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Mabalacat City College

Japanese Catholicism in the Philippines


(1941-1945)

Researchers:

Mandal, Roberto D.

Arceo, Cristel Joy R.

ABH 2B

Mr. Raymond John Vergara


Philosophy of History Instructor
Japanese Catholicism in the Philippines (1941-1945)
Outline:

I. Introduction

I. Life of Filipinos and their faith in Catholic Religion before World War II
II. Japan goals and aims in the World War II
III. The First Japanese Catholic Missionaries in the Philippines

IV. Body

IV. The Beginning of World War II


V. Japanese Invasion in the Philippines
V.I. Japanese used Catholicism as one of their strategies to invade the
Philippines
V.II. Catholic Religion and Practices during Japanese Occupation
VI. Japan approach in the Philippines
VI.I Religious Propaganda Corps and their true intentions
VII. Effectivity of Catholicism

VII. Conclusion
VIII. Japanese Views of Catholicism
IX. Good effect of Japanese Catholicism in the Philippines
IX.I. Japanese became Pro-Filipinos
`
I. Life of Filipinos and their faith in Catholic Religion before World War

During Spanish period, the Filipinos have strong faith with regards to their
religion, gave them a deep meaning in their daily lives. Just like superstition wherein
people who believes in it were afraid to break whatever it is said and done. A good
example of Filipino belief is that during Holy Week avoid going outside when it is Good
Friday, because Jesus Christ is dead and bad entities are everywhere. In the transition
life of the Filipinos, during the Japanese occupation their beliefs are still one of their
priorities in their daily lives. However, the strong faith of the Filipinos in their religion is
their weakness, because Filipinos would rather sacrifice their life than giving up their
faith.

Trials, fears and difficulties, those were Filipinos expression during the time of
war. The war had caused great impacts on the Philippines not only with the destruction
of infrastructures but also with the mental and emotional aspects of the people. They
had spent a long time to rebuild the destroyed buildings and economic institutions, but
nobody can heal the wounds of every Filipino who suffered during those years. There
were some who had lost their families & relatives also suffered trauma due to what they
had encountered.
This present generation will not see with their eyes and experienced what was
happened that time, but definitely could read and realized clearly through the printed
words written by the researchers through their massive and careful studies . The effects
of the war had already been discussed yet researchers have not been able to tackle
about the root why did the World War II have arisen. Researchers would have to look
back further to answer this question.

It all started in 1929 when the United States from the stock market crashed,
which sent shock waves around the world economy. Europe and Japan were two
countries that were affected, especially they were both facing bleak economic prospects
during that time. Germany was also affected by the market crashed while they were
suffering from the lost at the Great war and were burdened by paying off their war
debts. In 1937, Japanese invaded Manchuria, China. When the United States took a
diplomatic position in China the international tension has begun.
After the internal tension, Hitler and Nazi began to flex their military arms and
they also gained political power in Europe, while Mussolini became dictator in Italy. On
the other side of the globe, the war in the Philippines seemed far off much attention.

Although war has a negative effect, on the other side it also gave positive
impacts in the Philippines. Aside from meals were cheap, there was also a high quality
of education in public schools during that time. Fortunately, high school can easily get
jobs. There were also no virtually informal settlers in Manila, no water shortages and
even brownouts. The great advantage of Filipinos that time is they have adapted the
religious beliefs called Catholicism. In the Philippines, rapidly spread of Catholicism in
the early years it composed 85% of Filipinos population were Catholic. As an influenced
of Christianity, Catholics believed in faith healers who used prayers and herbs to treat
physical illness and massage to cure the misaligned bones of a person.

II. Japan goals and aim in the Philippines (1941-1945)


The Japanese wanted to promote “Asian for Asians”, given the fact that
Philippines was colonized by westerners for a long period of time. They saw that the
Filipinos valued the Western culture so much. Moreover, the Japanese wanted to
exploit Philippine natural resources. Another goal was to remove the Western culture
slowly, and be the center of force. But, it seemed that they failed in changing the
Filipinos way of living. Sarcastically speaking, Japanese are well-known for making
women as their comforters. The researchers believed that it is one of their goals. The
Japanese wants to be the center of Asia and they also want to remove Western culture.

"In lavish ceremonies, The Philippines was declared independent on


October 14, and the Japanese Military Administration officially ceased to exist.
However, the Philippine Republic was made to sign a pact of alliance with
Japan, and a secret agreement allowing Japanese to exploit Philippine natural
resources. The Japanese Army was to remain in the Philippines, and was to
maintain tis control over transportation, communications and the media." 1

III. First Japanese Catholic Missionaries in the Philippines

The first Japanese Christian missionaries who came here in the Philippines was
Takayama Ukon, he was a feudal lord and at the same time a samurai in Japan. He
was exiled to Manila in December 21, 1614 because of this ruler, he was also a follower
of Christian teachings. Ieyasu Tokugawa was the ruler of Japan who forces Christian
Daimyos2to exile during the period of his Shogunate. 3Takayama Ukon, together with
300 other Japanese Christians received a warm welcome from the Spanish friars and
the local Filipinos in the Philippines. Their stay in the Philippines was successful and
they lived here for a couple of years. They were secured by the Spanish friars, the
Spaniards were planning for an invasion in Japan because of the improper treatment to
Japanese Christians, but Ukon refused to join.
Takayama Ukon died on January 1615 in Manila because of illness. He was
buried, and Takayama is the first Japanese Christian daimyo to be buried in the
Philippine soil. After his death, his family was still protected by the Spanish authorities
and Franciscans. Spanish friars appreciated Takayama Ukon; loyalty to Catholicism,
they built a statue as a honor located in Plaza Dilao or Paco, Manila in modern day. In
addition, Takayama was willing to give up his wealth, position and power for his faith.
He is one of the notable Japanese missionaries in the history, because of his sacrifices
and contribution in Catholic.

IV. Beginning of World War II in the Philippines


Meanwhile, after the surprise attack in Pearl Harbor, World War II began in the
Philippines. The Japanese Soldiers attacked the Philippines on December 8, 194I. The
Defense troops of United States and Philippines were led by Douglas MacArthur. Then,

1
Ricardo Trota Jose and Lydia Yu-Jose, Japanese Occupations of the Philippines (Ayala Foundation Inc.,
Makati Avenue, Makati City Metro Manila, 1997), 82
2
A feudal lord of Japan who was a large landowner
3
Ambeth R. Ocampo, "Justo TakayamaUkon", Philippine daily inquirer, February 06, 2015, Available from
http://opinion.inquirer.net/82332/justo-takayama-ukon, (last accessed 0ctober 30, 2017)
Douglas MacArthur was assigned by the United States Government to be the
Commander of United States Army in the Asia-Pacific Region.

Because of the superiority of Japanese soldiers in numbers resupplying and


reinforcing was really impossible. But, unlike the Japanese they received reinforcement
from Tokyo and made a general attack. Defending Aircraft, Naval Forces and other
troops of United States and Philippines was pulled out, because of the advantage in
numbers of Japanese soldiers. Lastly, Manila was announced as an open city to
prevent its ruination from the war. In January 2, 1942, Manila was successfully occupied
by the Japanese.

The Philippines and United States forces maintained securing the Philippines.
Fil-American forces dug a hole in roads to delay the tank attacks of Japanese forces. In
addition, in April 3, 1942 Fil-American forces made a counter attack by throwing
grenades. Then, on April 9, 1942 the Fil-American forces in Bataan retreated due to
insufficiency of food and medicines. On the next month, Fil-American forces in
Corregidor retreated to the Japanese forces due to lack of reinforcement. At that time
Bataan and Corregidor were the sign of resistance. After the surrender in Corregidor, all
resistances of Fil-American Forces commanded to cease.

The Japanese busted 80,000 prisoners of war at Bataan, majority of them were
force to participate in the “Death March ". Approximately, as much as 10000 prisoners
was debilitated by illness, lack of nutrition and handled cruelly by the Japanese
abductors. In addition, 10000 prisoners died before they reach their haven.

President Manuel Quezon and Vice President Sergio Osmeña escorted the
troops up to Corregidor and leaved for the United States. While MacArthur, went in
Australia to set a plan for his comeback in the Philippines. Partly due to the vengeance
of some Japanese officers, an alleged lack of transportation; the surrendered Filipinos
and Americans were forced to march out of Bataan to San Fernando Pampanga. 4

Fil-American forces fully retreated on May 6, 1942. The negotiation of terms in


surrender was handled by General Wainwright. In addition, one Japanese officer check
if General Wainwright is following the agreement. Japanese assured that Fil-American
forces will not stab their back; like what they did in Pearl Harbor Attack. Corregidor fell
on May 6, 1942. The Japanese government estimated that the war will last within fifty
days. But unfortunately, the war lasted for 5 months under the command of Lt. General
Wainwright. Lastly, he also negotiated the terms of surrender with General Homma.5

V. Japanese Invasion in the Philippines

The Japanese starts to form a new constitution in the country. Even though
Japanese assured independence after the invasion in the Philippines, they still created
a Community Council to control the interior activities in the Philippines. Strategically,
Japanese did it to convince Filipino minds. However, President Manuel Quezon
advocated that he protected the Filipino from the cruelty of Japanese Invaders. On the
other hand, Japanese Military Authorities continued implementing new policies and
applying their ideologies.

The exact word to describe on how the Japanese implied their ideologies is by
means of force, in that case Filipinos had no choice to stand against the Japanese
actions. Therefore, the power of the Japanese had their total control in terms of
Physical, Political, Economic and Culture aspects in which the Filipinos' life revolve with.

In terms of security, the Japanese assigned the Philippine Constabulary for


peace and order inside the country. In addition, PC was also used by the Japanese to

4
Ricardo Trota Jose and Lydia Yu-Jose, Japanese Occupations of the Philippines (Ayala Foundation Inc.,
Makati Avenue, Makati City Metro Manila, 1997), 55
5
Ricardo Trota Jose and Lydia Yu-Jose, Japanese Occupations of the Philippines (Ayala Foundation Inc.,
Makati Avenue, Makati City Metro Manila, 1997), 64
defend their territories from guerillas. Most of the members of it are former Fil-American
forces. In addition, American forces were forced to join. They also assigned the
Kempeitai; it is a secret police forces in Japan.
Philippine and American flags are all confiscated, Japanese raised their flag. In
Addition, Philippine national anthem was banned by the Japanese. For those who
caught singing the national anthem; they are slapped in face and imprisoned by the
Japanese soldiers. In short, they want Filipinos to follow Japanese culture.

In case you violated a law, there is a corresponding punishment for it; like
slapping, kicking and even death. Historian says, they considered Anti-Japanese act
before as a major crime. As a punishment for those who were caught, they were
tortured and even asked to dig their own tombs. Japanese are worse than an animal,
because they treat women before as comfort women. Researchers are not against with
them, but it is totally unjustifiable to make women as their comforters.

Economy in the Philippines during Japanese Occupation is just like a seesaw; It


is up and down but there are times that it is balance. For example, their ambition is to
rise the economy in the Philippines by improving agricultural and other industries. At
that time, there was a scarcity in food supply. In fact even after the war, Fil-American
forces died due to lack of food and medicines. However, Japanese army released
prisoners, because of increasing mortality rate in Camp O’Donnell; due to sickness and
malnutrition. That is how Japanese treated their prisoners of war.

Because the Philippine government was under the Japanese, they issued flat
money known as Japanese Peso. People that time called it Mickey Mouse money,
because of its low value. There are some cases that they just traded their items to other
consumers, instead of bringing a lot of money. Devaluation of money before is a big
impact for Filipino people, but they do not have a choice, they need to follow it.

In contrast, Japanese maintain the economic growth in the Philippines. The


Japanese focused on economy, instead of focusing in basic commodities. In addition,
others broke the tombs in Manila North Cemetery just to get clothes and personal
belongings of the corpse.6

V.I. Japanese used Catholicism as one of their strategies to invade the


Philippines

Basically, the Japanese religion is Buddhism and Shintoism in the early period.
Unlike Christianity was not able to spread in the East Asia especially in Japan, Japan
refused its teachings. Then, came to the point of isolation policy was implemented to
prevent the other countries to spread their religion in Japan.

In the present time, Christianity is one of the religions who have many followers.
It became more popular because of its practices; like Baptism and Penitence. On the
other side, since Filipinos during Spanish occupation was controlled by the Spanish
friars, Filipinos embraced Christianity. Additionally, Filipinos strictly followed the
practices and beliefs of the said religion; reason why it quickly spread in the Philippines.

They let Christianity exist to convince Filipinos that they are not Anti-Filipino. In
fact, there was an agreement that says Japanese troops were not allowed to enter
churches or church-affiliated buildings. In this agreement, Japanese wanted to show
that they are not against with Filipinos. By this way, there was a higher chance to
convince Filipinos that they were not enemies, but they are a friend.7

The affection of the Filipinos with Christianity was an advantage to the Japanese
because it was the central force of their way of living. In fact, they use Catholicism in
invading the Philippines. The Japanese used Priest and Nuns to teach Japanese culture
in the Philippines. Researchers found out that, they even use them to teach Japanese

6
Prof. Leonor BuhionEnderes, "Japanese Occupation in Iligan City 1942-1945"
http://www.iligan.gov.ph/about-iligan/history/during-the-japanese-period/ [accessed October 1, 2017]
7
Aaron James R. Veloso,“Delegation in the Philippines during the Second World War”, 4-6, Available at
http://www.academia.edu/24657416/The_Apostolic_Delegation_in_the_Philippines_during_the_Second_World_
War (accessed October 3, 2017)
aim. In addition they are teaching them in schools like University of Santo Thomas and
it was held by Father Zolin.8 To sum it up, Japanese strategy was to wait for the change
to come. They let Catholicism to exist because they cannot change the religion of the
Filipinos easily.

Researchers made a hypothesis, stating that it is one of their strategies "to wait
until the Western Influence in the Philippines was totally gone”. Accept the fact, that
Philippines was colonized by Spaniards for a long time. The Western Influence stayed
here, so you cannot easily remove it. Again, the Japanese cannot force the Filipino to
change their culture immediately. Try to observe, they are using the Western Influence.
For example, they use western military strategy to improve their military forces. They
are still promoting Asian for Asians, but they are just waiting for the right time.9

V.II. Catholic Religion and Practices during Japanese Occupation


During Japanese occupation, they let Catholic religion to exist. Baptism and
Penitensya during that time were allowed to celebrate. The churches that time were
active, but sometimes closed due to Japanese pressure. Although, the priests felt that
they were respected, they still felt pressure because Japanese wants them to preach
their Culture. Later on, Japanese provided their own Priest, Nuns and Religious
Organizations. 10
Catholic practices were respected by the Japanese, because it is one of their
strategies. For instance, they allowed Filipinos to have baptism for their children. They

8
Aaron James R. Veloso,“Delegation in the Philippines during the Second World War”, 7, Available from
http://www.academia.edu/24657416/The_Apostolic_Delegation_in_the_Philippines_during_the_Second_World_
War (accessed November 8, 2017)
9
Ricardo Trota Jose and Lydia Yu-Jose, Japanese Occupations of the Philippines (Ayala Foundation Inc.
Makati Avenue, Makati City Metro Manila, 1997), 72
10
They provided their own priest, and nuns and other religious sections. With Fr. Taguchi at the lead, the
Catholic unit had four priests, five seminarians, and five laypeople. The Protestant unit, on
the other hand, had eleven ministers and one student. They were under the control of Lt. Col.
NarusawaTomoji and Catholic Women Religious Corps consisting of four nuns and 15 lay women.
allowed Filipinos to celebrate Holy week; it is a sign that they respect Catholic beliefs.
They enjoy watching “Penitensya”11 during holy week, because it is new to them.12

VI. Japan approach in the Philippines

One of the Japanese approaches was to use Catholicism, at the first encounter,
the Japanese did not assume to use Catholicism in fact they were bombing the
churches in the Philippines. Next, they promoted “ASIA FOR ASIANS”, they focus on
Asian culture not from others.
They wanted to slowly remove the Western Influence in the Philippines. They
wanted also to introduce their culture and language to Philippines. For example, they
slap and kick for every improper bow. On the other hand, they want to improve the
economy in the Philippines. Researchers say, that the most notable approach is the
Catholicism, they exert a lot of efforts just to provide Priest, Nuns and other Religious
Organizations just to convince Filipinos. Unfortunately, in the end they failed because of
their cruelty.
“The Japanese style bowing became a form of greeting in the
country an improper bow or failure to bow makes cause a slap on one's
face. Bowing to Japanese, however, was insulting to Filipinos, and many
insist pains to avoid meeting sentries and having to bow.”

VI.I Religious Propaganda Corps and their true intention

The Japanese realized that church was very important for Filipinos. After that, the
Japanese Military Administration assigned a Religious Section to manage the Catholic
churches. They hire their own priest, to assure that they are loyal and to easily
command them to teach Japanese culture.
“As early as August 1941, the Archbishop of Tokyo, the Most Reverend
Doi Tatsuo, received an invitation from the Army Headquarters. Indisposed to
go, he sent two priests of his archdiocese, Fr. Taguchi Yoshigoro and Fr.

11
It is Catholic tradition that was introduced by Mexicans. In addition, they show their penitence by
carrying cross, crawling with cross and other ways.
12
See Reference at the back
Shimura Tatsuya, in his stead. The invitation stemmed from the planned
invasion of the Philippines: The Army was demanding fifty priests and 150
laypeople to be sent to the country." 13

To truly control the church, they added another group, but this time they are
women. The Japanese saw the weakness of the Filipinos. “Another group, consisting of
four nuns and fifteen laywomen, was sent and called the Catholic Women’s Religious
Corps. All the nineteen members of CWRC were sent to Catholic schools around Manila
that aim to link Japanese and Philippine cultures.14

Most of the Filipinos believe that they promote Catholicism, but the truth is they
do not. Their unrevealed intention is to teach Japanese language and culture. How
ironic to see a Nun teaching a Language and Literature not a religious sermon. It was
one of their strategies to assign Women, because they are more convincing than men.

VII. Effectivity of Catholicism


Researchers propose a theory, that they added Catholic Women Corps because
women before were afraid of rape. If co-women will teach them, there is a higher
chance that they will listen to them and it will give a massive effect for their occupation
in the Philippines. It has an effect because most of the Filipinos that time are Catholics.
The effectivity was their occupation here became longer. It really helps the Japanese
because without Catholicism, their invasion in the Philippines will not stay longer,
because of rebellions.15Another effect, it really helps Japanese to spread their culture
and aims in the Philippines by using church and priest. On the other hand, it also gave a
good effect to Filipinos, like lessening the violence of Japanese and letting the Catholic
Religion to exist.

The researchers were hoping that we are slowly proving our claim. Although not
13
Aaron James R. Veloso,“Delegation in the Philippines during the Second World War”, 3, Available from
http://www.academia.edu/24657416/The_Apostolic_Delegation_in_the_Philippines_during_the_Second_World_
War (accessed October 3, 2017)
14
Aaron James R. Veloso,“Delegation in the Philippines during the Second World War”, 6-7, Available at
http://www.academia.edu/24657416/The_Apostolic_Delegation_in_the_Philippines_during_the_Second_World_
War (accessed October 3, 2017)
15
Aaron James R. Veloso,“Delegation in the Philippines during the Second World War”, 6, Available at
http://www.academia.edu/24657416/The_Apostolic_Delegation_in_the_Philippines_during_the_Second_World_
War (accessed November 8, 2017)
that significant, but it still affects their situation in the Philippines. Catholicism became a
big part to the success of Japanese Invasion. Japanese Catholicism helped the Filipinos
to be calm, and make them believed that they were not against with Filipinos

VIII. Japanese Views of Catholicism

They allowed Filipino's to continue their faith, but majority of Japanese in the
Philippines ignored Catholic Religion. But unlike in Japan, they killed Catholics as a
punishment. Most of the Japanese here in the Philippines, did not attend mass.
Because for them it was just a weapon, they did not plan to adapt it.

Researchers found out that, there was an agreement about the condition of
Catholicism in the Philippines. One of this, is "the Section printed a notice in the name
of the Japanese Army prohibiting troops from entering churches or church-affiliated
buildings such as monastery, convents, schools, hospitals and orphanages and
distributed copies to such institutions throughout the Philippines for posting at their
entrances.”16

This showed that, they did not attend a mass not because they do not like
Catholicism, but they were prohibited to enter churches. Good thing was they let the
Filipinos to retain their faith. There was an agreement between Archbishop Piani17and
Bishop Yaguchi 18 stating that Catholics has a freedom to continue their faith. The
Japanese assured Archbishop Piani of the freedom to practice religion

The Japanese know that the dominant religion here was Catholicism, they rather
use it as a weapon than implementing their own religion. In the same way, the
Japanese knew that spreading Buddhism here was useless, it will only worsen the
situation and will increase the anger of Filipinos to Japanese that may cause to their fall.

16
Aaron James R. Veloso,“Delegation in the Philippines during the Second World War”, 4 Available from
http://www.academia.edu/24657416/The_Apostolic_Delegation_in_the_Philippines_during_the_Second_World_
War (accessed October 3, 2017)
17
Archbishop Piani is a representative from the Philippines to have an agreement about the freedom of
Catholics to have a mass and continue their practices. He is the one who wrote a letter to Vatican about the
situation in the Philippines.
18
Bishop Yaguchi is a representative from Japan to have an agreement about the situation of Catholics in
the Philippines. One of those, who agreed to let the Filipinos to retain their religion by giving a rules to the
Japanese and Filipinos.
They saw Catholicism as a perfect angle to capture Filipino's loyalty. That is why they
used priest like Father Zolin 19 to teach Japanese Culture, because they know that
Filipinos will follow them.

This research state that, yes they respect Catholicism. They did not attend mass,
but it does not mean that they do not like Catholicism. In fact, it just proves that
Japanese use only Catholicism to attain the Filipinos' loyalty. This only shows that they
are not interested in Catholic, but they use Catholicism to make it easier for them to
invade the Philippines.

IX. Good effect of Japanese Catholicism in the Philippines

Catholicism helped Japanese to stay longer in the Philippines by convincing


Filipinos; that they respect their belief and showing that they are not Anti-Filipino. They
also lessen the anger of Filipinos, but the hatred in their heart remains. Filipino still hate
them because of raping and improper treatment. In their religious life, became more
comfortable because the Japanese allows the Filipinos to have a mass, retain their
religious practices and let the priest to teach religious sermons not their aims. It was
because of a Japanese - Filipino agreement, the agreement between Archbishop Piani
and Bishop Yaguchi from Japan. The agreement is all about the freedom of Christian to
continue their religion. Inside the agreement, there are rules that Japanese should
follow, like they are prohibited to enter churches In addition, because of this agreement
Archbishop Piani assured the freedom of Catholicism in the Philippines. Researchers
concluded that it has a good effect in the Philippines by making it calm. They also
respect the beliefs of Filipino. In that way, Filipinos became comfortable with the
Japanese. Unlike in the early period of their invasion, in that time Filipinos totally hate
the Japanese.

IX.I. Japanese became Pro-Filipinos

The Japanese became Pro-Filipinos because of Catholicism. The Archdiocese in


Japan made an agreement with the Archdiocese in the Philippines that limiting the
power of Japanese. They became less violent because of this agreement. For example,

19
Father Zolin was a veteran of the Salesian missions in the United States
before they can enter church and killed priest, but after the agreement they let the priest
to teach religious sermons and have a safe mass. Researchers search for an oral
source, which can help to state the situation of Catholics during Japanese invasion. 20

Researchers found one, who said that in the early period of their occupation, they
killed priest and did not allowed Filipinos to have a mass, leads them to hide just to
have a mass. Situation becomes more comfortable, after the agreement. Researchers
find again another person and it is successful. Researchers successfully found Mr.
Rustico Reyes who says that they allow priest to preach and they are not restricted to
have a mass.

In the late period of the Japanese Invasion in the Philippines, Filipinos and
Japanese start to establish a good relation in each other. The only thing that keeps
making the Japanese Anti-Filipinos is because of their treatment to Filipino women,
some of the Japanese make them as their comforters. It makes Filipino angry because
some of the Japanese are rapist. In fact, most of the soldiers who came here in the
Philippines are prisoners. It is the only thing that makes Filipinos scared with the
Japanese. However, Catholicism shows that they are Pro-Filipinos, because they
become less violent to the Filipinos and they are not against with Filipinos belief. In
addition, during their invasion some Japanese are kind to Filipinos especially children.

If they are all non-criminals, they are all Pro-Filipinos because Japanese
Administration promotes Asian for Asians. One more thing, Japanese Military
Administration wants to rise the economy of the Philippines and they did not command
Japanese to make a violence against the Filipinos.21

20
Aaron James R. Veloso,“Delegation in the Philippines during the Second World War”, 4 Available from
http://www.academia.edu/24657416/The_Apostolic_Delegation_in_the_Philippines_during_the_Second_World_
War (accessed October 30, 2017)
21
Prof. Leonor BuhionEnderes, "Japanese Occupation in Iligan City 1942-1945"
http://www.iligan.gov.ph/about-iligan/history/during-the-japanese-period/ [accessed October 1, 2017]
This picture shows that Japanese are friendly to Filipino children.

Source: Ricardo Trota Jose and Lydia Yu-Jose, Japanese Occupations of the Philippines (Ayala Foundation
Inc., Makati Avenue, Makati City Metro Manila, 1997)

This photo shows that they use Nuns and women to teach Niponggo

Source: Ricardo Trota Jose and Lydia Yu-Jose, Japanese Occupations of the Philippines (Ayala Foundation
Inc. Makati Avenue, Makati City Metro Manila, 1997)
References
Ricardo Trota Jose and Lydia Yu-Jose, Japanese Occupations of the
Philippines (Ayala Foundation Inc. Makati Avenue, Makati City Metro
Manila)
http://www.iligan.gov.ph/about-iligan/history/during-the-japanese-period/
http://www.academia.edu/24657416/The_Apostolic_Delegation_in_the_Phil
ippines_during_the_Second_World_War
Dr. Sonia M. Zaide, History of Asian Nations fourth edition (ALL-NATIONS
publishing co., Inc. 26 Standford, Cubao, Quezon City)
http://opinion.inquirer.net/82332/justo-takayama-ukon
http://www.filipiknow.net/philippines-first-refugees/
http://smallwarsjournal.com/blog/journal/docs-temp/236-
hardesty.pdf?q=mag/docs-temp/236-hardesty.pdf
http://jgospel.net/faith/worship/takayama-ukon-a-christian-daimyo-
japan.c327.aspx

Federal Research Division. Philippine: A country Study. Washington, D.C.:


Library of Congress, 1993
https://Catholicsaints.info/marytrs-of-nagasaki/
http://pweb.cc.sophia.ac.jp/britto/xavier/cieslik/ciejmj01.pdf
http://www.wtgonline.com/country/ph/gen.html, 1998
Most Reverend
Doi Tatsuo

Fr. Taguchi
Yoshigoro
11
and Fr. Shimura
Tatsuya

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