gO is a portable water treatment system that is designed to be versatile in order to test the water quality
1/7
5->1->1->GAC->UV
Maria
20.4
(4.8)
of different locations.
Trinidad
● Its low-cost, modular, and transportable characteristics, making it applicable in many developing
1/7
5->1->0.2-RO->UV
Maria
13.8 (1.8)
communities.
Trinidad
● The design is meant to adapt to variations between communities (high salinity levels, tubidity, bacteria
1/9
5->1->1->GAC->UV
Caleta
32.4
(4.2)
differences) and environmental impacts (potential natural disasters).
● Analyze the water samples of the influent and effluent water with different components of filtration and
Bacteria Summary:
Figure 5. This graph shows the Fecal Coliform averages
for the influent and effluent trials for the two schools
that H2gO was tested at, Maria Trinidad and Caleta. The
E Coli colonies are per 100 mL.
sanitation, to determine a “best fit” for that location.
● To be able to produce 200 liters of water a school day.
The fecal coliform graphs display the count of bacteria present
in the influent and effluent water samples.
Flow Rate Summary:
There was zero bacteria present in every effluent sample that
ran through H2gO
Without RO: 4.62 GPH
It was discovered that the 5G water jugs of “clean” water the
school was purchasing was contaminated with bacteria.
With RO: 1.56 GPH
In developing countries such as the DR, electricity is not reliable, therefore, H2gO is powered with solar
energy and a portable battery. ● The quality of drinking water at every source can
energy and a portable battery.
● The quality of drinking water at every source can vary (see well data), moreover, climate change directly
impacts the quality of water. H2gO’s design makes it capable to treat any water source affected by
environmental impacts.
● H2gO is a modular and designed to fit in a suitcase with the dimensions of 24.3’’x16’’x10.10’’, accepted as
check bag by most airlines.

Solar Panel Data

At the End of the Test Minimum Voltage (Volts) 12.45 Maximum Voltage (Volts) 14.01 Today's
At the End of the Test
Minimum Voltage (Volts)
12.45
Maximum Voltage (Volts)
14.01
Today's Energy Storage (Amp Hours)
1.7
Figure 6. Shows Energy Storage at the Rural Primary
School of Cumayasa
At the End of the Test
Minimum Voltage (Volts)
12.5
Maximum Voltage (Volts)
13.63
Today's Energy Storage (Amp Hours)
2
Figure 7. Shows the storage of solar energy storage
taken at a primary school in Cumayasa.
Battery/Load Current:
Net Current Into the Battery:
● The current of energy that the solar panels are receiving
from the sun.
● Total amount of amps that is going into the battery from
the solar panels.
● The current is affected by the amount of sunlight/rays
the panels receive.
● The more solar panels connected in a series, the more net
current is going into the battery.
● In order to optimize this value, placement of the solar
panels is necessary.
● When a load is connected, the battery will have a lower
current because the battery is supplying a current to the
load.
● Includes the angle at which the solar panels are set and
the direction that they are facing (North, South, East,
West).
● If there is no energy from solar rays entering the battery,
the battery will show a negative value indicating that the
battery is draining and not storing any energy
● Factors that can affect this value even with all parameters
in check would be the type of weather for the day

Price Overview

The Future of H2gO

System Without Reverse Osmosis System With Reverse Osmosis Product Price Product Price 5 Micron Filter
System Without Reverse Osmosis
System With Reverse Osmosis
Product
Price
Product
Price
5 Micron Filter
$2.35
5 Micron Filter
$2.35
1 Micron Filter
$3.95
1 Micron Filter (2)
$7.90
0.2 Micron Filter
$39.68
GAC
$5.99
Booster Pump
$89.99
UV Light
$77.00
Pump
$7.99
Pump
$7.99
GAC
$5.99
Filter Housing ( 4 Pack)
$48.76
UV Light
$77.00
Threaded Connectors (8)
$13.19
Metal Threads (8)
$13.19
Elbows (2)
$1.18
Elbows (2)
$1.18
Tubing (25 ft)
$15.00
Tubing (25 ft)
$15.00
Total
$179.36
Filter Housing (4 Pack)
$48.76
Reverse Osmosis
$33.99
Total
$339.07
● The schools buy water in 5 gallon jugs every week because neither schools have
running water
○ It costs the Maria Trinidad School $1,152 USD per year for their drinking
water

Planning for a fundraising campaign, in order to improve the design of the system

Buy one system in the U.S., donate a system to a

community center in the Dominican Republic

To maintain communication with the collaborators in La Romana

Increase awareness on the URI campus, about the importance of access to clean drinking water

Survey communities in the United States that are in natural disaster prone areas

Could H2gO be used in emergency situations?

Acknowledgements

We are thankful for the sponsors and mentors that assisted the project. ● Office of
We are thankful for the sponsors and mentors that assisted the project.
● Office of Undergraduate Research and Innovation
● Office of Diversity, Community, and Equity
● URI College of Engineering
● Woodard & Curran Inc.
● Water for the World Environmental Engineering Lab,
University of Rhode Island
Environmental Engineering Lab, University of Rhode Island Impact Figure 3. Displays community implementation and
Impact Figure 3. Displays community implementation and providing Maria Trinidad with clean water. Legend UV:
Impact
Figure 3. Displays community
implementation and providing Maria
Trinidad with clean water.
Legend
UV: Ultraviolet light
Replacement: every 12 months
GAC: Granular Activated Carbon
Replacement: every 6 months
Effluent Bucket
(waste from the
RO membrane)
µ: Micron, varying sized micron
filters
Replacement: every 6 months,
depending on water quality
Solar Converter
20 Watt each
Solar Panels
Figure 2. The complete in-country set up of the H2gO
design, set up from right to left.