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Krista Gracia SD. Santiago Prof. Aida L.

Mamorno

BSMT-MT1B August 22, 2019

Zoology Lecture

Tabulation of the Cell Structures, Description and Function of the Cell

Cell Structure Structure Description Function


Nucleus A membrane bound Contains the cell's  Control center of
structure hereditary information the cell
and controls the cell's  Stores genetic
growth and information
reproduction. It is the  Site of
command center of a transcription
eukaryotic cell and is
commonly the most
prominent organelle in
a cell.
Endoplasmic It is network of Continuous membrane  Helps process
Reticulum tubules and flattened system that forms a molecules created
sacs series of flattened sacs by the cell
within the cytoplasm of  Transports
eukaryotic cells and molecules to their
serves multiple specific
functions, being destinations either
important particularly in inside or outside
the synthesis, folding, the cell
modification, and
transport of proteins

Rough ER-produces
protein for export
Smooth ER- packs
proteins and produces
lipids
Golgi Apparatus Made of stacks of Acts to process and  Compose of an
flattened package the inner face (cis) and
membranous sacs, or macromolecules such as outer face
cisternae proteins and lipids that (trans)
are synthesized by the  Modifies the
cell. It has been likened proteins from the
to the cell's post office. endoplasmic
reticulum
 Regulation of the
surface
Mitochondria Is a dounled bound Surrounded by two  Powerhouse of the
organelle found in membranes, and have cell
most eukaryotic cell their own genome. They  Supplies ATP
also divide  Number varies
independently of the depending on the
cell in which they reside role of cell
 Has its own DNA
and ribosomes

Plasma membrane Is a thin semi A network of lipids and  Provides structural


permeable proteins that forms the support to the cell.
membrane that boundary between a  protects all the
surrounds the cell’s contents and the components of the
cytoplasm outside of the cell. It is cell from the
also simply called the outside
cell membrane. environment and
allows separate
activities to occur
inside and outside
the cell.
Plasmodesmata Consist of pores, or A channel through the  create junctions
channels, lying cell wall that allows from cell to cell,
between individual molecules and allowing
plant cells, and substances to move numerous cells to
connect the back and forth as work together
symplastic space in needed. towards a
the plant common goal.
 it allows tissues,
organs, and organ
systems in plants
to work together
and grow.
Cytosol Surrounded by the The liquid found inside  serves as the
cell membrane and is of cells. It is the water- medium for
part of the cytoplasm based solution in which intracellular
organelles, proteins, processes.
and other cell structures  contain the proper
float. proteins, ions, and
other ingredients
for cytosolic
activities.

Ribosome Ribosomes are made A complex made of  cell structure that


of proteins and protein and RNA and makes protein
ribonucleic acid which adds up to
(abbreviated as RNA), numerous million
in almost equal Daltons in size and
amounts. It assumes an important
comprises of two part in the course of
sections, known as decoding the genetic
subunits. The tinier message reserved in the
subunit is the place genome into protein.
the mRNA binds and
it decodes, whereas
the bigger subunit is
the place the amino
acids are included
Peroxisomes Single membrane- Organelles that contain  Houses enzymes
bound organelle with enzymes to carry out involved in
lipids and proteins their functions. oxidation reactions
that act as enzymes  Produces H2O2 as
by product
 Breaking down of
fatty acids and
amino acids
 Detoxify
substances
Lysosome Spherical bodies, or Organelles that contain  Formed by the
vacuoles that are digestive enzymes. They Golgi Apparatus
enclosed by a single digest excess or worn  Contains acidic
membrane out organelles, food enzyme
particles, and engulfed  Digests bacteria
viruses or bacteria.  Digests worn out
Lysosomes are like the organelles
stomach of the cell.  Apoptosis
Cytoskeleton Network of protein A network of filaments  Gives cell its shape
fibers supporting cell and tubules that  Aids in the correct
shape and anchoring extends throughout a positioning of
organelles within the cell, through the organelles
cell cytoplasm, which is all  Allows cells to
of the material within a move
cell except for the  Three types:
nucleus. Microfilament,
Intermediate
filament, and
Microtubule
Chromosomes Made up of DNA The microscopic  The chromosome
tightly coiled many threadlike part of the holds not only the
times around cell that carries genetic code, but
proteins hereditary information many of the
in the form of genes. A proteins
defining feature of any responsible for
chromosome is its helping express it.
compactness.  Its complex form
and structure
dictate how often
genes can be
translated into
proteins, and
which genes are
translated.
Small set of An organelle that helps  A cylinder of nine
microtubules cells divide, or make triplets of
arranged in a specific copies of themselves. microtubules
way  Plays a role in the
centrosome
 Centrosomes are
duplicated before
cell division
occurs
Centriole
Cell wall The protective, semi- An outer layer  Gives the cell its
permeable outer surrounding certain shape
layer of a plant cell cells that is outside of  Outer Covering
the cell membrane. All  Acts as a
cells have cell protective
membranes, but covering
generally only plants,  Usually contains
fungi, algae, most peptidoglycan
bacteria, and archaea
have cells with cell
walls.
Chloroplast Has an inner and Found only in algal and  Carry out
outer membrane plant cells, is a cell photosynthesis
with an empty organelle that produces  Contains the
intermediate space in energy through pigment
between photosynthesis. chlorophyll
 Has its own DNA
and ribosomes

Vacuole Membrane-bound Simply a chamber  Long-lived


sacs within the surrounded by a membrane
cytoplasm of a cell membrane, which keeps enclosed with sacs
the cytosol from being  Storage
exposed to the contents  Provides structure
inside. and stiffness
 Regulates water
balance
Krista Gracia SD. Santiago Prof. Aida L. Mamorno

BSMT-MT1B August 22, 2019

Zoology Lecture

Quiz: Cell Parts & Functions and Levels of Organization of Life