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Dr. W. Edward Deming (1900–1993)

William Edwards Deming was American engineer, statistician


& professor who developed the sampling techniques still used
by the U.S. Department of the Census and the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Deming championed the work of Walter Shewhart.

He included statistical process control, operational definitions, and what Deming called the "Shewhart
Cycle" which had evolved into Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA). Deming is best known for his work in Japan after
WWII, particularly his work with the leaders of Japanese industry.

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Deming believed that higher quality leads to higher productivity, which, in turn, leads to long-term competitive
strength. The theory is that improvements in quality lead to lower costs and higher productivity because they result
in less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials. With better quality and lower
prices, a firm can achieve a greater market share and thus stay in business, providing more and more jobs. He used
statistical quality control and process variability as main methods to control the quality.
Some of significant contributions of Deming are:
1. His Fourteen Points & 7 Deadly disease of management
2. System of Profound Knowledge
3. PDCA cycle

Books of Deming
1. Out of the Crisis (1986)
2. The New Economics (1993)
3. Statistical Adjustment of Data (1943)
In emphasizing management's responsibility, Deming noted that workers are responsible for 10 to 20 percent of the
quality problems in a factory, and that the remaining 80 to 90 percent is under management's control. Workers are
responsible for communicating to management the information they possess regarding the system. Deming's
approach requires an organization-wide cultural transformation (TQM).
Deming's philosophy is summarized in his famous fourteen points, and it serves as a framework for quality and
productivity improvement. Instead of relying on inspection at the end of the process to find flaws, Deming
advocated a statistical analysis of the manufacturing process and emphasized cooperation of workers and
management to achieve high-quality products. Although the Fourteen Points are probably the most widely known of
Dr. Deming's theories, he actually taught them as a part of his System of Profound Knowledge. His knowledge system
consists of four interrelated parts:
(1) Theory of Optimization;
(2) Theory of Variation;
(3) Theory of Knowledge;
(4) Theory of Psychology.
Deming's quality methods centered on systematically tallying product defects, analyzing their causes, correcting the
causes, and recording the effects of the corrections on subsequent product quality as defects were prevented. He
taught that it is less costly in the long-run to get things done right the first time than fix them later.

THE RISE OF DEMING'S INFLUENCE

From 1946 to 1993 he was a professor of statistics at New York University's graduate school of business
administration, and he taught at Columbia University. Deming became interested in the use of statistical analysis to
achieve better quality control in industry in the 1930s.
In 1947, Deming was involved in early planning for the 1951 Japanese Census. The Allied powers were occupying
Japan, and he was asked by the United States Department of the Army to assist with the census. He was brought
over at the behest of General Douglas MacArthur. While in Japan, his expertise in quality-control techniques,
combined with his involvement in Japanese society, brought him an invitation from the Japanese Union of Scientists
and Engineers (JUSE).
He received the Second Order Medal of the Sacred Treasure from the Emperor of Japan for improvement of quality
and the Japanese economy. In 1987 he received the National Medal of Technology from U. S. President Ronald
Reagan because of his impact on quality in the United States.

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The Deming Prize for quality was established in 1951 in Japan and in 1980 in the United States by the Metropolitan
Section of the American Society for Quality.
American companies ignored Deming's teachings for years. In 1980, NBC aired the program "If Japan Can, Why Can't
We?" highlighting Deming's contributions in Japan and American companies began to discover Deming.

Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge

One of Deming's essential theories is his System of Profound Knowledge, which includes four interrelated parts: (1)
Theory of Optimization; (2) Theory of Variation; (3) Theory of Knowledge, Epistemology; and (4) Theory of
Psychology.
The Deming Prize for quality was established in 1951 in Japan and in 1980 in the United States by the Metropolitan
Section of the American Society for Quality.

1. Appreciating & optimizing a system


2. Understanding variation (Statistics)
3. Psychology of individuals, groups, society & change
4. Epistemology, the theory of knowledge

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THE DEMING CYCLE
Known as the Deming Plan-Do-Check-Act
(PDCA) Cycle, this concept was invented by
Shewhart and popularized by Deming. This
approach is a cyclic process for planning and
testing improvement activities prior to full-
scale implementation and/or prior to
formalizing the improvement. When an
improvement idea is identified, it is often wise
to test it on a small scale prior to full
implementation to validate its benefit.
Additionally, by introducing a change on a
small scale, employees have time to accept it
and are more likely to support it. The Deming
PDCA Cycle provides opportunities for
continuous evaluation and improvement.
The steps in the Deming PDCA or PDSA Cycle as
shown in Figure 1 are as follows:

1. Plan a change or test (P).


2. Do it (D). Carry out the change or test,
preferably on a small scale.
3. Check it (C). Observe the effects of the
change or test. Study it (S).
4. Act on what was learned (A).

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Q1 Quality guru Edward Deming championed the work of

a) Walter Shewhart b) Juran c) Ishikawa d) Taylor

Ans a) Shewhart was champion of use of quality control charts. He was mentor of Deming. Deming later worked on
sampling techniques & statistical methods for analysis & to make processes more standardized.

Q2 Which of the following quality guru is credited with use of sampling technique
a) Edward Deming b) Juran c) Ishikawa d) Taylor
Ans a) Deming used the sampling techniques to analyse the processes & make them standard.

Q3 Which American quality guru was made part of Japanese union of Scientist & Engineers (JUSE)?
a) Schewart b)Juran c) Ishikawa d) Edward Deming
Ans d) Edward Deming was provided the activity to bring quality practices in Japanese industries post world war 2.
He was later accepted by JUSE due to his contribution to field of quality control.

Q4
Statement 1 As per quality guru Edward Deming, most of the problems in quality control are people driven
Statement 2 People play very crucial role in quality control of organization
Which of the above statements are correct?
a) 1 only b) 2 only c) both 1 & 2 d) neither 1 nor 2
Ans b) As per Deming majority of problems are system driven & not people driven

Q5
Statement 1 Improvements in quality leads to lower costs and higher productivity
Statement 2 Improvement in quality leads to less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and
materials.
a) Both are correct statements & statement 2 is reason for 1
b) Both are correct but statement 2 is NOT reason for 1
c) Statement 2 is incorrect
d) Statement 1 is incorrect
Ans a) improvement in quality leads to lower cost & higher productivity as it further leads to lesser rework, fewer
mistakes, delays etc
Instead of relying on inspection at the end of the process to find flaws, Deming advocated a statistical analysis of the
manufacturing process and emphasized cooperation of workers and management to achieve high-quality products.

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