Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

In this video, we will learn about DEFINE PHASE

1
Define Phase – Section Overview and Objectives

By the end of this phase, you will be able to:

• Define the Basics of Six Sigma?


• State the Fundamentals of Six Sigma?
• Demonstrate the ways of selecting Lean Six
Sigma Projects?
• Explain a Lean Enterprise?

2
BASICS OF SIX SIGMA

3
Basics of Six Sigma – Section Overview and Objectives

By the end of this phase, you will be able to:

•DefineSix Sigma?

•Explain the general history of Six Sigma and Continuous


Improvement?

•State the Deliverables of a Lean Six Sigma project?

•Describe the Problem Solving Strategy Y = f(x)?

•Discuss the Voice of the Customer, Business and


Employee?

•Classify the different Six Sigma Roles and


Responsibilities?

4
MEANINGS OF SIX SIGMA

5
Basics of Six Sigma – Meanings of Six Sigma

Six sigma as, “A business improvement approach that seeks to find and eliminate causes of mistakes or
defects in business processes, by focusing on outputs that are of critical importance to customers.”

Six sigma is a highly disciplined process that focuses on developing and delivering near-perfect products
and services consistently. It is also a management strategy to use statistical tools and project work, to
achieve breakthrough profitability and quantum gains in quality. It has been stated that product
characteristics with six sigma process capabilities (Cpk > 1.5) are of world class performance. The
average American company is at four sigma level.

Motorola®, under the direction of Chairman Bob Galvin, used statistical tools to identify and eliminate
variation. From Bill Smith’s yield theory in 1984, Motorola® developed six sigma as a key business
initiative in 1987. Many credit the resulting improvements as a key factor in Motorola® winning the
Malcolm Baldrige Award in 1988. Dr. Mikel Harry, who had led the corporate effort, subsequently left
Motorola® and later founded the Six Sigma Academy to accelerate the efforts of corporations to
achieve world class standards.

Sigma is a statistical term that, refers to the standard deviation of a process about it’s mean. In a
normally distributed process, 99.73% of measurements will fall within ±3.0 sigma and 99.99966% will
fall within ±4.5 sigma. In a stable attribute distributed process, 99.73% of values will fall within the
probability of 0.00135 and 0.99865.

Motorola® noted that many operations, such as complex assemblies, tended to shift 1.5 sigma over
time. A process, with a normal distribution and normal variation of the mean, would need to have
specification limits of ±6 sigma in order to produce less than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. This
failure rate can be referred to as defects per opportunity (DPO), or defects per million opportunities
(DPMO).

6
Basics of Six Sigma – Meanings of Six Sigma
Value of Six Sigma

Six sigma is a highly disciplined process that focuses on developing and delivering near-perfect
products and services consistently. It is also a management strategy to use statistical tools and
project work to achieve breakthrough profitability and quantum gains in quality.

It has been stated that product characteristics with six sigma process capabilities (Cpk > 1.5)
are of world class performance. The average American company is at four sigma level. Six
sigma is also describes as, “A business improvement approach that seeks to find and eliminate
causes of mistakes or defects in business processes, by focusing on outputs that are of critical
importance to customers.”

Motorola, under the direction of Chairman Bob Galvin, used statistical tools to identify and
eliminate variation. From Bill Smith’s yield theory in 1984, Motorola® developed six sigma as a
key business initiative in 1987. Many credit the resulting improvements as a key factor in
Motorola® winning the Malcolm Baldrige Award in 1988. Dr. Mikel Harry, who had led the
corporate effort, subsequently left Motorola® and later founded the Six Sigma Academy to
accelerate the efforts of corporations to achieve world class standards.”

7
Basics of Six Sigma – Meanings of Six Sigma
Sigma is a statistical term, that refers to the standard deviation of a process about it’s mean. In
a normally distributed process, 99.73% of measurements will fall within ±3.0 sigma and
99.99966% will fall within ±4.5 sigma. In a stable attribute distributed process, 99.73% of
values will fall within the probability of 0.00135 and 0.99865.

Motorola noted that many operations, such as complex assemblies, tended to shift 1.5 sigma
over time. A process, with a normal distribution and normal variation of the mean, would need
to have specification limits of ±6 sigma in order to produce less than 3.4 defects per million
opportunities. This failure rate can be referred to as defects per opportunity (DPO), or defects
per million opportunities (DPMO).

8
Basics of Six Sigma – Meanings of Six Sigma
For a process performing at 6 sigma level, the process would have only 3.4 Defects per Million
Opportunities.

Similarly, for a 5 sigma level process, the DPMO will be 233, for 4 sigma, 6210 and like wise for
1 sigma, the DPMO is 697,672.

Table 1.1 lists the sigma level against Defects Per Million Opportunities.

In the table, you would see that at 6 sigma level the DPMO is 3.4 only, for 5 sigma the DPMO is
233, for 4 sigma it is 6210, 3 sigma it is 66,810, for 2 sigma it is 308,770 and for 1 sigma it is
697,672.

The principle of Six Sigma is deliver near perfect products and services, by improving the
process and eliminating defects. The end objective is to delight customers.

9
Basics of Six Sigma – Meanings of Six Sigma
The six sigma steps for many organizations are described as DMAIC:

• Define: Select the appropriate responses (the “Ys”) to be improved.

• Measure: Data must be gathered to measure the response variable.

• Analyze: Identify the root causes of defects, defectives, or significant measurement


deviations whether in
or out of specifications. (The “Xs”, independent variables).

• Improve: Reduce variability or eliminate the cause.

• Control: With the desired improvements in place, monitor the process to sustain the
improvements.

10