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SOCIAL DIMENSIONS

OF EDUCATION
LET Competencies

 Determine the roles of the teachers as active


members of the community and as global
citizens responsible for the outcomes of their
actions and for developing other citizens.

 Analyze historical, economic, socio-cultural,


geographical, environmental, political and
social-psychological factors that affect the role
of the school as an agent of change
LET Competencies

 Apply the four pillars of learning in responding


to the aspirations of the community: learning to
know; learning to do; learning to live together;
and learning to be.
SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF
EDUCATION
THE NATURE OF SDE

 Studies human diversity, with the commitment of


promoting social literacy, social competence
and social efficiency to education practitioners.
 Focuses on the respect and appreciation of
human differences through education that
provides alternatives for maximum involvement
in pluralistic society and in making of a better,
just and humane world.
THE NATURE OF SDE

 Human Diversity means understanding the


differences and uniqueness of individuals.
Disparities may be on physical (sex, ability,
race, body qualities) socio-cultural (ethnicity,
class, sexual orientation, income, educational
background, religion)
 Social Literacy is the skill to simply recognize
and accept the differences of individuals
without making value judgments
THE NATURE OF SDE

 Social Competence is possessing the social,


emotional and intellectual skills and behaviors
needed to succeed as a member of society
and the world.
 Social Efficiency is the condition characterized
by valuing human diversity developing
respectful and responsible behaviors, flexibility
and adaptability of learners in a complex, ill-
structured and rapidly changing environment
THE NATURE OF SDE

 The use of Sociology as a Discipline of Study


Sociology is the a branch of social science that
uses systematic methods of empirical
investigation and critical analysis to develop and
refine a body of knowledge about human social
structure and activities. It is the scientific study of
social interactions and of social organizations.
THE NATURE OF SDE

 Assumptions of Sociology
• Man is an organism that tends toward survival
• Man is a social animal that survives in groups.
• Man lives in an ordered society that is
developed through the social patterns that are
established through the rules, truths and
structure he creates
• The order of society- processes, structures and
interaction is knowable
EDUCATION & SCHOOLING
EDUCATION

 Means to “draw out”


 Facilitating the realization of the full human
potentials of an individual that takes place in
formal & informal settings
 The knowledge and skills that individuals
acquire inside and outside educational
institutions.
 Uses intrinsic motivation and the natural
desire of man to learn and improve
SCHOOLING

 The sum of experiences, activities and


processes, which occurs within educational
institutions.
 Hierarchical, programmed and packaged
education for the individual through fixed and
well-crafted curriculum, methodologies and
testing
 Uses extrinsic motivation as a form and
method to influence and make students learn
THE SCHOOL
THE NATURE OF SCHOOL

 Derived from the Greek word “skhole”, which


means “leisure.” It is used for self-development,
where the Greeks discussed matters related to
enriching knowledge, skills and virtues (Sharma,
2000)
 “It is a special environment, where a certain
quality of life and certain types of activities and
occupations are provided with the object of
securing the child’s development along desirable
lines” – J. Dewey
THE NATURE OF SCHOOL

 “Schools are institutions developed by civilized


man for the purpose of aiding in the
preparation of the young to be well adjusted
and efficient members of the society” – J. Ross
 “Schools are institutions, which require full-time

attendance of specific age groups in teacher-


supervised classrooms for study of graded
curricula.” – Everett Reimer
As an important agency

 It provides educational credentials as proofs of


type or amount of education
 The best medium through which the national

goals for human resource development, peace,


order, eradication of poverty, and progress of
the country can be realized
 It is an extension of the home to educate the
child specialized occupational skills
As an important agency

 It is the only educational agency which aims to


complete the holistic development of
individuals
 Its contribution is indispensable that no other
educative agency can hope to replace.
THE NATURE OF SCHOOL
 A certain building, having a unity of interacting
personalities, a field of social forces, a system of
formal-informal control, a special cultural world, a
community-secure agency.
 A special place where children of different cultures
meet.
 An agency organized by society for the basic function
of teaching and learning.
 A formal institution from wearing children from home
and introducing them into society.
THE ROLE OF SCHOOLS

1. Educate citizens to fit into society.


2. Educate the citizens to change the
society
SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF SCHOOLS

1. Cognitive – the development of mental powers


or the acquisition of knowledge and skills, which
is the most important function. New knowledge is
generated through research and development,
while old ones are communicated from
generation to another
2. Political – inculcation of patriotism, law and
order. It is vital in nation-building by welding a
nation under one political ideology and social
institutions that ensure maximum political
awareness and participation
SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF SCHOOLS

3. Social – the socialization of the young in the


norms and values of society. It involves
passing on culture, learning to become
productive members of society, and to be
globally literate.
4. Economic – the preparation of vocations and
occupations that provide the framework for a
viable economic system.
FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOLS

1. Conservation. The school conserves and


preserves through its libraries and other
devices recorded accumulated experiences of
the past generations such as knowledge,
inventions, etc. for future generations.
2. Instructional. This is the main concern of
school, to pass on the accumulated
experiences of the past generation to the
incoming generations.
FUNCTIONS OF SCHOOLS

3. Research. The school conducts research to


improve the old ways of doing things or to
discover hitherto unknown facts or systems to
improve the quality of life.
4. Social service. This may be done through
some kind of outreach programs which could
be in a form of literacy, health, means of
livelihood, recreational activities, etc.
MANIFEST FUNCTION

 Intended, open, official, explicit, stated and


deliberate positive goals of schools
 Instruction and training – development of
critical and creative thinking and tasks
essential for maintenance of society
 Sorting – grouping students based on talents
and abilities
 Socialization – teaching the duties of
citizenship, patriotism and nationalism
MANIFEST FUNCTION

 Social Integration – love for humanity,


inculcate dominant values and shape societal
thinking
 Transmission of culture – teaching values and
ideologies from generation to generation
 Research and development – knowledge
creation, innovation, invention and change
LATENT FUNCTION

 Unintended goals, silent, unofficial and the hidden


curriculum of schools
 Developing youth culture that conflicts with
parents
 Obtaining potential mates
 Custodial or care-giving service while parents
work
 Challenging authority
 Restricting job competition by keeping young
people temporarily out of the labor force
LATENT FUNCTION

 Church-like function – emphasis on praying,


holding masses
 Family-like function – conducts family gathering
or family and nourishment of family life
 Factory – emphasis on production or business
activities
 Prison cell – too much on discipline
 Charitable institution – outreach programs
 Media-like – school ads, notices, greetings
EXERCISE
Social science theories that relate
to education
CONSENSUS AND CONFLICT THEORY

Consensus – a concept of society in which the


absence of conflict is seen as the equilibrium
state of society based on a general or
widespread agreement among all members of
a particular society.
Conflict – a disagreement or clash between
opposing ideas, principles, or people – this can
be a covert or overt conflict.
CONSENSUS CONFLICT
• see shared norms and • emphasize the
values as fundamental dominance of some
to society, focus on social groups by others,
social order based on see social order as
tacit agreements and based on the
view social change as manipulation and
occurring in a slow and control of dominant
orderly fashion groups and view social
change as occurring
rapidly in a disorderly
fashion.
CONSENSUS CONFLICT
• examine value • examine conflicts of
integration in society. interests and the
coercion that holds
society together in the
face of these stresses.

• emerged out of the • emerged out of


sociology of social order sociology of conflict,
and social stability/ crisis and social change.
regulation
CONSENSUS CONFLICT
• concerned with the • focuses on the struggle
maintenance or of social classes to
continuation of social maintain dominance
order in society, in and power in social
relation to accepted systems. It deals with
norms, values, rules and the incompatible
regulations as widely aspects of society
accepted or collectively
by society – or within a
particular society itself.
CONSENSUS AND CONFLICT THEORY

Karl Marx’s theory was based on the theory. It


was a theory characterized by class conflicts or
the conflict between the bourgeoisie (rich
owners) and the proletariat (poor workers).
Max Weber argue that schools teach and
maintain particular “status cultures” that is,
groups in society with similar interests and
positions in status hierarchy.
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM

This theoretical perspective has its roots in


natural science and the analogy between
a society and an organization. In the
analysis of living organism, the scientist’s
task is to identify the various parts
(structures) and determine how they
work (function).
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM

It puts emphasis on social order and social


stability not on conflict. It claims that
society is made up of different institutions
or organizations that work together in
cooperation – to achieve their orderly
relationship and to maintain social order
and social stability.
ROLES OF SCHOOLS IN S-F THEORY:

1. It becomes the key institution in a meritocratic


selection process.
2. It provides citizens with the knowledge and
dispositions to participate actively in civic life.
3. It offers students with the skills and dispositions to
work in such a society.
4. It teaches not only specific work skills but also
learning styles to adapt to new work roles and
requirements.
INTERACTIONIST THEORY

It attempts to make the “commonplace strange”


by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-
granted behaviors and interactions between
students and students and between students
and teachers.
Interaction is the process in which the ability to
think is both developed and expressed. All
types of interaction refine our ability to think.
INTERACTIONIST THEORY

The focus is on the interpretation given to


behavior, and the way such interpretation helps
to construct the social world, the identities of
people, and, ultimately how people behave.
Through face-to-face interaction in everyday life,
individuals make sense of the world or
construct meaning about themselves, their
society and life in general.
INTERACTIONIST THEORY

School, particularly classrooms, is a site of


interpretations, because everyday realities and
interactions in the classroom are replete with
meanings and definitions.
Teachers should reinvent themselves from their
traditional teaching methods, and infuse new
learning approaches that will ensure a classroom
interaction, animated with the spirit of enjoyment,
inquiry, liberation, dialogue, creative thinking and
quest for more meanings about life.
THE FOUR PILLARS OF
EDUCATION
 Learning to Know, that is acquiring the
instruments of understanding. It also means
being aware of local and world issues
and their solutions
 Learning to Do, so as to be able to act
creatively in one’s environment. It further
implies active involvement in solution-
building
 Learning to Live Together, so as to participate in
and cooperate with other people in all human
activities. It further calls for demonstration of
respect for self and others
 Learning to Be, so as to develop one’s

personality and to act with ever greater


autonomy, judgment and personal
responsibility. It also connotes development of
attitude and commitment to global citizenship.
LEARNING TO KNOW
 Development of HEAD: KNOWLEDGE
 It implies learning how to learn by developing

one’s concentration, memory skills and ability


to think.
 To learn to know, students need to develop

learn-to-learn skills. Such skills are learning to


read with comprehension, listening, observing,
asking questions, data gathering, note taking
and accessing, processing, selecting and using
information to become lifelong learners.
LEARNING TO KNOW

 As a means, people have to understand the


world around them, lead their lives with
dignity, develop their occupational skills and
communicate with other people.
 As an end, this type of learning is underpinned
by the pleasure that can be derived from
understanding, knowledge and discovery.
LEARNING TO KNOW

 The role of teacher is as facilitator, catalyst, monitor


and evaluator of learning.
 Believes in the two-pronged approach to education:
a truly educated person needs a broad general
education and the opportunity to study a small
number of subjects in depth.
 It is concerned less with the acquisition of structured
knowledge but more with the mastery of learning
tools.
LEARNING TO DO
 Development of the HAND: Skills & Actions
 It entails the acquisition of a competence that

enables people to deal with a variety of


situations, often unforeseeable, and to work in
teams.
 It is described as putting knowledge and

learning into practice innovatively through skill


development and practical know-how, but also
as the development of competence, life skills,
personal qualities, aptitudes and attitudes.
LEARNING TO DO

 Learning to do represents the skillful, creative


and discerning application of knowledge, one
must first learn how to learn effectively, how to
think creatively, critically and holistically, and
how to deeply understand the information that
is presented, and its systematic implications for
individuals and for society, in both the short
and longer term.
LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER

 Development of VALUES: ATTITUDES


 It is the most vital to building a genuine and
lasting culture of peace throughout the world.
 It describes the foundation of education by
developing an understanding of others and
their history, traditions and spiritual values.
 This may induce people to implement common
projects and to manage the inevitable conflicts
in an intelligent and peaceful way.
LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER

 This is a response to form an education which


will make it possible to avoid conflicts or
resolve them peacefully by promoting learning
to live together with others, by developing a
spirit of respect for the values of pluralism and
the need for mutual understanding and peace.
 The teacher should help the students to
develop an understanding of other people and
appreciation of interdependence.
LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER

 The concept entails the capacity to develop


one’s own potential while learning to
successfully manage relationships with others. It
involves development of self-awareness and
self-esteem as well as empathy and respect for
others and requires the capacity for active
citizenship, development of local and global
identity band an ability to understand others
and appreciate diversity.
LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER

 A range of skills are necessary including skills


for self-control, handling emotions,
communication (self-expression, emphatic
listening), interpretation of behaviors, critical
thinking, relationship building and
cooperation, negotiation, mediation and
refusal, problem solving and decision making.
LEARNING TO BE
 Development of the HEART: AWARENESS AND
UNDERSTANDING
 this refers to the role of education in developing
all the dimensions of the complete person: the
physical, intellectual, emotional and ethical
integration of the individual into a complete man,
which is a broad definition of the fundamental
aims of education.
 It is a dialectical process which starts with knowing
oneself and then opens to relationships with others.
LEARNING TO BE

 It believes in a holistic and integrated


approach to educating the human person, as an
individual and as a member of society and
focuses on the full development of the
dimensions and capacities of the human person:
physical, intellectual, aesthetic, ethical,
economic, socio-cultural, political and spiritual
as he/she relates with others in the family,
community, nation, region and the world.
LEARNING TO BE

 The teaching-learning cycle of the valuing process


starts with knowing and understanding oneself and
others, leading to the formation of a wholesome
concept, a sense of identity, self-esteem, self-worth
and self-confidence, as well as a genuine respect for
others. It proceeds to valuing, reflecting, choosing,
accepting, appreciating and acquiring needed skills
such as communication, decision-making and finally
results into action.
Which pillar of learning is it?
B 1.Revalorizing oral culture
D 2.Developing skills for a
variety of situations
K 3.Access to scientific method
K 4.Expanding general culture
L 5. Participating in projects
with people from different
groups
B 6. Encouraging discovery
and experimentation
K 7. Acquiring tools for
understanding the world
B 8. Discovering others by
discovering oneself
K 9. Developing imagination
and creativity
D 10. Putting knowledge to work
B 11. Acting with greater
autonomy
L 12. Adopting perspectives of
others
D 13. Exploring innovative and
creative abilities
K 14. Exercising power of
memory
D 15. Acquiring technical &
professional trainings
B 16. Holistic development
L 17. Peace education
K 18. Development of head
L 19. Development of values
D 20. Development of hands
CULTURE
CULTURE

 It is defined as the set of learned behaviors,


beliefs, attitudes, values and ideals that are
characteristics of a particular society or
population (Ember, 1999).
 The complex whole which includes knowledge,

belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other


capabilities and habits acquired by man as a
member of society (E.B. Taylor in Panopio,
1992).
CULTURE

 It refers to cumulative deposit of knowledge,


experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings,
hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles,
spatial relations, concepts of the universe and
material objects and possessions acquired by a
group of people in the course of generations
through individual and group striving.
THE SCHOOLS AS COMMUNITIES
 Students are unlikely to experience academic or
behavioral problems if they are exposed to a school
culture in which students and teachers respect trust,
and support one another and where students have a
voice and that their opinions are heard.
 Fewer problems are expected because socially
cohesive and democratic cultures instill in students a
sense of school membership where they experience
feelings of communal acceptance and belonging
and attachment to school life.
THE SCHOOLS AS COMMUNITIES

 Culture as a whole aims to develop belonging,


equality, fairness, cooperation, trust,
recognition, shared beliefs and values, and a
caring attitude among others.
 The social environment of the school is a key

factor influencing the healthy development of


its students.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
1. Culture is learned.
2. Culture is shared by a group of people.
3. Culture is cumulative.
4. Culture changes.
5. Culture is dynamic.
6. Culture is ideational.
7. Culture is diverse.
8. Culture gives us a range of permissible behavior
patterns.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE

1. Communication
a. Language – forms the core of culture. It
also defines what it means to be human.
Sharing language is sharing a condensed,
very flexible set of symbols and meanings.
b. Symbols – condense very complex ideas
and values into simple material forms that
evokes the signified ideas and values.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
2. Cognitive
a. Ideas/Knowledge/Beliefs – Ideas are mental
representations; Knowledge is the storehouse
where we accumulate ideas
b. Values – culturally-defined standards of
desirability, goodness, etc. which serve as broad
guidelines for social living.
c. Accounts – are how people use a common
language
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE

3. Behavioral – Norms are rules and expectations


by which a society guides the behavior of its
members
a. Mores – customary behaviors with moral
value.
b. Laws – formalized norms
c. Folkways – organized and repetitive behavior
patterns.
d. Rituals – highly scripted ceremonies
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE

4. Material
a. Artifacts or material objects that society
creates, express the values of a culture. The
nature of material culture produced by a
given society is a function of the society’s level
of technology, the available resources and the
need of its people.
TRANSMISSION OF CULTURE

1. Enculturation – the process of learning culture


of one’s own group.
2. Acculturation – the process of learning some
new traits from another culture.
3. Assimilation – the process in which an
individual entirely loses any awareness of
his/her previous group identity and takes on
the culture and attitudes of another group.
IMPORTANCE & FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE

1. Culture helps the individual fulfill his potential as a


human being.
2. Through the development of culture, man can
overcome his physical disadvantages and allows
him to provide himself with fire, clothing and
shelter.
3. Culture provides rules of proper conduct for living
in a society.
4. Culture also provides the individual his concepts of
family, nation and class.
CULTURAL RELATIVISM
Practices considered immoral or taboo to a
certain group of people but are accepted by
other groups with a different cultural
orientation.
The central point here is that in a particular
setting certain traits are right because they
work in that setting while other traits are
wrong because they clash painfully with parts
of the culture.
TRENDS, ISSUES AND
DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION
Global and National Development
Trends and Direction

 Globalization
 Changing Environmental/ Political and Cultural
Landscapes
 Cultural Homogeneity (The Global Village)
 ICT Revolution and High Interconnectivity
 The Changing World of Work
 Changing Values and Morality
CHARACTERISTICS OF 21ST CENTURY
EDUCATION

 Quality (Excellence, Effectiveness)


 Equity (Democratization of Access,
Inclusive Education)
 Relevance (Functionality, Meaningfulness)
 Sustainability (Education for the Future)
LEARNER-CENTERED AND
LEARNING-ORIENTED CURRICULUM
FOR THE STUDENT
A Shift from: A Shift to:
• Passively waiting for • Actively searching for
the teacher to give needed information and
directions and learning experiences,
information. determining what is
needed and seeking
ways to attain it.
LEARNER-CENTERED AND
LEARNING-ORIENTED CURRICULUM
FOR THE STUDENT
A Shift from: A Shift to:
•Always being in the •Participating at times
role of the learner as the expert/
knowledge provider
•Always following given •Desiring to explore,
procedures discover & create
unique solutions to
learning problems
LEARNER-CENTERED AND
LEARNING-ORIENTED CURRICULUM
FOR THE STUDENT
A Shift from: A Shift to:
• Viewing the teacher • Viewing the teacher
as the one who has all as a resource, model
the answers and helper who will
encourage exploration
and attempts to find
unique solutions to
problems.
LEARNER-CENTERED AND
LEARNING-ORIENTED CURRICULUM

FOR THE TEACHER


A Shift from: A Shift to:
• Always being viewed • Participating at times
as the content expert as one who may not
and source for all of the know it all but desires to
answers. learn
LEARNER-CENTERED AND
LEARNING-ORIENTED CURRICULUM
FOR THE TEACHER
A Shift from: A Shift to:
• Being viewed as the • Being viewed as a
primary source of support, collaborator,
information who and coach for students
continually directs it to as they learn to gather
students. and evaluate
information for
themselves.
LEARNER-CENTERED AND
LEARNING-ORIENTED CURRICULUM
FOR THE TEACHER
A Shift from: A Shift to:
• Always asking the • Actively coaching
questions and students to develop and
controlling the focus of pose their own questions
student learning. and explore their own
alternative ways of
finding answers.
LEARNER-CENTERED AND
LEARNING-ORIENTED CURRICULUM
FOR THE TEACHER
A Shift from: A Shift to:
• Directing students • Actively encouraging
through preset step-by- individuals to use their
step exercises so that all personal knowledge
achieve similar and skills to create
conclusions. unique solutions to
problems.
CONTEXTUALIZED LEARNING

 It emphasizes content relevance by presenting


realistic, industry-specific scenarios to learners.
 It has the following characteristics: Problem
solving with realistic solutions; learning in
multiple contexts; content is anchored in
diverse life and work context of students; and
authentic assessment is employed.
HOLISTIC AND INTEGRATED APPROACH

 From knowledge as the only learning outcome


sought to the development of values and
attitudes, skills and competencies, not through
classroom instruction alone but the entire
school culture and atmosphere; its vision and
mission, co-curricular activities, the human
climate established by relationship existing
therein.
HOLISTIC AND INTEGRATED APPROACH

 From knowledge-dominated curriculum to


more attention being given to values
education and emotional learning. The heart
of education is the education of the heart.
 From rigid, compartmentalized subjects into
more interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary
approaches to problems and issues.
LIFELONG EDUCATION FOR ALL

 From limited access to time-bound and


space limited education, to borderless
education, lifelong learning for all in a
learning society.
PEACE EDUCATION
PEACE EDUCATION

 It is an important educational response in


the light of the major social problems
that we currently face.
 It seeks changes in society’s ethos, values
and structures which, in turn, should
eventually lead us to a world that is
more nonviolent, just and sustainable.
PEACE EDUCATION

 As a transformative education, it upholds that


the knowledge, skills and value- orientations
that are cultivated are meant to inspire
personal and social action towards a
peaceable society.
 The learning process that is utilized is holistic
and it tries to address the cognitive, affective
and active dimensions of the learner.
PEACE

 The absence of death and destruction as a


result of war or physical/direct violence
(Grotius, 1625)
 Shift of attention in defining peace from direct
to structural violence, i.e. ways in which people
suffer from violence built into a society via its
social, political and economic systems.
 It is both the absence of violence and
presence of social justice.
CULTURAL AND POLITICAL
DIMENSIONS OF LEARNING
GLOBALIZATION & GLOBAL EDUCATION

Globalization – describes the growing


integration of economics worldwide through
increases in trades, investment flows and
technology transfer.
It is motivated by economic forces and driven by
digital technologies and communications that
links individuals and institutions across the
world with unprecedented interconnection.
Global Education – It aims to extend students’
awareness of the world in which they live by
opening them to the diverse heritage of
human thoughts and action, and creativity.
Its emphasis is on the changes in communication
and relationships among people throughout
the world highlighting such issues as human
conflict, economic systems, human rights and
social justice, human commonality and
diversity, literatures and cultures and the
impact of the technological revolution.
IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL EDUCATION

 Demand for widening the education access for all.


 Continuous lifelong learning
 Global vs. local cultural developments
 Creation of new educational networked
organizations
 Changing of educational management from
hierarchical institutions to equal distributions of
network organizations, from commanding to
negotiating.
 Demands for flexible and general skills
MULTICULTURALISM

It is a field of study designed to increase


educational equity for all students that
incorporates, for this purpose, content,
concepts, principles, theories and paradigms
from history, the social and behavioral
sciences, and particularly from ethnic studies
and women studies.
DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURALISM

 Content Integration – is the inclusion of


materials, concepts and values from a
variety of cultures in teaching.
 Knowledge Construction – is the
recognition that all knowledge is socially
constructed, created in minds of human
beings to explain their experiences and
thus, can be challenged.
DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURALISM

 Equity pedagogy – is involved when teachers


alter their teaching methods to accommodate
the various cultural differences of diverse
students to stimulate academic achievement.
 Prejudice Reduction – concerns changing the
students’ attitudes towards differences of race
and ethnicity.
 Empowering school culture – it enables the
other four dimensions.
GENDER EDUCATION

 Sex – actual biological differences between


males and females; a distinction between the
physical and biological characteristics.
 Gender – the different roles, responsibilities
and expectations of women and men in
societies and cultures; socially- assigned label
and personal definitions including the
corresponding defined rights and
responsibilities.
GENDER EDUCATION
 Patriarchy – refers to not just the benefits and
costs that fathers and men have in families
and at home, but also in society at large; at
the workplace, at home and In human
relationships at large.
 Gender equality – is central to sustainable
development where each member of society
respects others and plays a role in which they
can fulfill their potential.
DIMENSIONS OF GENDER EQUALITY

 Equality of access – equitable opportunities


to gain admission to formal, non-formal or
alternative approaches to basic education.
 Equality in the learning process – receiving
equitable treatment and attention and have
equal opportunities to learn by exposing to
same curricula, though coursework may be
taught differently to accommodate different
learning styles of students.
DIMENSIONS OF GENDER EQUALITY

 Equality of educational outcomes – enjoying


equal opportunities to achieve and outcomes
are based on their individual talents and
efforts.
 Equality of external results – occurs when the
status of men and women, their access to
goods and resources and their ability to
contribute to, participate in and benefit from
economic, cultural and political activities are
equal.
HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION

 Human Rights – legal rights, safely enshrined


in the UDHR, various human rights, covenants,
treaties and declarations, regional charters,
national constitutions and laws.
 Human Rights Education – should encompass
values of peace, non-discrimination, equality,
justice, non-violence, tolerance and respect for
human dignity.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF UDHR

 Universality – everyone should enjoy human


rights without discrimination of any form.
 Inviolability – human rights are irreducible
element of one’s humanity cannot be
abrogated or violated unless determined by
law.
 Interdependence – certain rights cannot be
sacrificed in favor of their rights.
HUMAN RIGHTS AND ISSUES
ISSUES HUMAN RIGHTS
1. Food and Health Rights to food, health,
habitat and economic security

2. Land, Language and Culture Rights to minorities and


indigenous people
Right to ancestral land
3. Environment Right to environmental
protection
4. Labor and Workplace Right to work
Rights of workers
HUMAN RIGHTS AND ISSUES
ISSUES HUMAN RIGHTS
5. Education Right to education

6. Children’s Welfare Right of children

7. Women Right to equality

8. Rule of law and good Right to administrative due


governance process
Right to the rule of law
Right of participation
EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
This educational effort will encourage changes in
behavior that will create a more sustainable
future in terms of environmental integrity,
economic viability, and a just society for
present and future generations.
The four core values are: 1) reverence of all life;
2) inter-generational equity; 3) concept of
universal harm; and 4) solidarity/ communion.
TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN
PHILIPPINE EDUCATION
TRIFOCALIZATION OF THE
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

 Basic Education – consisting of elementary and


secondary levels and is managed by the Department
of Education under R.A. 9155.
 Technical – Vocational Education and Training – is
under the jurisdiction of Technical Education and
Skills Development Authority (R.A. 7796)
 Higher Education – involves community colleges,
university and specialized colleges under the
Commission on Higher Education (R.A. 7722)
PHILOSOPHY OF 2002 BEC

1. The ideal Filipino learners are empowered


learners, competent in learning how to learn
and have life skills so that they become self-
developed persons who are makabayan,
makatao, makakalikasan and maka-Diyos.
2. Functional literacy is the essential ability for
lifelong learning in or dynamically changing
world.
PHILOSOPHY OF 2002 BEC

3. The ideal teacher is not the authoritarian instructor


but the trustworthy facilitator or manager of the
learning process, enabling the learners to become
active constructors of meaning and not passive
recipients of info.
4. The ideal teaching-learning process is interactive
where the learners, the teachers, instructional
materials and info-tech interact with one another
reciprocally.
ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION
Also known as non-traditional education or educational
alternative, includes a number of approaches to
teaching and learning other than mainstream or
traditional education.
It envision a Philippine society characterized by an
increasing productive mixed economy, essentially
nationalist and redistributive in character and by a
democratic government based on the broadest
possible sectoral representation at the local,
regional and national levels.
Selected DepEd Programs and
Projects
UNESCO – Education for All

 Universal basic education is the central goal of the


Philippine EFA strategy. Major interventions for UNSECO’s
Framework for Action to meet basic learning needs:
1. Institutionalize early childhood care and development

2. Provide universal quality primary education

3. Eradicate illiteracy

4. Launch continuing education programs for adults and


out-of-school youth

Programs & Projects


Child-Friendly School System (CFSS)

The characteristics are:


 Gender sensitive and non-discriminating.
 Child-centered
 Promotes good health practices and behaviors and
guarantees that school premises are safe and clean
 has the best interest of children in mind and seeks to
provide a safe, secure and a home away from home
environment.
 engages support and interaction of community institutions
and other individuals.

Programs & Projects


Multilingual and Mother-Tongue Based Learning

It refers to learning which begins in the first


language/ mother tongue and transitions to additional
languages, It views Filipino as a language which is more
culturally relevant and practical and has the value of
foster national unity. The child is most comfortable
learning in one’s 1st language and begins to
conceptualize rather than merely memorize formulae
and codes as one does when the language is not
familiar.

Programs & Projects


Multilingual and Mother-Tongue Based Learning

A. DepEd Order No. 60, s. 2008


The use of mother tongue as the language of
instruction beginning grade 1 is now recognized as the
most effective way to improve student learning and shall
also serve as a strong bridge language to learn a
second language better and faster.

Programs & Projects


Multilingual and Mother-Tongue Based Learning

B. DepEd Order No. 74, s. 2009


Mother Tongue – Based Multilingual Education,
herein referred to as MLE, is the effective use of more
than two languages for literacy and instruction.

Programs & Projects


Every Child A Reader Program (ECARP)

Launched to develop pupils’ reading and


communication skills by Grade 3. It is designed to
improve the delivery of instruction of reading teachers
in Grades I to III. An eight-week curriculum provides
Grade I pupils adequate home-to-school transition and
readiness experiences.

Programs & Projects


Brigada Eskwela

The National Schools Maintenance Week and is


observed every May of each year since 2003.
Capitalizing on the spirit of bayanihan among Filipinos.
It encourages parents, barangay residents, local
businessman, youth and the community to volunteer
resources (financial, material, labor) and work
collectively for the maintenance and minor repair of
schools during the month of May to prepare the schools
for the opening of classes in June.

Programs & Projects


Brigada Eskwela PLUS

This shall be implemented in three phases that will


focus on contributing to the:
a. Increase in participation rate;

b. Decrease in dropout rate; and

c. Improvement of academic performance of public


school children.

Programs & Projects


Adopt-A-School Program

Formalized by R. A. 8525, this program is


DepEd’s vehicle to mobilize support from the private
and non-government sectors. Based on a menu of
assistance packages developed by Deped, interested
companies can sponsor certain school
programs/projects. Donor assistance came in the form
of classroom construction, teaching skills development,
provision of computer and science laboratory
equipment/ apparatusses; and school programs for the
children.

Programs & Projects


Schools First Initiative

The 5 Core Principles are:


1. Schools are community for learning.

2. Schools deliver education whose quality is


objectively describable, observable and measurable
even to those from outside the school.
3. Schools’ education quality is observed/ monitored
be improved continuously from whatever level it
begins and regardless of prevailing conditions.

Programs & Projects


Schools First Initiative

4. Schools’ education quality outcomes must benefit


all students.

5. Schools’ education quality and benefits they provide


to everyone are the center of DepEd’s concerns,
efforts and accountability.

Programs & Projects


School-Based Management

It is defined as “decentralization of decision-


making authority from central, regional and division
levels to individual schools, uniting school heads,
teachers, students as well as parents, the local
government units and the community in promoting
effective schools

Programs & Projects


School-Based Management

The main goal of SBM is to improve school performance


and student achievement. Its objectives are:
• empower the school head to provide leadership; and
• mobilize the community as well as the local government
units to invest time, money and effort in making the school
a better place to learn in.

Programs & Projects


RA 10533 – THE ENHANCE BASIC EDUCATION ACT
OF 2013

The Imperative for K to 12

 Streamline the curriculum to improve mastery of basic


competencies
Ensure seamlessness of primary, secondary and post-
secondary competencies
Improve teaching through the use of enhanced
pedagogies (spiral progression in Science & Math) and
medium of instruction
Expand job opportunities (by reducing jobs-skills
mismatch) and provide better preparation for higher
learning
RA 10533 – THE ENHANCE BASIC EDUCATION ACT
OF 2013

Enhanced Basic Education Program

Kindergarten Education - 1 year of preparatory


education for children at least 5 years of age;
Elementary Education - six years of compulsory education
with 6 years old as entrant age;
Secondary education – 4 years of JHS and 2 years of
SHS, typically 12 and 16 years entrant age.
RA 10533 – THE ENHANCE BASIC EDUCATION ACT
OF 2013

Provisions

 For K-3, instruction, teaching materials and assessment


shall be in the regional and native language of the learners
For 4-6, DepEd shall formulate a mother language
transition program so that Filipino and English shall be
gradually introduced as languages of instruction until such
time when these 2 languages can become the primary
languages of instructions at the secondary language
RA 10533 – THE ENHANCE BASIC EDUCATION ACT
OF 2013

Standards and Principles


The curriculum shall be learner-centered, inclusive and
developmentally appropriate
The curriculum shall be relevant, responsive and research-
based
The curriculum shall be culture-sensitive

The curriculum shall be contextualized and global

The curriculum shall use pedagogical approaches that are


constructivist, inquiry-based, reflective, collaborative and
integrative
RA 10533 – THE ENHANCE BASIC EDUCATION ACT
OF 2013

Standards and Principles


The curriculum shall adhere to the principles and
framework of MTB-MLE
The curriculum shall use the spiral progression
approach to ensure mastery of knowledge and skills
after each level; and
The curriculum shall be flexible enough to enable and
allow schools to localize, indigenize and enhance the
same based on their respective educational and social
contexts
RA 10533 – THE ENHANCE BASIC EDUCATION ACT
OF 2013

Hiring of Teachers and Specialists

For Specialist and other degree courses, provided they


are qualified LET applicants and they are duly
recognized for their expertise in the education sector
and who satisfactorily complete the requirements set by
the organizations, provided that they pass the LET within
5 years after their date of hiring and if they are willing
to teach on part-time basis, the provisions of LET shall
no 0nger be required;
RA 10533 – THE ENHANCE BASIC EDUCATION ACT
OF 2013

Hiring of Teachers and Specialists

For Tech-Voch, provided that they possess the


necessary certification issued by the TESDA and that
they have undergone appropriate in-service training to
be administered by the DepEd or HEIs;
Faculty of HEIs, if the faculty is a holder of relevant
Bachelor’s Degree and must have satisfactorily serves
as a full-time HEI faculty;
RA 10533 – THE ENHANCE BASIC EDUCATION ACT
OF 2013

Hiring of Teachers and Specialists

DepEd and Private education institutions may hire


practitioners, with expertise in the specialized learning
areas offered by the Basic Education Curriculum, to
teach in the secondary level; Provided, that they teach
on part-time basis only. For this purpose, the DepEd, in
coordination with the agencies, shall determine the
necessary qualification standards in hiring these
experts.
TEST
ITEMS
1. A research conducted by Nicholls showed
that underachievers in school consist more
boys than girls. What could be one reason?
A. As a whole, boys are endowed with
less intelligence than girls.
B. Generally, girls are by nature more
intelligent than boys.
C. Boys get more easily discouraged
than girls.
D. Generally, girls are more diligent
than boys.
2. Lecturer C narrates: “I observe that
when there is an English-speaking
foreigner in a class more often than not,
his classmates perceive him to be superior.
“to which Filipino trait does this point?
A. Friendliness
B. Colonial Mentality
C. Hospitality
D. Lack of confidence
3. What do the school campus
expressions “promdi” and “barriotic”
indicate?
A. The power of the rich.
B. The prevalence of ethnocentrism
C. The powerlessness of the poor
D. Low literacy rate of the country
4. Which did the Americans teach the
Filipinos which the Spaniards did
NOT?
A. Their government
B. Their art
C. Their language
D. Their religion
5. When a teacher teaches the idea that it
is wrong to think the Filipino lifestyle,
products and ideas are inferior to those of
other nationalities he fight against _____.

A. Acculturation
B. Xenocentrism
C. Ethnocentrism
D. Culture Shock
6. Which can promote national pride among
pupils/ students?
I. Studying the lives of outstanding Filipinos
here and abroad.
II. Reading the lives of the saints of Church.
III. Studying the Philippine history with the
emphasis on the victories and greatness
of the Filipino people
A. I, II and III
B. III only
C. I and III
D. I only
7. Why is the exodus of Filipino professionals
described as “brain drain”?
I. Those who go abroad are usually the better
ones because they are the ones who passed
screening procedures.
II. Filipino professionals serve other countries
instead.
III. They contribute to nation building through
their dollar remittances
A. I, II and III
B. I only
C. II only
D. I and II
8. History books used in the schools are replete
with events portraying defeats and weaknesses
of the Filipino are people. In the spirit of
nationalism, how should you tackle them in the
classroom?
A. Present the facts and express your feelings of
regret.
B. Present them as they are and tell the class to
accept reality.
C. Present the facts and use them as means to
teach and inspire your class.
D. Present the facts including those responsible
for the failures or for those who contributed.
9. Which statement on true authority
is WRONG?
A. It sets an example.
B. It acts in the best interest of
others.
C. Its goal is to help, form and
guide others.
D. It seeks its own satisfaction
and privilege
10. My right ends where the rights of
others begin. What does this mean?
A. Rights are alienable.
B. Rights are inalienable
C. Rights are not absolute.
D. Rights are absolute.
11. “The greatest happiness lies in the
contemplative use of the mind”, said Plato.
Therefore, let us give more opportunities
for our students to do _____.

A. social interaction
B. role playing
C. cooperative learning
D. introspection
12. The practice of starting school
programs very late points to the
Filipino’s ______.
A. orientation only to the
present
B. lack of discipline
C. poor teamwork
D. lack of initiative
13. In a research conducted by Sadker, it was
found out that male and female teachers are
more likely to call on male than female students
and are more likely to give positive reinforcement
to male’s correct responses than those of
females. What does this point to? Prevalence of
_____ in schools.
A. racial prejudice
B. multiculturalism
C. ethnocentrism
D. gender bias
14. To develop in the young a sense of pride and
appreciation of our very own culture, which one
should schools do more?
I. Stress on the positive aspects of our Filipino
culture.
II. Invite knowledgeable persons to discuss
events in our history for which we can be
proud.
III. Study the lives of our heroes.
A. I, II and III
B. II and III
C. I and III
D. I and II
15. According to Ormrod, considering socio-
cultural influences, who can serve as an effective
model for students’ motivation? One who is
____.
A. popular and loving
B. superior to them in age and position in
life
C. Not like them in terms of race, socio-
economic status and cultural background
D. Similar to them in terms of race, socio-
economic status and cultural background
16. Which illustrates the principle:
“Circumstances may change a good or an
indifferent act into a punishable one”.
A. Seated on a chair at the back, a teacher sleeps
while he makes his class copy notes from the
board.
B. The professional teacher’s act of insulting a
student is worse than a student belittling a
classmate.
C. Slapping someone at a moment of rage is not as
worse as slapping someone for thrill.
D. To steal money from a poor classmate is worse
than to steal from a rich classmate.
17. In times of war, soldiers must be ready to give
up their lives in defense of the nation. Which
normative relationship applies in this case?
A. Higher law – inalienable rights vs.
alienable
B. Wider social order – the family before the
individual
C. More common good – public safety
before private gain
D. Greater urgency – saving the living before
burying the dead.
18. If the Philippines has to become a great
nation, which is/are necessary?
I. Change for the better must take place in the
power holders as well as in the masa.
II. Workforce must go abroad and remit dollars
to the country.
III. Our leaders must have the political will to
implement and model change
A. III only
B. I and II
C. I, II and III
D. I and III
19. If you agree with Rizal on how you can
contribute to our country’s redemption, which
should you work for?

A. The economic recovery of the country.


B. The country’s full participation in world
trade.
C. The stabilization of the country’s political
situation.
D. The upgrading of the quality of Philippine
education
20. Duties that secure public order or common
good have priority over those that safeguard the
individual. Which illustrates this?
A. Drugstores require doctor’s prescription
before disposing the drug.
B. The need to obey traffic rules is prior to
one’s personal convenience.
C. Homeowners construct humps on the
road fronting their house for their safety.
D. A Christian businessman misses his
Sunday worship because he plays golf all
day.
21. Authority comes from God and is meant
to ______.

A. be used to exploit others


B. be used to serve others
C. be lorded over others
D. distinguish the powerless from the
powerful
22. Which statement on human rights is
CORRECT?

A. All rights are inalienable.


B. Some rights are absolute.
C. Every right carries with it an
obligation.
D. Rights are absolute.
23. The reciprocity of rights and duties is the true
foundation of peace and harmony in society. Which
illustrate/s the reciprocation of rights and duties?
I. You have the right to a just salary but it us your
duty to teach as expected.
II. Your right to a good reputation corresponds to
everyone’s obligation not to destroy it.
III. You have the right to a just salary and it’s the duty
of the Phil. Government to pay you.

A. I and II
B. II and III
C. I and III
D. III
24. Human dignity is inherent in every
person. What does this mean? The inner
worth of a person _______.
A. depends on what s/he has
B. depends on what s/he can do
C. is in him/her or not s/he can do or
has something
D. depends on how s/he looks
25. To insist on rights without acceptance of
duty is ______.
A. selflessness
B. righteousness
C. awareness
D. selfishness
26. The failure of independent study with
most Filipino students may be attributed to
students’ _______.
A. ambivalence
B. unpreparedness for schooling
C. high degree of independence
D. high degree of dependence on
authority
27. A father tells his daughter “You are a
woman. You are meant for the home and so
for you, going to school is not necessary.” Is
the father CORRECT?
A. It depends on the place where the
daughter and father live.
B. No, today women can take on the jobs of
man.
C. Yes, women are meant to be mothers
only.
D. No, there is gender equality in education.
28. Widespread abuse of Mother Earth
prompted schools to teach sustainable
development. Which one does this prove
about schools?
A. The curricula of schools are centered on
Mother Earth.
B. Environmental factors influence the school as
an agent of change.
C. Schools can easily integrate sustainable
development in their curriculum.
D. Sustainable development cannot be
effectively taught in the classrooms.
29. The specialization required of every
professional teacher for him/her to be
competent is in line with which pillar of
education?
A. Learning to know
B. Learning to be
C. Learning to live together
D. Learning to do
30. Which pillar of learning is aimed at the
holistic development of man and his
complete fulfillment?

A. Learning to be
B. Learning to know
C. Learning to live together
D. Learning to do
31. Material development at the expense of
human development points to the need to
do more ______ in school.

A. Learning to do
B. Learning to know
C. Learning to live together
D. Learning to be
32. A student complains to you about his failing
grade. When you recomputed you found out that
you committed an error in his grade
computation. Your decision is not to accept the
erroneous computation before the student and
so leave the failing grade as is for fear that you
may lose credibility. Is this morally right?
A. No, the reason for not accepting the error
before the student is flimsy.
B. Yes, as a teacher you must maintain your
credibility.
C. No, the end does not justify the means.
D. Yes, the end justifies the means.
33. Which violate/s the principle of respect?
I. Teacher A tells her students that what Teacher B
taught is wrong.
II. To retaliate, Teacher B advises students not to
enroll in Teacher A’s class.
III. Teacher C secretly gives way to a special favor (e.g.
add 2 points to grade) requested by student A who
is vying for honors.
A. II and III
B. I, II and III
C. I and II
D. I and III
34. Teacher A knows of the illegal activities
of a neighbor but keeps quiet in order not
to be involved in any investigation. Which
foundational principle of morality does
Teacher A fail to apply?
A. The end does not justify the means.
B. The end justifies the means.
C. Always do what is right.
D. Between two evils, do the lesser
evil.
35. To earn units for promotion, a teacher
pays her fee but does not attend class at all.
Does this constitute professional growth?
A. Not immediately but yes after
promotion.
B. It depends on the school she is enrolled
in.
C. No, it is simply earning MA units for
promotion.
D. Yes, just enrolling in an MA program is
already professional growth.
36. Which characterize/s learning environment
that promotes fairness among learners of various
cultures, family background and gender?
I. Inclusive
II. Exclusive
III. Gender - sensitive
A. I only
B. III only
C. I and III
D. II and III
37. Between pursuing a college course
where there is no demand and a vocational
course which is highly in demand, the
Filipino usually opts for the college course.
Which Filipino trait is shown?

A. Interest to obtain a skill


B. Penchant for a college diploma
C. Desire for entrepreneurship
D. Appreciation of manual labor
38. Which of the following does extreme
authoritarianism in the home reinforce in
pupils?
A. Sense of initiative
B. Ability for self-direction
C. Creativity in work
D. Dependence on others for direction
39. A teacher’s quarrel with a parent makes
her develop a feeling of prejudice against
the parent’s child. The teacher’s
unfavorable treatment of the child is an
influence of what Filipino trait?
A. Lack of self-reflection
B. Extreme family centeredness
C. “Sakop” mentality
D. Extreme personalism
40. Teacher Gerry feels offended by his
supervisor’s unfavorable comments after a
classroom supervision. He concludes that
his supervisor does not like him. Which
Filipino trait is demonstrated by T. Gerry?
A. Extreme family centeredness
B. Extreme personalism
C. “Kanya-Kanya” Syndrome
D. Superficial religiosity
40. Teacher Gerry feels offended by his
supervisor’s unfavorable comments after a
classroom supervision. He concludes that
his supervisor does not like him. Which
Filipino trait is demonstrated by T. Gerry?
A. Extreme family centeredness
B. Extreme personalism
C. “Kanya-Kanya” Syndrome
D. Superficial religiosity
41. Complete this analogy:
Spanish period: moral and religious person
American period: _________________

A. Productive citizen
B. Self-reliant citizen
C. Patriotic citizen
D. Caring citizen
42. Which is NOT a characteristic of
education during pre-Spanish era?

A. Vocational training-oriented
B. Structured
C. Unstructured
D. Informal
43. For city-bred students to think that their
culture is better than those from the
province is a concrete example of ______.
A. ethical relativism
B. ethnocentrism
C. cultural relativism
D. xenocentrism
44. Referring to the characteristics of the
latest Basic Education Curriculum which
does NOT belong to the group?
A. More flexible
B. Less prescriptive
C. More compartmentalized
D. More integrated
45. Just as selected Filipino teachers today
are sent abroad to study, the Americans did
the same in 1903. These teachers-scholars
were known as ________.
A. Reformists
B. Pensionados
C. Insulares
D. Peninsulares
46. Which feature was TRUE of Philippine
education during the Spanish regime?
A. Separation of Church and State
B. Emphasis on religious instruction
C. Vernacular as a medium of
instruction
D. Establishment of a normal school
47. Which is in line with equitable access to
education but runs counter to quality?
A. Selective retention of students
B. Open admission
C. Program accreditation
D. Deregulated tuition fee hike
48. A School Division Superintendent was
enthusiastically lecturing the Accreditation
Program for Public Elementary Schools
(APPES) – its benefits and demands.
Thinking of many demands, most of the
school heads were not very happy about it
and the older ones were whispering “we
have every reason to retire soon.”
48. What does this tell about the change
process?
A. Leadership can affect the desired
change in persons despite
opposition from the persons
themselves.
B. Resistance to change is
insurmountable.
C. People resist change for no reason.
D. People tend to resist change.
49. A master teacher, the resource speaker
in an in-service training, presented the
situated learning theory and encouraged
her colleagues to apply the same in class.
Which did she NOT encourage her
colleagues to do?
A. Apprenticeship
B. Authentic problem solving
C. Learning as it normally occurs
D. Decontextualized teaching
50. Which attitude is exemplified by a Boy
Scout who says Bahala na! and dives into a
pool to save a drowning boy?
A. An “I don’t care” attitude
B. A daring attitude combined with
pagmamalasakit
C. A daring attitude
D. A segurista attitude

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