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CURRICULUM

DEVELOPMENT
Models of Curriculum Design

Reported by:

RACHELLE B. YU
What is a
CURRICULUM?

Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning that requires the


purposeful and proactive organization, sequencing, and
management of the interactions among the teacher, the
students, and the content knowledge we want students to
acquire.
Some of the components of a comprehensive
curriculum unit:

Introduction/ Teaching Learning


Content Assessment Closure Strategies Activities

Grouping/ Products Resources Extension Differentiation


Pacing Activities
INTRODUCTION
What is a Curriculum Design?
OBJECTIVES
What is a Curriculum Design?
After the report, you should be able to:
1. Discuss various models of curriculum design.
2. Compare curriculum design models.
3. Explain steps in curriculum design in relation to models of curriculum.
4. Analyze each model for curriculum development in this chapter and decide which models,
if any, meet the necessary criteria for such a model.
5. Choose one model and carry out one or more of its components in your school.
6. Distinguish between deductive and inductive models for curriculum development.
7. Distinguish between linear and nonlinear models for curriculum development.
8. Distinguish between prescriptive and descriptive models for curriculum development.
Selecting Models
Curriculum Development
• Models, which are essentially patterns serving as guidelines to
action, can be found for almost every form of educational
activity.
• Unfortunately, the term model as used in the education
profession often lacks precision. A model may:
○ propose a solution to a piece of a problem
○ attempt to solve to a specific problem
○ create or replicate a pattern on a grander scale.
Variation in Models
Curriculum Development
• Individualmodels are often refined or revised due to the current
trends that are impacting the educational climate.
• Therefore,practitioners have a responsibility to understand the
essential components of curriculum models.
• Byexamining models for curriculum development, we can
analyze the phases their originators conceived as essential to the
process.
• Using a model in such an activity as curriculum development can
result in greater efficiency and productivity.
CONTENT
The Models of Curriculum Design

• THE LINEAR MODEL


• THE OBJECTIVES MODEL
• THE PROCESS MODEL
• WHEELER’S MODEL
• KERR’S MODEL
LINEAR
MODEL
LINEAR
MODEL
OBJECTIVES
MODEL
OBJECTIVES
MODEL
This model comprises four main steps:
PROCESS
MODEL
PROCESS
MODEL
Using this model presupposes that:
PROCESS
MODEL
WHEELER’S
MODEL
WHEELER’S
MODEL
KERR’S
MODEL
KERR’S
MODEL
KERR’S
MODEL
FACULTY CAN
ALWAYS FASHION A PLAN
-For the curriculum of an area and design ways in which it will be carried
out through instruction.

-To develop school-wide interdisciplinary programs that cut across areas of


specialization such as career education, guidance, and class activities.

-For a faculty to focus on the curricular components of the model to make


programmatic decisions .

-To allow a faculty to concentrate on the instructional components.


CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Linear Model of Curriculum Development

Reported by:

RACHELLE B. YU
Types of Models
Curriculum Development

○A deductive model proceeds from the general (examining the


needs of society, for example) to the specific (specifying
instructional objectives, for example).

○ An inductive model starts with the development of


curriculum materials and leads to generalization.
What is a LINEAR
MODEL?
This model prescribe a rational step- by – step procedure for
curriculum development starting with objectives.

The term “linear” is used for models whose steps proceed in a


more or less sequential, straight line from beginning to end.
Tyler Rationale Linear Model

- present a process of curriculum development


that follows sequential pattern starting from
selecting objectives to selecting learning
experiences, organizing learning experiences
and evaluation.
Tyler Rationale Linear Model
MODEL
Tyler Rationale Linear Model
MODEL
 The Tyler Model is often referred to as the ‘objective model’ because of it’s
objective approach to educational evaluation.
 It emphasizes consistency among objectives, learning experiences, and
outcomes.
 Curriculum objectives indicate both behavior to be developed and area of
content to be applied. (Keating, 2006)
 one of the best known models for curriculum development.
 known for the special attention it gives to the planning phases.
 deductive for it proceeds from the general (examining the needs of society, for
example) to the specific (specifying instructional objectives).
Tyler Rationale Linear Model
MODEL
 What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? (Defining
appropriate learning objectives.)
 How can learning experiences be selected which are likely to be useful in
attaining these objectives? (Introducing useful learning experiences.)
 How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction?
(Organizing experiences to maximize their effect.)
 How can the effectiveness of learning experiences be evaluated?
(Evaluating the process and revising the areas that were not effective.)
Tyler (cont.)

4 Basic Steps
1) What is the purpose of the education?
2) What educational experiences will attain the
purposes?
3) How can these experiences be effectively
organized?
4) How can we determine when the purposes are met?
Tyler (cont.)

 Tyler recommends that curriculum planners identify general objectives


by gathering data from three sources:
 the learners
 contemporary life outside the school
 subject matter.
 After identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine
them by filtering them through two screens:
 the philosophical screen
 the psychological screen
 In the Tyler Model, the general objectives that successfully pass
through the two screens become what are now popularly known as
instructional objectives.
Strengths of the MODEL
 Involves the active participation of the learner (Prideaux, 2003)
 Objectives are clearly defined in the purposes.)
 Simple linear approach to development of behavioral objectives (Billings &
Halstead, 2009)

Criticisms of the MODEL


 Narrowly interpreted objectives (acceptable verbs)
 Difficult and time consuming construction of behavioral objectives
 Curriculum restricted to a constricted range of student skills and knowledge
Taba’s Grassroots Rationale
Model
- a modified model of Tyler’s model. She argued that
curriculum development should follow a sequential
and logical process and she suggested for more
information input in all phase . She claimed that all
curricula are composed of fundamental elements and
could be made successful if there is diagnosis of
needs. Taba pointed out that the nature of objectives
determines what learning is to follow.
Taba’s Linear Model
MODEL
Taba’s Linear Model
MODEL
 -Grassroots approach model that advocates for teacher participation in the
development of the curriculum.

 -The Taba approach believes in allowing the curriculum to be authored by the


users (teachers) versus the district supervisors of the implementation of the
curriculum.

 -Taba approach involved teachers beginning by creating specific teaching-


learning units and building to a general design.

 -Inductive approach rather than traditional deductive


Taba (cont.)

 Curriculum theorist, curriculum reformer, and teacher


educator.

 Hilda Taba contributed to the theoretical and pedagogical


foundations of concept development and critical thinking in
social studies curriculum and helped to lay the foundations
of education for diverse student populations.

 Very simple but complete.


Taba (cont.)
It offers five steps to developing curriculum:
a. creating the units of work to be studied
b. testing these units with students
c. adapting units as necessary after the testing
d.creating a framework to test to ensure that all material is
covered in a clear and complete manner.
e.putting the unit of study into practice, while always c
creating new units to use in the classroom.
Taba (cont.)

Step One: Diagnosing Needs,


Step Two: Formulating Specific Objectives
Step Three: Selecting Content
Step Four: Organizing Content
Step Five: Selecting Learning Experiences
Step Six: Organizing Learning Experiences
Step Seven: Evaluating
Step Eight: Checking for Balance
Oliva Linear Model
- A deductive model that offers a faculty a process for
the complete development of a school’s curriculum.

- Recognized the needs of students in particular


communities are not always the same as the general
needs of students throughout our society.
17 Specific Steps
Of Oliva Model of Curriculum
1.Specify the needs of the students in general.
2. Specify the needs of society.
3.Write a statement of philosophy and aims of
education.
4.Specify the needs of students in your school.
5.Specify the needs of the particular community.
6.Specify the needs of the subject matter.
7.Specify the curriculum goals of your school.
8. Specify the curriculum objectives of your school.
9. Organize and implement the curriculum.
10. Specify instructional goals.
11. Specify instructional objectives.
12. Specify instructional strategies.
13.Begin selection of evaluation techniques.
14. Implement instructional strategies.
15.Make final selection of evaluation techniques.
16.Evaluate instruction and modify instructional
components.
17.Evaluate the curriculum and modify curricular
components.
Oliva (cont.)

The model accomplishes two purposes:

1)Suggests a system that curriculum planners might wish to


follow

2)Serves as the framework for explanations of phases or


components of the process for curriculum improvement.
Reflection
Of Oliva Model of Curriculum
The Oliva curriculum reflects the learners, values, and needs
of the population it will serve. Oliva goes on to describe
curriculum development as “a cooperative group activity”,
“systematic”, and “(most) effective if it is a comprehensive
process, rather than piecemeal”. This illustrates the point that
“doing what we have always done” is not acceptable in
schools today and educators must become active
participants in making changes to their curriculum at the
district and classroom level.
Standard- based curriculum
development model
- developed by Allan Glatthorn where the
model was intended for curriculum
standards for any discipline from basic
education to higher education.
Understanding by design Model/UbD

- also called backward design for putting emphasis on


starting with goals and objectives in cdesigning
curriculum. It put emphasis on designing curriculum
to engage students in exploring and deepening their
understanding of important ideas and the design of
assessments.
Systematic Design Model

- undergone some major revisions in 1998 but the


structure is unchanged. Include two basic phases,
the (1) the project selection and design and (2)
production, implementation, and evaluation.
Diamond explained that ideally, some actions
must precede others and certain decisions should
not be made until all relevant facts are known.
Murray Print Model Curriculum Design

- prescribes a sequential and logical approach to


curriculum development to provide a useful
and easy to understand process in developing
curriculum
Thank You
for listening!