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ChanRobles Professional Review, Inc.

Civil Law

PRE-BAR REVIEW ON
PROPERTY

Justice Hector L. Hofileña

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ClassificationofProperty– byMobility
(Arts.414– 418)

RealorImmovableandPersonalorMovable
(Art.414)

Exceptions:
a.Partiestoacontractmaytreatwhatisrealaspersonalor
viceversa(LeungYeev.StrongMachineryCo.,37Phil.531;
Serg’sProductsv.PCILeasing,GR137705,Aug22,2000)
b.Speciallawsmayprovideotherwise,e.g.growingcrops
underchattelmortgagelaw.

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RealorImmovableProperty
Art.415,NewCivilCode

‡ 1.Lands,buildings,roadsandconstructionsofall
kindadheredtothesoil,(bynature,incorporation)
2.Trees,plantsandgrowingfruits,whiletheyare
attachedtothelandorformanintegralpartofan
immovable.(bynature,incorporation)
3.Everythingattachedtoanimmovableafixed
mannerinsuchawaythatitcannotbeseparated
therefromwithoutbreakingthematerialor
deteriorationoftheobject.(byincorporation)

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RealorImmovablePropertycont’d.

‡ 4.Statues,reliefs,paintingsorotherobjectsforuseor
ornamentation,placedinbuildingsorlandsbytheownerof
theimmovableinsuchamannerthatitrevealstheintention
toattachthempermanentlytothetenements.(by
destination)

‡ 5.Machinery,receptacles,instriumentsorimplements
intendedbytheownerofhetenementforanindusryorworks
whichmaybecarriedoninabuildingoronapieceofland,
andwhichtenddirectlytomeetheneedsoftheindustryor
works.(bydestination)

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CapitolWireless,Inc.Vs.ProvincialTreasurerof
Batangas,G.R.190110,May30,2016

‡ Submarineorunderseacommunicationscablesareakinto
electrictransmissionlineswhicharenotdirectlyadheredto
thesoilbutpassthroughposts,relaysorlandingstationsand
maybequalifiedas“machinery”underArticle415(5),forthe
simplereasonthattheytendtomeettheneedsofanindustry
orworkswhichareonrealestate.Evenobjectsonabodyof
watermaybeclassifiedassuchas“waters”isanimmovable
underArt.415(8)oftheCode.

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‡ Andasfaraslocalgovernmentunitsareconcerned,theareas
describedabovearetobeconsideredsubsumedunderthe
term“municipalwaters”which,undertheLocalGovernment
Code,includes“notonlystreams,lakes,andtidalwaters
withinthemunicipality,notbeingthesubjectofprivate
ownershipandnotcomprisedwithinthenationalparks,
publicforest,timberlands,forestreservesorfisheryreserves,
butalsomarinewatersincludedbetweentwolinesdrawn
perpendicularlytothegeneralcoastlinefrompointswhere
theboundarylinesofthemunicipalityorcitytouchtheseaat
lowtideandathirdlineparallelwiththegeneralcoastline
andfifteen(15)kilometersfromit.”

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‡ Althoughtheterm“municipalwaters”appearsintheCodein
thecontextofthegrantofquarryingandfisheriesprivileges
forafeebylocalgovernments,itsinclusionintheCode’sBook
IIwhichcoverslocaltaxationmeansthatitmayalsoapplyas
guideindeterminingtheterritorialextentofthelocal
authorities’powertolevyrealpropertytaxation.
‡ Thus,thejurisdictionorauthorityoversuchpartofthe
subjectsubmarinecablesystemlyingwithinPhilippine
jurisdictionincludestheauthoritytotaxthesame,for
taxationisoneofthethreebasicandnecessaryattributesof
sovereignty,49andsuchauthorityhasbeendelegatedbythe
nationallegislaturetothelocalgovernmentswithrespectto
realpropertytaxation.

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RealorImmovablePropertycont’d.

6.Animalhouses,pigeonhouses,beehives,fishpondsor
breedingplacesofsimilarnature,incasetheirownerhas
plaedthemorpreservesthemwiththeintentiontohave
thempermanentlyattachedothland,andforminga
permanentpartofit;theanimalsintheseplacesare
included.(bynatureordestination)
7.Fertilizeractuallyusedonapieceofland.(byincorporation)
8.Mines,quarriesandslagdumps,whilethemattersthereof
formpartofthebed,andwatersrunningofstagnant.(by
nature)

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RealorImmovableProperty,cont’d.

9. Docksandstructureswhich,thoughfloating,are
intendedbytheirnatureorobjecttoremainata
fixedplaceonariver,lakeorcoast.(bydestination)

10.Contractsforpublicworksandservitudesandother
realrightsoverimmovableproperty.(byanalogy)

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PersonalorMovableProperty

Art.416– Thefollowingaredeemedtobepersonalpropery
1. Thosemovables susceptibleofappropriationwhicharenotincludedin
precedingarticle–
e.g.telecommunicationsservice(Laurelvs.Abrogar,576SCRA41).
2.Realpropertywhichbyanyspecialprovisionoflawisconsideredas
personalty;e.g.growingcrops.
3. Forcesofnaturewhicharebroughtundercontrolofscience;
e.g.electricity,and
3. 4.Ingeneral,allthingswhichcanbetransferredfromplacetoplace
withoutimpairmentoftherealpropertytowhichtheyarefixed.

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PersonalorMovableProperty,cont’d.

Art.417– Thefollowingthingsaredeemedtobepersonal
properties,
a.Obligationsandactions,whichhavefortheirobject
movablesordemandablesums,and
b.Sharesofstockofagricultural,commercialandindustrial
entities,althoughtheymayhaverealestate.

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ProvincialAssessorofAgusandelSurvs.Filipinas
PalmOilPlantation,Inc.,805SCRA112,G.R.No.
183416October5,2016
‡ Despitethelandbeingleasedbyrespondentwhentheroads
wereconstructed,theownershipoftheimprovementstill
belongstoNGPINGEI.AsprovidedunderArticles440and445
oftheCivilCode,thelandisownedbythecooperativesatthe
timerespondentbuilttheroads.Hence,whateveris
incorporatedintheland,eithernaturallyorartificially,
belongstotheNGPINGEIasthelandowner. Althoughthe
roadswereprimarilybuiltforrespondent’sbenefit,theroads
werealsobeingusedbythemembersofNGPIandthe
public.80Furthermore,theroadsinuredtothebenefitof
NGPINGEIasownersofthelandnotonlybyrightof
accessionbutthroughtheexpressprovisioninthelease
agreement

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‡ Petitioneriscorrectinclaimingthatthephrasepertainingto
physicalfacilitiesforproductioniscomprehensiveenoughto
includetheroadequipmentandminihaulersasactually,
directly,andexclusivelyusedbyrespondenttomeetthe
needsofitsoperationsinpalmoilproduction.96Moreover,
“minihaulersarefarmtractorspullingattachedtrailersused
inthehaulingofseedlingsduringplantingseasonandin
transferringfreshpalmfruitsfromthefarm[or]fieldtothe
processingplantwithintheplantationarea.”97The
indispensabilityoftheroadequipmentandminihaulersin
transportationmakesitactually,directly,andexclusivelyused
intheoperationofrespondent’sbusiness.

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ConsummableandFungible

1. According to their nature, movable property is either


consummable or nonconsummable. To the first class belong
those movables which cannot be used in a manner
appropriate to their nature without being consumed; to the
second class belong all the others (Art. 418).

2. According to the intention of the parties, movable property is


either fungible or nonfungible. If it is agreed that the
identical thing be returned, it is nonfungible. If it is agreed
that an equivalent be returned, it is fungible.

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ClassificationofProperty– byowner
(Arts.419– 426)

1. Propertyofpublicdominionandpropertyof
privateownership (Art.419)

2.Propertyofpublicdominion:
a.Propertyforpublicuse(maybeusedbyanyone);
b.Propertyforpublicservice(maybeusedonlyby
thoseauthorized,butforbenefitofthepublic);
c.Propertyfordevelopmentofthenational
wealth. (Art.420)

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Propertyofpublicdominion

3..Characteristicsofpropertiesofpublicdominion:
a.Outsidethecommerceofman.
b.Cannotbeacquiredbyprescription.
c.CannotberegisteredundertheTorrenssystem,
d.Cannotbeattachedorleviedonexecution
(GMASCOvs.NHA,750SCRA156[2015])

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Propertyofpublicdominion,cont’d.

4.Examplesofpropertiesforpublicuse– roads,canals,
torrents,portsandbridgesconstructedbythestate,banks,
shores,roadsteadsandothersofsimilarcharacter.
a.Foreshorelandsandlandsreclaimedfromthesea.
Foreshorelandliesbetweenthehighandlowwatermarks
ofthesea.
Proximitytotheseadoesnotmakelandforeshoreland
(Almagrovs.KwanG.R.175806&175810.Oct.20,2010)
b.Creeks(Userovs.CA,G.R.152115,Jan.26,2005)

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Propertyforpublicservice

1.Ingeneral,canbeusedonlybyauthorizedpersons
butforthebenefitofthepublic.
2.Examples:cityhalls,firetrucks,policecars,airports
(MIAAv.CityofPasay,495SCRA591).
3.Propertyofpublicdominion,whennolonger
neededforpublicuseorpublicservice,shallform
partofthepatrimonialpropertyoftheState.(Art.
422,Chavezvs.NHA,G.R.164527,August15,2007).
a.Legislativeauthorityisrequired.

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HeirsofMarioMalabananvs.Republicofthe
Philippines,704SCRA561(2013)

‡ Tosumup,wenowobservethefollowingrulesrelativetothe
dispositionofpubliclandorlandsofthepublicdomain,
namely:
‡ (1) AsageneralruleandpursuanttotheRegalianDoctrine,
alllandsofthepublicdomainbelongtotheStateandare
inalienable.Landsthatarenotclearlyunderprivate
ownershiparealsopresumedtobelongtotheStateand,
therefore,maynotbealienatedordisposed;
‡ (2) Thefollowingareexceptedfromthegeneralrule,towit:

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‡ (b)Landsofthepublicdomainsubsequentlyclassifiedor
declaredasnolongerintendedforpublicuseorforthe
developmentofnationalwealthareremovedfromthesphere
ofpublicdominionandareconsideredconvertedinto
patrimoniallandsorlandsofprivateownershipthatmaybe
alienatedordisposedthroughanyofthemodesofacquiring
ownershipundertheCivilCode.Ifthemodeofacquisitionis
prescription,whetherordinaryorextraordinary,proofthat
thelandhasbeenalreadyconvertedtoprivateownership
priortotherequisiteacquisitiveprescriptiveperiodisa
conditionsinequanoninobservanceofthelaw(Article1113,
CivilCode)thatpropertyoftheStatenotpatrimonialin
charactershallnotbetheobjectofprescription.
‡

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‡ 4.Withoutexpressdeclarationthatapropertyisno
longerintendedforpublicserviceordevelopmentof
nationalwealth,theproperty,evenifclassifiedas
alienableordisposable,remainspropertyofthe
Stateandmaynotbeacquiredbyprescription.
(Republicvs.EastSilverlaneRealty,Inc.,666SCRA
401[2012]).

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‡ (a) Agriculturallandsofthepublicdomainarerendered
alienableanddisposablethroughanyoftheexclusivemodes
enumeratedunderSection11ofthePublicLandAct.Ifthe
modeisjudicialconfirmationofimperfecttitleunderSection
48(b)ofthePublicLandAct,theagriculturallandsubjectof
theapplicationneedsonlytobeclassifiedasalienableand
disposableasofthetimeoftheapplication,providedthe
applicant’spossessionandoccupationofthelanddatedback
toJune12,1945(May8,1947,perSps.AntonioFortuna&
ErlindaFortunavs.RepublicofthePhilippines,G.R.
No.173423,March5,2014),orearlier.

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‡ (b)Landsofthepublicdomainsubsequentlyclassifiedor
declaredasnolongerintendedforpublicuseorforthe
developmentofnationalwealthareremovedfromthesphere
ofpublicdominionandareconsideredconvertedinto
patrimoniallandsorlandsofprivateownershipthatmaybe
alienatedordisposedthroughanyofthemodesofacquiring
ownershipundertheCivilCode.Ifthemodeofacquisitionis
prescription,whetherordinaryorextraordinary,proofthat
thelandhasbeenalreadyconvertedtoprivateownership
priortotherequisiteacquisitiveprescriptiveperiodisa
conditionsinequanoninobservanceofthelaw(Article1113,
CivilCode) [HeirsofMarioMalabananvs.Republicofthe
Philippines,704SCRA561(2013)]
‡

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.HeirsofZosimoQ.Maravillavs.Tupas,803SCRA1,
G.R.No.192132September14,2016
‡ TheabovereasoningoftheCAhasitsbasisonasimplelogic
thatonecannotdisposeofathinghedoesnotown.Inthis
case,atthetimeofthesaleofthesubjectproperty,thelate
AsicloS.Tupashadnorighttosellapropertythathasnot
beendeclaredalienablebytheState;hence,hecannotpass
untoanotheranyrightortitletoownorpossesstheland.
Therefore,the“SaleofUnregisteredLand”enteredinto
betweenthelateAsicloS.TupasandthelateZosimoMaravilla
onFebruary8,1975,previouslyconsideredvalidand
legitimateandbecamethebasisusedbytheRTCtosettlethe
disputebetweenthepartiesastowhohasthebetterrightto
theproperty,hasbecomenullandvoidbecausethesubject
propertyofthecontractisaforestlandandcannotbe
‡ .

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‡ alienatedatthetimethesaiddeedofsalewasexecuted.
Article1347oftheCivilCodeprovidesthatonlythings,which
arenotoutsidethecommerceofman,includingfuturethings,
maybetheobjectsofthecontractsandArticle1409ofthe
CivilCodealsostatesthatcontractswhoseobjectsareoutside
thecommerceofmanarenonexistentandvoidabinitio.
‡
‡ Withtheabovedisquisitions,thisCourt’sdecisioninThe
SecretaryoftheDepartmentofEnvironmentandNatural
Resources(DENR),etal.v.Yap,etal.andSacay,etal.v.The
SecretaryoftheDENR,etal.is,therefore,consideredasa
superveningeventthatcanstaytheexecutionofajudgment
thathasalreadyattainedfinality

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Propertyofprovinces,cities
andmunicipalities.
1.Dividedintopropertyforpublicuseandpatrimonialproperty(Art.423)
2.Propertyforpublicuseconsistsofprovincialroads,citystreets,municipal
streets,squares,fountains,publicwaters,promenades,andpublicworks
forpublicservice,paidforbysaidprovinces,citiesormunicipalities.(Art.
424)
a.Schools,publicmarketsandcemeteriesarepatrimonialpropertiesof
amunicipality(IntheMatterofReversion/RecallofReconstitutedOCT
No.0116,etc.,G.R.171304,Oct.10,2007)
b.ApublicplazaispubliclandbelongingtotheState,butmaybe
administered,asagovernmentalfunction,bythelocalgovernmentof
theterritorywhereitislocated.( ProvinceofCamarinesSurvs.CA,G.R.
No.175064)

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‡ Trueitisthatthelegislativecontroloveramunicipalcorporationisnot
absoluteevenwhenitcomestoitspropertydevotedtopublicuse,for
suchcontrolmustnotbeexercisedtotheextentofdeprivingpersonsof
theirpropertyorrightswithoutdueprocessoflaw,orinamanner
impairingtheobligationsofcontracts.Nevertheless,whenitcomesto
propertyofthemunicipalitywhichitdidnotacquireinitsprivateor
corporatecapacitywithitsownfunds,thelegislaturecantransferits
administrationanddispositiontoanagencyoftheNationalGovernment
tobedisposedofaccordingtoitsdiscretion.Hereitdidsoinobedienceto
theconstitutionalmandateofpromotingsocialjusticetoinsurethewell
beingandeconomicsecurityofthepeople.39(Underscoringours)
(SangguniangPanlalawiganofBataanvs.Garcia,Jr.,804SCRA629,G.R.
No.174964October5,2016.)

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PatrimonialProperty

1. Properties of private ownership belong to private


persons as well as to the State and local
government units. In the case of the State and
LGUs, they are called patrimonial property.

2. The lands and buildings held by the Manila


International Airport Authority are properties of the
State for public service (MIAA vs. CA, 495 SCRA
591).

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OWNERSHIP
Arts.427– 439)
Ownership may be exercised over things or rights (Art. 427)
Rights of an Owner: P
1. to enjoy, which includes the right
a. to possess (jus possidendi),
b. to enclose; to use reasonable force to prevent invasion;
c. to use (jus utendi),
d. to the fruits (jus fruendi)
2. to dispose (including the right to consume or destroy (jus
abutendi);
3. to recover (jus vindicandi). (Art. 428)

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ACTIONSTORECOVER

Rightsofactiontorecover–
1.Torecoverpersonalproperty– Replevin
2.Torecoverrealproperty:
a.ForcibleEntry
b.UnlawfulDetainer
c.AccionPubliciana
d.AccionReivindicatoria

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ActionstoRecover,cont’d
Forcibleentry(detentacion) isasummaryactiontorecover
possessionofrealpropertywhenapersonoriginallyin
possessionwasdeprivedofitbyforce,intimidation,strategy,
threatorstealth(FISTS).
a.ItistobefiledintheMTCofthemunicipalityorcitywhere
thepropertyislocated.
b.Itistobefiledwithinaperiodofoneyearfromthe
dispossession,ordiscoverythereofifbystrategyorstealth.
c.Thesoleissueisphysicalpossession(possessiondefacto).
d.Allthattheplaintiffisrequiredtoproveisprevious
possessionandthedeprivationthereofbyFISTS.

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ActionstoRecover,cont’d

Unlawful detainer (Desahucio) is a summary action bought to


recover possession of real property which is being unlawfully
witheld by a defendant whose right thereto by any contract
has expired or terminated.
a. It is to be filed in the MTC of the city or municipality where
the property is located.
b. It is to be filed within a period of one year from the time
that possession of the defendant has become unlawful.
c. The sole issue to be resolved is physical possession
(possession de facto)

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Actionstorecover,cont’d.

Forcible Entry and Unlawful Detainer (both known as accion interdictal) are
actions for recovery of possession. The difference between the two
actions is that in Forcible Entry, the possession of the defendant was
unlawful from the beginning, while in Unlawful Detainer, the possession of
the defendant was originally lawful but became unlawful afterwards.

A party who can prove prior possession can recover such possession even
against the possessor even against the owner himself . – German
Management and Services, Inc. vs. V Inc., GR No. 7621417 (Sept. 14,
1989,)

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Fullidovs.Grilli,785SCRA278,G.R.No.215014
February29,2016)

‡ Inthecaseatbench,theleasecontractandtheMOA,from
whichGrillipurportedlydrewhisrightofpossession,were
foundtobenullandvoidforbeingunconstitutional.A
contractthatviolatestheConstitutionandthelawisnulland
voidabinitioandvestsnorightsandcreatesnoobligations.It
producesnolegaleffectatall.36Hence,asvoidcontracts
couldnotbethesourceofrights,Grillihadnopossessory
rightoverthesubjectland.Apersonwhodoesnothaveany
rightoverapropertyfromthebeginningcannotejectanother
personpossessingthesame.Consequently,Grilli’scomplaint
forunlawfuldetainermustbedismissedforfailuretoprove
hiscauseofaction.

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ActionstoRecover,cont’d
Accion Publiciana (accion plenaria de posesion) – an
action to recover possession of real property based
on a better right or possession independently of title,
or when the action for forcible entry or unlawful
detainer has already prescribed.
a. It is to be brought in the RTC of the city or
province where the property is located.
b. The prescriptive period is 10 years.
c. The issue is possession de jure.

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‡ Accionpubliciana,alsoknownasaccion
plenariadeposesion,isanordinarycivil
proceedingtodeterminethebetterrightof
possessionofrealtyindependentoftitle– it
referstoanejectmentsuitfiledafterthe
expirationofoneyearfromtheaccrualofthe
causeofactionorfromtheunlawful
withholdingofpossessionoftheproperty.
(Madridvs.Mapoy,596SCRA14)

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‡ Theobjectiveoftheplaintiffinanaccionpubliciana
istorecoverpossessiononly,notownership.
However,wherethepartiesraisetheissueof
ownership,thecourtmaypassupontheissueto
determineonlywhobetweenthepartieshasthe
righttopossesstheproperty.(Tolentinovs.Laurel,
666SCRA561[2012])

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ActionstoRecover,cont’d.
Accion Reivindicatoria – an action to recover ownership of
property.
a. Must be filed in the RTC of the city or province where the
property is located.
b. It must be brought within a period of 10 or 30 years from
the time the plaintiff lost possession or had knowledge
thereof.
c. Issue is ownership.
d. A boundary dispute must be resolved in the context of
accion reinvindicatoria, not in an ejectment case. (Manalang
vs. Bacani, 745 SCRA 995[2015])

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ActionstoRecover,cont’d
.
Common Requisites: In an action to recover, the property must
be identified and the plaintiff must rely on the strength of his
own title and not on the weakness of the defendant’s claim
(Art. 434)
a. Property must be identified with particularity so that the
court will know the object of the action.
b. Plaintiff must rely on the strength of his title, because
the defendant is presumed to be the owner (Art. 433).
(Unregistered deed of sale cannot prevail over Torrens title
(Jakosalem vs. Barangan , G.R. No. 175025, Feb. 15, 2012).

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LimitationsonOwnership

1. GeneralLimitations:
a.Taxation  governmentmayimposeataxonproperty,andiftheseare
norpaid,thepropertymaybeseized.
b.Policepower– Propertymaybecondemnedorseizedintheinterest
ofhealth,safetyorsecurityandtheownershallnotbeentitledto
compensationunlesshecanshowsuchseizureisunjustified.(At.436)
Saluspopuliestsupremalex.
c.Eminentdomain– Nopersonshallbedeprivedonhispropertyexcept
bycompetentcourtandforpublicuseandalwaysuponpaymentofjust
compensation(Art.435).
i.Determinationofjustcompensationisajudicialfunction(NPCvs.
Sangkay,GR165028,Aug.24,2011,NPCvs.Tuazon,GR193193,June
22,2011)

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ii.Impositionofburdenisenoughtoconstitute“taking”
withinthecontemplationofthelaw(OfficeoftheSol.Gen,v.
AyalaLand,Inc.,600SCA60[1009])

iii.Whilethegeneralruleisthatthenonpaymentofjust
compensationdoesnotentitlethelandownertorecover
possessionoftheproperty,suchruledoesnotapplywhen
thereisadeliberaterefusalonthepartofthegovernmentto
payjustcompensation.(Republicvs.Lim,462SCRA265
[2005])

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‡ iv.Acondemnorshouldcommittousethepropertypursuant
tothepurposestatedinthepetitionforexpropriation,failing
whichitshouldfileanotherpetitionforthenewpurpose.If
not,thenitbehoovesthecondemnortoreturnthesaid
propertytoitsprivateowner,ifthelattersodesires.The
governmentcannotplausiblykeepthepropertyit
expropriatedinanymanneritpleasesand,intheprocess,
dishonorthejudgmentofexpropriation.Thisisnotinkeeping
withtheideaoffairplay.(Vda.deOuanov.Republic,642
SCRA384)

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RepublicofthePhilippinesvs.SpousesRegulto
G.R.202081,April18,2016

‡ Land originally acquired through free patent carries a


reservation imposed by the Public Land Act that it is subject to
an easement of right of way in favor of the government for
public highways and similar works, with payment of damages
for improvements only. Government may acquire said land
without payment of just compensation but for consequential
damages to the rest of the land.

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‡ Apartfromtherequirementthatcompensationfor
expropriatedlandmustbefairandreasonable,compensation,
tobe“just,”mustalsobemadewithoutdelay.Without
promptpayment,compensationcannotbeconsidered“just”
ifthepropertyisimmediatelytakenasthepropertyowner
sufferstheimmediatedeprivationofbothhislandandits
fruitsorincome.45Obviously,thedelayinpaymentofjust
compensationoccurredandcannotatallbedisputed.The
undisputedfactisthattherespondentsweredeprivedoftheir
landssince1989andhavenotreceivedasinglecentavoto
date.Thepetitionersshouldnotbeallowedtoexculpateitself
fromthisdelayandshouldsufferalltheconsequencesthe
delayhascaused.(Vergaravs.Grecia,800SCRA23,G.R.No.
185638August10,2016)
‡
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LimitationsonOwnership

2. Specific Limitations
a. imposed by law, e.g., legal easement of waters
b. sic utere tuo ut alterium non alienas – The owner of a thing cannot
make use thereof in such a manner as to injure the rights of a third person
(Art. 431)
c. nuisance – a public nuisance may be abated without judicial
proceedings.
d. state of necessity – the owner of a thing has no right to prohibit the
interference of another with the same if the interference is necessary to
avert an eminent danger and the threatened damage, compared to the
damage arising from the interference, is much greater. (Art. 432)

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‡ Art.433.Actualpossessionunderaclaimofownershipraises
thedisputablepresumptionofownership.Thetrueowner
mustresorttojudicialprocessforrecoveryoftheproperty.

‡ “Onewhoclaimstobetheownerofpropertypossessedby
anothermustbringtheappropriatejudicialactionforits
physicalrecovery.Theterm“judicialprocess”couldmeanno
lessthananejectmentorreinvindicatoryactioninwhichthe
ownershipclaimsofthecontendingpartiesmaybeproperly
heardandadjudicated.”(PNBvs.CA,G.R.135219,Jan.17,
2002)

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VoluntaryLimitationsonOwnership

e.Voluntaryeasements– theownerofpropertymay
establishthereonsucheasementashemaydeemproper,so
longasitdoesnotviolatethelaw,publicpolicyorpublic
order(Art.688).
f.Servitudes – sameaseasements.
g.Mortgagesimposedbycontracts.

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SurfaceRight

‡ Art.437– Theownerofaparceloflandisheownerofitssurfaceandof
everythingunderit,andhecanconstructthereonanyworksormakeany
plantationsandexcavationswhichhemaydeemproper,without
detrimenttoservitudesandsubjecttospeciallawsandordinances,He
cannotcomplainofthereasonablerequirementsofaerialnavigation.

‡ Presumably,thelandowners’rightextendtosuchheightordepthwhereit
ispossibleforthemtoobtainsomebenefitorenjoymentanditis
extinguishedbeyondsuchpointastherewouldbenomoreinterest
protectedbylaw.(NationalPowerCorporationvs.LucmanG.Ibrahim,et
al.,G.R.No.160732,June29,2007)

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HiddenTreasure

General Rule  belongs to the owner of the land, building, or


other property on which it is found.
Exception: When the discovery is made on the property of
another, or of the State or any of its subdivisions, and by
chance, onehalf thereof shall be allowed to the finder. If the
finder is a trespasser, he shall not be entitled to any share of
the treasure.
If things found be of interest to science or the arts, the state may
acquire them at their just price, which shall be divided in
conformity with the rule stated. (Art. 438)

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HiddenTreasure

Bytreasureisunderstood,forlegalpurposes,anyhiddenor
unknowndepositofmoney,jewelryorotherpreciousobjects,
thelawfulownershipofwhichdoesnotappear.(Art.439)

Note: Following the doctrine of ejusdem generis, “other precious


object” should be understood to refer to the same class as
money or jewelry, and should not therefore include property
imbedded in the soil or part of the soil, like minerals.
Immovables, like a tomb, would of course be excluded, but
not the things found inside said tomb.

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ACCESSION
(Arts.440– 475)
Art.440.Theownershipofpropertygivestherightbyaccession
toeverythingwhichisproducedtherebyorattachedthereto
eithernaturallyorartificially.
Classification:
Accession
AccessionDiscreta Accession Continua
RighttotheFruits
NaturalNaturalIndustrial
IndustrialAlluviumImmovables Movables
CivilAvulsionBuilding,Adjunction
RivercoursePlanting,orMixture
IslandsSowingSpecificˆ›–•

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ACCESSIONDISCRETA
(Arts.441– 444)
Totheownerbelongsthenaturalfruits,industrialfruits
andcivilfruits(Art.441)
Naturalfruits thespontaneousproductsofthesoilandthe
youngandotherproductsofanimals
a.“Otherproducts”– milkofcows,eggsofchicken
b.Ifparentsoftheyoungbelongtodifferentowners,theyoungshould
pertaintotheownerofthefemale,barringanagreementtothecontrary.
Industrial fruits – those produced by lands of any kind through
cultivation and labor.
Civil fruits  rents of buildings, the price of leases of lands and
other property, and the amount of perpetual or life annuities or
other income.(Art. 442)

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AccessionDiscreta
Exceptions to the rule: lease, usufruct, antichresis, possession in
good faith

He who receives the fruits has the obligation to pay the expenses
made by a third person in their production, gathering or
preservation.(Art. 443).
“Hewhoreceivesthefruits”– theowner;
“thirdperson”– possessorinbadfaith,
“expensesofgatheringorpreservation”– refersto
harvestedfruits(pendingfruitsexcluded).

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ACCESSIONCONTINUAINDUSTRIAL
(Withregardtoimmovables– Arts.445– 465)

DonebyBuilding,PlantingorSowing.
Planting aperpetualcrop;sowing anannualcrop.

BasicRule:Whateverisbuilt,plantedorsownonthe
landofanotherbelongstotheowneroftheland,
subjecttotheprovisionsofthefollowingarticles.
(Art.445).Allworks,sowingandplantingare
presumedmadebytheownerandathisexpense,un
lessthecontraryisproved(Art.446).

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ACCESSIONCONTINUAINDUSTRIAL,cont’d

BasicPrinciples:
1.Theaccessoryfollowstheprincipal.
2.Theincorporationmustbesuchthattheprincipalandthe
accessorycannotbeseparatedwithoutsubstantialinjuryto
either..
3.Hewhoisingoodfaithmaybeheldresponsiblebutshould
notbepenalized.
4.Hewhoactsinbadfaithmaybepenalized.
5.Nooneshouldenrichhimselfunjustlyattheexpenseof
another,
6.Badfaithofoneneutralizesthebadfaithoftheother.

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AccessionContinuaindustrialcont’d
Art. 447 – Owner of land (OL) builds, plants or sows thereon with
materials of another (OM):
1. OL and OM in good faith
OM can remove materials if it can be done without injury to
work. Otherwise, OL can keep materials but pay for their
value.
2 OL in bad faith, OM in good faith
OM can remove materials or demand payment, plus
damages in either case.
3.. OL in good faith, OM in bad faith
OL can keep materials without paying, plus damages.
4. Both are in bad faith
Same as both in good faith.

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AccessionContinuaIndustrial,cont’d.
Art.448
‡ Bothbuilder,planterorsower(BPS)andowneroftheland(OL)actedin
goodfaith:
‡ BPS whenhebelievedhimselftobetheownerofthelandor,at
least,hadaclaimoftitlethereto,i.e.apossessorinconceptof
owner; doesnotapplywhenheismerelyalessee,agent,usufructuary,
orpossessorbytolerance
‡ OL .hadnoknowledgethatsomebodyelsewasbuilding,plantingor
sowingonhisland,orhavinglearnedaboutit,objectedimmediately.
‡ Byanalogy:
‡ a.Whenacoownerbuiltonportionallotedtoanotherafter
partition(DelCampov.Abesia,160SCRA385)
‡ b.Whenapersonbuiltonlandofanotherwiththeconsent,orupon
invitationofthelatter(Macasaetv.Macasaet,439SCRA625,
CommunitiesCagayan,Inc.vs.Nanol,685SCRA453(2012))
‡ c.Whenapersonboughtlandatpublicauction,butnotthebuilding
existingthereon(Pecsonvs.CA,244SCRA407)
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‡ InBaltazarv.CourtofAppeals,63theburdenof
provingthestatusofapurchaseringoodfaithlieson
thepersonassertingthatstatus.64Itisnotenough
toinvoketheordinarypresumptionofgoodfaith;
thatis,thateveryoneispresumedtoactingood
faith.65Respondents,asthepartyassertingthe
statusofbuilderingoodfaith,mustsubstantiate
theirclaimthroughpreponderanceofevidence.66
(Padilla,Jr.vs.Malicsi,804SCRA18,G.R.No.
201354September21,2016)

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‡ Weareawarethatinsomeinstances,thisCourthasallowed
theapplicationofArticle448toabuilderwhohas
constructedimprovementsonthelandofanotherwiththe
consentoftheowner.61Inthosecases,theCourtfoundthat
theownersknewandapprovedoftheconstructionof
improvementsontheproperty.Hence,weruledthereinthat
thestructureswerebuiltingoodfaith,eventhoughthe
buildersknewthattheywereconstructingtheimprovement
onlandownedbyanother.
‡ Althoughthefactualcircumstancesintheinstantcaseare
somewhatsimilar,thereisonecrucialfactorthatwarrantsa
departurefromtheabovedescribedrulings:thepresenceof
evidencethatpetitionersprohibitedrespondentsfrom
buildingtheirownstructureonaportionoftheproperty.
(Aguirrevs.Aguilar,760SCRA222[2015])
‡
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AccessionContinuaIndustrial,cont’d.

Rules:
OLhasoptiontoappropriatetheworksuponpaymentof
indemnity,ortocompelbuilderorplantertobuytheland
andthesowertopaytheproperrent.

Buthecannotcompelthebuilderorplantertobuytheland
ifthevaluethereofisconsiderablyhigherthanthevalueof
theimprovement.Insuchcase,theywillenterintoacontract
oflease.,andoftheycannotagreeonthetermsand
conditionsthereof,thecourtwillfixitforthem.

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AccessionContinuaIndustrial
Notes:
1. Where the BPS acted in good faith, a conflict of rights arises
and it becomes necessary to protect the owner of the
improvements without causing injustice to the owner of the
land. Tuatis v. Escol, GR 173399, Oct. 27, 2009)
2. Option is given to OL because his right is older and the land is
the principal
3. OL’s choice is limited to two only (preclusive) . He cannot
demand removal. He can demand it only if the builder or
planter fails to buy the land.
4. The indemnity OL should pay is the fair market value. (Pecson vs. CA,
244 SCRA 407)
5. BPS entitled to retention and fruits of the improvement until
he is paid.
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AccessionContinuaIndustrial,cont’d
Arts.449 452

OLingoodfaith,BPSinbadfaith
OLhasthreeoptions:
1.Toappropriatetheimprovementwithoutindemnity,or
2.Tocompelthebuilderorplantertobuytheland,evenif
considerablyhigherinvalue,andthesowertopaytheproper
rent,or
3.Todemandremovalofthework,
PLUS:damagesinanycase.(Arts.449451)
BPSisentitledonlytoreimbursementforthenecessary
expensesforthepreservationoftheland.(Art.452)

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AccessionContinuaIndustrial,cont’d
(Arts.453,454,455)

If OL in bad faith, BPS in good faith 


Provisions of Art. 447 shall apply (Art. 454)
(BPS may demand indemnity or removal of the work, with
damages in either case.)
If both parties are in bad faith  both treated as in good faith
(Art. 453)
If materials belong to a third person  OL is subsidiarily liable
to the owner of the materials if:
a. OL has appropriated the works, and
b. OM is in good faith. (Art. 455)

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AccessionContinuaNatural
(Arts.457– 465)

ALLUVIUM. To the owners of lands adjoining the banks of rivers


belong the accretion which they gradually receive from the
effects of the current of the waters. (Art. 457)
Requisites: (1) cause is current of the river, (2) deposit must be
gradual and imperceptible, (3) land where accretion takes place
is adjacent to the banks of the river, (4) river must continue to
exist. (New Regent Sources, Inc. vs. Tanjuatco, 585 SCRA 1329)

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Notes;
1. Accretioncantakeplacealongthebanksofalake(Gov’tv.
ColegiodeSanJose,53Phil.423,Menesesv.CA,246SCRA
162) butnotinpondsandlagoons(Art.458)
‡ 2.Noaccretionontheshoresofthesea.
‡ 3.Theriparianownersneednotregistertheaccretionin
ordertoacquireownership.Buttheyneedregistrationto
preventacquisitionbyotherpersonsthroughprescription
‡ 4.Alluvialdepositsdonotbecomepartofthepublicdomain
(HeirsofNarvasavs.Imbornal,732SCRA171)

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RexDaclisonvs.EduardoBaytion,G.R.219811,April6,
2016

‡ Plaintiff’s land was bordered by a downslope leading to a


creek. The government built a wall along the creek and a
lessee of plaintiff filled it up with soil and occupied it.
Plaintiff demanded payment of rental, claiming that the land
belonged to him as an accretion to or improvement on his
land.
‡ Held: The land cannot be an accretion to plaintiff’s land
because it was not caused by the waters of a river. It cannot
be an improvement or accession under Art. 445, because it is
not on, but beside, plaintiff’s land.

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ACCESSIONCONTINUANATURAL,CONT’D.
AVULSION. Whenever the current of a river, creek or torrent
segregates from an estate on its bank a known portion of land
and transfers it to another estate, the owner of the land to
which the segregated portion belonged retains the ownership of
it, provided that the removes the same within two years. (Art.
459)
Notes:
1. Opposite of alluvium.
2. “Claims” same as “removes” (Code Commission)
3. Delayed accession; it takes place only after 2 years.

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Avulsion,cont’d.

4.Treesuprootedandcarriedawaybythecurrentbelongto
theownerofthelanduponwhichtheymaybecast,ifthe
ownersdonotclaimthemwithinsixmonths.(Art.460).

Sameprincipleasavulsion.
Alsoacaseofdelayedaccession,becauseowneroflandon
whichthetreesmaybecastacquiresownershipofthemonly
aftersixmonthsandoriginalownersdidnotclaimthem.

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AccessionContinuaNatural,cont’d.

CHANGE IN THE COURSE OF RIVERS. River beds which are


abandoned through the natural change in the course of the
waters ipso facto belong to the owners whose lands are
covered by the new course in proportion to the area lost.
However, the owners of he lands adjoining the old bed shall
have the right to acquire the same by paying the value thereof,
which value shall not exceed the value of the area occupied by
the new bed. (Art. 461)
Notes:
!. Change of course must be sudden, natural, and more or less
permanent; otherwise, presumed to be alluvium (Bagaipo v. CA,
347 SCRA [2000]).

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ChangeintheCourseofRivers,cont’d.
2.Ownersofthelandalongtheoldbedhaveaperiodoftwo
yearstobringtheriverbacktoitoldcourse.(Art.58,Water
Code,PD1067)
3.Alsoacaseofdelayedaccessionduetotherightofthelands
borderingtheabandonedbedtoacquireitbypayingthevalue
thereof.
4.Newbedbecomespropertyofpublicdominion(Art.462)
5.Ownerretainsownershipoflandisolatedbybranchingof
watersofariver.(Art.463)
‡ 6.Ownershipofoldbedautomaticallyacquiredbyownerof
landwherenewbedpasses(Galangvs.Reyes,678SCRA523
[2012],Degayovs.Dinglasan,755SCRA1[2015])
‡
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AccessionContinuaNatural,cont’d.

FORMATIONOFISLANDS.Islandswhichmaybeformedontheseaswithin
theterritorialjurisdictionofthePhilippines,onlakesandonnavigableor
floatablerivers,belongtotheState.(Art.464)

Islandswhichthroughsuccessiveaccumulationofalluvialdepositsare
formedinnonnavigableandnonfloatablerivers,belongtotheownersof
themarginsorbanksnearesttoeachofthem,ortobeownersofboth
marginsiftheislandisinthemiddleoftheriver.(Art.465).

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AccessionContinuawithrespecttoMovables
(Arts.466– 475)

ADJUNCTIONORCONJUNCTION
Definition– processbyvirtueofwhichtwomovablethings
belongingtodifferentpersonsareunitedasuchawaythat
theyformasingleobject
Differentkinds:inclusion,soldering,escritura,pintura,
weaving.
Rules:
1.Whenthethingsareunitedwithoutbadfaith ownerof
principalacquirestheaccessoryafterpayingforitsvalue.(Art,
466)

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Adjunctionorconjunctioncont’d

2. When the owner of the accessory made the incorporation


in bad faith, he shall lose the thing incorporated, and
indemnify he owner of the principal for damages. (Art. 470)
3. If the one who acted in bad faith is the owner of the
principal, the owner of the accessory shall have the option to
demand payment for its value or separation of the thing
belonging to him eve it will mean destroying the principal
thing, plus damages in either case. (Art. 470)
4. If both are in bad faith, they shall be treated as in good
faith (Art. 470)

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Adjunctionorconjunctioncont’d.
5. Whenever the things united can be separated, their owners can
demand separation. Nevertheless, if the accessory is much more
precious than the principal, the owner of the former may demand
its separation even though the principal may suffer some injury.
(Art. 469)
6. The principal is deemed to be that to which the other has been
united as an ornament or for its use or perfection (Art. 467). If it
cannot be determined by his rule, that of the greater value shall
be considered the principal, and if of equal value, that of the
greater volume (Art. 468)
In painting, sculpture, writings, printed matter, engraving and
lithographs, the board, metal , stone, canvas, paper or parchment
shall be deemed the accessory. (Art. 468)

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Mixture
Mixture  combination or union of materials where the respective
identities of the component elements are lost.
Kinds: commixtion (if solids are mixed), or confusion (if liquids are
mixed.
Rules:
1. If caused by the will of their owners, by chance, or by the will of
only one owner who acted in good faith, each owner shall
acquire a right proportional to the value of the part belonging to
him (Arts. 472, 473).
2. If the one who caused the mixture acted in bad faith, he shall
lose his thing plus being liable for damages. (Art. 473)

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Specification

Specification – givingofanewformtoanother’smaterialthru
theapplicationoflabor.
1.Iftheworker(principal)isingoodfaith
a.Heappropriatesthenewthingbutmustpayindemnityfor
thematerial.
b.Butifthematerial(accessory)ismoreprecious
thanthenewthing,theownerhastheoption:
togetthenewthing,ordemandindemnity.

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Specificationcont’d

2.Ifworkerisinbadfaith,ownerofmaterialhasoption:
i.toappropriateworkwithoutpayingforit,butnotifthe
valueoftheworkismorevaluablethanthematerial,or
ii.Todemandindemnityformaterials,plusdamages.(Art.
474)
iii.Sentimentalvalueshallbedulyappreciated.(Art.475)

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QUIETINGOFTITLE

Whenever there is a cloud on title to real property in or any


interest therein, by reason of any instrument, record, claim,
encumbrance or proceeding which is apparently valid or
effective but is in truth and in fact invalid, ineffective,
voidable, or unenforceable, extinguished or terminated, or
barred by extinctive prescription, an action may be brought
to remove such cloud or to quiet the title. (Arts. 476 & 478).

Notes:
1. Plaintiff must have legal or equitable title to the property
(Art. 477) . Stockholders do not have interest on corporate
properties (PNC vs. Aznar, 649 SCRA 214 [2011]} Notes;

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2. In an action to quiet title, the plaintiff asserts his own


estate and declares generally that defendant claims some
estate in the land, without defining it; while in a suit to
remove a cloud, plaintiff not only declares his own title, but
also avers the source and nature of defendant’s claim, points
out its defect, and prays that it be declared void.

3. Action to quiet title or remove a cloud is an action quasi in


rem, and does not prescribe if the plaintiff is in possession;
prescribes if he is not in possession, because the action
would actually be one to recover possession (Noy v. Quijano,
626 SCRA 800 [2010]}.

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‡ .FreepatentandOCToverlandopenlypossessedby
otherpersonsforalongperiodoftime,isnotvalid
title.Also,theactiontoquiettitlealready
prescribed.(HeirsofDelfinandMaria
Tappavs.HeirsofJoseBaccud,etal.,G. 4R.No.
187633,April14,2016)

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HeirsofAndresNayavs.Naya,810SCRA582,G.R.No.
215759November28,2016

‡ Thecomplaintfiledbypetitionersisoneforquietingoftitle,
reconveyanceofownership,damages,andattorney’sfees.To
makeoutanactiontoquiettitle,theinitiatorypleadinghas
onlytosetforthallegationsshowingthat(1)theplaintiffhas
titletorealpropertyoranyinterestthereinand(2)the
defendantclaimsaninterestthereinadversetotheplaintiffs
arisingfromaninstrument,record,claim,encumbrance,or
proceedingwhichisapparentlyvalidoreffectivebutisin
truthandinfactinvalid,ineffective,voidable,or
unenforceable.21

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‡ Thus,theavermentsinpetitioners’complaintthat:(1)they
arethelegitimate,compulsoryheirsofSpousesNaya,the
formerregisteredownersoftheproperty;(2)thepropertyis
subjectofintestateproceedingsbeforetheRTC,Branch19of
CebuCity;(3)theyconsentedtotheoccupationoftheirco
petitioner,Teresita,ofthepropertysincethetimeofdeathof
SpousesNaya;(4)Orlandowasabletofraudulentlytransfer
thepropertyinhisname;and(5)SpousesRuizsubsequently
purchasedthepropertyatanallegedlyvoidsalewere
sufficienttomakeoutanactiontoquiettitleunderArticle
47622oftheCivilCode.23

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‡ Equitable title has been defined as “title derived through


a valid contract or relation, and based on recognized equitable
principles, the right in the party, to whom it belongs, to have
the legal title transferred to him. (Heirs of Jose Extremedura
vs. Manuel Extremedura, G.R. 311065, June 15, 2016)

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HeirsofAndresNayavs.Naya,810SCRA582,G.R.No.
215759November28,2016)

‡ Thus,theavermentsinpetitioners’complaintthat:(1)they
arethelegitimate,compulsoryheirsofSpousesNaya,the
formerregisteredownersoftheproperty;(2)thepropertyis
subjectofintestateproceedingsbeforetheRTC,Branch19of
CebuCity;(3)theyconsentedtotheoccupationoftheirco
petitioner,Teresita,ofthepropertysincethetimeofdeathof
SpousesNaya;(4)Orlandowasabletofraudulentlytransfer
thepropertyinhisname;and(5)SpousesRuizsubsequently
purchasedthepropertyatanallegedlyvoidsalewere
sufficienttomakeoutanactiontoquiettitleunderArticle
476oftheCivilCode.

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COOWNERSHIP
(Arts.484501)

Thereiscoownershipwhenevertheownershipofanundividedthing
orrightbelongstodifferentpersons.(Art.484)
Characteristicsofcoownership
1. Theremustbemorethanonesubjectorowner.
2. Thereisonephysicalwholedividedintoidealundividedshares.
3.Eachidealshareisdefiniteinamount,butisnotphysicallysegregatedfrom
therest.
4.Regardingthephysicalwhole,eachcoownermustrespecteachotherin
thecommonuse,enjoymentorpreservationofthephysicalwhole.
5.Regardingtheidealshare,eachcoownerholdsalmostabsolutecontrolover
thesame.
6.Itisnotajuridicalperson.
7.Acoownerisinasenseatrusteefortheothercoowners.

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Coownership

Definition ownershipofanundividedthingbelongstodifferentpersons
(Art.484)
Sources: Law,contract,chance,occupation,succession
Shareinbenefitsandcharges  proportionatetotheirrespectiveinterests.
Anystipulationinacontracttothecontraryshallbevoid.(Art.485)

Commonownershipofpropertydoesnotitselfcreateapartnership
(Jarantilla,Jr.v.Jarantilla,636SCRA299)

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Coownership
RightsofCoowners
1. As to the property – each coowner may use the thing owned
in common , provided he does so in accordance with the
purpose for which it is intended and in such a way as not to
injure the interests of the coownership or prevent the other
coowners from using it according to their rights. (Art. 486)
2. As to the ideal share – Each coowner shall have the full
ownership of his part and the fruits and benefits pertaining
thereto, and he may therefore, alienate, assign or mortgage it,
and even substitute another person in its enjoyment, except
when personal rights are involved. (Art. 493)

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‡ Acoownercannotgivevalidconsenttoanothertobuilda
houseonthecoownedproperty,whichisanacttantamount
todevotingthepropertytohisorherexclusiveuse.Cruzvs.
Catapang,544SCRA512.

‡ Hence,priortopartition,asaleofadefiniteportionof
commonpropertyrequirestheconsentofallcoowners
becauseitoperatestopartitionthelandwithrespecttothe
coownersellinghisorhershare.Thecoownerorselleris
alreadymarkingwhichportionshouldredoundtohisorher
autonomousownershipuponfuturepartition.(JuanP.
Cabreravs.HenryYsaac,740SCRA612)

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MactanCebuInternationalAirportAuthorityvs.
Unchuan,791SCRA581,G.R.No.182537June1,2016

‡ Inthecaseatbench,althoughthesaletransactioninsofaras
theotherheirsoftheregisteredownerswasvoid,thesale
insofarastheextentofAtanacio’sinterestisconcerned,
remainsvalid.Atanaciowasoneoftheregisteredcoowners
ofthesubjectlots,buthewasnotclothedwithauthorityto
transactfortheothercoowners.Bysigningthedeedofsale
withtheCAA,Atanacioeffectivelysoldhisundividedsharein
thelotsinquestion.Thus,CAAbecameacoownerofthe
undividedsubjectlots.Accordingly,Atanacio’sheirscouldno
longeralienateanythinginfavorofUnchuanbecausehe
alreadyconveyedhis proindiviso sharetoCAA.

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Coownership

Votesforactions:
1.Repairsforpreservationmaybemadeatthewillofoneco
owner.(Art.489)
2.Anyoneofthecoownersmaybringanactionfor
ejectment.
(Butnotwhenheisclaimingthepropertyforhimselfalone)

3.Fortheadministrationandbetterenjoymentofthething
ownedincommon,theresolutionofthemajorityoftheco
ownersshallbebinding.
Thereshallbenomajorityunlesstheresolutionisapprovedbytheco
ownerswhorepresentthecontrollinginterests.(Art.492)

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Coownership
4. Acts of Alteration
None of the coowners shall, without the consent of the others,
make alterations in the thing owned in common, even though
benefits for all will result therefrom. However, if the withholding
of the consent of one or more of the coowners is clearly
prejudicial to the common interest, the courts may afford
adequate relief. (Art. 491) (Payment of a bank loan does not
entitle the coowner who paid to claim full ownership of the co
owned property, Taghoy vs. Tigay, 626 SCRA 341)

An alteration is a change which is more or less permanent, changes


the use of the thing, and prejudices the condition of the thing or
its enjoyment by the others.

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Coownership
Art.494
Partition
No coowner shall be obliged to remain in the coownership.
Each coowner may demand at any time the partition of the
thing owned in common, insofar as his share is concerned.
Nevertheless, an agreement to keep the thing undivided for
certain period of time, not exceeding ten years, shall be valid.
This term maybe extended by a new agreement.
A donor or testator may prohibit partition for a period which
shall not exceed twenty years.
Neither shall there be any partition when it is prohibited by
law .
‡ (Righttodemandpartitionisnotbarredbyprescriptionorlaches,
exceptwhenoneofthecoownersrepudiatesthecoownerhip.Monterovs.
CA,553SCRA66)

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Additionalexceptionstotherighttodemandpartition:
1. The family home shall continue despite the death of one or
both spouses or of the unmarried head of the family for a
period of ten years or for as long as there is a minor
beneficiary, and the heirs cannot partition the same unless
the court finds compelling reasons therefor. This rule shall
apply regardless of whoever owns the property or constituted
the family home. (Art. 159, Family Code; Arriola vs. Arriola,
542 SCRA 666)
2. When the legal nature of the common property does not
allow partition (e.g. a party wall)

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Noprescriptionshallruninfavorofacoownerorcoheir
againsthiscoownersorcoheirsaslongasheexpresslyor
impliedlyrecognizesthecoownership.(Art.494)

Inorderthatacoowner’spossessionmaybedeemedadversetothatofthe
cestuiquetrustortheothercoowners,thefollowingelementsmust
concur:
1.Thecoownerhasperformedunequivocalactsofrepudiationoftheco
ownershipamountingtoanousterofthecestuiquetrustortheotherco
owners;
2. Suchpositiveactsofrepudiationhavebeenmadeknowntothecestui
quetrustortheothercoowners;
3.Theevidenceontherepudiationisclearandconclusive;and
4. Hispossessionisopen,continuous,exclusive,andnotorious.[Heirsof
JoseReyes,Jr.vs.Reyes,626SCRA758(2010)]

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‡ Theissuanceofthecertificateoftitlewouldconstitutean
openandclearrepudiationofanytrust.13 Insuchacase,an
actiontodemandpartitionamongcoownersprescribesin10
years,thepointofreferencebeingthedateoftheissuanceof
certificateoftitleovertheproperty.Butthisruleappliesonly
whentheplaintiffisnotinpossessionoftheproperty,sinceif
apersonclaimingtobetheownerthereofisinactual
possessionoftheproperty,therighttodemandpartitiondoes
notprescribe.14
‡

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‡ AlthoughOCTNo.P10737wasregisteredinthenameof
FelicianoonNovember29,1989,theprescriptiveperiod
withinwhichtodemandpartitionofthesubjectproperty,
contrarytotheclaimoftheheirsofFeliciano,didnotbeginto
run.Atthattime,theheirsofHermogeneswerestillin
possessionoftheproperty.Itwasonlyin2005thattheheirs
ofFelicianoexpresslyprohibitedtheheirsofHermogenes
fromenteringtheproperty.Thus,asaptlyruledbytheCA,the
rightoftheheirsofHermogenestodemandthepartitionof
thepropertyhadnotyetprescribed.Accordingly,theRTC
committedareversibleerrorwhenitdismissedthecomplaint
forpartitionthatwasfiledbytheheirsofHermogenes.Heirs
ofFelicianoYambaovs.HeirsofHermogenesYaHmbao,789
SCRA361,G.R.No.194260April13,2016

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RightofRedemption

Rightofredemptionofcoowner’sshare
A coowner of a thing may exercise the right of redemption in
case the share of all the coowners or any of them are sold to a
third person. If the price of the alienation is grossly excessive,
the redemptioner shall pay only a reasonable one.
Should two or more coowners desire to exercise the right of
redemption, they may only do so in proportion to the share they
may respectively have in the thing owned in common. (Art.
1620)
Right must be exercised within 30 days from notice in writing.

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OralPartition
‡ Innumerouscasesithasbeenheldorstatedthatparol
partitionmaybesustainedonthegroundofestoppel…….
Andacourtofequitywillrecognizetheagreementand
decreeittobevalidandeffectualforthepurposeof
concludingtherightofthepartiesasbetweeneachotherto
holdtheirrespectivepartsinseveralty.
‡ Aparolpartitionmayalsobesustainedonthegroundthatthe
partiestheretohaveacquiescedinandratifiedthepartition
bytakingpossessioninseveralty,exercisingactsofownership
withrespectthereto,orotherwiserecognizingtheexistence
ofthepartition.(Casibang,Sr.vs.CasibangDizon,691SCRA
385[2013])

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CONDOMINIUM
Concept  A condominium is an interest in real property
consisting of a separate interest in a unit in a residential,
industrial or commercial building and an undivided interest in
common, directly or indirectly, in the land on which it is
located and in other common areas of the building. (Sec. 2,
R.A. 47260

Common areas – the entire project excepting all units separately


granted or held or reserved. (Sec. 3, RA 4726)
Both the law and the Master Deed refer to utility installations as
forming part of the common areas, (Limson vs. Wack Wack
Condominium Corporatin, 642 SCRA 772)

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Condominium
Declaration of Restrictions – restrictions on the use of the
condominium which shall constitute a lien on each unit in the
project, to be enforced, by the owner or management body,
description and powers of the management body.
Condominium Corporation –The corporate purposes shall be
limited to the holding of the common areas, either by
ownership or any other interest in real property recognized by
law, to the management of the project, and to such other
purposes as may be necessary, incidental or convenient to the
accomplishment of said purposes.
A condominium corporation, while enjoying the powers of
ownership, is prohibited by law from transacting its properties
for the purposes of gainful profit. (Yamano v. BA Lepanto
Condominium Corp., 474 SCRA 258)
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RA6552

R.A. 6552 provides protection to buyers of real property on


installment basis.
A buyer who has paid less than 2 year of installment is
entitled to a grace period of not less than 60 days to pay the
installment due. A buyer who has paid at least two years of
interest is entitled to a grace period of one month for every
year of installment payment made, to be exercised only once
every five years of the life of the contract, and to be refunded
a cash surrender value equal to 50% of his total payments if
the contract is cancelled. If he has paid five years or more, he
is entitled to an increase of 5% for every year, up to 90% of
his total payment.
.
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PresidentialDecreeNo.957
‡ TheHLURBmayrevoketheregistrationofanysubdivisionor
condominiumprojectandthelicensetosellanylotorunitin
saidprojectifthereissatisfactoryevidencethattheowneror
dealer:
‡ 1.Isinsolvent;or
‡ 2.HasviolatedanyprovisionofP.D.957,oranyruleor
regulationoftheHLURB;or
‡ 3.Hasbeenorisengagedinfraudulenttransactions;or
‡ 4.Madeanymisrepresentationinanyprospectus,etc.;or
‡ 5.Isofbadbusinessrepute;or
‡ 6.Doesnotconductbusinessinaccordancewithsound
businessprinciples.(Sec.5,P.D.957)

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Intracorporatedispute

‡ Anintracorporatecontroversyisonewhich“pertainstoany
ofthefollowingrelationships:(1)betweenthecorporation,
partnershiporassociationandthepublic;(2)betweenthe
corporation,partnershiporassociationandtheStateinsofar
asitsfranchise,permitorlicensetooperateisconcerned;(3)
betweenthecorporation,partnershiporassociationandits
stockholders,partners,membersorofficers;and(4)among
thestockholders,partnersorassociatesthemselves.”40

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POSSESSION
(Arts.523– 561)
A. Requisites of possession:
1. There must be holding or control of a thing or right. (Art. 523)
2. There must be deliberate intention to possess (animus
possidendi)
3. Possession must be by virtue of one’s own rights.
B Degrees of possession
1. Mere holding without any right whatsoever (grammatical
possession e.g. possession of a thief).
2. Possession with a juridical title, but not of an owner (juridical
possession, e.g. possession of a lessee)
3. Possession with a just title (real possessory right, e.g.
possession of a car bought from one who is not the owner).
4. Possession with the title of dominion (possession of the owner)

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Possessioncont’d.

‡ C.Kindsofpossession
‡ 1.Inone’sownnameorinthatofanother(Art.524)
‡ 2.Inconceptofownerorinthatofaholder(Art.
‡ 525)
‡ 3.Ingoodfaithandbadfaith(Art.526)
‡ a.Goodfaithalwayspresumed(Art.527)
‡ b.Whengoodfaithconvertedtobadfaith(Art.428)
‡ c.Continuityofcharacterofpossession(Art.529)
‡

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Possessioncont’d.

‡ D.Howpossessionacquired:
‡ Bymaterialoccupationofathingorexerciseofaright
‡ (constitutompossessorium,traditiobrevimanu);
‡ Bythefactthatitissubjecttoourwill(traditiolonga
‡ manu,traditiosimbolica);
‡ Bytheproperactsandlegalformalities(constructive
‡ possession(Art.531)
‡ (Note:materialoccupationprevailsoverconstructive
possession;titleoverpossession)

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HeirsofJoseExtremaduravs.Extremadura,793SCRA
581,G.R.No.211065June15,2016

‡ Article1498oftheCivilCodelaysdownthegeneralrulethat
theexecutionofapublicinstrument“shallbeequivalentto
thedeliveryofthethingwhichistheobjectofthecontract,if
fromthedeedthecontrarydoesnotappearorcannotclearly
beinferred.”However,theexecutionofapublicinstrument
givesriseonlytoa primafacie presumptionofdelivery,which
isnegatedbythefailureofthevendeetotakeactual
possessionofthelandsold.Apersonwhodoesnothave
actualpossessionofthethingsoldcannottransfer
constructivepossessionbytheexecutionanddeliveryofa
publicinstrument.33

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‡ Inthiscase,the primafacie presumptionofconstructive


deliverytoJosewasnotsuccessfullynegatedbyproofthat
thesubjectlandwasnotactuallyplacedinthelatter’scontrol
andpossession.Primarily,itshouldbestressedthat
“[p]ossessionisacquiredbythematerialoccupationofathing
ortheexerciseofaright,orbythefactthatitissubjecttothe
actionofourwill,orbytheproperactsandlegalformalities
establishedforacquiringsuchright.”34 Joseexercised
possessionofthesubjectland throughManuel(and
eventually,hisson,Marlon) whomheallowedtostayandcare
forthelandinexchangeforthedeliveryoftheproduce
thereof.Article524oftheCivilCodestates:
‡ Art. 524. Possessionmaybeexercisedinone’sownname
orinthatofanother.

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‡ Inthisrelation,caselawteachesthat“[i]tisnot
necessarythattheownerofaparceloflandshould
himselfoccupythepropertyassomeoneinhisname
mayperformtheact.Inotherwords,theownerof
realestatehaspossession,eitherwhenhehimselfis
physicallyinoccupationoftheproperty,orwhen
anotherpersonwhorecognizeshisrightsasowneris
insuchoccupancy,”35 asthepartiesinthiscase.

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Possessioncont’d.

F.Hereditaryproperty
1.Possessiondeemedtransmittedfromthemomentofdeath
ofthedecedentinccasetheinheritanceisaccepted(Art.533)

2.Onewhosucceedsbyhereditarytitkeshallnotsufferthe
consequencesofthewrongfulpossessionofthedecedent,if
heisnotawareoftheflawsthataffectit,buttheeffectsof
possessioningoodfaithshallnotbenefithimexceptfromthe
dateofdeathofthedecedent(Art.534)

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Possessioncont’d

G.Possessionbyminorsorincapacitated– mayacquirebut
needassistancetoexerciserightsofpossessor(Art.535)
H.Howpossessionmaynotbeacquired:throughforce,
toleranceorclandestinemeans(Arts.536,537)
I.Possessionasafactcannotberecognizedatthesametimein
twodifferentpersonalitiesexceptincopossession.Should
questionarise
‡ 1.Presentpossessorpreferred;
‡ 2,Iftherearetwopossessors,theonelongerinpossession.
‡ 3.Ifdatesarethesame,theonewhopresentsatitle
‡ 4,Allthingsbeingequal,placeinjudicialdeposit.(Art.538)

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Possessionbytolerance

‡ E.Apersonwhooccupiesthelandofanotheratthe
latter’stolerance orpermission,withoutany
contractbetweenthem,isnecessarilyboundbyan
impliedpromisethathewillvacateupondemand,
failingwhichasummaryactionforejectmentisthe
properremedyagainsthim.(ProGuardSecurity
ServicesCorp.vs.TormilRealty&DevelopmentCorp.,
729SCRA296[2014]).

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DepartmentofEducationvs.DelfinaCasibang,etal.
G.R.102268,January27,2016.

‡ Acts merely tolerated are those which by reason of


neighborliness or familiarity , the owner of property allows his
neighbor or another person to do to his property.

‡ As registered owners of the lots in question, the respondents


have a right to eject any person illegally occupying thr
property. This right is never barred by laches.

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‡ J.Possessionaloneisnotsufficient toacquiretitle
toalienablelandsofthepublicdomainbecause
thelawrequirespossessionandoccupationsince
thesewordsareseparated bytheconjunction”and”,
theclearintentionofthelawisnottomakeone
synonymouswiththeother;Possessionisbroader
thanoccupationbecauseitincludesconstructive
possessionwhenthelawaddsthewordoccupation,
itseekstodelimittheallencompassingeffectof
constructivepossession.Misticavs.Republic,599
SCRA401.

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‡ K.Anapplicantforagrantortitleoveralotmustbeableto
showthathehasexercisedactsofdominionoverthe
propertyinquestion.Theapplicant’spossessionmustnotbe
simplyanominalclaimwhereheonlyplantsasignorsymbol
ofpossession.Inotherwords,hispossessionoftheproperty
mustbepatent,visible,apparent,notoriousandnot
clandestine;itshouldbeuninterrupted,unbrokenandnot
intermittentoroccasional;itshoulddemonstrateexclusive
dominionoverthelandandanappropriationofittohisown
useandbenefit;anditshouldbeconspicuous,whichmeans
generallyknownandtalkedofbythepublicorthepeoplein
theneighborhood.(Republicvs.Gielcyjk,708SCRA433[213]
‡

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HeirsofJoseExtremeduravs.ManuelExtremedura
G.R.211865,June15,2016

‡ Execution of a public instrument (under Art. 1498) gives rise


only to a prima facie presumption of delivery, which is
negated by the failure of the vendee to take actual possession
of the land sold. A person who does not have actual
possession of the thing sold cannot transfer constructive
possession by the execution and delivery of a public
instrument.

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EffectsofPossession

1.Everypossessorisentitledtoberespectedinhispossession
(Art.539)
2.Onlypossessionacquiredandenjoyedinconceptofowner
canserveastitleforacquiringdominion(Art.540)
3.Possessorinconceptofownerentitledtopresumptionthat
hepossesseswithajusttitle(tituloverdadero) (Art.541)
4.Possessionofrealpropertypresumespossessionofmovables
therein(Art.542)
5.Eachoftheparticipantsofathingpossessedincommon
deemedtohavepossessedhisshareduringtheentireperiod
ofcopossession(Art.543)

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Effectsofpossessioningoodandbadfaith
AstoFruits
HarvestedPending
PGF EntitledtofruitsreceivedEntitledtoashareoftheexpensesand
beforepossessionlegallythenetharvest,inproportiontothe
interrupted(Art.544)periodofpossession.Ownermayallow
tofinishharvesting.Ifherefuses,he
shallloserighttobeindemnified
(Art.545).

PBF ShallreturnfruitsreceivedNoright.Loseswhathehas
orwhichlegitimatepossessorplantedwithoutrightto
couldhavereceived(Art.549)indemnity.(Art.449)

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AstoExpenses:
NecessaryUsefulLuxurious

PGF RefundandRetentionRefund,RetentionRemoval,unlessowner
(Art.546)Removal(Art.547) preferstorefund(Art.548)

PBF Refundonlyandexpen NorightatallRemoval,unlessowner


sesunderArt.443preferstoretainbypaying
(Art.549)value(Art.549)

AstoLossorDeterioration:

PGF Notliableunlessheactedwithfraudornegligenceafterjudicialsummons.(Art552)
PBF Liableineverycase,evenifcausedbyfortuitousevent(Art.552)

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LossorUnlawfulDeprivationofaMovable

The possession of movable property acquired in good faith is


equivalent to a title (“Presumptive title”  De Garcia v. CA,
345 SCRA 129) . Nevertheless, one who has lost any movable
or has been unlawfully deprived thereof, may recover it from
the person in possession of the same. If the possessor of a
movable lost or of which the owner has been unlawfully
deprived, has acquired it in good faith at a public sale, the
owner cannot obtain its return without reimbursing the price
paid therefor. (Art. 559)

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.Theownercannotrecover,evenifheoffersto
reimburse,ifthepossessorhadacquireditingood
faithbypurchasefromamerchant’sstore,orinfairs
ormarketsinaccordancewiththeCodeof
Commerceandspeciallaws.(Art.1505[3]).

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PeriodtoRecover

PeriodtoRecover:
1. The ownership of movables prescribes through uninterrupted
possession for four years in good faith.
The ownership of personal property also prescribes through
uninterrupted possession for eight years, without need of any other
condition.
With regard to the right of the owner to recover personal property
lost or of which he has been illegally deprived, as well as with
respect to movables acquired in a public sale, fair or market, or from
a merchant’s store, the provisions of Articles 559 and 1505 of this
Code shall be observed. (Art. 1132) .
2. Movables possessed through a crime can never be acquired through
prescription by the offender. (Art. 1133)

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Periodsofprescription

3. Ownership and other real rights over immovable property


are acquired by ordinary prescription through possession of
ten years. (Art. 1134)
4. Actions to recover movables shall prescribe eight years from
the time the possession thereof is lost, unless the possessor
has acquired ownership by prescription for a less period,
according to Articles 1132, and without prejudice to the
provisions of Articles 559, 1505, and 1133. (Art. 1140)

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Lossorextinguishmentofpossession
A possessor may lose his possession:
1. By abandonment of the thing.
2. By an assignment made to another either by onerous or
gratuitous title.
3. By the destruction or total loss of the thing, or because it goes
out of commerce.
4. By the possession of another, subject to the provisions of
Article 537,if the new possession has lasted longer than one
year. But the real right of possession is not lost until after the
lapse of ten years . (Art. 555)
Others: final judgment, expropriation, recovery by legitimate
owner, escaping of wild animals.

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USUFRUCT
(Arts.562 612)

Usufructgivesarighttoenjoythepropertyofanother,with
theobligationofpreservingitssubstance,unlessthetitle
constitutingitorthelawotherwiseprovides(Art.562)
A.Characteristics
Essential–
1.Arealright.
2.Ofatemporarynature.
3.Purposeistoenjoythebenefitsandderivealltheadvantagesfrom
theobjectasaconsequenceofnormaluseorexploitation.
Natural–
1.Obligationofconservingorpreservingtheformandsubstance.

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Usufruct,cont’d.
B.Classification:
Astoorigin:(Art.563)
1.Legal
2.Voluntary
a.intervivos
b.mortiscausa
Astoextentoffruitsorobject(Art.564)
a.Fruits totalorpartial
b.Object– universalorparticular
Astonumberofusufructuaries–
a.Simple
b.Multiple

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Usufructcont’d.

C.RightsofUsufructuary
1.Righttoallthefruitsproducedduringtheperiod(Art.566)
a.naturalandindustrialfruitspendingatthebeginningandendof
theusufruct(Art.567);
b.rentalsoftenementsunderusufruct(At.568,569)
c.Usufructoverrighttoreceiverentorpension,andover
commercialandindustrialenterprise(Art.570)
2.Righttoenjoyanyincreaseacquiredthroughaccession,servitudes,
andinherentbenefits(Art.571)(Gaboyav.Cui,38SCRA85)
3.Mayenjoy,lease,oralienateright(Art.572)
4.Abnormalusufructs(At.573,574).
5.Usufructoverfruitbearingtreesandshrubs(Art.575,576)
6.Usufructoverawoodland(Art.577)

.
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Usufructcont’d

7. Usufruct over a right to recover real property or right (Art. 578)

8. Right to make improvements


Art. 579. Usufructuary may make useful or luxurious improvements on
the property under usufruct, provided he does not alter its form and
substance, but he shall have no right to be indemnified therefor. He may
however remove them should it be possible without causing injury to the
property.
Art. 580. The usufructuary may set off the improvements he made on the
property against any damage to the same.

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D.Obligationsoftheusufructuary
Beforeenteringintotheusufruct(Art.583)
1.Tomakeaninventory
2.Togivesecurity
Exceptions:
a.whennoonewillbeinjuredthereby(Art.585)
b.whenwaivedbytheowner
c.whenusufructuaryisthedonoroftheproperty(Art.584)
d.parentalusufruct
e.caucionjuratoria(Arts.587,588)

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Duringtheusufruct
1.Takecareofthepropertyasagoodfatherofafamily(Art.
589)
2.Answerforthedamageofsubstitute(Art.590)
3.Makeordinaryrepairs(Art.592 595)
4.Payannualtaxesonfruits(Art.596,597)
5.Notifyownerofadverseclaimby3rd persons(Art.601)
Aftertheusufruct
Returntheproperty

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Usufruct

D. Rightsoftheowner
1Righttopendingfruitsatendofusufruct.
2.Righttoenjoyanyincreasenotthroughaccession.
3.Righttoalienatethepropertybutnotalteritsformand
substanceandprejudicetheusufruct(Art.581)
4.Toretainpropertypendinginventoryandsecurity.
5.Toconstructworksandimprovements,provideditdoes
notprejudicerightsofusufructuary(Art.595)

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Usufruct

E.Extinguishmentofusufruct
1.Bydeathofusufructuaryunlesscontraryintentionappears(deathof
thelastsurvivorincaseofmultipleusufruct[Art.611]).
2.Byexpirationoftheperiodorfulfillmentofresolutorycondition
(maximumperiod:lifetimeofnaturalperson,50yearsifjuridical
person,[Art.605].)
3.Bymergerofusufructandownershipinoneperson.
4.Byrenunciationoftheusufructuary.
5.Bytotallossofthething
a.partialloss(Art.604)
b.lossofbuilding(Arts.607,608)
c.legalloss(expropriation)(Art.609)
d.baduse(Art.610)
6.Byterminationoftherightofthepersonconstitutingtheusufruct
7.Byprescription(acquisitiveprescriptionbyastranger)(Art.603)

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EASEMENTS
Arts.613 693
Aneasementorservitudeisanencumbranceimposeduponanimmovablefor
thebenefitofanotherimmovablebelongingtoadifferentowner.(Art.613)
Servitudesmayalsobeestablishedforthebenefitofacommunityorofoneor
morepersonstowhomtheencumberedestatedoesnotbelong.(Art.614)

A. Characteristics:
1.Arealright.
2.Imposableonlyonanother’sproperty(jusinrealiena)
3.Limitationorencumbranceonanother’sestate.
4.Inherenceorinseparability(Art.617)
5.Intransmissibility
6.Indivisibility(Art.618)
7.Notpresumed

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Easements
B.Classification
1.Real(predial)andpersonal(Arts.613– 614)
2.Continuousanddiscontinuous(Art.615)
3.Apparentandnon–apparent(Art.615)
4.Positiveandnegative(Art.616)
5.Voluntaryorlegalormixed(Art.619)
C. Modes of Acquiring Compulsory Easements
1. Continuous and apparent easements are acquired either by title or by
prescription of ten years (Art. 620)
The period of ten years shall be computed, in positive easements, from
the day it was exercised; in negative easements, from the day a notarial
prohibition was served on the owner of the servient estate (Art. 621)

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Easements

2.Continuousnonapparenteasements,anddiscontinuousones,whether
apparentornonapparent,maybeacquiredonlybyvirtueofatitle.(Art.
622)
a.Absenceofadocumentconstitutinganeasementmaybecuredby
recognitionorjudgment(Art.623)
3.Apparentsignofaneasementsbetweentwoestatesbelongingtothe
sameperson(Art.624)(Amorvs.Florentino,74Phil.404,Tañedovs.
Bernad,165SCRA86,PMOvs.LegaspiTowers300,G.R.147957,July22,
2009)
4.Acquisitionbyexpropriation(Republicvs.PLDT,L18841,Jan.27,1969)

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‡ Inthiscase,thewaterfacilityisanencumbranceonLot11,
Block5oftheSubdivisionforthebenefitofthecommunity.It
iscontinuousandapparent,becauseitisusedincessantly
withouthumanintervention,andbecauseitiscontinually
keptinviewbytheoverheadwatertank,whichrevealsitsuse
tothepublic. [Liwagvs.HappyGlenLoopHomeowners
Association,Inc.,675SCRA744(2012)]

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Easements

Rightsofthedominantestate
1.Toexercisetheeasementandallnecessaryrights(Art.625)
2.Tomakenecessaryworksforuseandpreservation(Art.627,628)
Obligationsofthedominantestate
1.Cannotaltertheeasementormakeitmoreburdensome(Art.627)
Rightsoftheservientestate
1.Toretainownershipoftheproprtyndusethesame(Art.630)
2.Tochangethelocationifveryinconvenient(Art.629)
Obligationsoftheservientestate:
1.Cannotimpairuse(Art.629)
2.Mustcontributetheexpenses(Art.628)
3.Topayforexpensesofrelocation

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Easements

Modesofextinguishmentofeasements:(Art.631)
1.Bymergerofownershipofdominantandservientestates.
2.Bynonuserfor10years.
3.Bydeteriorationoftheconditionofeitherorbothestates,but
subjecttorevivalunlessprescriptionhassetin.
4.Byexpirationoftermorfulfillmentofperiod
5.Byrenunciationbytheownerofthedominantestate
6.Byredemptionagreedupon.
Othercauses:
1.Expropriationofservientestate
2.Abandonmentofservientestate
3.Registrationofservientestateasfree.

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‡ Restrictionsontherightsoftheownerofthedominant
estate(1)exerciseonlythoserightsnecessaryfortheuseof
theeasement;(2)cannotusetheeasementexceptforthe
benefitoftheimmovableoriginallycontemplated;(3)
cannotexercisetheeasementinanyothermannerthanthat
previouslyestablished;(4)cannotconstructanythingonit
whichisnotnecessaryfortheuseandpreservationofthe
easement;(5)cannotalterormaketheeasementmore
burdensome;(6)mustnotifytheservientestateownerofits
intentiontomakenecessaryworksontheservientestate;and
(7)shouldchoosethemostconvenienttimeandmannerto
buildsaidworkssoastocausetheleastconveniencetothe
owneroftheservientestate.(GoldcrestRealtyCorp.vs.
CypressGardenCondominiumCorp.,584SCRA435)

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LegalEasements

1.Easementsrelatingtowaters
a.Naturaldrainageoflandse.Drawingwaterandwatering
animals
b.Naturaldrainageofbuildingsf.Aqueduct
c.Easementsonriparianbanks.g.Stoplocksandsluicegates.
d.Abutmentofadam
2.EasementofRightofway
3.EasementofaPartywall
4.EasementofLightandview
5.EsementofIntermediatedistances
6.Easementagainstnuisance
7.EasementLateralandsubjacentsupport

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Easements

Naturaldrainageoflands:
Lowerestatesareobligedtoreceivewaterswhichnaturally
flowfromhigherestates.Ownersoflowerestatecannot
impedeflow;ownersofhigherestatescannotincreasethe
burden(Art.637)
Drainageofbuildings:
Ownerofdominantestatecanaskforaneasementof
drainageonsurroundingestatestogiveanoutlettorain
watercollectedindominantestate,atpointwhereegress
maybeeasiestanduponpaymentofindemnity(Art.678)

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Easements

Easementonriparianbanks:
Banksofriversandstreamssubjecttoaneasementofpublic
useinthegeneralinterestofrecreation,navigation,floatage,
fishingandsalvage(Art.638,Art,51,WaterCode).
(Widthis3metersinurbanareas,20metersinruralareas
and40metersinforestareas,Art.51,WaterCode)
Easementfordrawingwatersandwateringanimals
1.Canbeimposedonlyforpubicuse(Art.640)
2.Withaccessoryeasementofrightofway(Art,641)

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‡ Thustheaboveprovesthatpetitioner’srightofownership
andpossessionhasbeenlimitedbylawwithrespecttothe3
meterstrip/zonealongthebanksofMahabangIlogCreek.
Despitethis,theCourtcannotagreewiththetrialcourt’s
opinion,astowhichtheCAdidnotpassupon,that
respondentshaveabetterrighttopossessthesubjectportion
ofthelandbecausetheyareoccupyinganareareservedfor
publiceasementpurposes.Similartopetitioner,respondents
havenorightortitleoveritpreciselybecauseitispublicland,
‡ (PilarDevelopmentCorporationvs.Dumadag,693SCRA
96(2013)
‡ ]

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Easements
Easementofabutmentofadam:
Personentitledtodrawwaterfromriverorbrookmay
establishaneasementonlandsalongthebankstosupporta
damforsuchpurpose,afterpaymentofindemnity(Art.639)

Easementforstoplocksandsluicegates:
Personwhoneedstoconstructstoplockorsluicegatefor
purposeofirrigatinghisland,maydemandownersofbanks
topermithimtoconstruct,afterpaymentofindemnity(Art.
648).

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Easements

Easementofaqueduct
Anypersonwhomaywishtousewateronhisownestate
shallhavetherighttomakeitpassthroughintervening
estates,withtheobligationtoindemnifytheirownersaswill
astheownersoflowerestates(Art.642)
Heisobligedtoprove:
1.Thathecandisposeofthewateranditissufficient
2.Thattheproposedrightofwayisthemostconvenientand
leastoneroustothirdpersons.
3.Thathecanpayindemnity(Art.643)

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Easements
Easement of Right of Way:
a, To be entitled to an easement of right of way, the following conditions
should be met: (1) the dominant estate is surrounded by other immovables
and has no adequate outlet to a public highway (Art. 649, par. 1), (2) there is
payment of proper indemnity (Art. 649, par. 1), (3) the isolation is not due to
the acts of the proprietor of the dominant estate (Art. 649, last par.); and (4)
the right of way claimed is at the point least prejudicial to the servient estate;
and insofar as consistent with this rule, where the distance from the dominant
estate to a public highway may be the shortest (Art. 650)
b. Easement or right of way is discontinuous (Ronquillo vs. Roco, L10619, Fen.
28, 1958). Presence of railroad tracks signifies existence of an apparent but
discontinuous easement of right of way (Bicol AgroIndustrial Producers Coop.
v. Obias, GR 172077, Oct. 9, 2009)
c. Determination of just compensation is a judicial function. (National Power
Corp. Vs. Tuazon,G.R> 193023.June 222. 2011)

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d.Thewidthoftherightofwayshallbesufficientfortheneedsofthe
ownerofthedominantestateandmayaccordinglybechangedfrom
timetotime(Art.651)
e. Whenthedominantestate,acquiredbysale,exchangeorpartition,is
surroundedbyestatesofthevendor,exchangerorcoowner,no
indemnityisrequired;incaseofsimpledonation,thedonorshallbe
indemnified(Art.652).
f. Whenitisthelandofthegrantorthatissurrounded,hehastopay
indemnity,unlessheisthedonor(Art.543).
g. Iftherightofwayceasestobenecessary,theowneroftheservient
estatemayaskforitsextinguishment,buthehastoreturntheindemn
itywithinterest(Art.655).Butonlycompulsoryeasementsofrightof
waycanbeorderedextinguished,notvoluntaryones.

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Iftheeasementisintendedtoperpetuallyorindefinitely
deprivetheownerofhisproprietaryrightsthroughthe
impositionofconditionsthataffecttheordinaryuse,free
enjoymentanddisposaloftheproperty orthrough
restrictionsandlimitationsthatareinconsistentwiththe
exerciseoftheattributesofownershiporwhenthe
introductionofstructuresorobjectswhich,bytheirnature,
createorincreasetheprobabilityofinjury,deathuponor
destructionoflifeandpropertyfoundonthelandis
necessary,thentheownershouldbecompensatedforthe
monetaryequivalentoftheland.NationalPower
Corporationvs.Tiangco,514SCRA674..

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‡ Thefactthataneasementbygrantmayhavealso
qualifiedasaneasementofnecessitydoesnot
detractfromitspermanencyasapropertyright,
whichsurvivestheterminationofthenecessity.[23] A
voluntaryeasementofrightofway,likeanyother
contract,couldbeextinguishedonlybymutual
agreementorbyrenunciationoftheownerofthe
dominantestate.[24] UnicourseDevelopmentand
MarketingCorp.Vs.JosephChung,etal.,G.R.No.
173252,July17,2009,593 SCRA382

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Williamsvs.Zerda,820SCRA497,G.R.No.207146
March15,2017
‡ Anentthethirdrequisite,theisolationofthedominantestatewasnotdue
totherespondent’sownacts.Thepropertyhepurchasedwasalready
surroundedbyotherimmovablesleavinghimnoadequateingressor
egresstoapublichighway.SpousesWilliamsrefusedtograntarightof
wayandaverredthattheisolationofthedominantestatewas
attributabletotherespondent’sownacts.Theypointedoutthatwhenthe
respondentpurchasedthedominantestate,heknewthatSierrawasin
negotiationwiththemforthesaleofthedominantestate,thus,hewasin
badfaith.Nonetheless,itcannotbeusedtodefeattherespondent’sclaim
forarightofway.Sierrahadeveryrighttosellhispropertytoanybody.
Further,whentherespondentboughtthedominantestatetherecould
havebeennoexistingcontractofsaleyetconsideringthatSpouses
WilliamsandSierrawerestillinnegotiation.Hence,consent,oneofthe
essentialrequisitesforavalidcontract,waslacking.

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‡ Astothefourthrequisite,theCourtfindsthattherightof
waysoughtbytherespondentisatthepointleastprejudicial
totheservientestateanditistheshortestdistancetothe
nationalhighway.ThisisevidentintheSketchPlan19showing
thattherequestedrightofwaywasalongsidetheperimeter
ofSpousesWilliams’property.Moreover,duringtheocular
inspection,theRTCobservedthattherightofway,whichthe
respondentwasseekingwasalongsideaprecipice.20Spouses
Williamsinsistedthattheyintendedtobuildstructuresonthe
portionclaimedbytherespondent,butatasafedistance
fromtheprecipice,notimmediatelybesideit.Inaddition,the
705.20sq.m.longpathwaywouldonlyaffectasmallportion
ofthe12,200sq.m.propertyofSpousesWilliams,andfor
whichtherespondentexpressedwillingnesstopay.

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Easements

‡ EasementofaPartyWall
a.Existenceofapartywallpresumedindividingwallsunless
thereistitleorexteriorsigntothecontrary(Art.659)
b.Ditchesanddrainsbetweentwoestatesalsopresumedas
commontoboth(Art.661)
b.Costofmaintenanceandrepairofapartywallshallbe
bornebytheownersoftheadjacentlands(Art.662)
c.Nopartownermay,withouttheconsentoftheother,open
throughthepartywallanywindoworapertureofanykind
(Art.667)

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Easements
EasementofLightandView

The easement of light and view is either positive or negative. Positive, if


the window is through a party wall (Art. 668, par. 1). Negative, if the window
is through one’s own wall Art. 668, par. 2)

The period of prescription for the acquisition of an easement of light and


view
shall commence:
(1) From the time of the opening of the window if it is through a party
wall, or
(2) From the time of the formal prohibition upon the proprietor of the
adjoining land or tenement, if the window is through a wall on the dominant
estate. (Art. 668)

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Easements

Negative Easement of light and view


WhenthedistancesinArticle670arenotobserved,theownerofa
wallwhichisnotapartywalladjoiningatenementorpieceofland
belongingtoanother,canmakeinitopeningstoadmitlightattheheight
oftheceilingjoistsorimmediatelyundertheceiling,andofthesizeof30
centimeterssquare,and,ineverycase,withanirongratingimbeddedin
thewallandwithawirescreen.
Nevertheless,theownerofthetenementorpropertyadjoiningthe
wallinwhichtheopeningsaremadecanclosethemshouldheacquire
partownershipthereof,iftherebenostipulationtothecontrary.
Hemayalsoobstructthembyconstructingabuildingonhislandor
byraisingawallthereoncontiguoustothathavingsuchopening,unless
aneasementoflighthasbeenacquired.(Art.669)

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Easements
Art. 670. No windows, apertures, balconies or other similar projections which afford a
direct view upon or towards an adjoining land or tenement can be made, without
leaving a distance of two meters between the wall in which they are made and
such contiguous property. Neither can side or oblique views upon or towards such
conterminous property be had, unless there be a distance of sixty centimeters.
The nonobservance of these distances does not give rise to prescription.

Art. 672. The provisions of Article 670 are not applicable to buildings separated by a
public way or alley, which is not less than three meters wide, subject to special
regulations and local ordinances.

Art. 673. Whenever by any title a right has been acquired to have a direct views,
balconies or belvederes overlooking an adjoining property, the owner of the
servient estate cannot build thereon at less than a distance of three meters to be
measured in the manner provided in article 671. Any stipulation permitting
distances less than those prescribed in article 670 is void.

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Easements

Easementsagainstnuisance
1. Everybuildingorlandsubjecttoeasementagainstnuisancethrough
noise,jarring,offensiveodor,smoke,heat,dust,water,glareandother
causes(Art.682)
2.Noiseemanatingfromblowerofairconditioningunitofabuilding
becomesactionableonlywhenitpassesthelimitsofreasonable
adjustmenttotheconditionsofthelocalityandtheneedsofthemakerto
theneedsofthelistener.Thedeterminingfactoristhatthenoiseisof
suchacharacterastoproduceactualphysicaldiscomfortandannoyance
toapersonofordinarysensibilities(ACEnterprises,Inc.vs.Frabelle
PropertiesCorp.,506SCRA625[2006]}.

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Easements

‡ IntermediateDistancesandWorksforCertainConstructions
andPlantings.

‡ 1.Constructionsorplantingsnearfortifiedplacessubjecttospeciallaws
(Art.677)
‡ 2.Treesplantedneartenementofanothershouldobserveproper
distances:2metersfortalltrees,50cms.Forsmalltreesandshrubs(Art.
579)
‡ 3.Branchesoftreesextendingoverneighbor’sestatemaybecutupon
demandofthelatter;rootsmaybecutoffbyhim(Art.680)
‡ 4.Fruitsfallingnaturallyoveradjacentlandbelongstoownerofthesame
(Art.681)

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Easementoflateralandsubjacentsupport.

Noproprietorshallmakesuchexcavationsonhislandasto
depriveanyadjacentlandorbuildingofsufficientlateralor
subjacentsupport(Art.684)
Apermanentinjunctionagainstthemakingofinjurious
excavationsisnecessarytoprotecttheinterestofthe
dominantestate.However,anannotationoftheexistenceof
thesubjacentandlateralsupportisnolongernecessary,asit
existswhetherornotitisannotatedorregisteredinthe
registryofproperty.(Castrovs.Monsod,641SCRA486)

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Easements

‡ VoluntaryEasements
1.Everyowneroratenementmayestablishthereontheeasementsthathe
maydeemssuitableprovidehedoesnotcontravenelaw,publicpolicyand
publicorder(Art.688)
‡ a.Consentoftheusufructuaryisnotrequired,buttherightsof
usufructuaryshouldnotbeinjured(Art.689)
‡ b.Noperpetualvoluntaryeasementwithoutconsentoflegaland
beneficialownerofthetenement(Art.690)
‡ c.Consentofallthecoownersisrequired(Art.691)
2.Thepresenceofanadequateoutlettoahighwayextinguishesonly
Legalorcompulsoryeasementsbutnotvoluntaryeasements.(Unisource
Commercial&DevelopmentCorp.vs.Chung,GR173252,July17,2009)

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NUISANCE

Anuisanceisanyact,omission,establishment,business,
conditionorproperty,oranythingelse,which:
(1)Injuresorendangersthehealthorsafetyofothers;or
(2)Annoysoroffendsthesenses;or
(3)Shocks,defiesordisregardsdecencyormorality;or
(4)Obstructsorinterfereswiththefreepassageofanypublic
highwayorstreet,oranybodyofwater;or
(5)Hindersorimpairstheuseofproperty.(Art.694)

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Nuisance

‡ 1.Nuisanceiseitherpublicorprivate(Art.696),perseorperaccidens.
‡ 2.Doctrineofattractivenuisance– onewhomaintainsonhisestatea
dangerousinstrumentalityattractivetolittlechildrenatplayisliabletoa
childoftenderagewhoisinjuredtherebyeventhoughheistechnicallya
trespasser.Anartificialbodyofwaterisnotanattractivenuisance
(HidalgoEnterprises,Inc.vs.Balandan,L3429,June1,1952).
‡ 3.Remediesagainstapublicnuisance:prosecution,civilaction,
abatementwithoutjudicialproceedings(Art.699)
‡ 4.Remediesagainstaprivatenuisance:civilaction,abatementwithout
judicialproceedings(Art.705).

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Nuisance,cont’d

‡ Unlessathingisanuisanceperse,itmaynotbe
abatedsummarilywithoutjudicialintervention.By
itsnature,afenceisnotinjurioustothehealthor
comfortofthecommunity.Notbeinganuisanceper
se,butatmostanuisanceperaccidens,itssummary
abatementisunwarranted.(Perezvs.Madrona,668
SCRA696[2012])

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‡ AhotelconstructedonaNoBuildZoneisnota
nuisancepersebutanuisanceperaccidens,butmay
beordereddemolishedbytheMayorofa
municipalityintheexerciseofthepolicepoweror
generalwelfareclause.(Aquinovs.Municipalityof
MalayAklan,737SCRA145)

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MODESOFACQUIRINGOWNERSHIP

Ownership is acquired by occupation and intellectual creation.


Ownership and other real rights over property are acquired and
transmitted by law, by donation, by estate and intestate
succession, and in consequence of certain contracts, by
tradition.
They may also be acquired by means of prescription. (Art. 712)

Mode – the process of acquiring or transferring ownership


Title  that which gives a juridical justification for a mode,
that is, it provides the cause for the acquisition of ownership

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RealRightsandPersonalRights
Arealright(jusinre)isthepowerofapersontoobtain
certainfinancialoreconomicadvantagesovera
specificthing,apowerenforceableagainstthewhole
word.
Apersonalright(jusinpersonam)isthepower
belongingtoapersontodemandfromanotherasa
definitepassivesubjectdebtor,thefulfillmentofa
prestationtogive,todoornottodo.

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Real&PersonalRightscont’d.
1.Realrighthasaspecificobject;personalrightaffectsallthe
presentandfuturepropertiesofthedebtor,
2. Inrealright,thereisadefiniteactivesubjectwhiletheworldis
thepassivesubject;inpersonalrightthereisadefiniteactive
andpassivesubject.
3. Realrightisarightoverathing;inpersonalright,therightisto
athing.
4. Realrightiscreatedbymodeandtitle;personalrightiscreated
bytitleonly.
5. Realrightisextinguishedbylossordestruction;personalright
isnotsoextinguished.

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OCCUPATION

Things appropriable by nature which are without an owner, such as


animals that are the object of hunting or fishing, hidden treasure
and abandoned movables, are acquired by occupation. (Art. 713)
Requisites:
1. Seizure or apprehension
2. Property seized must be corporeal personal property.
3. Property seized must be susceptible of appropriation.
4. Intent to appropriate.
5. Requisites or conditions of law must be complied with.

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IntellectualCreation

‡ 1.Byintellectualcreation,thefollowingpersonsacquire
ownership:
‡ a.theauthor
‡ b.thecomposer;
‡ c.thepainer,sculptororotherartist
‡ d.thescientistortechnologist(Art.721)
‡ 2.Lettersandotherprivatecommunicationsinwritingare
ownedbythepersontowhomtheyareaddressedbutthey
cannotbepublishedordisseminatedwithouttheconsent
‡ ofthewriterorhisheirs(Art.723)

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DONATION
A.Definition– Donationisanactorliberalitywherebyaperson
disposesgratituouslyofathingorrightinfavorofanother
whoacceptit.(Art.725)
B. Characteristics:
1.consent,subjectmatter,cause
2.necessaryform.
3.consentoracceptanceofthedonee
4.irrevocability,exceptforlegalcauses
5.intenttobenefitthedonee(animusdonandi)
6.resultantdecreaseintheassetsorpatrimonyofthe
donor.

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Donation
C. Extent of property donated:
1. Donation may comprehend all the present property of the
donor .provided he reserves sufficient means for the support of
himself and of all relatives who, at the time of acceptance of the
donation, are by law entitled to be supported by the donor.
Without such reservation, the donation shall be reduced on
petition of any person affected. (Art. 750)
2. The provisions of Article 750 notwithstanding, no person may
give or receive by way of a donation, more that he may give or
receive by will
The donation shall be inofficious in all that it may exceed this
limitation. . (Art. 752)
3. Donations cannot comprehend future property.
By future property is understood anything which the donor
cannot dispose of at the time of the donation. (Art. 751)

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Donation
D. Reservations and reversions
1. The right to dispose of some of the things donated, or of
some amount which shall be a charge thereon, may be
reserved by the donor; but if he should die without having
made use of this right, the property or amount reserved shall
belong to the donee. (Art. 755)
2. Reversion may be validly established in favor of only the
donor for any case or circumstances, but not in favor of other
persons unless they are living at the time of the donation.
Any reversion stipulated by the donor in favor of a third
person in violation of what is provided in the preceding
paragraph shall be void, but shall not nullify the donation. (Art.
757)

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Donation
E.Kinds:
1. As to time of effectivity:
Inter vivos – When the donor intends that the donation shall
take effect during the lifetime of the donor, though the property
shall not be delivered till after the donor’s death, this shall be
donation inter vivos. (Art. 729)
mortiscausa Thedonationswhicharetotakeeffectupon
thedeathofthedonorpartakeofthenatureoftestamentary
provisionsandshallbegovernedbytherulesestablishedinthe
TitleonSuccession(Art.728)
propternuptias – donationsmadebyreasonofmarriage,
beforeitscelebration,inconsiderationofthesame,andinfavor
ofoneorbothofthefuturespouses.(Art.81,FamilyCode).

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Guidesindeterminingmortiscausadispositions:

1. Thatthedeedconveysnotitleorownershiptothedoneebeforethe
deathofthedonor,orwhatamountstothesamething,thatthedonor
shouldretaintheownershipandcontrolofthepropertywhilestillalive.
2. Thatbeforethedonor’sdeath,thetransfershouldberevocablebythe
donoratwill, adnutum,butrevocabilitymaybeprovidedforindirectly
bymeansofareservedpowerinthedonortodisposeoftheproperties
covered.
3. Thatthedonationshallbevoidifthedonorshouldsurvivethedonee.
4. Thespecificationinthedeedofthecauseswherebytheactmaybe
revokedbythedonorindicatesthatthedonationisintervivos,rather
thanmortiscausa.

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5.Thedesignationofthedonationasmortiscausa,oraprovision
inthedeedtotheeffectsthatthedonationis“totakeeffectatthe
deathofthedonor”,arenotcontrollingcriteria;suchstatementsareto
beconstruedtogetherwiththerestoftheinstrument,inorderto
giveeffecttotherealintentofthedonor.

6.Incaseofdoubt,theconveyanceshouldbedeemeddonationsinter
vivosratherthanmortiscausa,inordertoavoiduncertaintyasto
theownershipofthepropertysubjectofthedeed.
(Villanuevavs.SpousesFroilanandLeonilaBranoco,G.R.No.
173804,January24,2011)

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Donation
2. As to consideration:
a. Pure or simple – consideration is liberality of the donor or merits of
the donee. (Governed by the law on donations)
b. Remuneratory or compensatory – consideration is services
rendered by the donee to the donor, which do not constitute a
demandable debt. (Governed by the law on donations.)
c. Conditional or modal – consideration is future services of the
donee which are worth less than the value of the gift. (Governed by
the law on contracts insofar as the gift is equal to the value of the
services; by the law on donations insofar as value of the gift exceeds
the value of the services.
d. Onerous – consideration is future services equal to or more than
the value to that of the gift. (Governed by the law on contracts)

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Donation
F.Formalities:
1. donation of personal property –Art. 748
a. may be done orally or in writing;
b. oral donation requires simultaneous delivery ot thing or document;
c. If value of thing exceeds P5,000.00, donation and acceptance must be
made in writing;
2. donation of real property – Art. 749
a. public document its, specifying property and value of charges;
b. acceptance may be made in same or separate public document;
e. if in separate instrument, donor notified and this step noted in both
instruments.

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Donation
G.Perfection:
Thedonationisperfectedfromthemomentthedonorknowsofthe
acceptancebythedonee.(Art.734)
H.Qualificationsofdonoranddonee.
1.Donor– Allpersonswhomaycontractanddisposeoftheirproperty
maymakeadonation.(Art.735)
2.Donee–Allthosewhoarenotspeciallydisqualifiedbylawmay
acceptadonation.(Art.738)
Disqualifieddonees:((Art.739)
a.Personsfoundguiltyofadulteryorconcubinageattimeof
donation;
b.personsfoundguiltyofsameoffense;
c.madetopublicofficer,hiswife,descendantsandascendantsby
reasonofhisoffice,
d.personsincapacitatedtosucceed(Art.740,1027)

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Donation
d.Incapacitytosucceedbywillshallbeapplicabletodonationsintervivos.
(Art. 1027. The f ollowing are incapable of succeeding
(1) priest who heard confession of testator during last illness;
(2) relatives of pries to 4thdegree and church to which be belongs
(3) guardian before approval of final accounts;
(4) attesting witness, spouse, parents or children of witness;
(5) physician, surgeon, nurse, health officer or druggist;
(6) individuals, associations and corporations not permitted by law to
inherit.
e. Any person forbidden from receiving any donation under Art.739
cannot be named beneficiary of a life insurance policy of the person who
cannot make a donation to him, according to Art. 2012 of the Civil Code.
( Maramag vs. De Guzman, GR 181132, June 5, 2009)

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Donation
I. Effects
1. Donees subrogated to all the rights and actions which in case of
eviction would pertain to the donor. (Art. 754)
2. There being no provision regarding payment of debt, donee shall be
responsible for payment of donor’s debts only when donation made in
fraud of creditors. (Art. 759)
3. Donation of same thing to two persons – Donee who first accepts shall
be preferred. (Note: Article 744 is a mistake. Donation cannot be
compared to a sale, because donation is a mode.
J. Excessive/Inofficious donations:
1. Art. 750 – may comprehend all of present property provided he
reserves sufficient means for his support and those of his relatives whom
he is legally obliged to support (Art. 750)
2. No person may give more by way of donation than he may give by will
(Art. 752)

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Donation
K.InFraudofcreditors:
Whenthedonationimposesuponthedoneetheobligationtopaythe
debtsofthedonor,iftheclausedoesnotcontainanydeclarationto
thecontrary,theformerisunderstoodtobeliabletopayonlythe
debswhichappeartohavebeenpreviouslycontracted.Innocase
shallthedoneeberesponsiblefordebtsexceedingthevalueofthe
propertydonated,unlessacontraryintentionclearlyappears.(Art.
758)

Therebeingnostipulationregardingthepaymentofdebts,thedonee
shallberesponsiblethereforonlywhenthedonationhasbeenmade
infraudofcreditors.
Thedonationisalwayspresumedtobeinfraudofcreditors,whenat
thetimethereof,thedonordidnotreservesufficientpropertytopay
hisdebtspriortothedonation.(Art.759)
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Donation
J. Revocation and Reduction
1. Ground: Birth, Adoption of minor child and Reappearance of a child
believed to be dead, made by a donor having no children or descendants.
(Art. 760).

a. How done: Action for reduction insofar as donation exceeds portion


that may be freely disposed of at birth, adoption and reappearance of child
(inofficious donation), based on presumed legitimate of child (Art. 761)

b. Prescriptive period: 4 years from birth of first child, adoption and


reappearance (At. 763)

c. Effects: property shall be returned; mortgage may be redeemed by


donor subject to recovery from donee; if it can no longer be returned, valuje
estimated as at time of donation; donee shall not return the fruits except
from the filing of the complaint.

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Donation
2. Noncompliance with conditions (At. 764)

a. How done: Action for revocation at the instance of the donor, or by the
heirs of the donor against the donee’s heirs.

b. Prescriptive period: four years from noncompliance with the


condition (10 years if donation is onerous).

( If no period for compliance is stipulated, action to fix period should


first be filed, unless sufficient time has already elapsed.)
c. Effects: property donated shall be returned, alienations and
mortgages made by the donee being void, with limitation established with
regard to third persons by the Mortgage Law and Land Registration; donee
to return fruits received after having failed to fulfill the condition.

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PROVINCEOFCAMARINESSUR,representedbyGOVERNORLUISRAYMUND
F.VILLAFUERTE,JR.vs.BODEGAGLASSWARE,representedbyitsowner
JOSEPHD.CABRAL,G.R.No.194199,March22,2017

‡ First,wereiteratethatjurisprudencehasdefinitively
declaredthatArticle764ontheprescriptionof
actionsfortherevocationofadonationdoesnot
applyincaseswherethedonationhasanautomatic
revocationclause.Thisisnecessarilysobecause
Article764speaksofajudicialactionforthe
revocationofadonation.Itcannotgoverncases
whereabreachofaconditionautomatically,and
withoutneedofjudicialintervention,revokesthe
donation.

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‡ Second,wecannotagreewiththerulingoftheCAthatthe
petitionershouldhavefirstfiledanactionforreconveyance
oftheproperty,andthatpetitioner'sactionhasprescribed
sinceitdidnotfiletheactionwithin10years.Thisrevealsa
failuretounderstandthenatureofadonationwithan
automaticrevocationclause.Attheriskofrepetition,the
breachoftheconditioninthedonationcausestheautomatic
revocation.Allthedonorhastodoistoformallyinformthe
doneeoftherevocation.Judicialinterventiononlybecomes
necessaryifthedoneequestionstheproprietyofthe
revocation.Eventhen,judicialinterventionisrequiredto
merelyconfirmandnotordertherevocation.Hence,there
canbeno10yearprescriptiveperiodtofileanactionto
speakof.Whenthedoneedoesnotcontesttherevocation,no
courtactionisnecessary.

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Donation
3. Acts of Ingratitude (Art. 765)
a. Grounds:
(1) If donee should commit some offense against the person, honor or
property of the donor, his wife, or children under his parental authority.
(2) If donee imputes to the donor any criminal offence, or any ac
involving moral turpitude, even though he should prove it, unless the crime
has been committed against the donee himself, his wife or children under his
authority.
(c) if he unduly refuses him support when the donee is legally or
morally bound to give support to the donor.

b. How done: action for revocation by donor himself (although action


commenced can be transmitted to his heirs and continued against heir of
donee. (Art. 770)

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Donation
c. Prescriptive period: 1 year from the time the donor had
knowledge of the fact and it was possible for him to bring the
action. (Art. 769)

d. Effects: Property to be returned or its value if already


alienated (At. 767); alienations and mortgages before notation
of complaint for revocation, shall subsist; donee shall not
return the fruits except from the filing of the complaint.

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Donation
4. Inofficious donations

a. Ground: inofficious donation under Art. 752.


b. How done: action for reduction by compulsory heirs and their heirs and
successors in interest at the time of the donor’s death.
c. Prescriptive period: 10 years from donor’s death.
d. Effects: Donation is excess of free portion shall be reduced. Reduction shall
not prevent the donations from taking effect during the life of the donor, nor
shall it bar the donee from appropriating the fruits. (Art. 771)

If there being two or more donation, the disposable portion is not


sufficient to cover all of them, those of the more recent date shall be
suppressed or reduced with regard to the excess. (Art. 773)

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