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Министерство просвещения Приднестровской Молдавской Республики

Государственное образовательное учреждение


«Бендерский Медицинский колледж»

Республиканский интернет-конкурс
«Лучшая методическая разработка» среди педагогических работников
организаций начального и среднего профессионального образования
Приднестровской Молдавской Республики

по английскому языку
для студентов III курса
специальностей 060101 Лечебное дело, 060301 Фармация

Авторы: Чебан Виктория Дмитриевна, преподаватель французского и английского языков,


ГОУ «Бендерский медицинский колледж» 77791728, vica_92@mail.ru;
Чуйкова Ольга Сергеевна, преподаватель английского языка ГОУ «Бендерский медицинский
колледж» 077771925,37_olga_ch@rambler.ru;
Горбачова Наталья Сергеевна, преподаватель английского языка ГОУ «Бендерский
медицинский колледж» 077800698, n.axiom@mail.ru.

Бендеры, 2017
Аннотация
Чебан В.Д., Чуйкова О.С., Горбачова Н.С «Учебное пособие по английскому языку».
- Бендеры, 2017 – 94 с.
Настоящее учебное пособие по английскому языку включает в себя IV раздела:
история медицины, медицинские учреждения, здоровый образ жизни, болезни.
Данное пособие предназначено для студентов III курса медицинского колледжа
специальностей 060101 Лечебное дело, 060301 Фармация.
Цель пособия – развитие и совершенствование навыков чтения и перевода
медицинских текстов по специальности. Материалом для подготовки данного пособия
послужили аутентичные учебники и научные работы по медицине. В каждом разделе
представлен лексический минимум, включающий наиболее употребительную
медицинскую терминологию. Обращается особое внимание на сочетаемость слов,
употребление предлогов и правила словообразования. Активная лексика закрепляется
системой послетекстовых лексических упражнений, позволяющих обогатить словарный
запас студентов и способствующих закреплению ранее изученной лексики. Вопросно-
ответные упражнения к отдельным фрагментам текста обеспечивает усвоение словаря в
режиме его контекстуального использования с целью формирования относительно
самостоятельных высказываний. Центральным структурным элементом разделов
является текст, который включает основную смысловую информацию, и предназначен
для развития навыков устной речи. Учебное пособие также включает грамматические
правила, и упражнения на закрепление данных правил.
Структура и содержание пособия ориентированы на взаимосвязанное решение
коммуникативных, познавательных, развивающих и воспитательных задач и
формирование у студентов-медиков профессиональной иноязычной коммуникативной
компетенции.
Учебное пособие может быть использовано для работы, как под руководством
преподавателя, так и для самостоятельной работы.

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Part I. History of Medicine

Unite 1. History of medicine


VOCABULARY:
healthy - здоровый to heal - заживлять
ill - больной prevent - предотвращать
illness - болезнь rest - отдых
broken bone - сломанная кость giant - гигантский
plant [plɑːnt]- растение waste – мусор, отходы
taste - вкус influenza - грипп
to test - тестировать, испытывать plague [pleɪɡ]- чума
safe - в безопасности to fight - сражаться
to discover - делать открытия to infect - заражать
fever - лихорадка, жар incurable [ɪnˈkjuərəbl]- неизлечимый
medicine - лекарства, медицина to take care - заботиться
sore skin - воспаленная кожа a nun - монахиня
ancient [ˈeɪnʃənt] - древний a ward - палата
bandage [ˈbændɪdʒ] - бинт a surgeon - хирург
wound [wuːnd]– рана badly wounded – тяжело раненый
cure - лечение
patient - пациент
honey - мёд

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Early Medicine
Early people were nomads – they didn't live in one place and traveled around to look
for food. Early people were healthy, because they lived outdoors most of the time and they
walked and ran a lot. They hunted animals and ate meat and plants when they were still fresh.
Early nomads used mud to heal broken bones. If they broke an arm or a leg, they put wet mud
on it. Then the mud became dry and hard, and it stopped the arm or leg moving so that the bone
inside could heal.
Early people believed that they got ill because evil spirits were inside them. Many
people had amulets – things that can bring luck. They hoped that their amulets could stop them
being ill. People cared for each other when they were ill. A shaman was a man or woman who
sang songs, danced, and did magic spells to make people well. Many people believed that these
magic spells worked. Nowadays some people also visit shamans because they believe that a
shaman can help them.
When early people tasted plants to test which ones were safe to eat, they sometimes
discovered plants that cured illness and fever. These plants were the first medicines. One of the
oldest books about medicines made from plants was written in China more than four thousand
years ago. Most early medicines were made from parts of plants such as flowers. People ate the
plant parts or they made them into drinks. Sometimes they made the plant parts into lotions to
put on their body. Nowadays many people also use medicines made from plants. For example,
we use lotions made from aloe vera plants to make sore skin feel better.

I. Answer the questions.


1. Why were early people healthy?
2. What did they eat?
3. How did early people heal broken bones?
4. Who was a shaman?
5. How did early people discover plants that cured illness and fever?
6. When was the first book about medicines made from plants written?

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7. What are the lotions made from aloe vera plants used for?

II. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and phrases.
Кочевники, здоровые люди, свежий, растения, накладывать влажную грязь, сломанные
кости, заживать, злые духи, приносящий удачу, больной, совершать магические обряды,
пробовать (на вкус), проверять, безопасный, обнаруживать, болезнь, лихорадка,
лекарство, лосьон, раздраженная кожа.

III. Match the words with their definitions.


1. shaman a. people who do not live in one place
2. discover b. a man or a woman doing magic spells
3. nomads c. things that can bring luck to people
4. amulets d. to find something new

IV. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb to be.
1. Early people …. nomads. They …. healthy people.
2. Hippocrates … the most famous of all the Greek doctors.
3. Amulets ... things that people think are lucky.
4. Lotion from aloe vera plant … a cream that people use to make sore skin feel better.
5. My brother … a doctor when he graduates from the university next year.
6. She … at home last night.
7. This medicine … safe and effective.
8. My friend … ill last week, but now he feels better.
9. This amulet … lucky.
10. Nowadays there … many medicines made from plants.

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Medicine in Ancient Times
Ancient Egiptians. We know about medicine in Ancient Egypt because Ancient
Egiptians wrote about their world. They cut words into walls and wrote on a type of paper. We
know that Ancient Egyptians used magic spells to cure people, but they also had the first
doctors. These doctors made medicines from plants, and they were good at putting bandages on
wounds. They also used honey to help wounds to heal. This was a good idea. Even today,
doctors put honey on wounds because it helps wounds to heal quickly.
Ancient Greeks. About 2 500 years ago in Ancient Greece many people believed that
evil spirits or angry gods made them ill. Hippocrates was a Greek doctor and a teacher. He is
the most famous of all the Greek doctors. And he is often called “the father of medicine”.
Hippocrates believed that people bacame ill because there was something wrong with there
body. He told doctors to watch patients and to think about their illnesses. Doctors wrote down
what they learnt. They made medicines from plants and they wrote about which medicines
worked. Soon doctors started to understand different illnesses. To prevent illness they told
people to eat good food, to rest often and to do exercise.
Ancient Romans. Ancient Roman doctors learnt that being dirty and drinking dirty
water could make people ill. To prevent illness Ancient Romans built baths and toilets for lots
of people to use. At the baths there were big pools like swimming pools. Every day Romans
went to the baths to wash and to meet friends. In some places Romans built giant bridges called
aqueducts that brought water to cities from the high hills. This gave people clean water that
they could drink and use. Romans also built pipes to take waste away from the cities to keep
the cities clean.

I. Answer the questions.


1. How do we know about medicine in Ancient Egypt?
2. What did Ancient Egyptians use to help wounds to heal?
3. Who believed that people got ill because there was something wrong with their body?
4. What did doctors in Ancient Greece tell people to do to prevent illness?
5. Why did Ancient Romans build baths and toilets for lots of people to use?
6. What is an aqueduct?

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II. Find English equivalents for the following words and phrases.
Древние египтяне, высекать слова на стенах, вылечить, накладывать повязку на рану,
мед, быстро зажить, древние греки, Гиппократ, пациент, предотвратить болезнь, часто
отдыхать, древние римляне, бани, огромные мосты, акведук, трубы, мусор.

III Complete the sentences.


1. Ancient …. doctors learnt that being dirty could make people ill.
2. Ancient Egyptian doctors were good at putting …. on wounds.
3. Every day Romans went to the …. to wash and to meet friends.
4. Romans built pipes to take …. away from the cities to keep the cities clean.
5. Giant bridges called …. brought water to the cities from high hills.
6. …. was the most famous of all the Greek doctors.
7. Hippocrates is called the …. of medicine.
8. To …. illness doctors told people to eat good food, to rest often and to do exercise.

IV Fill in the blanks with prepositions.


1. Ancient Egyptians cut words into walls and wrote ... a type ... paper.
2. Doctors made medicines ... plants, and they were good ... putting bandages ... wounds.
3. Even today, doctors put honey ... wounds because it helps wounds to heal quickly.
4. ... Ancient Greece many people believed that evil spirits or angry gods made them ill.
5. Ancient Greek doctors made medicines made ... plants and they wrote about which medicines
worked.
6. Romans built giant bridges called aqueducts that brought water to cities … the high hills.

V. Make up sentences from the given words.


1. used/to make/plants/Ancient doctors/medicines.
2. thought/Ancient Romans/drinking/ill./dirty water/that/made people/
3. Doctors/were/putting bandages/in Egypt/on wounds./good at/on wounds
4. Every day/ went/ to wash/ Romans/ and/ to meet friends./ to the baths
5. used /Early/mud/ to heal/people/ broken/ bones.
6. safe to eat./Early people/ plants/ which ones /tasted /were / to test

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Medicine in the Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages millions of people died from such diseases as diphtheria, typhoid,
fever, influenza and leprosy. But the worst disease at that time was the plague. Plague (the
“Black death”) killed millions of people in Europe and Asia. Nobody knew how to fight with
the disease and people just ran away from the infected areas. Leprosy was also incurable.
Patients with leprosy lived in special colonies away from other people.

The first hospitals appeared in Ceylon in the fifth century b. c. and in India in 260 b. c.
During the Middle Ages hospitals were founded in Italy, France, England and other European
countries. Monks and nuns cared for patients in hospitals. They were not doctors or nurses and
they did not cure patients. They just gave patients food and a bed and said prayers with them.
Monks and nuns cared for many patients who had the plague because the patients had to stay
in hospital until they died.
At the same time in the Middle East there were many hospitals. Many doctors and nurses
cared for patients there. These doctors also made medicines for patients. They treated everyone
who came to them and they taught new doctors and nurses about diseases. There were different
wards for different diseases in these hospitals. There were also pools and fountains because
doctors thought that the sound of moving water helped patients to rest.
Barbers were the first surgeons. People could go to barber shops where the barbers cut
hair. They could also pull out sore teeth. Later barbers started to treat wounds from fights and
cut off arms or legs which were badly wounded.

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I. Find the following words and phrases in the text.
Дифтерия, брюшной тиф, лихорадка, грипп, чума, бороться с заболеванием, зараженные
., неизлечимый, монах, монахиня, заботиться, пациент, медсестра, читать молитвы,
изготовлять лекарства, палата, отдыхать, цирюльник, хирург, выдернуть больной зуб,
тяжело раненый

II. Fill in the blanks.


The worst …. in the Middle Ages was the plague. Nobody knew how to …. with the disease.
Monks and …. did not cure patients, they just gave patients food and a bed. Doctors in the
Middle Ages made …. from plants. Acupuncture doctors put thin …. into a patients body at
special places called …. points.

Unit 2. The Present Simple Tense.


The Present Simple Tense - настоящее неопределённое время употребляется для
обозначения обычных, регулярно повторяющихся или постоянных действий, например,
когда мы говорим о чьих - либо привычках, режиме дня, расписаниях и т.д., т.е. The
Present Simple обозначает действия, которые происходят в настоящее время, но они не
привязаны к моменту речи. Например:
The lectures at the Institute begin at 9 o'clock. – Лекции в институте начинаются в 9
часов.
I go to the Institute on foot. – Я хожу в институт пешком. (всегда)
Peter swims well. – Петя плавает хорошо. (вообще)
The Earth goes round the Sun. – Земля вращается вокруг Солнца. (постоянно)
Ann goes to the South every summer. – Анна ездит на юг каждое лето. (повторяющееся
действие)
Поэтому с глаголами в the Present Simple часто употребляются такие наречия, как
always - всегда, often - часто, seldom – редко, usually - обычно, never - никогда, sometimes
-
иногда, every day - каждый день и т.д.
I sometimes meet your father at the station. – Я иногда встречаю твоего отца на станции.
My parents always spend their holidays at the seaside. – Мои родители всегда проводят
отпуск на море.
Twice a year students take their exams. – Два раза в году студенты сдают экзамены.
Как видно из примеров, утвердительная форма простого настоящего времени

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образуется путём постановки первой формы глагола ( инфинитив без частицы "to") после
подлежащего. Однако, если подлежащее стоит в форме 3-го лица единственного числа
(т.е. если подлежащее выражено местоимениями "он, она, оно" или его можно заменить
этими местоимениями), то к основе глагола добавляется суффикс "-s(-es)", например:
My friend lives in a hostel. – Мой друг живёт в общежитии.
The school year begins in September. –Учебный год начинается в сентябре.
Правила прибавления суффикса "-s(-es)" к основе глагола полностью совпадают с
правилами прибавления суффикса "-s(-es)" множественного числа к основе
существительного. Существует правило противоположных суффиксов, которое
заключается в том, что наличие у подлежащего суффикса множественного числа "-s(-es)"
исключает суффикс "-s(-es)" глагола сказуемого и наоборот:
My brothers live in Minsk. – Мои братья живут в Минске.
My brother lives in Minsk. – Мой брат живёт в Минске.
Часто именно это правило даёт возможность легко определить в утвердительном
предложении глагол - сказуемое в форме простого настоящего времени.
Для образования вопросительной и отрицательной формы в простом настоящем
времени необходим вспомогательный глагол "do", причём в третьем лице единственного
числа окончание "-s(-es)" добавляется не к смысловому, а к вспомогательному глаголу.
Чтобы задать вопрос, нужно поставить вспомогательный глагол "do (does)" перед
подлежащим за которым следует смысловой глагол (инфинитив без "to"). Например:
Do you play chess? – Вы играете в шахматы?
Does he speak English well? – Он хорошо говорит по-английски?
Do trains stop at this station? – Останавливаются ли поезда на этой станции?
Отрицательная форма глаголов в простом настоящем времени образуется при
помощи вспомогательного глагола "do (does)" и отрицания "not", которые ставятся перед
смысловым глаголом (в форме инфинитива без "to"), например:
We do not play chess. – Мы не играем в шахматы.
He does not smoke. – Он не курит.
В разговорной речи обычно употребляется сокращённая форма от "do not - don't"
и
"does not - doesn't".
I don't play hockey. – Я не играю в хоккей.
The computer doesn't work. – Компьютер не работает.

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Итак, схематически это время можно изобразить следующим образом:

EXERCISES
I. Put the verbs in the Present Indefinite.
Paul ……(1. work) in a bank. He always …..(2. get) up at seven o’clock in the morning and (3.
have) a cup of coffee. He never …..(4. cook) a big breakfast. At half past seven he ......(5. go)
to work. He usually ….. (6. drive) a car, but sometimes he …...(7. go) by metro. He ……(8. be)
never late for work. At midday he ……(9. eat) lunch. He ……(10. finish) work at six o’clock
and …… (11. go) home. After supper he usually ……(12. watch) TV or ……(13. read) a book.
He usually …….(14. go) to bed at eleven o’clock. He ……(15. like) his life and work.

II. Put the verbs in the Present Indefinite.


Adam ….(1. be) a young man from Bristol. He ….. (2. live) in a new big house near the city
centre. He …. (3. be) a student at the university. He ……(4. study) History and Literature.
Every day he …… (5. go) to the university by bus. He …..(6. have) many friends and they
always ……(7. go) to the park on Sundays. In the evenings they sometimes ……. (8. go) to the
disco or to the cinema. Adam …..(9. not like) going to the theatre. When he …..(10. come)
home, he usually …..(11. have) small supper. After supper he …..(12. listen) to the music or
……(13. watch) TV. Before going to bed he …… (14. read) a book.

III. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian.

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1. Her eldest sister is a programmer. She works in a big factory. 2. “Does your younger sister
go to school?” “Yes, she does. She’s in the second form”. 3. My mother usually gets up at a
quarter to six. 4. My eldest sister usually wakes me up at half past six. 5. “How is he going to
get there?” “He’s going to get there by underground.” 6. He always leaves for work at a quarter
to eight. 7. Whose translation is this? 8. I usually have roastbeef or steak and a cup of coffee
for lunch. 9. Does he usually come home from school at half past one? 10. Do you often borrow
books from the school library? 11. He is going to stay at university till eight o’clock today. 12.
Do you listen to the latest news on the radio every morning? 13. My younger sister is a secretary
in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14. How many foreign languages do you know?

IV. Translate into English.


1. Я часто слушаю радио по утрам. 2. Мы обычно смотрим телепередачи по субботам. 3.
Мой отец и брат часто играют в шахматы по вторникам. 4. Она пишет мужу письма
каждый понедельник. 5. Открываете ли вы окна каждый вечер? – Да. 6. Анна ведь читает
английские газеты каждый день? – Да. 7. Джон редко болеет. 8. Ник никогда не
опаздывает. 9. Пётр не курит, не так ли? 10. Ходите ли вы в театр каждое воскресенье?
11. Она редко пьёт чай по утрам. Она обычно пьёт кофе.

V. Translate into English.


1. Где ты живешь? – Я живу в Москве. 2. Когда у тебя каникулы? – В январе. 3. Что тебе
больше всего нравится в школе? 4. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает в
двадцать минут восьмого. Он работает утром и днем. Вечером он не работает. Вечером
он отдыхает. 5. Твоя сестра говорит по-французски? – Нет. Она говорит по-немецки, а её
муж говорит по-английски. 6. Когда вы встаёте? – Я встаю без четверти семь. 7. Когда
встаёт твой брат? – Он встает без двадцати восемь. – А твоя сестра тоже встаёт без
двадцати восемь? – Нет. Мой брат ходит в школу, а моя сестра не ходит в школу. Она
еще не ученица. Она встает в девять часов. 8. Он не моет руки перед едой. 9. Этот
мальчик свистит в классе. 10. Он не играет ни на каком музыкальном инструменте. 11.
Мальчик играет в футбол и любит смотреть мультипликационные фильмы. 12. Он любит
школьные каникулы, особенно летние каникулы. 13. День рождения у мальчика 31
декабря. 14. Он поэтому получает много подарков.

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Unit 3. Medical Scientists and their Contribution in Medicine.

VOCABULARY:
to inject [ɪnˈdʒɛkt] – ввести инъекцию antibiotic [ˈæntɪbaɪˈɔtɪk]- антибиотик
blood - кровь cause - причина
to develop - развить dangerous - опасный
to invent - изобрести tissue - ткань
pain - pain pure - чистый
surgery – хирургия investigation - исследование
discover – делать открытия scientist - ученый
X-rays - рентген recover - поправляться
vaccine - вакцина to save - спасать
smallpox – оспа

Scientific Developments of the 18th - 20th Centuries


During the 18th century doctors discovered cures for many dangerous diseases such as
smallpox (оспа). In 1796 a British doctor Edward Jenner developed a method of “vaccination”.
He made smallpox vaccines from cowpox – a disease that cows had. His vaccine stopped
thousands of people dying from smallpox. The vaccine is a weak type of a virus or bacteria.
When a vaccine is injected to a patient his body starts to make antibodies (substances in the
blood that can kill viruses and bacteria). In future the patient who has been vaccinated will not
get this disease again because the antibodies in his body will kill viruses or bacteria if they get
inside the body.
Later in the 19th century a French chemist Louis Pasteur developed Edward Jenners
invention and made a vaccine for hydrophobia. Louis Pasteur is also known as the founder of

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modern microbiology. He discovered that infection was caused by germs that were spread
through the air. He proved that germs could be killed in liquids by heat and developed the
process of pasteurization.
About one thousand years ago doctors in the Middle East started to make anesthetics
(drugs which help patients not to feel pain). The first anesthetics were made from plants.
Doctors made some plants into medicines for patients to put into their mouth. Later new
anesthetics were invented. One of them was cocain which was discovered in the 19th century.
Cocain was very effective as a local anesthetic. Surgeons could inject cocain into a certain part
of the body and stop the patient feeling pain during the surgery. When the problem of pain was
solved surgeons could perform long and complicated operations.
In 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays. He placed his hand in front of the
apparatus and saw that the rays passed through the hand and cast a shadow of bones on the
screen. These rays were unknown to him and he called them X-rays.
During the first part of the 20th century a lot of important advances were made. In 1922
Frederik Banting discovered that insulin was very effective against diabetes. In 1928 Alexander
Fleming discovered penicillin. It was used in hospitals to reduce infections in wounds during
the Second World War. After penicillin a series of other anti-infectious drugs were discovered.
All these drugs are known as antibiotics.
I. Find the following words and phrases in the text.
Оспа, вакцинация, коровья оспа, ввести вакцину, кровь, развивать, изобретение, вакцина
от бешенства, анестезия, лекарство, чувствовать боль, хирургическая операция,
открывать (обнаруживать), жидкость, местное обезболивающее, хирург, длинные и
сложные операции, рентгеновские лучи, диабет

II. Complete the table.

Who When What

..... in 1796 method of “vaccination”

Louis Pasteur ..... vaccine for hydrophobia

..... ..... X-rays.

..... in 1922 .....

Alexander Fleming ….. .....

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III. Put the verbs in brackets into correct form.
1. This new method (invent) by our teacher.
2. This vaccine (save) thousands of patients from the infection every year.
3. This drug is safe because it (make) of plants.
4. Doctors (use) this anesthetic during long and complicated operations.
5. In the 19th century cocain (use) as a local anesthetic.
6. X-rays (discover) by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895.
7. Alexander Fleming (discover) penicillin.
8. Louis Pasteur (found) modern microbiology.

IV. Translate into English.


1. Сегодня врачи могут лечить многие опасные заболевания.
2. Пациенту ввели вакцину от оспы.
3. Во время операции хирурги всегда применяют анастезию.
4. Вакцина от бешенства была изобретена Луи Пастером.
5. Луи Пастер — основатель современной микробиологии.
6. Диабет — очень серьезное заболевание.
7. Много важных открытий было сделано в 20 веке.
8. Пенициллин используется для уменьшения инфекции в ранах.

The Discovery of Penicillin


Penicillin was the world's first antibiotic. Antibiotics are drugs that can cure illnesses
caused by bacteria. Before penicillin people could die from a small wound in their skin if

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bacteria made the wound become infected. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928.
This is how it happened.
One day Fleming's assistant brought him a plate on which a colony of dangerous bacteria
were being grown. “This plate can not be used for the experiment” said the assistant. “Some
mould (плесень) has formed on it and I'll have to take another plate”. Fleming was ready to
allow his assistant to do so. Then he looked at the plate and saw that the bacteria around the
mould had disappeared. Fleming understood the importance of what had happened and
immediately began to study the phenomenon. He placed some mould on other plates and grew
more colonies. After numerous experiments on animals he found out that this new substance
was not toxic to the tissues and stopped the growth of the most common pathogenic bacteria.
Fleming called this substance penicillin. It was of the same family of moulds that often appear
on dry bread.
But a method of extracting pure penicillin was found only after many investigations.
Two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, tested penicillin to find out if it was safe
to use. They also made penicillin that they could inject. In 1942 Fleming carried out his own
first experiment. His friend was nearly dying from an infectious disease. After several injections
of penicillin the man recovered completely.
A. Fleming received the Nobel Prize for his great discovery. But he said: “Everywhere
I go people thank me for saving their lives. I do not know why they do it. I didn't do anything.
Nature makes penicillin. I only found it.”

I. Find the following words and phrases in the text.


Пенициллин, антибиотик, вызванный бактериями, инфицировать рану, происходить,
колония опасных бактерий, плесень, исчезать, важность, изучать явление (феномен),
токсичный, ткань, чистый пенициллин, патогенный, исследование, ученый, делать
инъекцию, проводить эксперимент, полностью выздороветь, получить Нобелевскую
премию, спасти жизнь.

II. Translate into English.


1. Пенициллин спас жизни многих людей во время войны.
2. Эта болезнь вызвана опасными бактериями.
3. Этот ученый получил Нобелевскую премию за свое важное открытие.
4. Исследование показало, что это лекарство не токсично.
5. Чтобы спасти пациента, врач сделал ему инъекцию пенициллина.

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III. Fill in the blanks with pronouns.
1. One day Fleming's assistant brought …. a plate on which a colony of dangerous bacteria were
grown.
2. In 1942 Fleming carried out …. own first experiment.
3. A. Fleming received the Nobel Prize for …. great discovery.
4. “Everywhere I go people thank …. for saving …. lives. I don't know why …. do it.”
5. “This plate can not be used for the experiment. Some mould has formed on it.”

Unit 4. The Present Continuous Tense


Present Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в
настоящем времени (am, is, are) и причастия настоящего времени смыслового глагола:
I am reading
He is reading
We are reading
Вопросительная форма образуется путём постановки вспомогательного глагола
to be (am, is, are) перед подлежащим, например:
Am I reading?
Is he reading?
Are they reading?
Отрицательная форма образуется путём постановки отрицания not после
вспомогательного глагола, например:
I am not reading
He is not reading
We are not reading
Present Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, происходящего в
данный момент настоящего времени:
I am speaking now – Я разговариваю сейчас
The boy is running – Мальчик бежит
They are doing their laboratory work – Они делают лабораторную работу
Present Continuous может выражать:
1. Действие, происходящее в момент речи.
The kids are watching the new cartoons now.
This team is playing very well today.

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2. Действие, охватывающее некоторый период времени в настоящем.
She is working too hard this term.
No ice-cream for me. I am slimming.
3. Эмоционально окрашенную характеристику лица. Как правило, это отрицательная
оценка.
He is always chewing.
She is constantly talking about money.

Примечание 1. Глаголы be, look, feel могут употребляться в длительной форме для
выражения действия в какой-то конкретный момент. В современном английском языке
это практически стало нормой.
I am feeling better today.
You’re looking rather strange. Are you feeling all right?
4. Заранее запланированное действие, которое произойдёт в ближайшем будущем.
Употребляется с глаголами движения: move, come, go, leave, return, start.
We are leaving tomorrow.
The show is starting soon.
5. Действие в процессе, которое происходит одновременно с другим действием (в Present
Simple). Это время употребляется в придаточных предложениях времени и условия после
союзов: when, while, as long as, if, in case, unless.
David always talks when he is eating.
Try not to make noise when you are drinking your tea.
Это время употребляется со следующими наречиями: always, now, at the moment,
constantly, right now, still.
Примечание 2. Глаголы see, hear, understand могут употребляться в длительной форме
для выражения сильных эмоций, обычно в языке художественных произведений.
I can’t believe what I’m hearing and seeing.
And I knew it was my father’s face I was seeing in my mind.

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Итак, схематически это время можно изобразить следующим образом:

EXERCISES
I. Complete the sentences.
1. I __ (watch) a reality show on TV. 2. My favourite team __ (win)! 3. Someone __ (swim) in
the sea.4. Two people __ (cook) dinner on the beach. 5. We __ (not watch) a soap opera. 6. I
__ (not do) my homework. 7. Mum __ (read) a magazine.8. My brother __ (not listen) to the
radio. 9. Dad __ (not cook) dinner. 10. Tara __ (talk) by phone. 11. Joe __ (play) on the
computer. 12. Who __(watch) TV? 13. Tina __ (do) grammar exercises. 14. I __ (eat) a pizza.
15. We __ (sit) in the classroom. 16. I __ (not write) an email. 17. Amy __ (not go) to school
today. 18. We __ (not have) fun today. 19. My team __ (not win) the match. 20. My parents __
(drive) to work now. 21. __ they __ (read) magazines? Yes, they are. 22. __ you __ (learn)
English? Yes I am. 23. __ Helen __ (write) a letter? No, she isn´t. 24. __ Sarah __ (play) the
guitar? Yes, she is. 25. We __ (not play) basketball.

II. Put the verbs into the correct form.


1. We (play) in the park every day. 2. Tom usually (drink) milk for breakfast. 3. Stop crying!
The baby (sleep).4. Alice (live) in London. 5. He (like) sandwiches. 6. The man (drive) the car
now. 7. The girl (speak) English very well. 8. I often (give) John books to read. 9. These women
(be) from America. 10. We (have) many books at home. 11. She (work) right now. 12. She

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always (forget) my name. 13. Listen! Somebody (come). 14. She never (go) shopping in the
afternoon. 15. Listen! The birds (sing) in the garden. 16. They (finish) work at four o’clock. 17.
The boys (play) in the yard at the moment. 18. At the lessons we (read) interesting texts. 19. He
usually (buy) milk for breakfast.

III. Choose the correct option.


1. Adam (sleeps/is sleeping) at the moment.2. Where is Jane? – She (listens/is listening) to
music in the sitting room. 3. My father (likes/is liking) reading detective stories. 4. (Do you
work/Are you working) at the moment. 5. What (do you do/are you doing) here? 6. What (do
you usually have/are you usually having) for lunch?7. I never (go/am going) to school by tram.
8. I (watch/am watching) TV every evening. 9. At the moment, John (makes/is making) coffee.
10. Mr. Greg (often reads/is often reading) the newspaper in the morning.

IV. Write questions from these words.


1. (Why / looking / are / you / me / at?)
2. (She / dishes / washing / is / now?)
3. (are / What / reading / you?)
4. (going / she / Where / is?)
5. (your parents / travelling / are / abroad?)
6. (she / is / a / nice / wearing / dress?)
7. (is / working / clock / that?)

V. 1. Use the verbs in the list to complete the sentences.


eat go fly watch do sing write work wait
1. Listen! Somebody … a nice song.
2. I … to London next week.
3. I …. a letter to my friend Pam now.
4. I’m very tired. We … hard these days.
5. Jane …. a delicious cake with maple syrup.
6. We … to play football tomorrow with Bob’s friends.
7. They …. interesting programme about animals at the moment.
8. Sarah …. a bus at the bus stop at the moment.
9. Peter and Liza … the washing-up now.

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Part II. Medical Institutions

Unit 5. Polyclinics
VOCABULARY:
institution – учреждение consulting hours – приемные часы
ring up (rang up, rung up) – звонить, consulting room – кабинет врача
вызвать по телефону reception – прием; получение; принятие
call – вызов; call in – вызывать (врача) serious – серьезный; вызывающий
physician [fɪˈzɪʃən] – врач опасение (о болезни)
complain – жаловаться (на) (of) sick – больной
complaint – жалоба sick–leave – больничный лист
correct – a правильный; v исправлять, definite – определенный, точный
поправлять chart – таблица, график, диаграмма;
administer – v назначать; давать temperature chart – температурный лист
(лекарство) patient’s card – карточка больного
consult – v обращаться (к врачу) fill in – заполнять; вписать, вносить

Polyclinics
There are many medical institutions in our country. One of such medical institutions is the
polyclinic. If a person falls ill, he will ring up his local polyclinic and call in a doctor. When his
condition isn’t very poor and he has no high temperature he will go to the local polyclinic and a
physician will examine him there.

21
Many specialists including therapeutists, neurologists, surgeons and others work at the
polyclinic. During the medical examination a physician usually asks the patient what he complains
of and according to the complaints carries on the medical examination. T
he physician listens to the patient’s heart and lungs and measures his blood pressure and if
necessary asks the patient to take the temperature. The laboratory findings which include blood
analysis, the analysis of urine (urinalysis) and other tests help the physician to make a correct
diagnosis and administer a proper treatment.
In addition to their consulting hours at the polyclinic local physicians go out to the calls to
examine those patients who are seriously ill and whose condition is bad. Such sick persons receive
a sick-leave. They usually follow a bed regimen.
Any physician of the polyclinic knows his patients very well because he treats only a
definite number of patients. At the local polyclinic every patient has a personal patient’s card
which is filled in by his physician. Everything about the patient – the diagnosis of the disease, the
administrations made by the doctor, the course of the disease, the changes in the patient’s condition
after the treatment are written down in the card.
If it is necessary, a nurse will come to the patient’s house to give him the administered
injections or carry out any of the doctor’s administrations. Our doctors treat patients not only with
the help of different mixtures, powders, injections, but they always use a good bedside manner and
deal with patients very carefully. The duty of the doctor is to treat a patient not only with different
remedies but with a kind word and hearty attitude.

I. Read the passages and answer the questions:


1. Patient Smirnov caught a cold and had a very high temperature. He complained of a general
weakness and a bad headache. He was not able even to sit up. He was seriously ill.
2. Patient Belov looked ill and was pale. He had no high temperature. His appetite was poor. He
complained of the pain in the left portion of the stomach.
Кто из них сможет прийти в поликлинику сам?
1. When my younger brother was playing in the garden he fell down. He impaired his right upper
extremity. There was a deep wound on the lateral surface. He developed a bad pain in the joints
and could not move his hand.
2. My father complained of a bad pain in the left side in the chest. He breathed heavily and became
pale. The increase of the chest pain was associated with physical exertion. He had to follow a bed
regimen.
Кого из этих больных должен обследовать терапевт?

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II. Translate the following sentences:
1. Как только будет готов анализ желудочного сока, больному назначат соответствующую
диету. 2. Лечение будет продолжено до тех пор, пока не будут получены положительные
результаты. 3. Больному разрешат сидеть, если частота сердцебиения станет нормальной.

III. Translate the following sentences:


1. The doctor asked the nurse to give him the patient’s card. 2. You must give up smoking, you
have a lung trouble. 3. I had to give in because I was not right.

IV. Supply the necessary postpositions:


1. The nurse filled ….. the patient’s card when she took my temperature. 2. We have called ….. a
physician as my sister’s condition became considerably worse. 3. The significance of oxygen for
the development of aerobic microorganisms has been found …. by the microbiologists. 4. The
prominent Russian physiologist Pavlov carried ….. many experiments to determine the nature of
conditioned reflexes.

Unit 6. The Present Perfect Tense


The Present Perfect Tense обозначает действие, которое завершилось к настоящему
моменту или завершено в период настоящего времени (в этом году, на этой неделе.) Хотя
глаголы в Present Perfect часто переводятся на русский язык в прошедшем времени,
следует помнить, что в английском языке эти действия воспринимаются в настоящем
времени, так как привязаны к настоящему результатом этого действия. В собственном
значении Present Perfect употребляется для выражения действий, которые в момент речи
воспринимаются как свершившиеся. В этом случае в центре внимания находится само
свершившееся действие.
We have bought a new TV set. – Мы купили новый телевизор (У нас есть новый телевизор).
The students have left the room. – Студенты ушли из комнаты (студентов сейчас в комнате
нет).
Go and wash your hands. – Пойди и вымой руки.
I have washed them. – Я их вымыл (руки у меня чистые).
Хотя глаголы в the Present Perfect часто переводятся на русский язык в прошедшем
времени, следует помнить, что в английском языке эти действия являются действиями
настоящего времени.
Для Present Perfect характерны наречия:

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already, still, yet, ever, just, recently, never, today, this week.
Употребление:
1. Для обозначения действий, (не) закончившихся к моменту речи (часто с "just" - только
что, "yet" - ещё не и др.):
- Have you finished your job? - Yes, I have/ No, I haven't. – Ты закончил работу? - Да/Нет.
The train has just arrived. – Поезд только что прибыл.
She hasn't written the test yet. – Она ещё не закончила контрольную.
2. Для обозначения действий, происходивших в прошлом, но актуальных в настоящем:
-Have you passed your driving test? – Вы уже сдали экзамен на право вождения автомобиля?
-We can't enter the room. I've lost my key. – Мы не можем войти в (эту) комнату. Я потеряла
ключ.
3. Для описания действий, начавшихся в прошлом и продолжающихся до настоящего
момента ( часто с "since" - с или "for" - в течение):
I' ve always liked him. – Он мне всегда нравился (раньше и теперь).
I have known him for years / since my youth / since 1990. – Я знаю его много лет / с юности/
с 1990 года.
He has written about a hundred novels. – Он написал около ста романов.
(He is alive and can write more.) – (Он жив и может написать ещё).
но:
He wrote about a hundred novels. (He is dead). – Он написал около ста романов.(Его нет в
живых).
4. Для обозначения действий, имевших место в неистекший период времени ( с
выражениями типа "this morning" / "afternoon" / "week" - сегодня утром / днём / на этой
недели и т.п.:
Has the postman come this morning? – Почтальон приходил сегодня утром?
He hasn't phoned this afternoon. – Он ещё не звонил сегодня днём.

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Итак, схематически это время можно изобразить следующим образом:

EXERCISES
I. Put the sentences in the Present Perfect.
1. She…..(just break) a vase. 2. We …..(already clean) the room. 3. I …..(just make) the bed. 4.
He ….. (phone) his friend. 5. It ….. (start) raining. 6. A little girl ….. (cut) her finger. 7. He …..
(eat) all the cakes. 8. Sally ….. (wash) the dishes. 9. The plane ….. (fly) away. 10. He ….. (leave)
the house. 11. He ….. (work) hard for the exam. 12. Jenny ….. (answer) all the questions. 13. We
….. (see) this film. 14. They ….. (never meet) before. 15. I …… (never be) to New York. 16. She
…... (already finish) school. 17. Thank you very much. You ….. (help) me a lot. 18. Barbara …..
(come) to see us. 19. Jack is not at home. He ….. (go) to the theatre. 20. Oliver ….. (cook) a tasty
dinner for us.

II. Put the verbs in the Present Perfect and choose the correct word (since or for).
1. She ….. (live) here (since/for) many years. 2. Miss Hill ….. (teach) in this school (since/for)
1998. 3. He ….. (work) in the factory (for/since) he left school. 4. I ….. (play) tennis (for/since)
morning. 5. We ….. (study) English (for/since) five years. 6. I ….. (not see) you (for/since) ages.
7. We ….. (not hear) about him (since/for) January.8. I ….. (know) him (since/for) childhood. 9.
Tom ….. (be) in America (for/since) 2001. 10. Our teacher ….. (work) at school (for/since) 1987.
11. They ….. (have) this house (for/since) they moved to our town. 12. I ….. (not see) him
(for/since) a long time. 13. They ….. (not speak) to each other (for/since) summer. 14. Jack …..
(play) tennis (since/for) two hours.

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III. Complete Jane's letter to her American friend. Use the Present Perfect Tense.
Dear Amy
I _____ (1 not have) a letter from you for a long time. _____ (2 you lose) my address? I bought
the new Steps CD at the weekend. I _____ (3 already listen) to it. _____ (4 you hear) it yet? It’s
brilliant. There’s a new video too, but I _____ (5 not see) it yet.
School is going OK. I _____ (6 just finish) some exams, but the holidays _____ (7 not start) yet.
We’re going to Ireland. I _____ (8 never be) there.
Write soon with your news.
Love
Jane
IV. Correct the mistakes in these sentences.
1. We lived here since 1997.
2. I've been ill since two days.
3. How long do you know him?
4. Susie has seen a good film last night.
5. We've finished our homework just.
6. I've already wrote three letters.

V. Choose the correct form of the verb.


1. We went/ ‘ve been to the seaside last summer.
2. I finished / ‘ve finished my homework. Can I go out now?
3. I was /‘ve been ill three month ago.
4. Have you been / Did you to the shop? I need some stamps.
5. My hobby is fishing. I’ve caught / caught a lot of fish.
6. Jenny is in Oxford today, but she was /has been in London yesterday.
7. I played /'ve played basketball when I was younger, but l don’t play now.
8. I’ve already seen / already saw 'Shrek'.
9. Julie has been / was ill since Tuesday.
10.I didn't see / haven't seen Josh since 1998.
11. We've stayed / stayed at our grandparents for three days. We arrived home yesterday.
12.The dog went / has gone to sleep an hour ago.
13. I had / ‘ve had a cat for two years. It’s name is Willis.
14. I’ve waited / waited for a bus for twenty minutes. Then I decided to walk.

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VI. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Я не видела Мэри уже 3 месяца.
2. Мои родители уже продали свой старый автомобиль.
3. Моя сестра уже была в Париже.
4. Я только что закончил читать эту книгу.
5. Ты хорошо выглядишь. Ты был в отпуске?

Unit 7. Nurses’ and Doctors’ Activity in Polyclinics

VOCABULARY:
identical – одинаковый pressure – давление
to try - стараться hypertension – повышенное кровяное
to react – реагировать давление
own – собственный heartache – боль в сердце
to be under special care – быть под hypotensive – гипотензивный
специальным наблюдением to frighten – пугать
observation – наблюдение hypertensive - гипертонический
research – исследовательский hypotension – пониженное кровяное
to take the pulse – прощупывать пульс давление
radial – лучевой anaemia – анемия, малокровие
nervous – нервный to check the BP – измерять кровяное
fast – быстрый давление
beating – биение (сердца), пульсация

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student nurse – учащийся медицинского to be proud – гордиться
училища spotless – чистый
sick – больной surgery – операция
to learn – изучать wheel-chair – кресло-каталка
care – уход nursery – ясли
to wear – носить to be afraid – бояться

The Work of Nurse


Every nurse must remember that there are no two identical people and that every patient
will react to illness in his own way. That’s why the doctors and the nurses look for new methods
and new medicines every day. If a nurse gives a patient a new medicine thus patient is under special
care of the doctor and the nurse. The observations of the nurse are very important. Careful
observation of the nurse can give very important information. It will help the doctor to diagnose
and treat the patient.

A Student nurse
A nurse takes care of people who are sick. This is her work (Men can be nurses, too). She
goes to a medical school to learn what she must know to give good care to sick people. The nurse
must be a good student in school. She must be healthy herself, eat in time, get plenty pf rest and
exercises, use good personal hygiene. She must be a happy person and must like people. When she
is a student nurse, she wears a uniform. She is proud of her uniform and keeps it spotless, so she
always looks professional. During her practice she gives patients medicine, brings them meal.
Sometimes she works in the operating room, helping the doctor who does surgery on a patient.
She helps people to walk and takes them in a wheel-chair. She loves to work in the nursery, where
she helps to take good care of babies. Sometimes she reads or plays with small children, so they
won’t be afraid of the hospital. She studies hard. She tries to make a better person of herself.

How to take the pulse


A nurse looks after her patients in the daytime or at night and can see any changes in the
patient’s condition. Many of the changes are very important. The nurse must be careful when she
takes the patient’s pulse. It is not difficult to take the pulse. Put three fingers of the left hand over
the radial artery. Many patients are nervous when they see a nurse or a doctor and the patient’s
pulse is faster. That’s why the nurse must wait a few seconds before she begins to count the pulse.

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If the nurse sees any changes in the beating of the pulse she must immediately tell the doctor.
Changes in the pulse are very important.
REMEMBER: When you take the pulse you must note:
1. Ir it is deep or shallow
2. the rate
3. the strength of beating
4. the rhythm

Blood pressure
The blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of the blood in the arterial wall. The blood pressure
can be normal, high and low. The normal BP is between 110-140 (the systolic pressure) over 70-
90 (the diastolic pressure). When you check the patient’s BP you must think of his (or her) age. If
a person of 20 has a blood pressure of 140-150 it is dangerous. And the nurse must immediately
take care of such patient. But if the same BP has a person of 50 it is not dangerous. If a patient has
hypertension, he may often complain of headaches, nose bleedings, heartaches. The doctor
prescribes him hypotensive drugs. High blood pressure often frightens the patient. The nurse must
calm him. Hypertensive patients must not work hard. Hypotension or low BP is caused by different
conditions. Anaemia may be a cause of hypotension. Great fatigue may also cause hypotension. In
all cases it is a very serious disease and the nurse must be very attentive to the patient.

Some Good Rules for Nurses


1. Read the order of the doctor before you give medicine.
2. If you made a mistake in your work you must tell the doctor about it at once.
3. Don’t be rude when you speak with patients.
4. Learn to control your feelings. When you are angry – count to a hundred.
5. Don’t gossip about your patients.
6. Never say the word “incurable”.

I. Make up and write the sentences from the following words:


1. medicines, patients, give, nurses, to, their
2. our, many, work, hospital, doctors, nurses, and, at
3. examine, patients, every, doctors, morning, their
4. injections, prescribes, or, doctor, some medicine, the, ward

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II. Say in English:
1. У этого больного слабое сердце. 2. Прополощите горло. 3. Вы должны быстро остановить
кровотечение. 4. У мальчика открытый перелом ноги. 5. Примите таблетку от головной
боли. 6. Наложите шину на руку. 7. Пополощите рот после еды. 8. Вы должны
придерживаться диеты. 8. У девочки сильная боль в животе. Положите теплый компресс на
ухо.

III. Answer the questions:


1. What is blood pressure? 2. What kinds of blood pressure do you know? 3. What must you know
when you check the patient’s BP? 4. What does the doctor prescribe the hypertensive patient?

IV. Translate the letter in English:


Дорогой Борис!
Я нахожусь в больнице. У меня было воспаление легких. В течение недели у меня была
высокая температура. Врачи назначили мне уколы. Теперь я чувствую себя лучше. Здесь
много хороших врачей и сестер. Наша лучшая палатная сестра – Нина Ивановна. Все ее
очень уважают. Она очень внимательна к своим больным. Наши врачи говорят: “Когда
Нина на работе, мы знаем, что все будет в порядке”. Я надеюсь, что вернусь очень скоро.
До свидания,
Твой Игорь.

The dialogue between the doctor and the patient


For a week I felt pain in my stomach and I decided to consult a doctor. Here is a conversation
between me and the doctor.
Volkov: Good morning.
Doctor: Good morning. What is your name?
V.: My name is Volkov.
D.: What’s the matter with you?
V.: I have a stomach-ache for a week and I want to find out what’s wrong with me?
D.: Show me with your finger the place where it hurts you.
V.: Here, doctor.
D.: Does this pain go to another place?
V.: It goes to my back sometimes.
D.: Does it bother you at night?

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V.: Most of the time.
D.: We’ll take X-rays of your stomach and make some more tests: blood test, urine test. I’ll tell
you the diagnosis after I have all your tests and I’ll prescribe you some treatment.

I. Insert the missing words instead of points.


X-rays; show; bothers; matter; wrong
1. What is the …..with you? 2. I want to find out what’s …..with me. 3. …..me the place where it
hurts you. 4. This pain …..me at night. 5. Take …..of your stomach.

III. Make up the sentences from the following words:


1. Mother, did, my, feel, not, well
2. decided, a doctor, mother, call, in, to, my
3. keep, he, bed, must, in, days, for, some
4. the, three, a day, times, doctor, him, to take, told, medicine

Unit 8. The Present Perfect Continuous


Present Perfect Continuous — настоящее совершенное длительное время. Иногда
по-русски его называют "настоящее совершенное продолженное время".
Present Perfect Continuous служит для выражения действия, которое длилось
определенное время до настоящего момента (и, возможно, еще продлиться какое-то время).
Собственно, это время по сути включает в себя формальные признаки двух времен:
совершенного и длительного (отсюда и название). Вы можете обратить внимание на то, что
тут довольно много общего между Present Perfect и Present Perfect Continuous. Однако,
разница все-таки есть. Сравните:
Tina has traveled a lot lately. — Тина за последнее время много путешествовала.
(может сейчас она уже и не путешествует).
Tina has been travelling a lot lately. — Тина много путешествует последнее время. (и
вероятно продолжает путешествовать)
Образование времени:
Настоящее совершенное продолженное время образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола have/(has — для 3-го лица ед. числа) + been + ing к глаголу.
Например:
I have been trying to contact him for a couple of hours. Where can he be now? — Я пытаюсь
связаться с ним уже несколько часов. Где он может быть сейчас?

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В вопросительных предложениях вспомогательный глагол выносится на первое место:
Have you been trying to contact him? — Ты пытаешься с ним связаться?
В отрицательных предложениях мы добавляем частицу not к вспомогательному глаголу:
I have not been trying to contact him. — Я не пытаюсь с ним связаться.
Употребление Present Perfect Continuous
1. Для выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается до сих пор:
I have been working for the company since 1995. — Я работаю на фирме с 1995 года.
2. Для выражения действия, которое длилось в прошлом и только что завершилось:
Your eyes are red. Have you been crying? — У тебя красные глаза. Ты что плакала?
3. С «how long»:
How long have you been waiting for me? — Давно ты меня ждешь?
Так же, как и в случае с Present Perfect, действие смыслового глагола в Present Perfect
Continuous обычно уточняется в отношении либо начала (since), либо продолжительности
(for). Также, возможно использование и более общих обстоятельств времени, таких как
недавно (recently) или в последнее время (lately). Итак, схематически это время можно
изобразить следующим образом:

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EXERCISES
I. Open the brackets using Present Perfect Continuous
1. All these days he _________ (talk) about his new plan.
2. Here is Mrs. Brown who we ____________ (speak) about for a long time.
3. You ___________ (watch) TV too long.
4. He ___________ (sit) here all the time.
5. Will that music never stop? It (play) for two hours.
6. Turn the TV set off. The children (watch) it since morning.
7. Mary is learning to play the piano. She (practice) since breakfast time.
8. He (live) in the USA for many years but he still can’t speak English properly.
9. I need a holiday. I (work) too hard for a long time.
10. Please, wake up Peter. He (sleep) for ten hours.
11. We (travel) for three days but we are still only halfway to London.

II. Put the verbs in brackets in Present Perfect Continuous


1. The vegetables … (boil) since 10 o’clock.
2. He … (wait) for her answer for six months.
3. My sister … (send) job applications for 3 months.
4. I … (try) to find my documents since last Sunday.
5. They … (learn) Japanese for a couple of years.
6. Father … (drill) holes in the wall since noon.
7. My brother … (play) computer games for 3 hours.
8. I … (listen) to you very carefully.
9. He … (not take) his medicine for the last week.
10. We ... (save) the money for a holiday for a year.

III. Translate the following sentences in English.


1.Как долго ты учишь английский язык? — Я учу английский язык два года.
2.Как долго ты читаешь эту книгу? — Я читаю эту книгу уже месяц.
3.Как долго ты смотришь телевизор? — Я смотрю телевизор два часа.
4.Как давно ты меня ждешь? — Я жду тебя уже час.
5.С каких пор она работает в банке? — Она работает в банке с 1999 года.
6.С каких пор он живет в Москве? — Он живет в Москве с рождения (since he was born.)
7.С каких пор они строят дом? — Они строят дом с прошлого года.

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IV. Put the verbs in brackets in Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect
1. He (to be) very busy lately. 2. I (to wait) for you since one o’clock in the afternoon. 3. How long
you (to know) Jane? 4. I (not to meet) the Marchands since last year. 5. It (to snow) since early
morning. 6. We (to work) hard for two hours. 7. “How long your mother (to teach) at college?”-
“For fifteen years”. 8. The north wind (to blow) since early morning.

V. Translate into Russian


1. Кого вы ждете? – Петра. Я жду его уже около часа. Интересно, что случилось с ним. 2.
Весь день идет снег. Так много снега давно не выпадало. 3. Сколько времени вы живете
здесь? – Около пяти лет. 4. Что вы сегодня делали с утра? – Я переводил очень интересную
статью. 5. Сколько времени они обсуждают этот вопрос? – Более получаса. 6. Северный
ветер дует уже целую неделю.

Unit 9. Pharmacy

VOCABULARY:
pharmaceutical [fɑːməˈsjuːtɪkl] - partition - перегородка
фармацевтический to appoint - назначать
to choose - выбирать prescription - рецепт
stall - прилавок, стойка sedative - успокоительное средство
shelving - полка, стеллаж (лекарство)
bandage - перевязочный материал, бинт powder - порошок
implement - принадлежность, утварь ointment - мазь
perfumery - парфюмерия

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Description of a Pharmacy
The pharmaceutical service in our country is an unseparable part of the health protection.
You can’t successfully treat people without highly effective medical aids.
The pharmacy has a hall, the single place people may come in; a special room for keeping
drugs; an assistants’ room where medicines are prepared and a room for the first medical aid.
In the hall you can see special glass stalls and shelvings with different drugs. People may
choose here any drug they need. On the stalls and shelvings you can find all kinds of sedatives,
vitamins and bandages. Here there are pills, powders, bottles of drops and mixtures, tablets,
ointments, syringes, needles, thermometers, hot water bottles, medicine droppers and other things
necessary for medical care. In this department you can buy some implements for personal
hygiene and even perfumery. The department where chemists will give you anything you need
without prescription is the Chemist’s department.
In the hall, there is a special department – Prescription – where a patient can order his
prescription and have his medicine made up. A glass partition separates you from the pharmacist.
Through a small window in this partition, you hand in your prescription to the pharmacist and
she/he gives you a medicine immediately if they have this medicine prepared or she appoints a
special time to come for the drug.
There are two drug cabinets in this department. In the drug cabinet, marked with a big letter
A, poisonous drugs are kept. In the drug cabinet, marked with a big letter B, all strong-effective
drugs are kept.

I. Replace the Russian words in the brackets with their English equivalents.
1. The (фармацевтический ) service in our country is an unseparable part of the health
protection.
2. In the hall you can see special glass (прилавки).
3. On the stalls and shelvings you can find all kinds of (успокоительных средств),
vitamins and (перевязочный материал).
4. In the chemist’s department you can buy (принадлежность) for personal hygiene and
even (парфюмерия).
5. Through a small window in this partition you hand in your (рецепт) to a pharmacist.
6. A pharmacist (назначать) a special time to come for the drug.

II. Complete the sentences using the appropriate words given below.
1. … has various treating methods for people suffering from a disease.

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2. Some medicines and drugs are used …chronic conditions which have no cure such as
diseases of the central nervous system.
3. I have ordered the medication on my… .
4. …. are administered in case of neurological disorders.
5. In any pharmacy you can … any drug you need.
6. … heal wounds.
To treat, prescription, medicine, to choose, sedatives, ointments.

III. Translate the following sentences in English.


1. В любой аптеке все лекарственные средства хранят в лекарственных шкафчиках.
2. В рецептурном отделе можно заказать лекарство по рецепту.
3. В отделе ручной продажи вы можете купить лекарственное средство сразу же.
4. Все сильно действующие лекарства хранят в лекарственных ящиках,
маркированных буквой В.
5. Этот порошок для наружного применения.
6. Успокоительное средство принимают перед сном.

IV. Answer the following questions.


1. How important is the pharmaceutical service in our country?
2. What is the place in the pharmacy people may come in?
3. What is there in the pharmacy?
4. What can one find on the stalls and shelvings?
5. In what department will the chemist give you anything you need without a prescription?
6. Where can a patient order his prescription and have his medicine made up?
7. What drug cabinets are there in the Prescription department?

Unit 10. The Past Simple Tense


The Past Simple обозначает действия, имевшие место в прошлом и время совершения
которых истекло: last year - в прошлом году, five days ago - пять дней тому назад, yesterday
- вчера, in 1945 - в 1945 году и т.д.
We began the experiment three days ago. – Мы начали эксперимент три дня назад.
I returned home yesterday. – Я возвратился домой вчера.
Прошедшее неопределённое время широко используется в повествовании для
описания последовательных событий прошлого.

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We went to the park , walked down to the fountain and sat down on a stone seat. – Мы
отправились в парк, дошли до фонтана и сели на каменную скамью.
По способу образования прошедшего времени глаголы делятся на правильные и
неправильные. Правильные глаголы образуют утвердительную форму прошедшего
неопределённого времени путём прибавления к основе инфинитива суффикса "-ed". На
схеме они обозначены как "V ed".
При прибавлении суффикса "-ed" соблюдаются следующие орфографические
правила:
- если глагол оканчивается на "согласную букву + y", то буква "-y" меняется на "-i";
- мы удваиваем конечную согласную, чтобы сохранить закрытый слог.
to open - opened открывать - открыл
to ask - asked спрашивать - спросил
to stop - stopped останавливать - остановил
to fry - fried жарить - жарил.
Суффикс "-ed" является признаком формы простого прошедшего времени только в
том случае, если глагол с этим суффиксом занимает в предложении второе место, т.е. стоит
после подлежащего.
He informed us of his plans at breakfast. – Он сообщил нам о своих планах за завтраком.
Неправильные глаголы образуют простое прошедшее время по-разному и их следует
заучивать списком. Таблицы неправильных глаголов приводятся в конце любого словаря
(и в конце данного пособия). Обычно они составляются следующим образом: основа
инфинитива неправильного глагола, основа инфинитива неправильного глагола, простое
прошедшее время.
Вопросительная форма глаголов в простом прошедшем времени ( и правильных и
неправильных) образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола "did" , который ставится
перед подлежащим, а за подлежащим следует смысловой глагол ( в форме основы
инфинитива без "to").
- Did you see him yesterday? - Yes, I did. – Вы его видели вчера? - Да.
- Did you hear the news? - No, I did not. – Вы слышали новость? - Нет.
Отрицательная форма глаголов в простом прошедшем времени образуется при
помощи вспомогательного глагола "did" и отрицания "not", которые ставятся перед
смысловым глаголом в форме инфинитива без "to".
I did not see him yesterday. – Я не видел его вчера.
В разговорной речи обычно используется сокращение did not - didn't.

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I didn't see him yesterday. – Я не видел его вчера.
Итак, схематически это время можно изобразить следующим образом:

EXERCISES
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. I wrote a letter to my aunt.
a) every day b) now c) yesterday
2. What …..your brother doing?
a) is b) do c) does
3. Sophie sometimes …… TV in the evening.
a) watch b) is watching c) watches
4. I …….my Granny last week.
a) visited b) am visiting c) visit
5. He …….History at the university 2 years ago.
a) studied b) studied c) studed
6. Mark sometimes …… long hours.
a) works b) worked c) is working
7. They ….. in the park when I came to them.
a) are b) was c) were
8. When ......your work yesterday?
a) did you finish b) do you finish c) finished
9. Did you …… a dog when you were a child?
a) has b) had c) have
10. When ……. you born?

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a) had b) was c) were

II. Translate in English.


1. Она была занята. 2. Я не был занят. 3. Вы были заняты? 4. Они были дома? 5. Его не
было дома. 6. Я не знал. 7. Они знали? 8. Она не знала. 9. Кто знал? 10. Никто не знал.
11. Он читал английские книги? 12. Они никогда не читали. 13. У неё была квартира? 14.
У него ничего не было. 15. Кто это был?

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple.


Mary Thompson … (be) a famous actress. She was born in Sussex, England on the 4th of July,
1897. She … (go) to school at the age of eight. After her graduation she … (enter) at University
in New York where she … (study) drama. Mary … (marry) Tom Peterson in August, 1920 at St.
Paul’s Cathedral in London. Mary and Tom … (have) two sons and one daughter, Bob, Peter and
Samantha. Mary … (be) very popular because of her beauty and talent. She … (win) Oscar for
Best Actress in 1929. She … (die) in 1975 in Rome, Italy.

IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Past Simple.
1. He … (continue) his studies in Chemistry.
2. I looked for the keys but I … (not / find) them.
3. … (you / enjoy) the film?
Yes, I did. It was fantastic.
4. My husband and I … (do) the shopping last week.
5. Don’t worry. I … (not / forget) to send your letter.
6. When … (you / see) Peter last time?
7. How much cheese … (Sarah / buy) this morning?
8. My family … (make) a delicious cake for Paul’s birthday.
9. Ben … (become) a vet three years ago.
10. My father … (return) late from work yesterday.

V. Rewrite the following text in the Past Simple Tense.


On Monday, we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At this lesson we write a dictation
and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers well and gets “five”. Pete does
not get a “five” because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the canteen.

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I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not go home at once.
I go to the library and take a book. Then I go home.

Unit 11. Drugs

Drugs
Any chemical substance which affects the functioning of the body is called a drug.
Aspirin, penicillin and insulin are all common examples.
A drug is the active ingredient of a medicine, and all medicines contain drugs. For
instance, aspirin contains acetylsalicylic acid. However, not all drugs are medicines. For
example, alcohol and nicotine (in tobacco) are drugs but not medicines.
Drugs which have made a great impact on people's lives include insulin for diabetics;
heart drugs like digitalis and vaccines against infectious diseases like poliomyelitis (polio) and
smallpox.
Antibiotics form another group of drugs. Their job is to kill bacteria, for example, penicillin
was first used to fight infection during the Second World War. Since then antibiotics have saved
the lives of millions of people. Since Sir Alexander Fleming first discovered penicillin, other
research workers have developed different antibiotics, such as streptomycin which conquered the
terrible lung disease tuberculosis.
Many women now take contraceptive pills as a method of birth control. This allows people
to have children only if they want them or to plan the number they have.
If you look in your bathroom cabinet, you will probably find an assortment of antiseptics,
creams, ointments, indigestion tablets or cough and cold remedies. There is no harm in keeping
these (out of reach of young children) because most people are responsible and use them only if
they need them. However, if you find antibiotics or pills left over from a previous prescription,
you should not keep them or give them to anyone else. You should return them to a chemist.

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Drug development and research have advanced rapidly since the early discoveries. By 1984
over £1,500 million (at manufacturers' prices) was spent in the UK on the purchase of NHS
prescription medicines, and about 3,000 medicines are in use. Incidentally, the pharmaceutical
industry is now one of the most successful in the UK, with exports amounting to over £1.2 billion
by the mid-1980s, and a positive trade 'surplus' of about £700 million. It can cost the industry up
to £60 million to research and develop just one new medicine.
But the search for newer and better drugs and medicines goes on. There are many diseases,
such as some cancers and arthritis, still to be overcome.

I. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? If the statement is false, correct the statement.
1. A drug is the active ingredient of a medicine.
2. All drugs are medicines.
3. Antibiotics have not saved the lives of millions of people.
4. Contraceptive pills are used as a method of birth control.
5. Drug development and research have not advanced rapidly since the early discoveries.
6. The search for newer and better drugs and medicines goes on.

II. Answer the following questions.


1. What is called a drug?
2. How do antibiotics work?
3. What allows people to plan the birth of children?
4. Why is it necessary to keep drugs out of reach of children?
5. What industry is one of the most successful in the UK?

VOCABULARY:
source - источник infusion - настой
leaf - лист tincture [ˈtɪŋktʃə] - настойка
stem - стебель decoction - отвар
root - корень vapour - пар
rhizome [ˈraɪzəʊm] - корневище jar - баночка
mold - плесень label - этикетка
digitalis (fox-glove) - наперстянка to indicate - указывать, обозначать
to confuse - перепутать direction - указание к применению
to obtain - получать, добывать

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administration - назначение по untoward - неблагоприятный, побочный
применению the dose to be taken - доза, которую надо
poisonous - ядовитый принять

Sources, forms, keeping and storage of drugs


Drugs are chemical substances used in medicine in the treatment of diseases. These
chemical substances can come from many different sources.
They can be obtained from various parts of plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruit, stems,
roots and rhizomes. Examples of such medicines are: digitalis from a plant called foxglove,
antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin) from a plant called mold. Some drugs may be of animal
origin. They are produced from the blood, serum, bile and other tissues and organs of animals.
Some drugs are synthesized in the laboratory (methatrexate and prednisone); vitamins are
obtained from food substances. Mineral waters, salts and other natural substances are also used
as drugs.
Drugs are produced in hard, soft, liquid and other forms. Hard forms of drugs are:
tablets,
pills and powders. Soft forms are oils, ointments, creams and so on. Liquid forms of drugs are:
solutions, mixtures, infusions, decoctions, tinctures etc. Gases, vapours and aerosols are also
used in medicine.
Drugs are kept in bottles, boxes, parcels, tubes, ampoules and jars. Every small bottle
or a box has a label with the name of medicine stuck on it. There are labels of three colors.
White ones are stuck to indicate drugs for internal use. Yellow labels indicate drugs for external
use and blue labels show drugs that should be used for injections. The dose to be taken and
directions for the administration are also written on the label. Nurses, doctors and patients
themselves must not confuse different medicines because some of them are poisonous and their
overdosage may cause an untoward reaction and sometimes even death.
Drugs are stored at room temperature, in cool places and refrigerators where they are
protected from sunlight and fire, in dark places and away from children.

I. Replace the Russian words in brackets with their English equivalents.


1. Drugs can come from many different (источников).
2. Drugs can be obtained from various parts of plants, such as (листья, стебли, корни,
корневища).
3. Liquid forms of drugs are: (настой, настойка, отвар).

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4. Every small bottle or a box has (этикетку) with the name of medicine stuck on it.
5. White ones are stuck to (указывать) drugs for internal use.
6. Nurses, doctors and patients themselves must not (путать) different medicines because
some of them are poisonous and their (передозировка) may cause an untoward reaction
and sometimes even death.

II. Complete the sentences using the appropriate words given below.
1. Drugs are stored at ….
2. Yellow … indicate drugs for external use.
3. Vitamins … from food substances.
4. … and directions for the administration are also written on the label.
5. Some of drugs are …
6. Gases, … and aerosols are also used in medicine.
The dose to be taken, labels, vapours, are obtained, room temperature, poisonous.

III. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Лекарства используются в медицине для лечения различных заболеваний.
2. Лекарства могут быть получены из разных источников.
3. Некоторые лекарства синтезируются в лаборатории.
4. Лекарства хранят в коробочках, бутылках, ампулах, баночках.
5. Доза, которую необходимо принять, написана на этикетке.
6. Передозировка может вызвать побочную реакцию и даже смерть.

IV. Answer the questions.


1. What are drugs?
2. What sources can drugs come from?
3. What forms are drugs produced in?
4. Where are drugs kept?
5. What is written on the label of each drug?
6. Why must not doctors, nurses, patients confuse different medicines?
7. How are drugs stored?

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Unit 12. The Past Continuous Tense
1. Past Continuous - это длительное действие, происходившее в определённый
промежуток времени в прошлом и не имеющее отношение к настоящему. Временной
промежуток может быть определен:
а. Обстоятельством времени.
What was going on at eight o'clock in yesterday's evening? – Что происходило вчера в
восемь часов вечера?
Необходимые определители времени:
at that time в то время
at three o'clock in the morning в три часа утра
at that moment в тот момент
at midnight в полночь и др.
б. Контекстом или ситуацией. Часто используется в художественных текстах и
имеет повествовательный характер.
It was early morning. Denis was talking on the phone. - Было раннее утро. Денис
разговаривал по телефону.
в. Другим действием в Past Simple, которое происходило в то же время. Тогда
Past Continuous является главным предложением.
When I came into the room my younger brother was watching a cartoon film. – Когда я
зашёл в комнату, мой младший брат смотрел мультфильм.
Примечание: Действие в Past Continuous может употребляться в придаточном
предложении, если будет фоном для главного.
While we were waiting (фон) for the bus the rain began. – Пока мы ждали автобус,
начался дождь.
г. Другим действием в Past Continuous.
While we were preparing for the test my brother was playing the game console. –Пока
мы готовились к контрольной работе, мой брат играл в приставку.
Союзы, которые употребляются по отношению к последним двум подпунктам (в и г):
while пока; в то время, как
when когда
as в то время как; когда
just as в то время как; когда и др.
2. Past Continuous - это длительное действие происходило в определённый период

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времени в прошлом.
Kevin was working the whole morning. Кевин работал всё утро (действие завершилось, на
момент речи уже не утро).
Необходимые определители времени:
the whole morning/afternoon/evening/night всё утро/день/вечер/ночь
all day long/life весь день/всю жизнь
since seven till nine o'clock с семи до девяти часов
during the last week в течение прошлой недели
all winter всю зиму и др.
3. Past Continuous - это запланированное в прошлом будущее действие.
Luke said he was coming back on Thursday. Люк сказал, что вернётся в четверг.
В таких предложениях часто употребляются глаголы движения:
to go идти
to leave уезжать
to start начинать
to come приходить и др.
Примечание: Past Continuous употребляется для акцентирования на продолжительности
действия, просиходившего в прошлом, а Past Simple - на факте совершения этого
действия. Для выражения последовательных действий (действий, которые происходили
друг за другом), даже если они были длительными, употребляется Past Simple.
Последовательность действий - всегда форма Simple.
Итак, схематически это время можно изобразить следующим образом:

45
EXERCISES
I. Put the verbs in brackets in Past Simple or Past Continuous.
1. When my father (to come) home, I (to have) dinner.
2. When Alice (to return), I (to listen) to the radio.
3. When mother (to enter) his room, he (to draw) a picture.
4. When my sister (to come in), I (to do) my lessons.
5. When her aunt (to air) the room, she (to catch) cold.
6. When I (to meet) her, she (to go) to the office.
7. He (to wash) his face when somebody (to knock) at the door.
8. The young people (to dance) when I (to come) to the party.
9. When he (to wash) the dishes, he (to break) a plate.
10. What they (to do) when you (to see) them?

II. Put the sentences in the Past Continuous Tense.


1. I … (live) in Mexico in June, 2010.
2. When I entered the bathroom he … (shave).
3. When she met him, they … (work) for the same company.
4. What you … (do) last night?
5. I showed him my new dress, but he … (not look) at it.
6. When it started to rain, they … (sit) on the grass.
7. Which hotel Anna … (stay) when she lost her credit card?
8. We … (sleep) when the phone rang.
9. Doctor Fleming discovered penicillin while he … (study) influenza.
10. Sam … (stand) under the tree because it … (rain).
11. When the teacher came into the classroom, the children … (run) and … (scream).
12. While Bob … (chop) the meat, his wife … (peel) potatoes.
13. When I arrived at the party, all the guests … (dance).
14. The waiter cut his finger while he … (pick up) the broken glasses.
15. What you … (wear) when he met you?

III. Translate the following sentences in English.


1. Оливер играл со своей сестрой, когда в комнату вошла мама.
2. Он любил ее всю свою жизнь.

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3. Я разговаривала с подругой, когда мой телефон зазвонил.
4. Она слышала стук в дверь, но не открыла ее.
5. Что ты делал в 3 часа?

IV. Translate into English.


1. Вчера дети весь день играли в футбол. 2. Что вы делали, когда пришли ваши друзья?
– Я читала пьесу Чехова. 3. Когда Пётр возвращался домой вчера, он встретил Джейн. 4.
Мы ужинали, когда мой старший брат вернулся из университета. 5. Вчера весь вечер они
обсуждали планы на летний отпуск. 6. Пётр просматривал газеты в то время, как Анна
смотрела телепередачу. 7. Вы переводили статью весь вечер, не так ли? – Да, статья
довольно трудная, и мне пришлось многие слова смотреть по словарю. 8. Где вы
встретили Анну? – Я встретил её около библиотеки, когда возвращался домой вчера.

V. Translate the following sentences in Russian.


1. It was snowing when we went out. 2. It was night. The stars were sparkling. 3. What were
you reading on holidays? – I wasn’t reading anything, I was enjoying my time. 4. They were
constantly leaving their teacups unwashed! 5. After an hour’s sleep I was feeling much better.
6. The aliens were being kind to us. 7. While Grandma was making tea in the kitchen, her
grandson ate the last piece of cake. 8. Jess was always hanging on the phone! 9. It was
December. Christmas was coming. 10. Chuck was having a shower at ten o’clock in the
evening. 11. The phone always rang when I was cooking supper.

Unit 13. Hospitals


VOCABULARY:
institution – учреждение medical facilities – медицинские учреждения
staff – служебный персонал long-term care – длительное лечение
hospitality – гостеприимство obstetrics - акушерство
equipment – оборудование coronary care – лечение больных с
to set up – учреждать, обосновывать коронарной недостаточностью
injury – повреждение, рана general hospital – неспециализированная
threat – опасность, угроза больница, больница общего типа
to be admitted – быть принятым

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I. Read and translate the text.
A hospital is a health care institution
providing patient treatment by specialized
staff and equipment. Hospitals are largely
staffed by professional physicians, surgeons,
and nurses. In accord with the original
meaning of the word, hospitals were
originally «places of hospitality».
The best-known type of hospital is
the general hospital, which is set up to deal with many kinds of disease and injury, and normally
has an emergency department to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Some
hospitals have their own ambulance service. A district hospital typically is the major health care
facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and long-term care.
Types of specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals,
children`s hospitals, seniors'(geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical
needs such as psychiatric problems (psychiatric hospital, certain disease categories such as
cardiac, oncology, or orthopedic problems, and so on).
Some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and then leave
(‘outpatients’) without staying overnight; while others are ‘admitted’ and stay overnight or for
several days or weeks or months (‘inpatients’). Hospitals usually are distinguished from other
types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients while the others often
are described as clinics.
Hospitals vary widely in the services they offer and therefore, in the departments (or
«wards») they have. Each is usually headed by a Chief Physician. They may have acute services
such as emergency department or specialist trauma center, burn unit, surgery, or urgent care.
These may then be backed up by more specialist units such as: emergency department;
cardiology; intensive care unit; pediatric intensive care unit; neonatal intensive care unit;
cardiovascular intensive care unit; neurology; oncology; obstetrics and gynecology.
Some hospitals will have outpatient departments and some will have chronic treatment
units such as behavioral health services, dentistry, dermatology, psychiatric ward, rehabilitation
services, and physical therapy.

II. Answer the questions.


1. What is a hospital?

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2. What does the word “hospital” originally mean?
3. Which types of specialized hospitals do you know?
4. How do we call patients who go to a hospital without staying overnight?
5. How do we call those who stay overnight?
6. What is a general hospital?

III. Complete the sentences.


1. A hospital is …
2. The original meaning of the word ‘hospital’ is …
3. The best-known type of hospital is …
4. Types of specialized hospitals include …
5. Patients go to a hospital for …
6. Each hospital is usually headed …

IV. Put the places in a hospital into the gaps in the sentences.

accident and emergency canteen maternity ward


operating room reception waiting room

1. My daughter has just had a baby. Which way is it to the … please?


2. My friend was in a serious crash on his bike. They took him to … .
3. Jack is in the … now. The surgery on his knee will take about 3 hours.
5. There isn’t much choice at the … . But at least there is something to eat.
6. Please go to the … and sign-in if you are visiting a patient.

Unit 14. The Past Perfect Tense


Время Past Perfect обозначает
действие, которое завершилось до некоего
момента в прошлом:
I called Jim too late, he had already
left.- Я позвонил Джиму слишком поздно,
он уже ушел.

49
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ
Утвердительные предложения: Отрицательные предложения:

HAD + V3(ED) HAD + NOT + V3(ED)

I had played I had not played


You had played You had not played

Время Past Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в


прошедшем времени (HAD) и причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle or
Participle II) значимого глагола, то есть его «третьей формы».
Причастие второе, или причастие прошедшего времени (Participle II), можно
получить, прибавив к начальной форме значимого глагола окончание -ed:
examine – examined, enjoy – enjoyed, close – closed
Однако в английском языке есть также достаточно большая группа неправильных
глаголов, которые образуют форму прошедшего времени не по общим правилам.
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол выносится на место
перед подлежащим, а значимый глагол остается после него:
Had you brushed your teeth before you went to bed? – Ты почистил зубы, прежде
чем пойти спать?
EXERCISES
I. Write the Past Participles of the following verbs.
Write, win, sell, try, read, play, find, visit, stop, study, die, do.

II. Complete the sentences in the Past Perfect.


1. John (write) his name. 2. I (draw) a picture. 3. Tom (blow out) the light. 4. The cat (drink)
its milk. 5. The tree (fall) across the road. 6. John (give) his bicycle to his brother. 7. You
(make) a mistake. 8. I was exhausted because I (study) too much. 9. We had a big party because
we (pass) all the exams. 10. They didn’t have any money because they (pay) all the bills. 11.
When we arrived at the station, the train (go). 12. I couldn’t get in because I (forget) my keys.
13. The waitress brought a dish that we (order). 14. My little brother ate all the cakes that I
(make).

III. Rewrite sentences in negative form.


1. Jack had washed the dog. 2. Father had already cleaned his car. 3. Mr Snowdon had made a
speech at the conference. 4. Granny had bought me some cakes. 5. They had painted their old

50
house. 6. Liz had bought some flowers. 7. My sister had just cooked breakfast for the family.
8. The cat had already eaten fish. 9. Mrs Gracy had gone to London. 10. I had never been to
India. 11. She had just broken a vase. 12. We had cleaned the room. 13. Cris had phoned his
friend. 14. The trainhad just arrived. 15. It had just started to rain. 16. Kelly had gone to
America. 17. We had left our books to school. 18. The streethad changed a lot. 19. You had
worked here for a long time. 20. Mandy had been to Greece.

IV. Make sentences with the Past Perfect and the words provided. Follow the example below.
For example: I missed my plane. (airport/ plane take off) - By the time I get to the airport, the
plane had already taken off.
1. I missed the show. (theater/ movie/ start)
2. I couldn’t get my prescription. (drugstore/ close)
3. I couldn’t say goodbye to my friends. (call their house/ they/ leave)
4. I didn’t get the job. (I apply/ they/ hire someone else)
5. We couldn’t buy the house. (we see/ someone else/ make an offer)
6. The house was destroyed. (the firemen arrive/ house/ burn down)
7. I didn’t get to taste her chocolate cake (I arrive/ her children/ eat whole thing)
8. I didn’t see her when she was sick. (I go/ hospital/ she/ go home)
9. I didn’t see the game. (I turn on the TV/ game/ finish)
10. I missed my daughter’s performance. (I arrive concert/ my daughter/ finish her song)

V. Make up questions using words below, for example: (you / ever / be / to Italy) - Had you
ever been to Italy?
1. You ever / be / to South America?
2. You / read / any English books?
3. You / live / in this town all your life?
4. How many times / you / be / in love?
5. What's / the most beautiful country / you /ever / visit?
6. You ever / speak / to a famous person?

51
Unit 15. Doctors’ and Nurses’ Activity in Hospitals
VOCABULARY:
department – отделение
poisonous – ядовитый, токсический
in-patient department – стационарное
cause – причинять, вызывать; причина
отделение
death rate – смертность
outpatient department – амбулаторное
round – обход (больных врачом)
отделение
relieve – облегчать (боль)
reception ward – приёмная, приёмный покой
prevent– предотвращать, предупреждать
initial– начальный, предварительный
recovery– выздоровление, восстановление
to apply cups - ставить банки
a nurse (a doctor) on duty – дежурная(ый)
prescribe– прописывать
сестра (врач)
dosage – дозировка
attending doctor – лечащий врач
indicate – указывать, обозначать

I. Translate the following word combinations.


To be admitted to the in-patient department, to fill in case history, to make an initial diagnosis,
to estimate the initial findings, to apply a new method of treatment, overdosage of a drug may
cause death, to take the patient’s temperature, to give injections, to take an electrocardiogram.

II. Read and translate the text.


When patients are admitted to the hospital first of all they are received by a nurse on
duty at the reception ward.
The nurse on duty fills in patients’ case histories in which she writes down their names,
age, place of work, occupation, address and initial diagnosis made by a doctor at the polyclinic.
The patient’s medical history must include the information about the diseases which the
patient had both being a child and an adult, about any traumas he had. The patient’s blood group
and his sensitivity to antibiotics must be determined and the
obtained information written down in the case history. These
findings compose the past history.
The attending doctor must know what the patient’s
complaints and symptoms are. He must know how long and
how often the patient has had these complaints.

52
Then a doctor on duty examines the hospitalized patients and gives his instructions what
department and wards the patients are to be admitted to.
At the in-patient departments of a hospital life begins early in the morning. The nurses
on duty take the patient’s temperature, give them intramuscular and intravenous injections, take
stomach juice for analysis, apply cups and give all the prescribed remedies in the doses
indicated by the ward doctors.
The nurses keep all the drugs in special drug cabinets. All the drugs have special labels.
The name of drugs are indicated on them. Patients are not allowed to take the medicines
themselves because some drugs are poisonous, the overdosage of some other drugs may cause
unfavourable reactions and even death.
At about nine o’clock in the morning the doctors begin the daily rounds of the wards
during which they examine the patients. After the medical examination the doctors administer
the patients different procedures: electrocardiograms are taken, laboratory analyses of blood,
urine and gastric juice are made. Some patients are administered a bed regimen, others are
allowed to walk; some are to follow a diet to receive stomach ache or prevent unfavourable
results in case of stomach troubles. All the doctors always treat the patients with great attention
and care. There is no doubt that such a hearty attitude of the doctors to the patients helps them
much in their recovery.

III. Answer the questions.


1. Who will meet you when you are first admitted to the hospital?
2. What document does a person need to be hospitalized?
3. What is case history?
4. What does it mean “to live hospital life”?
5. Are there any rules of taking drugs by a patient?
6. What is kept in drug cabinets?
7. At what time does a doctor begin the daily round?

IV. Replace the following word combinations for synonymic ones.


1. to advise and order the patient some medicine; 2. to produce; 3. to put cups; 4. a definite
amount of the drug; 5. to stop the spread of inflammation; 6. a toxic medicine; 7. to make the
pain less.

V. Choose the sentences corresponding to the text.

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1. a) At the in-patient department the nurses give the patients intramuscular and intravenous
injections,
b) At the in-patient department the ward doctors give the patients intramuscular and
intravenous injections.
2. a) Some patients are to follow a diet to decrease weight,
b) Some patients are to follow a diet to relieve stomachache.
3. a) The overdosage of some drugs may cause a considerable change in the white blood cell
count,
b) The overdosage of some drugs may cause unfavourable reactions.

VI. Insert the items in the box below in an appropriate place in the sentence.
diagnosed admitted discharged
suffering hospitalized indicated

1. The patient was … to hospital at 2 a.m.


2. She was … from hospital three days later.
3. Mrs Jones was … from pain in the lower abdomen.
4. He was … with hypotension.
5. He was … as having Parkinson’s disease.
6. The name of drugs are … on their labels.

VII. Match the people to the tasks they do.


1. a nurse a. does an operation
2. a paramedic b. helps a woman have a baby
3. a midwife c. helps treat a person at the scene of an emergency
4. a surgeon d. looks after people who are sick or injured
5. a pharmacist e. prepares medicine to sell to patients

Unit 16. The Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense

54
Время Past Perfect Continuous
указывает на действие, которое началось в
прошлом, продолжалось в течение некоторого
времени и либо закончилось непосредственно
перед неким моментом в прошлом или все еще
не закончилось к некоему моменту в
прошлом.
I had been typing this text for 2 hours and then found it on the Internet. – Я набирал
этот текст два часа, а потом нашел его в Интернете.
I had been waiting for his airplane for 2 hours when it was announced about delay.- Я
ждал его самолет уже два часа, когда объявили об его задержке.
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ
Утвердительные предложения: Отрицательные предложения:

HAD BEEN + VING HAD + NOT + BEEN + VING


I had been playing I had not been playing
You had been playing You had not been playing
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол had выносится на
место перед подлежащим, а остальная часть сказуемого располагается после него:
I saw many puddles. Had it been raining? – Я видел много луж. Шел дождь?

EXERCISES
I. Complete the sentences below in the Past Perfect Progressive (affirmative form).
1. I (work) all day, so I didn’t want to go out. 2. She (sleep) for ten hours when I woke her. 3.
They (live) in Beijing for three years when he lost his job. 4. When we met, you (work) at that
company for six months. 5. We (eat) all day, so we felt a bit ill. 6. He was red in the face because
he (run). 7. It (rain), and the road was covered in water. 8. I was really tired because I (study).
9. We (go) out for three years when we got married. 10. It (snow) for three days.

II. Complete the sentences below in the Past Perfect Progressive (negative).
1. I (not / work) there long when she quit. 2. She (not / work) but she was tired anyway. 3. It
(not / rain) long when I got home. 4. He was in trouble with the teacher because he (not / go) to
classes. 5. We (not / live) in London for three years when we got married! It was more like five
years. 6. Although it was hot in the kitchen, Julie (not / cook). 7. I (not / sleep) long when there

55
was a knock at the door. 8. He didn’t feel healthy, because he (not / go) to the gym. 9. I caught
a cold because I (not / eat) properly. 10. She looked tired, but she (not / study).

III. Put the verbs into the correct form (Past Perfect Progressive or Past Simple).
1. I (wait) for hours, so I was really glad when the bus finally (arrive). 2. Why (be) the baby’s
face so dirty? He (eat) chocolate. 3. I (see) John yesterday, but he (run) so he was too tired to
chat. 4. It (rain) and the pavement (be) covered with puddles. 5. When I (arrive), it was clear
that she (work). There were papers all over the floor and books everywhere. 6. They (study) all
day so, when we (meet), they were exhausted. 7. The boss (talk) to clients on Skype for hours,
so she (want) a break. 8. I (drink) coffee all morning. By lunchtime, I (feel) really strange. 9.
Lucy (hope) for a new car, so she was delighted when she (get) one. 10. I (dream) about a
holiday in Greece! I couldn’t believe it when my husband (book) one as a surprise!

IV. Make Past Perfect Progressive ‘Yes / No’ or ‘Wh’ questions.


1. When you got sick, (you / eat) enough? 2. There was water everywhere, (what / the children
/ do)? 3. (it / rain) when you left the restaurant? 4. (how long / she / live) in London when she
found that job? 5. (why / you / study) so hard? 6. Why was the house so messy? (what / she /
do)? 7. (how long / we / wait) when the bus finally arrived? 8. (how long / he / play) football
when he was injured? 9. (I / work) that day? 10. (she / see) him for long when they moved to
Paris?

V. Choose the correct answer.


1. … there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?
a. had you been waiting b. had been waiting c. you had been waiting
2. They … for over an hour before they entered
a. had been talking b. had talking c. had talked
3. … English very long before I moved to London.
a. had been not studying b. had not been studying c. hadn't studying
4. Jason was tired because he …
a. working b. had been working c. had worked
5. Betty … the final test because she … hard.
a. had been failing, didn't study b. failed, had not been studying c. failed, studied
6. Kate … there for a few hours when we arrived.
a. only had been waiting b. had been only waiting c. had only been waiting

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7. James … at this school for more than a year before he … the job.
a. had been teaching, changed b. had teaching , had changing c. were teaching, changed
8. … for days so when they finally left?
a. had it been rain b. had the rain been raining c. had it been raining
9. We … for ten minutes when the light went off.
a. had been only watching b. had only been watching c. only had been watching
10. He said he … for some time.
a. had been practicing b. had been practice c. was practicing

Unit 17. History Taking


VOCABULARY:
stroke – инсульт, паралич
to compose – составлять
heart attack – сердечный приступ
to cause – служить причиной
impairment – ухудшение
course – ход, течений
finding – заключения
exact – точный
X-ray – рентген
accurately – безошибочно, точно
complaint – жалоба
past history – жизненный анамнез
examination – осмотр, обследование
case history – история болезни
admission – приём
family history – семейный анамнез
attending doctor – лечащий врач

I. Read and translate the text.


As soon as the patient is admitted to
the in-patient department the ward doctor
fills in the patient’s case history. It must
include the information about the patient’s
parents – if they are living or not. If they died,
the doctor must know at what age and of
what caused their death. The doctor must
know if any of the members of the family has ever been ill with tuberculosis, has suffered from
a stroke or heart attack or has had any mental or emotional impairments. This information
composes the family history.
The patient’s medical history must include the information about the diseases which the
patient had both being a child and an adult, about the operations which have been performed,

57
about any traumas he had. These findings compose the past history. The patient’s blood group
and his sensitivity to antibiotics must be determined and the obtained information is written
down in the case history.
The attending doctor must know what the patient’s complaints and symptoms are. He
must know how long and how often the patient has had these complaints.
The information on the physical examination of the patient on his admission to the
hospital, the results of all the laboratory tests and X-ray examinations, the course of the disease
with any changes in the symptoms and the condition of the patient, the administered medicines
in their exact doses and the produced effect of the treatment - all these findings which compose
the history of the present illness must always be written down in the case history.
The case history must always be written very accurately and consist of exact and
complete information.

II. Tell what information composes the family history/the past history/ the history of the
present illness?

III. Translate the following sentences into English using modal verb ‘must’.
1) Лечащий врач должен знать жалобы пациента.
2) Доктор должен знать болел ли кто-то из членов семьи туберкулёзом.
3) История болезни пациента должна быть написана безошибочно.
4) Врач должен знать были ли у членов семьи ухудшения психического состояния.
5) История болезни пациента должна включать информацию о его болезнях, операциях,
травмах.

IV. Act the dialogue.


Doctor: Have you ever been sick before?
Patient: Yes, I had pneumonia.
Doctor: Have you ever had scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, chicken-pox?
Patient: Yes, I had all the childhood diseases.
Doctor: And what about adult illnesses, have you ever had jaundice, heart or kidney
trouble?
Patient: No, I have only had ones I just told you.
Doctor: Have you ever had any operations?
Patient: Yes, I’ve had my appendix out.

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Doctor: Did you ever break any bones?
Patient: I broke my leg in childhood.
Doctor: Are your parents alive?
Patient: Yes, they are quite well.
Doctor: Do you have brothers and sisters? Are they in good health?
Patient: I have a sister and a brother. My brother is in good health and sister has
diabetes.
Doctor: Are you married? Do you have any children?
Patient: Oh, yes. I’m married. I have a son and a daughter and they seem to be all right.
V. Do the crossword.
Across:
1. The number of movements
9
that you can feel in a minute.
2
2. A person who gives us
medical help.
4. The front of the neck.
5. A person who needs
3 medical help.
1 6. You take it to treat an
7 illness.
5 8. … is what one usually
4 eats and drinks

Down:
6
1. A sheet of paper with the
help of which we take
8
medicine at the chemist’s.
3. A state of being well.
7. A feeling of being hurt.
9. A place where we get
medical help.

Unit 18. Examination of the Patient


VOCABULARY:

59
reveal [ri’vi:l] – обнаруживать, открывать immediate relative – ближайший родственник
observation– наблюдение assessment – определение, оценка
external– внешний valuable – ценный
sign [sain] – признак, знак sputum [‘spju:təm] – мокрота
requirement [ri’kwaiəmənt] – требование specimen [‘spesəmin] – образец
to record [ri’kɔ:d] – записывать specify [‘spesifai] – определять, устанавливать
onset [‘ɔnset] – начало (болезни) tumour [‘tju:mə] – опухоль
duration – продолжительность malignant [mə’lignənt] – злокачественный
hereditary [hi’redətəri] – наследственный benign [bi’nain] – доброкачественный
disorder – нарушение obtain – получать, добывать
I. Read and translate the text.
Before the treatment of a disease it
is necessary to make diagnosis, to
determine the cause of the disease, and all
symptoms by which it can be revealed.
As soon as the patient enters the
consulting, or when we enter his room,
observation should begin immediately. We
look for external signs and symptoms as
long as professional visit lasts. A first requirement is to develop a feeling of sympathy with the
patient by your questions, your actions, your interest in him and his troubles. Select and choose
your questions well to be adequate for the situation. When questioning the patient, your aim
should be to make the patient feel free, so that he tells you everything. Never hurry him, that is
the worst thing you can do. When you record his symptoms, be sure to have the exact
expressions used.
By questioning the patient the doctor learns about his complaints, the onset and duration
of present illness. It is important to take a careful past history, family history, to reveal
hereditary disorders and causes of death of immediate relatives. Assessment of mental and
emotional state of a patient may also give valuable information to the doctor.
Correct diagnosis must be based on a complete clinical examination of the patient. The
usual methods of physical examination which doctors use in daily practice are: inquiry,
inspection, palpation, taking the temperature, counting the pulse rate, taking the blood pressure,
making X-ray examinations and various laboratory studies. The laboratory investigations such

60
as various blood and urine tests, stool studies and sputum, bile examinations may be very
informative.
Biopsy specimens are taken to specify the character of tumour. Sometimes without a
physical examination you cannot say if something is malignant or benign. Valuable information
may be obtained using modern roentgenologic, endoscopic and ultrasound methods of
investigation. With the help of these investigations it is possible to determine position, shape,
size, structure and pathology of the internal organs.
The results of physical examination, laborаtоry and instrumental investigations аre
recorded into the patient’s case history.

II. Find English equivalents to the following word combinations.


Осмотр пациента; частота пульса; начало заболевания; современные методы
исследования; внешние признаки; внутренние органы; измерение кровяного давления;
исследование может быть очень содержательным; ценная информация; определить
форму, размер и структуру; история болезни пациента; причины смерти; рентгеновское
исследование.

III. Answer the questions.


1. What is necessary to do before the treatment?
2. What is first requirement to the doctor during the examination of the patient?
3. What is correct diagnosis based on?
4. What are the usual methods of patient’s examination?
5. Which are the usual laboratory studies?
6. In what case is it necessary to make biopsy?
7. What modern methods of investigation do you know?

IV. Find in the text antonyms to the words below.


Health, end, the best, internal, life, incorrect, benign.

V. Use the correct description of the instrument. Make up sentences according to the
model.
For example: Bronchoscope – to inspect the interior of the bronchi.

61
A bronchoscope is an instrument used for inspecting the interior of the
bronchi.
1 reflex hammer ___ to perform auscultation
2 gastroscope ___ to take the patient’s temperature
3 thermometer ___ to inspect the ear
4 ophthalmoscope ___ to inspect the interior of the stomach
5 phonendoscope ___ to check the patient’s reflexes
6 otoscope ___ to visualize the eyeground

Unit 19. Common Symptoms


VOCABULARY:
ailment [‘eilment] – болезнь, недуг
indigestion – несварение желудка bleeding – кровотечение
ulcer [‘ʌlsə] – язва hemorrhage [‘hemriʤ] – кровоизлияние
heart attack – сердечный приступ faint [feint] – обморок
concussion [kən’kʌʃən] – сотрясение dizziness – головокружение
cancer [‘kænsə] – рак to sweat [swet] – потеть
abrasion [ə’breiʃən] – ссадина to itch [iʧ] – зудеть, чесаться
cut [kʌt] – порез rash [ræʃ] – сыпь
injury – рана, ушиб resistance – сопротивляемость (организма)
smallpox – оспа susceptible [sə’septibəl] - восприимчивость

I. Match the words with their definitions.


1) Infection A. Written instruction by a physician to a pharmacist for the preparation
and sale of medicine.
2) Symptom B. Excessive bleeding, internally or externally.
3) Antibody C. Patient complaint that may indicate a disease or other ailment.

62
4) Immunity D. Body’s ability to resist infections.
5) Cure E. Invasion of the body by disease-producing microorganisms.
6) Prescription F. Protective protein which is produced in response to foreign material.
7) Hemorrhage G. Restore health through medical treatment.

II. Read and translate the text.


Scientists have learned a great deal about the prevention and cure of ailments and have
virtually eliminated certain diseases, but there are still many ailments which afflict mankind.
We no longer fear the bubonic plague, for example, and cholera and smallpox, but we still must
contend with heart attacks, cancer, and other diseases of the modern era.
People notice changes in their bodies which they associate with illness. These are called
symptoms. The most clearly recognizable symptom is pain. A pain in the stomach may indicate
simple indigestion or a more serious ailment such as ulcer or dysentery. A headache is
associated with colds, the flu, and head injuries while a pain in the chest may be a warning of a
heart attack or lung trouble.
Fever is another symptom of ill health. A temperature higher than normal indicates that
the body is fighting disease.
Other symptoms of disease include coughing and bleeding. A cough may be dry or it
may produce a lot of phlegm or sputum. It is associated with ailments of the throat, chest, and
lungs. Bleeding may be severe as in a hemorrhage or minimal as with small abrasion or cut.
Fainting or dizziness are other symptoms that something is wrong. They may indicate a
low red blood cell count, a condition known as anemia, or they may be a symptom of a
concussion or other injury to the brain.
Nausea and vomiting are associated with stomach and intestinal disorders such as the
flu, food poisoning, or dysentery. Chest pain can be a symptom of heart trouble while sweating,
itching, and rashes are skin manifestations of problems such as allergies, or even cancer.
Someone who experiences these symptoms should try to determine if they are
characteristic of a serious ailment or a common one. If the ailment is not serious, it can be
treated without medical advice. If serious, however, a doctor should be consulted.
The common cold is a good example of an ailment which does not require expert
medical attention. Most colds are caused by viruses rather than by getting wet or standing in a
draft, as is the common belief. It is true, though, that getting chilled can lower one’s resistance
and make one more susceptible to attack by a virus. The symptoms of a cold may include a
runny nose, a cough, a sore throat, a fever and various aches.

63
III. Find English equivalents to the following word combinations.
Легко узнаваемый симптом, организм борется с болезнью, снижение числа эритроцитов,
кожные проявления, серьёзное заболевание, медицинская консультация, необходимо
проконсультироваться с врачом, медицинская помощь, общепринятое мнение, может
понизить сопротивляемость (организма).

IV. Answer the questions.


1. Is the bubonic plague still a common disease?
2. What do people call ‘symptoms’?
3. Name several symptoms of ill health.
4. What problems can a stomach ache indicate?
5. What does a temperature higher normal indicate?
6. Is a small cut likely to produce a hemorrhage?
7. What are two symptoms of brain concussion?
8. What ailments is a headache associated with?
9. What is the cause of a common cold?

V. Use the text to fill in the table.


DISEASE SYMPTOMS
anemia
ulcer
allergy/ cancer
a cold
heart attack
dysentery

VI. Look at the pictures below. Describe the symptoms which each person has.
For example: Picture #1: The man has a headache.

64
VII. Describe the most recent disease you have had. What were the symptoms? What
treatment did your doctor prescribe?

65
Part III. Healthy Way of Life
Unit 20. Immune System

1. What is the immune system?


2. What does the human immune system
consist of?
3. Where is it located?
4. How does the body’s immune system
work?

VOCABULARY:
growth [grəuθ] – рост, увеличение tissue [‘tisju:] – ткань
capacity – способность to protect - защищать
natural [‘næʧərəl] – естественный virulent – опасный, смертельный
artificial [,a:ti’fiʃəl] – искусственный poison – яд, отрава
(to) lack – недоставать; нехватка, to injure – повреждать, травмировать
отсутствие to suffer – страдать
relative – относительный to inject – делать инъекцию
relative to smth – относительно чего-л. subcutaneous [,sʌbkju:'teiniəs] –
previous – предшествующие, предыдущий подкожный
cell [sel] – клетка to employ – применять, использовать

I. Read and translate the text.


Infectious diseases are known to be caused by the invasion and growth of
microorganisms in the human body. Infection may result from direct contact with patients or
from indirect one.
But the human organism is known to have a specific capacity of resistance against
infection, which is called immunity, it being natural and artificial. Under various conditions it
may be entirely lacking, it may be relative, rarely it may be absolute.
The immune system is not located in a specific organ. It is made up of a network cells,
tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body.
A previous attack of an infectious disease produces a more or less permanent protection
against its subsequent infection.

66
In the course of their growth in the body many pathogenic microorganisms produce
virulent poisons or toxins, they causing the characteristic symptoms of a particular disease. To
meet the infection, the cells of the body produce a chemical antidote which is specific for this
particular infection and is known as an antitoxin. If the patient can produce a sufficient amount
of this antidote to neutralize the toxins before the vital organs are injured, recovery occurs. If
the human body had not this capacity, we should suffer from all infectious diseases.
If the toxin can be isolated from bacterial cultures and injected into men, an artificial
immunity can be produced which results from the formation of antitoxin.
The cellular elements of the tissues also take an active part in the protection of the
organism against the infection. The presence of any infection usually produces leukocytosis
and bacteria in the tissue are surrounded by white cells or phagocytes which prevent the spread
of bacteria destroying them.
If the reaction against invading bacteria is insufficient, vaccines may be injected
subcutaneously to produce a more active resistance of the protective mechanisms of the body.
Vaccines are employed not only to contribute to the treatment of a disease, but to establish an
active artificial immunity.

II. Find English equivalents to the following word combinations.


Рост микроорганизмов, прямой контакт, особое свойство сопротивляемости, в (при)
различных условиях, совокупность клеток, тканей и органов, наступает выздоровление,
наличие любой инфекции.

III. Answer the questions.


1. What is immunity?
2. Where is immune system located?
3. What do pathogenic microorganisms produce?
4. What takes an active part in the protection of the organism against the infection?
5. What is another way to resist infections?

IV. Pick out the appropriate phrase to complete the sentence.


1. If the human body had no resistance capacity …
(a) people would develop any infectious diseases;
(b) even direct contacts with infected people would never result in diseases.

67
2. If a previous attack of a certain infectious disease did not produce a more or less permanent
immunity …
(a) all of us would be immune (невосприимчивые) to any subsequent attack of this particular
infection;
(b) people would lack resistance to subsequent infection.
3. If all of us had absolute immunity …
(a) antitoxins would not be able to neutralize toxins;
(b) no infectious disease would ever develop in the human organism.

VI. Pick out the sentence corresponding to the text.


1. a) Artificial immunity results from prophylactic vaccination. b) Artificial immunity is due to
the formation of specific antitoxins. 2. a) Immunity may vary depending on various conditions.
B) Immunity may be present only in certain persons. 3. A) Toxins produce the characteristic
symptoms of a particular infectious disease. B) Some microorganisms, like mycobacterium
tuberculosis, produce little or no toxin during growth.

Unit 21. The Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense


Время Future Simple употребляется
для выражения действия, которое
произойдёт в будущем. Простое будущее
время обычно используется с
обстоятельствами: tomorrow (завтра), next
year (в следующем году), in five years (через
пять лет), in 2035 (в 2035 году) и т.п.
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ
Для того, чтобы поставить глагол во временную форму Future Simple, нужно
использовать его начальную форму и вспомогательный глагол shall (для первого лица)
или will (второе и третье лицо). В устной речи shall и will чаще всего сокращаются до
формы ‘ll, которая может использоваться во всех лицах.
Примечание:
В современном английском, особенно в устной речи, will стал использоваться и в
первом лице.

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Утвердительные предложения: Отрицательные предложения:

WILL/SHALL + V WILL/SHALL + NOT + V


I will play I will not play
You will play You will not play

В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол will/shall ставится


перед подлежащим. Значимый глагол остается после подлежащего в своей начальной
форме:
Will/Shall we go to the beach? – Мы пойдем на пляж?
Will your boss agree with our conditions? – Ваш босс согласится с нашими
условиями?

EXERCISES
I. Complete the sentences in the Future Simple.
1. I want to get a medical checkup. I (to go) to my doctor tomorrow. 2. He (to give) me a
complete examination. 3. The nurse (to lead) me into one of the examination rooms. 4. I (to
take) off my clothes and (to put) on a hospital gown. 5. Dr. Setton (to come) in, (to shake) my
hand, and (to say) "hello". 6. I (to stand) on his scale so he can measure my height and my
weight. 7. He (to take) my pulse. 8. Then he (to take) my blood pressure. 9. After he takes my
blood pressure, he (to take) some blood for a blood analysis. 10. He (to examine) my eyes, ears,
nose and throat. 11. He (to listen) to my heart with a stethoscope. 12. Then he (to take) a chest
X-ray and (to do) a cardiogram (ECG or EKG). 13. After the checkup I (to go) home and (to
wait) for Dr. Setton’s call. 14. Dr. Setton (to call) me tomorrow afternoon and (to say) to me:
“Stop worrying! Your blood analysis is excellent.” He is a very good doctor.

II. Make up sentences in the Future Simple with the verbs below.
Read, sing, take, write, run, bring, eat, drink, speak, go, be, teach, sleep, know, buy, get, come.

III. Rewrite sentences in the Future Simple.


1. My sister cleans the room. 2. The teachers gives us dictation. 3. He sits at his desk and writes
a letter. 4. Mary comes early. 5. The cat catches the fish in the river. 6. The dogs eats its dinner.
7. The boys go for a holiday. 8. Richard knows George. 9. The plane flies very high. 10. He
teaches us English. 11. I wash my hands every day. 12. He goes to school.

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IV. Complete the sentences in affirmative and negative form, for example: I won't go to New
York. I will go to Chicago.
1. We ... Jim, we ... Max (meet). 2. He ... next Tuesday, he ... next Thursday. (leave) 3. We ...
Jack, we ... David. (see) 4. They ... a Volvo, they ... a Fiat. (buy) 5. You ... the answer, Tom ...
the answer. (know)

V. Make up questions using words below.


1. tomorrow / you / get / up / when / the / will?
2. will / what / Sunday / you / next / do?
3. will / summer / go / where / next / you?
4. visit / you / art gallery / an / soon / will/?
5. go / on / you / how / work / will / to / Monday?

VI. Rewrite the text in the Future Simple.


On Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At this lesson we write a
dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers well and gets a "five".
Pete does not get a "five" because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to
the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not
go
home at once. I go to the library and take a book. Then I go home.

Unit 22. Healthy Way of Life

VOCABULARY:
essential – необходимый, основной obesity – ожирение
pastry – выпечка harm – вред, ущерб
shorten – укорачивать, сокращать drug addict – наркоман
jogging – пробежка rest – покой, отдых
cycling – езда на велосипеде successful – успешный

70
stroke – инсульт, паралич worth – стоящий

I. Put the words of the proverbs about health in a logical order.


1) A, mind, sound (здоровый), in, a, body, a, sound.
2) wealth, than, better, is, Health.
2) a, day, apple, An, away, keeps, doctor, a.

II. Think over the proverb ‘Health is better than wealth’. How do you understand this
proverb?

III. Read and translate the text.


Good health is very important for every person. They say: “Health is better than wealth.”
Our health is an important subject for all of us.
Today healthy lifestyle is becoming more and more popular
both with the old and the young. People have become more health-
conscious. They say that the greatest wealth is health. And it’s so
true. The healthier we are, the better we feel. The better we feel, the
longer we live.
A healthy diet is an essential part of staying healthy. We
know that we should not stuff ourselves with fast food, sweets,
sausages, pastry and fat food. Due to medical research, this type of
food shortens our life, it leads to obesity, heart and blood vessels
diseases, diabetes, gastric problems and lots of other serious
ailments. To prevent all these problems we should enjoy well-
balanced home-made meals with a lot of organic fruits, vegetables,
dairy products, grains and seafood. We are what we eat.
Keeping fit and going in for sports is also important for our
health. Lack of exercise in our life is a serious problem. In big cities
people spend hours sitting in front of computers, TV-sets and other
gadgets. We walk less because we mainly use cars and public
transport. We certainly don’t have to be professional sportsmen, but
we should visit fitness clubs, go jogging, walk much, swim, go
cycling or roller-skating or just dance. Doctors say that regular

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moderate physical activity is necessary for our body because it protects us from strokes and
heart diseases and obesity.
We must understand the harm of bad habits for our health. Smoking, drinking or taking
drugs mean serious illnesses and even death from lung cancer or liver diseases, for instance.
Cigarettes kill about 3 million heavy-smokers every year. Drug addicts die very young. So I
think there is no place for bad habits in a healthy way of life.
Taking a proper rest and getting enough sleep, from 8 to 10 hours daily, are also great
healthy habits. Sleep is the food for our brain and the rest for our muscles. Moreover we should
avoid getting nervous or worried for no reason.
Healthy way of life concerns our body, mind and soul. Healthy people live longer, they
are more successful and they enjoy their life. It’s not difficult at all to follow these simple rules,
and they are worth it.

IV. Answer the questions.


1. What is the greatest wealth?
2. What is important to do for a good health?
3. What are the harm habits for our health?
4. What type of food shortens our lives due to medical research?
5. What food should we eat?

V. Complete the sentences.


1. Health is better than …
2. Healthy lifestyle is becoming …
3. We shouldn’t stuff ourselves with …
4. The regular moderate physical activity is …
5. Smoking, drinking or taking drugs mean …
6. Healthy people …

VI. Discuss with your groupmates what every person should and shouldn’t do to be healthy,
for example:
WE SHOULD WE SHOULDN’T
go in for sports smoke
… …

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Unit 23. The Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense
Время Future Continuous указывает на процесс, который будет длиться в
определенный момент в будущем. В отличие от времени Future Simple, этот момент в
будущем должен быть назван прямо (tomorrow at 4 o’clock, when we meet) или быть
очевидным из контекста.
Don’t disturb me in the evening, I’ll be preparing for exam. – Не мешайте мне
вечером, я буду готовиться к экзамену.
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ
Утвердительные предложения: Отрицательные предложения:

WILL/SHALL BE + VING WILL/SHALL + NOT + BE VING


I will be playing I will not be playing
You will be playing You will not be playing

В вопросительном предложении will/shall выносится на место перед


подлежащим, а to be и смысловой глагол остаются после него:
Why did you bring an album? Will we be studying painting?
Зачем Вы принесли альбом? Мы будем изучать живопись?

EXERCISES
I. Complete the sentences in the Future Continuous (affirmative form).
1. This time next Monday, I (work) in a huge office in New York. 2. This time on Tuesday,
Mary (sunbathe) on a beach in Italy. 3. Don’t make noise after midnight – I (sleep) soundly, I
hope. 4. Students (make) copies while he (finish) the report. 5. I (work) in my study library at
6pm tomorrow. 6. This time next year we (cross) the Pacific Ocean. 7. I (lay) the dinner table
while my mother (prepare) the meat. 8. You’ll recognize Molly! She (wear) a pink hat. 9.
From 7 till 12 I (have) classes. 10. My auntie and uncle (stay) with us this weekend. 11. I
(watch) television from ten pm to midnight. 12. This time on Friday I (lie) on the beach. 13.
Don’t ring Greg up at 10am. He (have) his music lesson. 14. The boys of our team (play)
football tomorrow morning. 15. It is mid-autumn, the leaves (fall) soon .

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II. Complete the sentences in the Future Continuous (negative).
1. I (not/ read). 2. You (not/ sleep), will you? 3. We (not/ work). 4. Julie (not/ watch) a film. 5.
It (not/ snow). 6. Ann and Tom (not/ cook). 7. He (not/ play) computer games. 8. I (not/ study).
9. You (not/ cry). 10. David (not/ us) the internet.

III. Complete the questions in the Future Continuous.


1. (I / sit) here? 2. (John / us) the computer? 3. (Jane and Luke / discuss) the new project? 4.
(we / work) hard? 5. (you / talk) on the telephone? 6. (she / send) an email? 7. (they / have) a
meeting? 8. (he / eat) lunch? 9. (you / type)? 10. (he / make) coffee? 11. (where / I / wait?) 12.
(what / you / do?) 13. (why / he / study?) 14. (how / she / travel?) 15. (who / they / meet?) 16.
(where / we / eat?) 17. (what / you / watch?) 18. (why / he / drive?) 19. (what / she / cook?) 20.
(why / they / sleep?)

IV. Answer the questions in the Future Continuous.


What will Owen be doing? (drive to the seaside) - Owen will be driving to the seaside.
1. What will Lena be doing? (make a skirt)
2. What will Michael be doing? (swim in the Red Sea)
3. What will Paul’s grandfather be doing? (work in the orchard)
4. What will Greg be doing at the University? (study languages)
5. What will Megan’s mother be doing? (fly to London)
6. What will the singer be doing at the concert? (sing songs)
7. What will the journalist be doing? (interview the President)
8. What will the professor be doing next September? (reading lectures)

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Part IV.Illness
Unit 24. Influenza

1. Influenza is a very infectious disease. What are the symptoms of it?


2. Why do many people fall ill with influenza?
3. How do you understand the saying «Prevention is better than cure»?

VOCABULARY and PRONUNCIATION:


respiratory - дыхательный, viral antigen- вирусный антиген
респираторный viral particle- вирусная частица
respiratory system-дыхательная система antiviral drug - противовирусные
respiratory rate- частота дыхания препараты
respiratory illness- заболевания flu - грипп
дыхательной системы flu attack – приступ гриппа
respiratory infection –респираторная flu outbreak –вспышка гриппа
инфекция influenza virus –вирус гриппа
virus – viruses-вирус/вирусы influenza virus infection –инфекция
virus disease- вирусное заболевание гриппа
virus infection –вирусная инфекция influenza vaccine- вакцина против гриппа

I. Read the text and answer the questions.


Influenza is a very common disease, especially during the flu season (from October to
April). It is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract.
Influenza viruses – cause the outbreaks and epidemics of respiratory illness. These
viruses are very unusual because they are always changing. A series of changes is called
“antigenic drift”. It is an abrupt change that results in new forms (subtypes) of the virus.
Antigenic drift occurs only occasionally. When it occurs, large numbers of people, and
sometimes the entire population, are without protective immunity. This can result in a

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catastrophic worldwide epidemic, called a pandemic, such as those that occurred in 1918, 1957
and 1968.
Influenza viruses spread through
the air, mostly when an infected person
sneezes, coughs, and speaks. Typical
symptoms are abrupt fever, muscle and
bone aches, tiredness, cough, sore throat,
running nose, and headache. It lasts longer
than most other common respiratory
infections, often for a week or more.
Symptoms typically appear 1-5 days after
the infection.
Anyone can get influenza, but the risk of complications is the highest among persons
who are older 65, adults and children with disorders of the lungs or heart, including asthma,
diabetes, kidney diseases or immune system problems. Pregnant women and health-care
workers are also at risk.
Most people usually recover in 1 to 2 weeks. However, some people develop serious
complications such as pneumonia.
Unfortunately, there is no cure for influenza. Rest and a lot of liquids are the main
treatment. If necessary, the patient may be advised to take paracetamol to relieve fever and
muscle aches. Since influenza is caused by virus, antibiotics have no effect against the infection.
The antiviral drugs may prevent or reduce the severity of influenza.
It is thought that one of the ways to prevent influenza is to get a yearly flu vaccination.
It is recommended for children, chronically ill persons, and the elderly. The best time to get a
flu shot is between October and mid – November.

1. What is an infectious agent that causes influenza?


2. How do people get influenza?
3. What are the symptoms of influenza?
4. How soon after the exposure do symptoms appear?
5. Who is at risk for influenza?
6. What complications can result from influenza?

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7. What is the treatment for influenza?
8. How can influenza be prevented?
II. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? If the statement is false, correct the statement.
1. There are several subtypes of the influenza virus.
2. The influenza virus spreads through water and direct contact.
3. Elderly patients are at lower risk for influenza.
4. There is some treatment but no cure against influenza.
5. Vaccination is obligatory for all people.

III. Ask your partner about any medical terms relating to the topic and answer his/her
questions.

IV. Complete the sentences.


1. Influenza is …
2. It is caused by …
3. It is transmitted through …
4. The patients at risk are …
5. This disease is characterized by …
6. The patient experiences such symptoms as …
7. The main complications of influenza are …
8. The diagnostic methods include …
9. The treatment of influenza is aimed at …
10. Preventive measures are the following …

Unit 25. The Future Perfect Tense


Будущее время – последнее
из совершённых времен, которое нам
предстоит изучить и понять. По сути оно
совершенно сходно с Past Perfect. Разница
лишь в объективной действительности –
сегодня мы говорим не о действиях в
прошлом, а о действиях в будущем.

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Как и все будущие времена, Future Perfect образуется с помощью
вспомогательного глагола will. Далее идет глагол have и основной глагол с окончанием –
ed (если он правильный) или в 3-ей форме (если он неправильный).
 They will have read the book by noon.
 They will have read the book before their mom returns.
Обратите внимание, что в последнем примере после союза времени
(before) will не ставится. Мы уже много раз говорили о том, что в придаточных
предложениях времени и условия будущее время меняется на настоящее.
Слова-маркеры для Future Perfect совпадают с предлогами, характерными
для Past Perfect.
BY – к
BEFORE – до
Таблица. Образование Будущего Совершённого времени

Будущее Совершённое время

I
You We
Future Perfect He will have done You will have done
She They
It

Finished action in the future BEFORE a certain moment in the future or another action in
the future

The artist will have finished his work by 3 pm.


The artist will not (won’t) have finished his work by 3 pm.
Will the artist have finished his work by 3 pm? – Yes, he will./ No, he will not (won’t).

EXERCISES
I.. Вставьте глагол во времени Future Perfect.
1. I ________ a Londoner for five and a half years by next September. (be)
2. By Tuesday Jill ________ these novels by O’Henry. (finish)
3. Next year is Fred and Kate’s 10th wedding anniversary. They _________ happily
married for ten years. (be)
4. Molly thinks the film _________ by the time she gets to Fred’s. (to start)

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5. They _________ the plans by then. (to finish)
6. Before his holiday Tom _______ all his money. (to spend)
7. The train _________ by the time the couple get to the station. (to leave)
8. I __________ dinner by then. (cook)
9. I _______my chemistry homework before Jillian comes home. (finish)
10. Fernando __________ his operation by August and should be much fitter. (have)
11. Before Lisa arrives, I _________ dinner. (finish)
12. Johnny ___________ this document by 7pm o’clock this afternoon. (translate)
13. Helen _______ this awesome doll by her daughter’s birthday. (make)
14. Steven ________ his lesson by tomorrow. (not/learn)
15. This test is so arduous, that I _________ it in a day’s time. (not/complete)
16. You __________ over half a thousand words when you finish this English book
(learn).
17. The commission _________ to a definite decision in a month. (come)
18. I won’t see Molly on the 1st of August since I _________ to the South by that time.
(go)

II. Ответьте, используя Future Perfect Tense и слова в скобках.


Example: Will Jill be busy at 6pm? (finish essay)
Oh, no, Jilly will have finished her essay by that time.
1. Will the couple be at their hotel on Monday? (move to the old beach house)
2. Will the committee be discussing the project at 2 o’clock? (make a decision)
3. Will the pupils be writing their test at ten? (finish)
4. Will Mike’s niece still be a pupil next autumn? (finish school)
5. Will Greg still remember Molly in ten years? (forget)
6. Will Greg be at home on Tuesday? (leave for China)

III. Составьте предложения во времени Future Perfect.


1. have / Jill / she / perfected / will / from / her / by the time / Japanese / comes / Tokyo.
2. promotion /Melody / have / By December / will / her / received.
3. gets home / Helen’s / cleaned / By the time / relatives / she / will / the house / have.
4. to communicate / Steven / he / learned / Will / have / well / Chinese / before / enough /
flies to Beijing?

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5. finishes / have / By the time / twenty / taken / Jillian’s father / that course / he / will /
online tests.

IV. Translate into English using Future Perfect.


1. Майкл закончит этот отчет до завтра.
2. Студенты доделают работу к трем часам по полудню.
3. К июню мы сдадим сессию.
4. Строители построят школу к началу сентября.
5. Я напишу заявление к тому времени, как приедет секретарь.
6. Поезд уйдет, пока мы доберемся до станции.
7. Зоя переведет этот доклад к понедельнику.
8. К ночи Меган переведет эту длинную статью.
9. Стивен уже уедет в Париж, когда Молли вернется из Конго.

Unit 26. Pneumonia


VOCABULARY and PRONUNCIATION:
pulmonology - пульмонология
breathlessness- одышка
pulmonologist - пульмонолог
pleura- плевра
pulmonary -лёгочный
pleural fluid –плевральная жидкость
pulmonary infection – лёгочная инфекция
pleural effusion - плевральное излияние
pulmonary disease- болезнь лёгких
pneumonia - пневмония
breathe -дыхание
lobar pneumonia - крупозная пневмония
breathe in / out –вдыхать/выдыхать
severe pneumonia - тяжелая пневмония
breathless - затаивший дыхание

READING and SPEAKING


I. Warm-up discussion.
What is pneumonia? What group of people can easily get pneumonia? Can it be treated at home?

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II. Read the text and answer the questions.
Pneumonia is an infection of the pulmonary tissue. It
affects one or both lungs and is usually caused by bacteria,
viruses, or fungi. Prior to discovery of antibiotics, one-third
of the people who developed pneumonia subsequently died
from the infection.
Pneumonia can be community acquired or hospital
acquired. Some cases of pneumonia are contracted by
breathing in small droplets that contain the organisms
causing pneumonia. These droplets get into the air when an
infected person coughs and sneezes. In other cases, pneumonia
is caused when bacteria or viruses that are normally present in the mouth, throat, or nose
accidentally enter the lungs.
During sleep it is quite common for people to aspirate secretions from the mouth, throat,
or nose. The body’s reflex response (coughing back up the secretions) and immune system will
normally prevent the aspirated organisms from causing pneumonia. However, if a person is in
a weakened condition from another illness, a severe pneumonia can develop. People with recent
viral infections, lung disease, heart disease, and swallowing problems, as well as alcoholics,
drug users, and those who have suffered from stroke or seizure are at higher risk for developing
pneumonia than the general population.
Once organisms enter the lungs, they usually settle in the air sacs of the lung where they
rapidly grow in number. This area of the lung then becomes filled with fluid and pus as the
body attempts to fight off infection.
Most people with pneumonia initially have symptoms of a cold, which are then followed
by high fever, chills, and cough with sputum production. The sputum is usually discoloured and
sometimes bloody. Patients may become short of breath. Chest pain may develop if the outer
aspects of the lung are involved. The pain is usually sharp and worsens when taking a deep
breath, known as a pleuritic pain.
Children and babies who develop pneumonia often don’t have any specific signs of a
chest infection, but develop a fever, appear quite ill, and can become lethargic. Elderly people
may also have few symptoms of pneumonia.
The compulsory method of making a diagnosis is chest X-ray. The chest X-ray presents
diffuse patches throughout the lungs or consolidation in the lobe. A sputum culture helps to

81
identify a causative organism. A complete blood cell count should be done. It reveals that white
blood cells and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are elevated.
The patient should keep high-calorie, high-protein diet with small frequent meals. The
treatment includes antibiotics, bronchodilators, and mucolitic agents.

1. What are the causative agents of pneumonia?


2. Describe the ways of contracting this infection.
3. What is a pathological mechanism of developing pneumonia?
4. What patients are affected more often and why?
5. List common symptoms of pneumonia.
6. Tell us about clinical symptoms of pneumonia in children and babies.
7. What diagnostic methods do you know?
8. What preparations are used to treat pneumonia?

III. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? If the statement is false, correct the statement.
1. Pneumonia is an infection of the upper respiratory tract.
2. Its causative agents are usually viruses and bacteria.
3. Pneumonia is always a hospital acquired infection.
4. Elderly people may have insignificant symptoms of infection.
5. Chest X-ray is necessary to make a diagnosis of pneumonia

IV. Ask your partner about any medical terms relating to the topic and answer his/her
questions.

V. Retell the text using the format.


1. Pneumonia is …
2. It is caused by …
3. It is transmitted through …
4. The patients at risk are …
5. This disease is characterized by …
6. The patient experiences such symptoms as …
7. The main complications of pneumonia are …
8. The diagnostic methods include …

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9. The treatment of pneumonia is aimed at …
10. Preventive measures are the following …

Unit 27. The Future Perfect Continuous

У Future Perfect Continuous (будущее


совершенное длительное время) всего одна
функция, и оно редко встречается в речи.
Носители английского языка обычно
обходятся Future Simple, Future Continuous и
другими способами выражения будущих действий, которых в английском языке очень
много. Но есть один случай, когда мы должны использовать именно Future Perfect
Continuous.
Как образуется Future Perfect Continuous
УТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ
В утвердительном предложении Future Perfect Continuous мы будем использовать
вспомогательный глагол to be во времени Future Perfect (will have been) и основной
глагол, к которому добавится окончание -ing.
I/He/She/It/We/You/They + will have been + глагол-ing

I will have been playing. – Я буду играть. We will have been waiting. – Мы будем ждать.
He will have been reading. – Он будет You will have been translating. – Вы будете
читать. переводить.
She will have been solving. – Она будет They will have been calculating. – Они будут
решать. считать.
It will have been showing. – Оно будет
показывать.
ОТРИЦАНИЕ
В отрицательном предложении мы добавим частицу not между will и have been.
I/He/She/It/We/You/They + will not have been + глагол-ing

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I will not have been playing. – Я не буду We will not have been waiting. – Мы не будем
играть. ждать.
He will not have been reading. – Он не You will not have been translating. – Вы не
будет читать. будете переводить.
She will not have been solving. – Она не They will not have been calculating. – Они не
будет решать. будут считать.
It will not have been showing. – Оно не
будет показывать.
ВОПРОС
В вопросительных предложениях мы выносим на первое место will, затем ставим
подлежащее, после него have been и основной глагол.
Will + I/he/she/it/we/you/they + have been + глагол-ing

Will I have been playing? – Я буду играть? Will we have been waiting? – Мы будем ждать?
Will he have been reading? – Он будет Will you have been translating? – Вы будете
читать? переводить?
Will she have been solving? – Она будет Will they have been calculating? – Они будут
решать? считать?
Will it have been showing? – Оно будет
показывать?
EXERCISES
I. Раскройте скобки
1. By 2020 you (not work) long enough to retire.
2. They (live) a year in Toronto by next June.
3. Children (play) in the playground for 3 hours by 6 p.m.
4. I bet, I (wait) for you at the bus stop for 15 minutes by the moment you come.
5. You (watch TV) for a long time by 11 p.m.?
6. We (walk) for 6 hours by the end of the day.
7. He (read) this book for two weeks by the end of the month.

II. Переведите предложения на английский язык


1. В сентябре будет 2 года, как ты учишься в университете.
2. В следующем году будет 10 лет, как мы живем в этом городе.
3. Через месяц будет год, как наши дети посещают занятия музыкой.
4. К декабрю я еще не проработаю достаточно долго, чтобы пойти в отпуск.

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5. Насколько я знаю, в следующем году вы пойдете на пенсию. Сколько на тот
момент вы проработаете в компании?
6. Марк и Энн проживут там уже полгода к 1 сентября.
7. К новому году они уже будут учиться ездить на автомобиле 1 месяц.

III. Составьте предложения во Future Perfect Continuous.


1. been / will / the New Year / a teacher / for / working / by / Andrew / have / as / 15
years.
2. for / Mark / before / will / been / at the conference / Moscow / leaves / working / he /
have / for 2 days.
3. for / at Christmas / writing / will / she / have / her / new / been / novel / seven years?
4. go / the competition / for / their / before / training / have / they / to / coach / will /
been / them / three months.

Unit 28. Tuberculosis


VOCABULARY and PRONUNCIATION:
tuberculosis-туберкулёз coughing up-выкашливание
pulmonary tuberculosis- лёгочный coughing up phlegm- выкашливание
туберкулёз мокроты
extrapulmonary tuberculosis- coughing up blood- выкашливание крови
внелёгочный туберкулез sputum-слюна, мокрота
renal tuberculosis-почечный туберкулёз sputum culture-посев мокроты
cough- кашель sputum sample- образец слюны

READING and SPEAKING


I. Warm-up discussion.
What have you heard about tuberculosis infection? Do we still have a problem with tuberculosis
incidence in Russia? How can we prevent the disease and its transmission?

II. Read the text and answer the questions.

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One of the social diseases nowadays in Russia is tuberculosis. Incidence of tuberculosis
is higher in areas with large population. Men are affected more often than women. The greatest
number of cases occurs in little children. Socially and economically disadvantaged, alcoholics,
malnourished individuals are affected more often.
Scrofula is an old-fashioned name for tuberculosis (TB). It is a bacterial infectious
disease. The disease affects the lymph nodes, especially those in the neck. Symptoms include
swelling of the glands and the development of abscesses. Tuberculosis may also affect other
organs but the most common form is pulmonary tuberculosis, which attacks the lungs.
The causative bacterium is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is a droplet infection which
usually passes from person to person. It is spread via airborne droplets when an infected person
coughs or sneezes. Once inhaled, the organisms implant themselves in the lungs and begin to
divide. Overcrowded living conditions provide long-term environment for the infection to
spread.
There is another way of transmission. A strain of tuberculosis affecting cattle can
transfer to their milk and infect people drinking it. In Britain pasteurization of milk kills the
bacterium but worldwide unpasteurized milk is a common source of infection.
Pulmonary tuberculosis occurs in two phases. In the primary phase the infection occurs
in different parts of the body. The victim may develop a dry cough that lasts for 3 to 4 months.
The secondary phase occurs with increasing age and/or worsening of patient’s health. At this
stage the causative bacterium is activated and attacks the lungs. Violent, frequent coughing
brings up phlegm which may be tinged with blood. Other clinical manifestations include
anorexia, weight loss, low-grade fever, chills and night sweats.
To diagnose the disease a chest X-ray is made, sputum cultures are obtained. A sputum
culture identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis confirms the diagnosis. After the medications
are started, sputum samples are obtained again to determine the effectiveness of the therapy.
Mantoux test is the most reliable determinant of tuberculosis infection. A positive
reaction doesn’t mean that active disease is present but indicates exposure to tuberculosis or the
presence of inactive disease. Once the test result is positive, it will be positive in any future
tests. When Mantoux test is positive, a chest X-ray is necessary to rule out active tuberculosis
or to detect old healed lesions.
The reduction in overcrowding at home, improvement in hygiene and diet, the
development of antibiotics and an effective safe vaccine have reduced mortality dramatically.
However, each year new cases are reported especially in poor developing countries, as well as

86
in Russia. The goal of treatment is to prevent transmission, control symptoms, and prevent
progression of the disease.

1. What are the risk factors for tuberculosis?


2. What are the main ways of transmission of tuberculosis?
3. What organs are mostly affected in tuberculosis?
4. What is the causative agent called?
5. How can we prevent transferring of the infection through milk?
6. What are the phases of the disease?
7. How can you make a diagnosis of tuberculosis?
8. What does positive Mantoux test mean?

III. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? If the statement is false, correct the statement.
1. Tuberculosis is a widespread viral infection.
2. It can affect different organs of the body.
3. Tuberculosis of the lungs is the most common form of the disease.
4. To confirm the diagnosis a sputum culture is obtained.
5. Mantoux test is a diagnostic test for tuberculosis.

IV. Complete the sentences.


1. Tuberculosis is …
2. It is caused by …
3. The bacterium spreads through …
4. The incubation period is …
5. The symptoms of tuberculosis include …
6. The most common form of tuberculosis is …
7. Mantoux test is used for …
8. The diagnosis is confirmed through …
9. The goal of treatment is…
10. The disease can be prevented by …

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Unit 29. Sequence of Tenses
Согласование времён – это правила, по котором изменяется время глагола в
придатоточном предложении в зависимости от главного. В английском языке чаще
всего оно требуется для выражения косвенной речи, а также в выражениях,
начинающихся со слов «я думал», «ему казалось», «она понимала» и т.д.

EXERCISES
I. Продолжите предложения в косвенной речи, соблюдая правила согласования
времен.
1. She said, “I speak French.” – She said that she …
2. She said, “I am speaking French.”
3. She said, “I have spoken French.”
4. She said, “I spoke French.”

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5. She said, “I am going to speak French.”
6. She said, “I will speak French.”
7. She said, “I can speak French.”
8. She said, “I may speak French.”
9. She said, “I have to speak French.”
10. She said, “I must speak French.”
11. She said, “I should speak French.”
12. She said, “I ought to speak French.”

II. Найдите предложения, в которых глагол в скобках может стоять в настоящем


времени.
1. Our neighbour said his name (be) Fred. (Наш сосед сказал, что его зовут Фред.)
2. He said he (be) tired. (Он сказал, что устал.)
3. I thought you (call) the doctor. (Я думал, что ты вызвал врача.)
4. We met the woman who (live) next door. (Мы встретили женщину, живущую
рядом.)
5. Jane said she (can’t afford) to buy a new car. (Джейн сказала, что не может позволить
себе покупку новой машины.)
6. She asked me how many books I (read) last month. (Она спросила меня, сколько книг
я прочитал в прошлом месяце.)
7. Bob said he usually (go to bed) before midnight. (Боб сказал, что обычно ложится
спать до полуночи.)
8. I wondered why Sam (leave) without saying a word. (Мне было интересно, почему
Сэм ушел, не сказав ни слова.)
9. Cavendish discovered that water (consist of) hydrogen and oxygen. (Кавендиш
открыл, что вода состоит из водорода и кислорода.)
10. Alice and Henry said that they (be) from Florida. (Алиса и Генри сказали, что они
родом из Флориды.)

III. Выберите верный вариант глагола и переведите предложения.


1. I knew that my sister … (have/has/had) a problem.
2. I know that my sister … (have/has/had) a problem.
3. I knew that my sister … (will have/would have/had) a problem soon.
4. He said he … (lived/has lived/had lived) in Moscow since 2005.

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5. She asks me if the flight … (has been cancelled/had been cancelled/been cancelled).
6. She asked me if the flight … (has been cancelled/had been cancelled/was cancelled).
7. Nobody knew what … (will happen/would happen/happens) next.
8. Mike said that he … (hasn’t met/didn’t meet/hadn’t met) Helen since they parted.
9. Kelly said that she … (didn’t want/doesn’t want/hadn’t wanted) to wear her hat.
10. We didn’t expect that he … (showed/will show/would show) us the film.

Unit 30. Gastritis


VOCABULARY and PRONUNCIATION:
ulcer-язва gastric-желудочный
gastric ulcer-язва желудка gastric mucosa- слизистая оболочка
duodenal ulcer- язва двенадцатиперстной желудка
кишки gastric juice-желудочный сок
benign ulcer- доброкачественная язва gastric cancer- рак желудка
malignant ulcer- злокачественная язва gastric byopsy –биопсия желудка

READING and SPEAKING


I. Warm-up discussion.
Why do you think gastritis is so widespread among people of different ages? What
recommendations should we follow to decrease its incidence?

II. Read the text and answer the questions.


Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach or gastric
mucosa. The word comes from the Greek gastro- meaning of
the stomach and -itis meaning inflammation. This disease
may persist acutely or chronically, depending on the cause.
Acute gastritis is caused by the ingestion of food
contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms or food
that is irritating or too highly seasoned, the overuse of aspirin
or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, excessive
alcohol intake, bile reflux, or radiation therapy.
Chronic gastritis is caused by benign or malignant
ulcers or by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori; may also be

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caused by autoimmune diseases, dietary factors, medications, alcohol, smoking, or reflux.
Symptoms of gastritis can be related to the underlying cause. In acute gastritis, the
patient complains of abdominal discomfort, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and possibly
hiccupping. Patients with chronic gastritis experience such symptoms as upper abdominal pain
or discomfort, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, heartburn after eating, or sour taste in the mouth.
The doctor should carefully monitor for signs of hemorrhagic gastritis like hematemesis,
tachycardia, and hypotension.
In suspected cases, a doctor usually orders gastroscopy to determine gastritis and related
conditions such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It is always important that the doctor reviews
a patient’s history regarding medications, alcohol intake, smoking, and other factors that can be
associated with gastritis. In some cases, the appearance of the stomach lining seen during
gastroscopy is reliable in determining gastritis and the cause. However, the most reliable
method is doing a biopsy during gastroscopy and checking for histological characteristics of
gastritis and infection (Helicobacter infection).
The treatment usually consists of removing the irritant or the infection. Antibiotics
(Clarithromycin, Amoxicillin), proton pump inhibitors and bismuth salts may be prescribed.
In cases of acute gastritis, foods and fluids should be withheld until symptoms subside,
followed by clear liquids, and then solid food is introduced. The patient should avoid irritating
foods, fluids, and other substances such as spicy and highly seasoned foods, caffeine, alcohol,
and nicotine.

1. What are the causes of acute gastritis?


2. What are the main reasons of chronic gastritis?
3. Describe the symptoms of gastritis.
4. What method is the most reliable in making a diagnosis?
5. How to treat gastritis?
6. What is the purpose for prescribing antibiotics?
7. What are the other drugs that could be successfully prescribed?
8. What food is to be avoided in gastritis?

III. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? If the statement is false, correct the statement.
1. Gastritis is an inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.
2. Symptoms of gastritis are lower abdominal pain and diarrhea.

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3. The doctor should ask the patient about dietary irregularities, medications, alcohol intake,
smoking, stress and other factors.
4. Histological characteristics and determining Helicobacter pylori infection help confirm the
diagnosis.
5. Spicy food is allowed for patients after relieving the symptoms.

IV. Complete the sentences.


1. Gastritis is …
2. The main forms of gastritis are …
3. Acute gastritis is caused by …
4. Chronic gastritis is caused by …
5. The patient with acute gastritis experiences such symptoms as …
6. In chronic gastritis the patient complains of …
7. The diagnostic methods include …
8. The treatment of gastritis consists of …
9. Dietary changes that are necessary are …
10. Preventive measures are the following …
Unit 31. Appendicitis
VOCABULARY and PRONUNCIATION:
appendix- аппендикс abdominal pain- боль в животе
appendicitis- аппендицит abdominal distension-вздутие живота
peritonitis- перитонит abdominal discomfort- желудочно-кишечный
bowel-кишечник дискомфорт
bowel sound- кишечный шум abdominal tenderness- болезненные ощущения в
abdomen –живот, брюшная полость брюшной полости

READING and SPEAKING


I. Warm-up discussion.
What is appendicitis? What is thought to be the cause of appendicitis? How is appedicitits
treated?

II. Read the text and answer the questions.


Appendicitis usually presents as an acute inflammation of the appendix. It can lead to
perforation with subsequent peritonitis. The inflammation can be caused by an obstruction such

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as an indurated mass of feces, a foreign body in the lumen of the appendix, parasitic infection,
fibrous disease of the bowel wall, or adhesions.
Appendicitis is usually seen in teenagers and young adults and found more frequently
in males.
The most common representation of acute appendicitis is constant pain that develops in
the right lower quadrant of the abdomen at McBurney’s point. However, initially it usually
begins as an intermittent pain in the mid abdomen that subsequently localizes in the lower right
quadrant. The patient tends to bend the knees in order to prevent tension of the abdominal
muscles and decrease the pain. The pain of acute appendicitis is aggravated by walking and
coughing.
The patient usually develops a low-grade fever, nausea, vomiting, elevated white blood
count, rebound tenderness, decreased or absent bowel sounds, and rigid abdomen. Besides, the
patient may have board-like rigidity of the abdomen.
The most common complication of appendicitis is peritonitis, inflammation of the peritoneum.
When peritonitis begins, following the rupture of the appendix, the patient may have a sudden
relief of the pain. The patient has increased fever and chills, progressive abdominal distention
and abdominal pain, tachycardia, tachypnea, restlessness.
Another complication is appendiceal abscess. Abscess usually occurs 2-6 days after the
onset of the disease. In this case, a tender mass in the lower right quadrant or pelvis will be
palpated.
In elderly patients, the abdominal findings may be absent or unimpressive, until
perforation of the appendix occurs. It may also be difficult to make a diagnosis in a pregnant
woman or an obese.
Typical findings in acute appendicitis normally occur when the appendix occupies the
iliac fossa. If the appendix extends over the pelvic brim, the abdominal signs may be minimal,
with tenderness being elicited only on rectal examination. Patients with a retrocecal appendix
may have poorly localized abdominal tenderness. If the appendix lies high and lateral, maximal
tenderness may be present in the flank. Treatment of appendicitis is appendectomy, surgical
removal of the appendix.

1. What is the most common representation of acute appendicitis?


2. How do patients with appendicitis describe the pain?
3. List some objective and subjective symptoms the patient may complain of.

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4. Describe peritonitis as a complication of appendicitis.
5. When examining a patient with peritonitis, what physical findings is the doctor likely to
see?
6. When does appendiceal abscess usually occur?
7. What are the clinical findings in elderly patients?
8. How can a surgeon treat acute appendicitis?

III. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? If the statement is false, correct the statement.
1. Appendicitis is a chronic inflammation of the appendix.
2. Constant pain develops in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen at McBurney’s point.
3. Appendicitis can be complicated by an inflammation of the peritoneal cavity.
4. In an elderly patient the symptoms of acute appendicitis are severe.
5. Conservative treatment is possible in some cases of appendicitis.

IV. Complete the sentences.


1. Appendicitis is …
2. It is caused by …
3. The patients at risk are …
4. This disease is characterized by …
5. The patient complains of …
6. Elderly patients experience such symptoms as …
7. The main complications of appendicitis are …
8. The symptoms of peritonitis include …
9. The diagnostic methods include …
10. The treatment of appendicitis is …

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Contents

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