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MAT 37

(ELEMENTARY STATISTICS)

ACTIVITIES

IN

STATISTICS

prepared by:

MARIA CHONA Z. FUTALAN


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LIST OF ACTIVITIES

Activity #1 Frequency Distribution Table -------------------------------------------------------------------------------3

Activity # 2 Frequency Polygon and Histogram -------------------------------------------------------------------------4

Activity # 3 Sample Size Distribution --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5

Activity # 4 Finding the Mean, Mode, and Median from Ungrouped Data ------------------------------------------6

Activity # 5 Finding the Mean, Mode, and Median from Grouped Data ---------------------------------------------7

Activity # 6 Weighted Mean Computation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------8

Activity # 7 Sample and Population Standard Deviations of Ungrouped Data ------------------------------------9

Activity #8 Sample and Population Standard Deviations of Grouped Data ---------------------------------------10

Activity# 9 t-test for Uncorrelated or Independent Data ------------------------------------------------------------11

Activity # 10 t-test for Correlated or Dependent Data ---------------------------------------------------------------13

Activity # 11 Chi Square Computation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------15

Activity # 12 Regression Analysis and Correlation Coefficient Computation ------------------------------------17

Activity #13 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Computation ---------------------------------------------------------20


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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity #1
Frequency Distribution Table

Problem: Make a frequency distribution table of the following ungrouped data:

Ungrouped Data

49 51 48 45 52 55 41 48
48 48 55 42 66 55 56 56
56 41 47 68 65 57 55 42
41 54 44 62 72 38 82 30
66 62 39 54 37 62 78 56
Solution:

Array of the Ungrouped Data

a. Range =

b. # of class intervals (k)


k = 1 + 3.322 log n

k=

c. Size of the class interval (i)

i=

Frequency Distribution Table

class intervals
frequency class mark (x)
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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity # 2
Frequency Polygon and Histogram

Problem: Make a frequency polygon and histogram

Data: Refer to your Frequency Distribution Table in Activity #1

Frequency Polygon

Histogram
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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity #3
Sample Size Distribution

Problem: Determine the number of students in each college to be taken as subjects

Data:
CAS = 150
CN = 100
CBA = 450
HRM = 200
CE = 350
IE = 95
CA = 75

Solution:

# of Percent Share in every # of


Data Students Department Distribution of sample Units samples

CAS 160

CN 100

CBA 450

HRM 200

CE 250

IE 95

CA 75

total

N = _____________

Sampling Formula

N .
n =
1+Ne2

n = _________________________

n = ________________________
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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity # 4
Finding the Mean, Mode, and Median from Ungrouped Data

Problem: Find the mean, mode and median of the following ungrouped data:

Data: Refer to your array in Activity #1

Array

n = ________

Ʃ x = _________

Mean =

Mean ( ) = _____________

Mode = ______________

Median: ______________
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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity # 5
Finding the Mean, Mode, and Median from Grouped Data

Problem: Find the mean, mode and median of the following grouped data:

Data: Refer to your frequency Distribution Table in Activity #1

class intervals frequency class mark


f X fx cum f

Σf =_______ Σfx = ________

Solution:

n = ______

Σ fx = ______

i = ______

Mean, = Σ (fx)/n

Mean = ____________________

Median = Lm + (½ n – F)i
Fm

Median = _______________________

1
Mode = Lmo + ( )i
1 + 2
.

Mode = ________________________
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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity # 6
Weighted Mean Computation

Problem: Solve for the weighted mean and give its verbal description using the following scale:.
Scale Verbal Description

4.21– 5.00 Strongly Agree


3.41– 4.20 Agree
2.61– 3.40 Undecided
1.81 – 2.60 Disagree
1.00 – 1.80 Strongly Disagree

Data:
Indicators/Statements 5 4 3 2 1 wx Verbal Description

1. I am always under a terrible strain 25 10 2 2 1


in a mathematics class
2. I don’t like Mathematics and it 2 2 2 8 26
scares me to take it.
3. I approach Mathematics with a 2 3 30 3 2
feeling of hesitation.
4. My mind goes blank and I am 2 34 2 1 1
unable to think clearly when
working Mathematics
5. I feel a sense of insecurity when 1 1 3 32 3
attempting to do Mathematics.

Computation:

1: w = ___________________________________________________________________________________

2: w = ___________________________________________________________________________________

3: w = ___________________________________________________________________________________

4: w = ___________________________________________________________________________________

5: w = ___________________________________________________________________________________

Note: w should be rounded off to the nearest hundreths.


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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity # 7
Sample and Population Standard Deviations of Ungrouped Data

Problem: Solve for the sample and population standard deviations of the following ungrouped data:

Data: Refer to your array/result in Activity # 4


Array:
x (x - ) (x - )2

= ______ Σ (x - ) 2 = ________________

Sample standard deviation Population standard deviation

s = Σ(x - )2 = _______________ σ = Σ(x - )2 = _______________


n-1 n

s = ______________ σ = ________________
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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity #8
Sample and Population Standard Deviations of Grouped Data

Problem: Solve for the sample and population standard deviations of the following grouped data:

Data: Refer to your Frequency Distribution Table and results in Activity #5


class
intervals frequency class mark
f x fx (x - ) (x - )2 f(x - )2

Σf = ___ Σfx = ____________ Σf(x - )2 = ____________

= = Σ fx/n = ________________

Sample standard deviation

s = Σ [f ( x - )2 ] = = ________________
n-1

Population standard deviation

σ = Σ [f ( x - u)2] = __________ = ________________


n
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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity# 9
t-test for Uncorrelated or Independent Data

Problem:
The data show the personality traits of the girls and the boys. Test if there is a significant difference
between their personality traits using 5% level of significance. Higher scores indicate higher personality
traits.

Data:
Personality traits of girls: 18 19 21 24 29 25 26 29 32 35 36
21 22 30 32
Personality traits of boys:21 16 16 19 21 20 20 21 23 24 26
27 28 30 33 18 21

Solution:
1. Ho: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

( µ1 = µ2)

Ha : ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(µ1 ≠ µ2) non directional test, two tailed test

2. α = 0.05

3. use t-test for comparing two means

4. df = n1 + n2 – 2 = ________________________________

5. computation: (setting calculator to sd mode)

1 = ____________________ (boys)
S1 = ____________________
n1 = ____________________

2 = ____________________ (girls)
S2 = ___________________
n2 = ___________________

------------------------------ --------------------------

= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------

= -------------

t = ____________________
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Final Table and Discussion


Table 1
Analysis Table of the Mean Scores of the Boys and Girls
in a Personality Test
n = _________

Computed Tabular
Respondents t t Decision Remark
s n

Boys

Girls
5% level of significance and _____________ degrees of freedom

Discussion:

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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity # 10
t-test for Correlated or Dependent Data
Problem:
The data show the scores of the students before and after the film showing related to global warming.
Make a directional test with alpha = 0.01.

Data:
Scores before the film showing:
10 15 20 24 25 22 20 17 16 11 20 15 20
Scores after the film showing:
25 22 25 30 35 20 24 23 18 20 26 20 30

Solution:
1. Ho: ____________________________________________________________________________________

(µ1 = µ2)

Ha : ______ _____________________________________________________________________________

(µ2 > µ1) directional test, one - tailed test

2. α = 0.01

3. use t-test for correlated or dependent data

4. df = n – 1 = ____________

5. computation:

Pretest Posttest D D2

= _____ = _____ ∑D= ______ ∑D2 = _____


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∑D
t= ----------------------------------
N ∑ D2 - ( ∑ D)2
--------------------------
n-1

t= ----------------------------------

--------------------------

t= ----------------------------------

--------------------------

t= --------------------------- = __________________

Final Table and Discussion:

Table 2
Testing the Significance of the Difference Between Means of the
Pretest and Posttest Results of the Students
n = _________
computed tabular
Test t t Decision Remark

Pretest
Posttest

5% level of significance an d__________ degrees of freedom

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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity # 11
Chi Square Computation

Problem:
The given data are the perception of the male and female students on the negative effect of online gaming.
Test the independence of one variable from another variable.

Agree Undecided Disagree Row


Subtotals

Male 20 10 70 100

Female 60 20 20 100

Column 80 30 90 200
Subtotals

Solution:

1. Ho: ______________________________________________________________________________________

Ha: ______________________________________________________________________________________

2. α = 0.05

3. use x2 test of independence

4. df = (r – 1)(k – 1) = _________________

5. computation:

Fo Fe (fo - fe)2/fe

20

10

70

60

20

20

∑(fo- fe)2/fe = _____________________


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Final Table and Discussion:

Table 3
Relationship Between Students’ Perception Regarding the Negative Effect of Online
Gaming when they are Grouped According to Sex
n = ________

sex Agree Undecided Disagree w computed tabular decision remark

(3) (2) (1) x2 x2

male

female

5% level of significance and ___________ degrees of freedom

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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity # 12
Regression Analysis and Correlation Coefficient Computation

Problem: The following table shows the final grades of 10 students in Algebra and Statistics.

Student Algebra (x) Statistics (y)


1 81 89
2 81 89
3 77 91
4 79 85
5 76 91
6 81 92
7 85 95
8 86 91
9 82 89
10 80 87

a. Draw the scatter diagram.


b. Find the equation of the LSRL.
c. Draw the LSRL on the scatter diagram.
d. What is a student’s expected grade in Statistics if his grade in Algebra is 82?
e. Find the correlation coefficient for the variables x and y and interpret your result.

Solution:
a. Scatter Diagram
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b. Equation of the LSRL

Algebra Statistics
(x) (y) x2 xy y2
81 89
81 89
77 91
79 85
76 91
81 92
85 95
86 91
82 89
80 87
∑x =______ ∑y = _______ ∑x2 =________ ∑xy = ______ ∑y2 =________

( Ʃ y)( Ʃx2) – (Ʃx) (Ʃxy)


a = -----------------------------------------
N(Ʃ x2) - (Ʃx) 2

( )( ) – ( )( )
a = ------------------------------------------------------------------
( ) - ( )2

a = ---------------- = ___________

( )–( )( )
b = ------------------------------------------------
( ) - ( )2

b = --------- = ____________

Y = a + bx

Y = _______ + _________ x - LSRL Equation

d. Student’s expected grade in Statistics if his grade in Algebra is 82?

when x = 82

Y = ___________ + ( )( )

Y = _________ - predicted/expected grade in Statistics if Grade in Algebra is 82.

e. Computation of correlation coefficient and interpretation/discussion of result.

1. Ho: _____________________________________________________________________________________

Ha:______________________________________________________________________________________

2. α = 0.05
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3. use Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient

4. df = n – 2 = _________________

5. computation:

N( Ʃ xy) – (Ʃx) (Ʃy)


r = -------------------------------------------------------
[ N(Ʃ x2) – (Ʃx) 2 ] [ N(Ʃ y2) – (Ʃy) 2 ]

( )–( )( )
r = ------------------------------------------------------------------
[ ( )–( )2 ] [ ( )–( )2 ]


r = ------------------------------------------------------------
[ – ] [ – ]

r = --------------------------- = ------------------ = _______________


[ ] [ ]

Final Table and Discussion:

Table 4
Correlation Between the Students’ Grade in Algebra and Statistic s
n = _______

coefficient of
Variables computed tabular decision remark determination
r2
r r

Algebra Grades
vs (_____________ correlation)
Statistics grades

5% level of significance and ________ degrees of freedom

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Name: __________________________ Section:_________________________

Activity #13
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Computation

Problem: The Algebra scores of 3 groups of students are shown below. Test whether the differences in
scores may be attributed to chance, at 0.01 significance level.

Student Number Group 1 Group 2 Group 3


1 80 91 71
2 87 95 72
3 75 88 71
4 82 90 75

Solution:

xa xb xc xa2 xb2 xc2


Students Group1 Group2 Group3

Student 1 80 91 71
Student 2 87 95 72
Student 3 75 88 71
Studen t4 82 90 75
Total
Mean ( )

∑ x = ____________________________________

∑ x2 = ___________________________________

TSS = ∑ x2 - ( ∑ x)2 / N

TSS = __________ - ( ___________)2 / ________

TSS = ___________ - ___________ = ___________

SSb = 1 ∑ (sum of each column)2 - ( ∑ x)2 / N


#of rows

SSb = (______2 + ______2 + ______2) - ( ________)2 / _____

SSb = - _________ = _________

SSw = TSS - SSb = ________ - __________ = __________

MSSb = SSb/ dfb = ________ / ________ = __________

MSSw = SSw/ dfw = _________ /___________ = _________

Computed F = MSSb/MSSw = ________ /_________ = __________


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Greater MSS (denoted by n1)


Smaller MSS (denoted by n2)

ANOVA table of Three Groups of Students

source of sum of df MSS = SS/df computed tabular decision remark


variation squares F F
between-
column
within-
column
total
5% level of significance

Tests after the F test (should be done if the result is significant)


a vs b; a vs c; b vs c

Formula:
( 1 - 2)2 (n1 n2)
F = ____________________
MSSw (n1+n2)

For distribution a and b:

( - )2 ( * )
F = _______________________________ = ____________________________ = __________

( )

For distribution a and c:


( - )2 ( * )
F = _______________________________ = ____________________________ = __________

( )

For distribution b andc:


( - )2 ( * )
F = _______________________________ = ____________________________ = __________

( )

Tabular F = __________

Adjusted F = (k – 1) (tabular F) = ( )( ) = ________________


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Final Table and Discussion:

Table 5
Analysis Table of the Mean Scores of the
Three Groups of Students

Variables computed Tabular decision remark


F F
Group 1 vs Group 2
a =_________; b = __________
Group 1 vs Group 3
a =_________; c = __________
Group 2 vs Group 3
b =_________; c = __________

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