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# INTRODUCTION

## You have already learnt from your studies of “Strength of Materials”

how to analyse simply supported beams and cantilevers to find out their
external support reactions, and internal stress resultants (Bending
Moments, Shearing Forces) and displacements (deflections) under any
loading. You will recall that while solving these structures you used only
the conditions of statics, which in a co-planar structure and force
system, consists of the following well-known set of three equations of
statical equilibrium, namely,

## ΣFx ≡ 0 (i.e. resultant of all forces parallel to axis OX is zero).

ΣFy ≡ 0(i.e. resultant of the forces perpendicular to the OX axis and
parallel to the OY axis is zero).
ΣMz ≡0 (i.e. resultant of all moments and couples about any point in the
plane XOY is zero).
Such structures which can be analysed only with the help of the above
three equations of statical equilibrium are known as Statically
Determinate Structures. For such structures the unknown support
reactions are three and these can be solved by statics only. However,
there is another category of equally common and important structures
which are called Statically Indeterminate Structures, which cannot be
solved by solving the set of above three conditions of equilibrium.
Additional restraints in the form of extra members or support
constraints are imposed, which makes the number of unknowns to be
solved as greater than three, hence they need additional equations to
analyse them, i.e. compatibility conditions.
Objectives: After studying this unit, you should be able to
• conceptualise a new type of structures, which cannot be solved by
equations of statics only, and are known as statically indeterminate
structures,
• to identify such structures and learn what are the main features which
distinguish them from statically determinate structures, and
• to analyse such structures, that is, to find their support reactions and
draw the BM and SF diagrams.
STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES : DEGREE OF REDUNDANCY
The above facts will be made clear by the following three examples of
statically indeterminate structures.
(a) Propped Cantilever
The simplest example of such a structure is the so-called propped
cantilever shown in Figure 2.1. You know that a cantilever fixed at A
and free at the end B is a stable structure as it provides three support
reactions VA, HA and MA at the fixed end A which is capable of
using the three equilibrium equations.

Propped Cantilever
Thus, it is a statically determinate structure. Now, if we provide an
condition on the beam by not allowing it to freely deflect at this end.
This induces a vertical reaction VB , at the roller end. The propped
cantilever has now four constraints. At the fixed end A it is denial of
both horizontal and vertical displacements and also of any rotations of
the beam (3 constraints) and at the end B it is preventing of any
vertical deflection (1 constraint). Thus, we find that there are four
corresponding reactions: VA,HA,MA and VB while the equations of statics
are three only, hence they cannot be determined by using these
equations only.
(b) Fixed Beam
In Figure 2.2, we have the example of a fixed beam which is fixed (i.e.
no horizontal and vertical displacement and no end rotation of beam)
at both ends A and B. These induce six restraints resulting in six
corresponding reactions, three at each supports, namely VA, HA, MA at
end A, and VB, HB,MB at the end B.

## Again, these six unknown reactions cannot be determined using the

three equations of equilibrium and the structure is statically
indeterminate.
Continuous Beam
A third example of such a structure is the continuous beam ABCD which
has a hinged support at A and roller supports at B, C and D. You are
familiar with a simply supported beam AD which can be formed by
removing the rollers at B and C and which is statically determinate. Now

## having a hinged support at A (with two reaction components HA and VA)

and the roller support at D (with the vertical reaction VD) and is the
same as simply supported beam with 3 unknown reaction (HA, VA, VD)
and can be solved by the 3 equations of equilibrium. However, the
present beam with the additional supports at B and C providing
additional reaction VB and VC (thus, total of five unknown reactions
acting on the beam) cannot be solved by using equilibrium equations
making it statically indeterminate again.
You may wonder why such structures are used at all, making matters
more complicated. In fact, there are certain advantages in favour of
statically indeterminate structures. As we shall see soon, in statically
indeterminate structures bending moments and shearing forces induced
are smaller in magnitude than in comparable statically determinate
structures. This results in smaller and lighter sections accompanied with
lesser costs, and cheaper construction. However, apart from
computational difficulties, the statically indeterminate structures are
subjected to internal stresses caused by differential settlement of
supports, temperature changes and errors in exact fabrication of
members, which are not perceptible in statically determinate structures.
construction. Also, indeterminacy is sometimes imposed by other
considerations and cannot be avoided altogether. We now turn our
attention to the analysis and solution of statically indeterminate
structures.
In all the above three examples, we see that the number of unknown
reactions exceeds the number of equations of equilibrium (which in the
co-planar case is three). This excess is known as the degree of
redundancy of the indeterminate structure. Thus, in Example (a) the
degree of redundancy is 4 – 3 = 1. In Example (b), it is 6 – 3 = 3 and in
Example (c), it is 5 – 3 = 2. Therefore, in Example (a) we require one
extra equation to solve the structure, while in Examples (b) and (c)
three and two extra equations are to be obtained by what is called the
conditions of compatibility which will be now explained below.
CONDITIONS OF COMPATIBILITY OR
CONSISTENT DEFORMATION METHOD
Compatibility lies in satisfying the geometrical continuity of the
structure, as well as, ensuring that the extra constraints placed on it
satisfy the new displacement conditions.

## For example, in the case of the propped cantilever, if we remove the

roller support at B, the end is free to deflect. Under a given loading this
vertical displacement can be calculated using the methods given in Unit
5 of Strength of Materials course. However, when we have placed the
rigid roller support at B this downward deflection is prevented, and as a
result a vertical reaction VB appears there. By conditions of
compatibility the magnitude of V
Theory of Structures-I
B should be such that it should neutralize the deflection of cantilever
end B due to loads and be able to bring it back to its original level, as if
there were no deflection. This also gives us a clue to determine the
value of the redundant reaction VB. Knowing VB the remaining three
reactions at A, namely VA, HA and MA can be obtained by using the
three equilibrium equations. This is explained in Example 2.1.
Here we want to emphasize that for statically indeterminate structures
there will be an infinite number of combinations of redundant forces
which will satisfy equilibrium conditions. However, among them there
will be only one set of values that will simultaneously satisfy the
requirements of both equilibrium and compatibility.
2.3.1 Illustrative
A propped cantilever of span L carries a concentrated load P at a
distance of a from the fixed support as shown in figure below. Find the
support reactions and draw the BM and SF diagrams. EI is constant for
the beam.
The problem can be divided into two parts (which will be joined
together later on).

(a) A cantilever fixed at A and free at B, acted upon by the load P. The
reactions and bending moment diagram can be easily verified as
given in Figure 2.4(a).
(b) The same cantilever acted upon by the unknown reaction VB
acting at the end B. The reactions and the BM diagram are shown in
Figure 2.4(b).
(i) To determine the downward deflection Δ0 due to the load P.
There are two regions : In the region AC, where
A
B
RA
L

y DB
wL4
W Downward DeflectionyDB 
8EI
yUB

RB L3
yUB 
3EI RB
Downward Deflection Upward Deflection
RB L3 wL4
 
3EI 8EI
3EL wL4 3wL 5wL
RB  3  8
+
3wL
L 8EI 8 8
SF Diagram
y  0  RA  RB  W
+
3wL 5wL wL2 - wL2
 RA  W  RB  wL   8
8 8 8

L BM Diagram
M at A  0  M A  RB  L  wL 
2
3wL L wL2 3  4 
 MA   L  wL  
8 2 8
wL2
 MA  
8
w/unit length Slopeat A  0
M A L wL3
    AB  0 
'
AB  0
3EI 24EI
3EI wL3 wL2
 MA   
L 24EI 8
=  AB
+  AB
'

wL2
M at A  0  M A  RB  L 
2
 wL2   wL2 wL2 
 M A      
 RB   2  

8 2 
L L
 RB 
3wL
y  0  RA  RB  wL
8
3wL 5wL
 RA  W  RB  wL  
8 8
A W B
RA L L
2 2

L W
2
y DB

WL
W
yUB
2 EI - .

RB L3
L 5L yUB 
6 6
3EI RB
M
Downward Deflection  Mom entof Area of
EI
1 WL L 5 L 5WL3
diagramaboutB y DB     
2 2 EI 2 6 48EI
Downward Deflection Upward Deflection
diagramaboutB y DB  yUB A W B
RB L3 5WL3 RA L L
 
3EI 48EI 2 2
3EL 5WL3 5W 11W +
RB  3  16 5W
L 48EI 16
SF Diagram 16
y  0  RA  RB  W +
5W 11W 3WL - WL
 RA  W  RB  W   16 4
16 16
L BM Diagram
M at A  0  M A  RB  L  W 
2
5W L WL 5  8
 MA   L W  
16 2 16
3WL
 MA  
16
A W B
RA
a La

L W
2
y DB

Wa
W
yUB
EI - .

RB L3
a a yUB 
L 3EI
3 3 RB
M
Downward Deflection Mom entof Area of
EI
1 Wa  a  Wa 2 3L  a 
diagramaboutB yDB    a L   
2 EI  3 6 EI
Downward Deflection Upward DeflectiondiagramaboutB y DB  yUB
RB L3 Wa 2 3L  a  W
  A B
3EI 6 EI
RA
3EL Wa 2 3L  a  a La
RB  3
L 6 EI
Wa 2 3L  a 

W 2 L3  3La 2  a 3  +
 2 L3
2 L3
SF Diagram
y  0  RA  RB  W +
Wab 2b  a 

Wa 2 3L  a  W 2 L3  3La 2  a 3  Wab
-

 RA  W  RB  W   2 L2
2L3
2 L3 L

BM Diagram
M at A  0  M A  RB  L  W  a

 MA 
Wa 2 3L  a 
 L W  a 
Wa 3aL  a 2  2 L2  
3
2L 2 L2
Wa L  a 2 L  a  Wab2b  a 
 MA   2

2L 2 L2
W
A B Slopeat A  0
RA L L 2
M L WL
2 2   AB
'
  AB  0  A  0
3EI 16EI
W 3EI WL2 3WL
L  MA   
2
L 16EI 16
=  AB
+  AB
'

L
M at A  0  M A  RB  L  W 
2
L 3WL L WL  3  8
 RB  L  M A  W    W  
2 16 2 16
5W
 RB  y  0  RA  RB  W
16
5W 11W
 RA  W  RB  W  
16 16
A W B Slopeat A  0
a La M A L Wab( L  b)
    AB  0 
'
AB  0
3EI 6 LEI
RA
3EI Wab( L  b) Wab( L  b)
 MA   
W L 6 LEI 2 L2
a b
=  AB  AB
'

M at A  0  M A  RB  L  W  a
 Wab2b  a  
  Wa 
 RB 
 M A  W  a 

2 L2 
L L

 RB 
 
Wa  2b 2  ab  2 a 2  2ab  b 2


Wa 2 3b  2a  Wa 2 3L  a 

3 3
2L 2L 2 L3
y  0  RA  RB  W

 RA  W  RB  W 

Wa 2 3L  a  W 2 L3  3La 2  a 3

3
2L 2 L3
Downward Deflection Upward DeflectiondiagramaboutB y DB  yUB
RB L3 Wa 2 3L  a  W
  A B
3EI 6 EI
RA
3EL Wa 2 3L  a  a La
RB  3
L 6 EI
Wa 2 3L  a 

W 2 L3  3La 2  a 3  +
 2 L3
2 L3
SF Diagram
y  0  RA  RB  W +
Wab 2b  a 
 RA  W  RB  W  

Wa 2 3L  a  W 2 L3  3La 2  a 3  
2 L2
- Wab
2L3
2 L3 L

BM Diagram
M at A  0  M A  RB  L  W  a

 MA 
Wa 2 3L  a 
 L W  a 
Wa 3aL  a 2  2 L2  
3
2L 2 L2
Wa L  a 2 L  a  Wab2b  a 
 MA   2

2L 2 L2
FIXED BEAMS
After studying the propped cantilever you will be now able to appreciate
the analysis of fixed beams. Fixed beams have generally three
redundancies, which in the case of transversely loaded beams reduces
to two only, as the horizontal reactions at each end is zero. Here the
reactions and fixing moment at any one of the ends may be taken as the
unknown redundant reactions for which two equations of compatibility
are required. The other two reactions will be then determined by the
equations of static equilibrium namely 00and≡Σ≡ΣMV. Alternatively we
can take the two end fixing moments MA and MB as the redundant
reactions. Calculate VA and VB by using the equations of statics. In the
next example, we shall use the second method.
Analyse the fixed beam AB which carries a uniformly distributed load w
per unit length over a span of length l. EI is constant.
w/unit
length

wL
RA  RB  wL  RA  RB 
2
wL wL
RA  RB 
2 2
M A L 2 wL2 EI wL3 wL2
  L  0 MA   
EI 3 8EI L 12EI 12
wL2
 MA  MB  
12
Now let us take the example of analysis of a fixed beam AB which carries
a single concentrated load ‘W’ at distance a and b from the ends A and
B respectively (span l = a + b, and EI of the beam is constant).

a b

+ Wab
L

## Let MA and MB are the fixed end moments at A and B.

MA + MB
From I m om ent area theorem
M
 A   B  0  0  Area of diagram enclosedbetween A and B  0
EI

## From II m om ent area theorem

Z  Interceptat BbetweenTA and TB  Mom entof area of
M
diagram enclosedbetween A and B aboutB
EI
+ .
Wab  Lb
L  
 3 

L
.  
MA . +  2L  3 MB
From I theorem  3 
1 Wab 1 1
  L  MA  L  MB  L  0
2 L 2 2
 M A  M B    
2 Wab Wab
 M A  M B   
Wab
 (1)
L 2 L L
From II theorem
1 Wab  Lb 1 2L 1 L
  L    M A  L   MB  L  0
2 L  3  2 3 2 3
L2
 2M A  M B    L  b   2M A  M B    Wab L  b  (2)
Wab
2
6 6 L
2M A  M B    2 L  b 
Wab
(2)
L
M A  M B    Wab
(1)
L
(2)  (1) gives
Wab 2
M A   2 L  b     2 L  b  L    2
Wab Wab Wab
L L L L
Fromeq (1)

Wab Wab 2 Wa 2b
 2   2 L  b    2
Wab Wab
MB   MA  
L L L L L
Wab 2 Wa 2b
 M A   2 and M B   2
L L
+

Wab 2 - Wab - Wa 2b
MA   2 MB   2
L L L

BM Diagram
wx
Wx  wx dx  dx w/unit length
L

dx
x Lx
wx xL  x 
L L 2 L
Wx ab2
 L  x  dx
w
M A         2 2
2
dx 2 3
x
x 0
L x 0
L L L x 0
L
w  L x 2 Lx x 
 L x 
L 2 3 4 5
w
 2 2
 2 Lx 3  x 4 dx   
3 
  
L3 x 0
L  3 4 5 0
wL5  1 1 1  2  10  15  6  wL2
  3       wL  
L 3 2 5  30  30
wx
Wx  wx dx  dx w/unit length
L

dxdx
x Lx
wx x L  x 
L 2 L 2 L
  3  x L  x dx
Wx a b w 3
 MB    2
  dx 2
x 0
L x 0
L L L x 0
L
  
     
L 2 4 5 5 2
w w L x x wL 1 1 5 4 wL
  3  Lx3  x 4 dx   3      3     wL2  
L x 0 L 4 5 0 L  4 5  20  20
+

2
wL 3
- wL2
MA   - wL wx MB  
Mx  x 20
30 6 6L

x
BM Diagram
Now let us take the example of analysis of a fixed beam AB which carries
a single CENTRAL concentrated load ‘W’ at distance a and b from the
ends A and B respectively (span l = a + b, and EI of the beam is constant).
W
L L
2 2

+ WL
4

Let MA and MB are the fixed end moments at A and B. As the load is
symmetric MA=MB

MA - MB
From I m om ent area theorem
M
 A   B  0  0  Area of diagram enclosedbetween A and B  0
EI
From I theorem
1 WL 1 1
  L  MA  L  MB  L  0
2 4 2 2
2 WL2
 M A  M B    
WL WL
  2M A  2M B  
L 8 4 4
WL
 MA  MB  
8 WL
+
8

- WL
MA -
4
WL
BM Diagram 8
A

MA + MB
From I theorem
1 MA 1 MB
 L   L  A
2 EI 2 EI
 M A  M B  
2 EI
A  M A  M B  
2 EI
A (1)
L L
From II theorem:Vertical int erceptat A 
M
Mom entof area of diagrambetween A and B aboutA
EI
1 MA L 1 M 2L
  L   B  L 0
2 EI 3 2 EI 3
L2
 M A  2M B   0  M A  2M B   0 (2)
6
eqns(2)  (1) gives MB  
2 EI
A
L
4 EI
Fromeq (1) MA  A
L
4 EI
MA  A
L

2 EI
MA + MB   A
L
BM Diagram - MB

RA  RB  0
4 EI 2 EI 6 EI 6 EI
RB  L  A   A  RB  2  A and RA   2  A
L L L L

6 EI
 2 A
L
SF Diagram
d B

MA + MB
From I theorem
1 MA 1 MB
 L  L 
2 EI 2 EI
 M A  M B   0  M A  M B   0 (1)
From II theorem:Vertical int ercept at B 
M
Mom entof area of diagrambetween A and B aboutB
EI
1 MA 2L 1 M B L
  L    L   d B
2 EI 3 2 EI 3
L2 6 EId B
 2M A  M B   d B  2M A  M B    2 (2)
6 EI L
6 EI d B
eqns(2)  (1) gives MA  
L2
6 EI d B
Fromeq (1) MA 
L2
6 EI d B
MA  
L2 +

- 6 EI d B
BM Diagram MB 
L2
RA  RB  0
6 EId B 6 EId B 12EId B 12EId B
RB  L  2  2  0  RB   3
and RA 
L L L L3 A

12 EI
3
dB
L
SF Diagram
2wx
Wx  wx dx  dx w/unit length
L

x dx dx x
L/2 2 L/2 2
Wx ab Wx a1b1 2wx
M A    2
 2 Wx  wx dx  dx
x 0
L x 0
L L
2 wx  xL  x  L  x x 2 
L/2 2
  dx 2
 2

x 0
L  L L 
L/2 L/2
  3  x L  x L  x  x dx   3  Lx 2 L  x dx
2w 2 2w
L x 0 L x 0
L/2
2w  L x Lx 
  3  L x  Lx dx   3 
L/2 2 3 4
2w 2 2 3
 
L x 0 L  3 4 0
2 wL5  1 1  2 8  3  5wL2
 3     2 wL    MB
L  8  3 16 4   192  96
wL 1 2wx x
Mx  x  x
4 2 L 3
wL wx 3
 x
4 3L

5wL2
MA   +
96
- - 5wL2
MB  
96

x
BM Diagram
M

a b
Mb
L +
- Ma
L

MA + MB
From I theorem
1 Ma 1 Mb 1 1
  a   b   M A  L   MB  L  0
2 L 2 L 2 2

2 M a 2  b2
 M A  M B    
 
M a2  b2 
L 2L L2

M A  M B   
M a 2  b2  (1)
L2
Mb
L +
- Ma
L

MA + MB

From II theorem
1 Ma  2a  1 Mb  2b  1 2L 1 L
   a L     b    M A  L   MB  L  0
2 L  3 2 L 3 2 3 2 3
L2 M
 2M A  M B  
6 6L
  
3a L  2a  2b  2M A  M B   3 3a  3a 2b  2a 3  2b3
2 3 3 M 3
L

2M A  M B   3 a  3a b  2b 
M 3 2 3
  
 
M a  b  a 2  2ab  2b 2 M a 2  2ab  2b 2 
3
L L L2
2M A  M B   
M a 2  2ab  2b 2
(2)

2
L
M A  M B   M a 2  b2  (1)
L2
2M A  M B   
M a 2  2ab  2b 2  (2)
L2
M A  M B   
M a 2  b2  (1)
L2

(2)  (1)  M A 
  
M a 2  2ab  2b 2 M a 2  b 2
 
 
M 2ab  b 2 
2 2
L L L2
Mb2a  b 
MA 
L2

## From eqn (1) 

MB 

M a 2  b2

 
Mb2a  b  M a 2  b 2  2ab  b 2

2 2
L L L2

MB 

M a 2  2ab

Maa  2b 
2
L L2
Mb 2a  b  Ma a  2b 
MA  MB 
L2
L2
Mb
L +
- Ma

Ma a  2b 
L
Mb 2a  b  MB 
MA  L2
L2
Variation of Fixed end moments
L
a MA
-
3 MB

L +
aL MA
3 - MB

2L
a MA
+
3 MB
FIXED END MOMENTS

## Sagging BM Clockwise moment

STRUCTURE
MA MB MFAB MFBA

W
WL WL WL WL
  
L/2 L/2 8 8 8 8

w/unit 2 2 2 2
wL wL wL wL
  
12 12 12 12
W
Wab2 Wa 2b Wab 2 Wa 2b
 2  2  2
a b L L L L2
51
Sagging BM Clockwise moment
STRUCTURE
MA MB MFAB MFBA

## w/unit length wL2 wL2 wL2 wL2

  
30 20 30 20
M
M M M M
L/2 L/2 
4 4 4 4
Mb ( 2a  b) Ma ( 2b  a )
L2 L2
w/unit length
5wL2 5wL2 5wL2 5wL2
  
96 96 96 96

52
Sagging BM Clockwise moment
STRUCTURE
MA MB MFAB MFBA

dA 6 EI d A 6 EI d A 6 EI d A 6 EI d A
2
 2
12 E I d A 12 E I d A
L L L2 L2

L3 L3

6 EI d B 6 EI d B 6 EI d B 6 EI d B
dB  2 2
 2  2
L L L L

## 4 EI A 2 EI A 4 EI A 2 EI A

A=1 L L L L
53
Sagging BM Clockwise moment
STRUCTURE
MA MB MFAB MFBA

B=1
2 EI B 4 EI B 2 EI B 4 EI B

L L L L

dA dB

6 EI (d A  d B ) 6 EI (d A  d B ) 6 EI (d A  d B ) 6 EI (d A  d B )
2

L L2 L2 L2

54