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JAINISM *According to the Jain sources a violent man who is

motivated by passion (kāşāya), first injures himself


Founded by Nataputta Mahavira which they called jina
(ātmahamana), irrespective of the fact whether another
“spiritual conqueror” – counterpart of buddha.
being is injured or not.
Jainas doesn’t believe in the concept of God, but rather
*Jainism believes that no overall good of individuals or
they held that absolute knowledge and absolute
society can arise from violence. Jainism teaches that
perfection is possible through intense human effort. That’s
untruth, stealing, taking more than one's fair share,
why rituals, prayers, and sacrifices are not observed but
immoderate pursuit of sensual pleasures and
rather by regulating moral and spiritual discipline.
possessiveness are aspects of violence. All these involve
Jains doesn’t believe in God is our creator but that doesn’t passions, mental violence of self and of others
mean that they don’t have God
Three (3) jewels of Jainism
Followers of Jainism are called JAINS Discernment of right from wrong
Founded standard
“The ethics of Jainism is naturalistic in so far as it is Apply and perform the good
humanistic.
It constituted the foundations of Jainism: the three
The Jain does not depend upon any supernatural
doctrine of - 8 fold path
deliverance or intervention to achieve moksha. He
Right faith – discernment of right and wrong and
realizes bliss on the basic of his own powers as a human
truth
being.”
Right knowledge – awareness of what is right and
Moksha- freedom from samsara, the cycle of death and doing what is right
rebirth Right conduct

Jainism emphasized that knowledge could be perfected Sallekhana


by right conduct was mere futile and conduct without right
knowledge was blind. 1. sacred process and part of a vow
2. Sort of ritual suicide undertaken as part of the
Five (5) important vows to achieve complete mastery over process of reverence for all life but it is not done
oneself by subduing passion: very often today
mahavrata (great views) 3. Jains do this because they regard all life as
sacred that they don't want to harm/kill any living
a. non-violence (ahiṁsā) – accorded utmost thing even microbes. As a result, a person
importance among these principles gradually decreases his/her food & liquid intake
b. truth (satya) resulting to death in order not to harm any living
c. non-stealing which implies not to take anything to thing. Ex: each day you will lessen to drink water.
which one was not entitled (aṣteye) 4. During the period, person has to abandon worldly
d. celibacy or abstention from self-indulgence attachments and relations. He must seek
(brahmacharya) forgiveness from his family and focus and spend
e. non-possession or renunciation (aparigraha) time in meditation.
5. Reduced intake in food means reducing negative
According to Jainism all living beings, irrespective of their
factors and focus on spiritual matters
size, shape, or different spiritual developments are equal.
6. In case the person falls ill or loses peace of mind,
No living being has a right to harm, injure, or kill any other
he should abandon the process and resume his
living being, including animals, insects, and plants. Every
normal life
living being has a right to exist and it is necessary to live
7. Sallekhana should not be confused with suicide
with every other living being in perfect harmony and
since the latter is brought by mental weakness or
peace.
external circumstances which the person is not
Anger, greed, fear, and jokes are the breeding grounds of able to circumvent while the former is neither
untruth. To speak the truth requires moral courage. Only hurtful nor is there any sorrow but there is
those who have conquered greed, fear, anger, jealousy, calmness and peace with which death is faced
ego, and frivolity can speak the truth. 8. This process is difficult to adopt. It requires the
devotee to possess unshakable conviction that
Jainism insists that one should not only refrain from soul and body are separate
falsehood, but should always speak the truth, which
should be wholesome and pleasant. One should remain JAINA AHIMSA
silent if the truth causes pain, hurt, anger, or death of any
- Lord Aristanemi refused to get married due to
living being.
slaughter of animals for his marriage feast
Don’t steal even worthless things which is not belong to - Goal: is to ascend to the Siddha Loka a world
him. beyond heaven and earth, where all liberated
soul dwell eternally in state of energy,
Sexual desire. Abstain from doing extraordinary thing consciousness and bliss
Abstain from addiction - Jainas avoid activities associated with violence
and follow a vegetarian diet
- Fosters attitude of respect for all life forms
The definition of Ahiṁsā in Jainism Jain Vow of Ahiṁsā. 3. Careful eating (eşaņā)
4. Careful placing and removing (gŗha-nikşepa)
Himsa- violence Ahimsa – non-violence
5. Careful evacuation (vyutsarga).
The wheel represents the dharmacakra which stands for
-non-killing of beings and to vocal non-violence
the resolve to halt the cycle of reincarnation through
relentless pursuit of truth and non-violence. -limit the area of one’s activities in order to be able to
follow complete Ahiṁsā.
One of the Jain texts ascribes Ahiṁsā as having positive
attitude and it is the best medicine for the suffering arising Jain should observe three controls (daņda).
from the disease of the world-whirling.
1. Control of the body (vapus)
In Jainism, nonviolence is not limited to refraining from 2. Of speech (vacana), and
mental, verbal and physical injury to human beings. It 3. of the mind (manas)
encompasses abstaining from injury to all living beings,
Carefulness of speech(bhāşā samiti)- consist of
all animals and plants.
abstention from backbiting, ridicule, talking ill of others,
Violence (cheda, cutting) is uncontrolled behaviour such self-praise and harsh words and speaking what is good
as sleeping, sitting, staying and going, i.e, physical for oneself or for Monks should not have enemies in the
actions. Impure activity is cheda, because it destroys form of evil bodily activities because they have already
monkhood activity which consists in pure activity. been given up and therefore do not come again. Monks
Therefore uncontrolled activity is always violent. should not have any reservation in controlling their
internal enemies (antaranga) like anger.
Nonviolence (Ahiṁsā) is the keystone of the Jain code of
ethics, which is a natural effect of rationalism. Jainas do Non-resistance of Jainas:
not believe that any higher authority hands down a
Jaina ethics prescribe non-resistance for the monks which
'system of laws' or commandments.
are to be practiced when facing violence of every kind.
Kinds of Violence: - origin or law
Tattvārtha-Sūtra defines dishonesty (anŗta) as false (asat)
 Physical violence-covers killing, wounding, and expression (abhidhāna)-Dishonesty is any wrong
causing any physical pain expression (asatabhidhāna) caused by fervent mentality
 Violence in words-consists of using harsh (pramāda-yoga) and carried out in body, mind or speech.
language
False statements are of four kinds:
 Mental violence-implies bearing ill feeling
towards others. 1. Speech by which the existence of a thing with reference
to its position (kşetra), time (kāla), and nature (bhāva) is
Ahimsa is the standard by which all actions are judged.
denied.
The term means nonviolence, non-injury and absence of
desire to harm any life forms. Yamas means "reining in" 2. If a thing exists where it does not exist, with reference
or "control", these are "don't do these" list of self-restraint. to the position, time and nature of other objects.
And this practice should last for 2 days. The pure-minded
who practice specific nonviolenece confine themselves to 3. An existing thing as something different from what it
limited place and abstain from going to many places. He really is.
becomes a saint if he engange in complete abstention but 4. The last type of dishonesty consists of three kinds of
if it is partial restraint, he only becomes a disciple. speech,
4 Classification of Injury  Condemnable (garhita)
1. Accidental injury - permissible -backbiting (paiśunya), offending jokes (hāsa), it is
2. Occupational injury - harsh (karkaśā), unsuitable (asamañjasa), non-
3. Protective injury - unavoidably committed sensical (pralāpita or uncanonical (ut-sūtra).
4. Intentional injury - can be absolutely avoided
 Sinful (sāvadya)
The five vows, being great vows in the case of monks and
small vows in the case of laymen, are, abstention from - induces another person to engage in cutting,
violence, dishonesty, theft, sexual pleasure, and piercing, ploughing, trading and stealing is sāvadya
attachment to worldly objects. There are five meditations or sinful, as it leads to the killing of living beings
for each of these five vows against violence for instance (prāņi-vadha).
are preservation of speech, of mind, care in walking, care
in lifting and haying down things and looking at one’s food  Disagreeable (apriya)
and drink. A layman may vows, such as non-violence, by All which causes uneasiness, fear, pain, hostility,
including some supplementary vows. grief, quarrel or anguish of mind, is said to be
apriya.”
Inspiration and the consequences of an action for others
involve certain positive aspects of Ahiṁsā. Jain text warns against speaking untruth (asūnŗta) which
Samitis are the five rules according to Jain texts: goes against the belief of the whole world (sarva- loka-
viruddha), involves a violation of trust (viśvasita-ghātaka)
1. Careful movement (samyakgamana āgamana) or is opposed to merit (puņyavipakşa)
2. Careful speech (bhāşa)
False speech, Hiṁsā, because it injures the real nature of
a living being (ātma-pariņāma)

Cause- cause of Hiṁsā, and it is present in falsehood.

Jainism a pragmatic criterion:

 Awareness of the correct view of reality


(samyakdarşana), including the interrelatedness
of life and the intrinsic worth of each living being,
is associated with a feeling of compassion for
others.
 Compassion (anukampa, daya, karuņa) is
understood in various Śvetāmbara and
Digambara textual sources and the relationship
between compassion and Ahiṁsā, the core
ethical value of Jainism.
 Jainism attempts to enforce a strict egalitarianism
regarding the objects of injurious action. Simply
put, every life unit (jīva) has equal value.
Therefore, Jain Ahiṁsā is based on the equality
and universal kinship of all souls. This
egalitarianism is a great Jain achievement, but its
formulation is questionable.

1. Every Jain jīva, just as every Sankhya puruşa, is


distinct and separate from every other, so a Jain cannot,
strictly speaking, regard another self as her "own self."

2. Sympathy and reciprocity, along with equality, must be


necessary conditions for Ahiṁsā. True sympathy and
reciprocity are possible only in a system of internal
relations.