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Differential Equations Final Practice Exam

1. (Final Spring 1996 Problem 2) Find the general solution of the following
differential equations.
dy 1 2
a)  y  ex b) y   2 y   y  e x
dx x

Solutions
1
a) Integrating Factor Method: v( x)  e  x dx  eln x  x

TEST INSERT INSERT TEST

TEST EDIT EDIT

TEST EDIT INSERT

1 du

2
y xe x dx . Let u  x 2  du  2 xdx  dx 
x 2x
1e 
2
1 e u x
 y     du  y   C
x 2 x  2 

b) First find the homogeneous solution and then find the particular solution
INSETINSERT
c) to find the general solution. Since the roots of the characteristic equation
equals are the same as exponent in front of the exponential, you will need
to add a factor of x 2 because of the repeated root of the homogeneous
solution. This problem is basically the same as Example 6 on p. 234 with
exception that you should find that A=1/2.

1 2 x
y g  c1e x  c2 xe x  xe
2

2. (Final Spring 1996 Problem 3) Consider the differential equation


1
y    y  sec x  f ( x, y, y) , y (0)  0 , y(0)  1 .
2
a) According to the theorem on existence and uniqueness, on what interval of
x is the solution guaranteed to exist and be unique?
b) Find the solution of the equation.
c) On what interval of x does the solution exist?
Solutions
1
a) y    y  sec x  f ( x, y , y) . Check if well defined at initial value.
2
1 f
y   0  . So it is well defined. Check if  1 is well defined at the initial
2 dy
1 f
values y (0)  0 , y (0)  1 . Since both y    y  sec x  f ( x, y, y ) and  1
2 dy
are both well defined at the initial values, a unique solution exists surrounding the
value x=0. The only restriction is on x because sec x is defined on the interval
  
 , .
 2 2

b) Homogeneous equation
y   y  0  r 2  1  0  r  i
yh  c1 cos x  c2 sin x

I will use the method as outlined on p.419 takes a little less work. Although you
can use this method on the exam, (WARNING) I heard that no partial credit will
be given if you make a mistake!!! So try the problem as professors taught section
8.2 to give you practice to do it either way. It really depends how good you are at
memorizing.

(cos x )v1  (sin x)v2  0


Solving sec x
( sin x)v1  (cos x)v2 
2
0 y2 0 sin x
f y2 sec x cos x  tan x
v1   
y1 y2 cos x sin x 1
y1 y2  sin x cos x

y1 0 cos x 0
y f  sin x sec x 1
v2  1   1
y1 y2 cos x sin x 1
y1 y2  sin x cos x
sin x
 1dv1    cos x dx . Let u  cos x  du   sin xdx
1
  1dv1   du  v1  ln cos x .
u

 1dv   1dx  v
2 2 x
y p  ln cos x gcos x  x sin x

General solution y g  c1 cos x  c2 sin x  ln cos x gcos x  x sin x


3. (Final Spring 1996 Problem 4) A tank contains 10,000 liters of a solution
consisting of 100 kg of salt dissolved in water. Pure rocky mountain spring water
is pumped into the tank at the rate of 10 liters/second. (The mixture is kept
uniform by stirring.) The mixture is pumped out of the tank at the same rate it
enters.
a) Set up the initial value problem for the amount of salt, S(t), in the tank at
time t.
b) Solve this problem for S(t).
c) How long will it be before only 50 kg of salt remain in the tank?

Solutions
a) Salt inflow is 0
 S (t ) kg   liters 
Salt outflow is   *  10 s 
 10, 000 liters   
 S (t ) kg
S (t ) 
1000 s
S (0)  100kg

dS (t ) 1 1
b)
 S (t )

1000
dt  ln S (t ) 
1000
t C

 S (t )  Ce  t /1000
Using the initial condition, C  100  S (t )  100e  t /1000

 t /1000 t
c) 50  100e  ln(0.5)   t  1000 ln(0.5)  693s
1000
4. (Final Spring 1996 Problem 8) A damped spring is connected to a crank, which
forces the spring at a frequency of 1/sec. According to the laws of Newton and
Hooke, the governing equation is 2u   3u  u  10sin t .
a) Explain the physical meaning of each term in the equation.
b) Find the general solution of the equation.
c) If the spring is steadily cranked for 2 hours, determine the amplitude of the
solution.
Solutions
a) 2u  represents mass times acceleration
3u represents the damping force (friction)
u represents the restoring force
10sin t represents external “driving” forces in this case the crank
b) 2u   3u  u  0

Homogeneous solution:
3  9  4(2)(1) 3  1
 2r 2  3r  1  0  r1,2  
4 4
1
r1  , r2  1  yh  c1e 0.5t  c2 e  t
2

Particular solution:

y p  A cos t  B sin t
Guess for a particular solution y p   A sin t  B cos t
y p   A cos t  B sin t
Solving for coefficients A and B
2 A cos t  2 B sin t  3 A sin t  3B cos t  A cos t  B sin t  10sin t
 A cos t  3B cos t  B sin t  3 A sin t  10sin t
  A  3 B  0  A  3B
  B  3 A  10   B  9 B  10  10 B  10  B  1
Thus A  3

0.5t
General solution: y g  c1e  c2 e  t  3cos t  sin t
d) At this point, the solution to part c I don’t know… not the same as
calculating SHO where we can calculate the amplitude using the formula
on p.196. I would not worry about this problem since you were not asked
about this before.. Just make sure you know how to find the amplitude of
SHO.

At time t=0, y  c1  c2  3
1 2
At time t=2 y  c1e  c2e  3cos(2)  sin(2)
1
Period of the oscillation is T   1s
1/ s

5) (Final Spring 1996 Problem 10)


Solutions
  4 
    4  0    2i
2
a) det 
 1   
 2i 4 0   i 2 0   1 2i 0 
   
 1 2i 0   1 2i 0   1 2i 0 
 1 2i 0  r  m2i 
   x2  r , x1  (2i )r  v1,2  r  
 0 0 0  1 
Since alpha = 0 (i.e. the eigenvalue is purely imaginary), the solution is a center
and is stable.

b)
1   1 
det    (1   )(3   )  1  0
 0 3   
 3  3     2  0   2  2  3  0
 (  3)(  1)  0  1  3, 2  1
Since the eigenvalues are real distinct roots, with one eigenvalue positive and the
other eigenvalue negative, the solution is unstable.

 1 
 4 1 0   1 0
1  3     4   x2  r
 0 0 0 0 0
0 

Eigenvectors
1
1 r
x1  r  v1  r  4 
4  
1

 0 1 0  0 1 0
1  1      x1  s
 0 2 0   0 0 0 
r 1
x2  0  v2  s  
 0

c)
1   5 
det    (1   )(3   )  5  0
 1 3   
3  3     2  5  0   2  2  2  0
2  4  4(1)(2)
1,2   1  i
2
Since the eigenvalues are complex numbers and alpha=-1 is less than 0. The
solution is asymptotically stable.

TeESSTT
In calculating the eigenvectors, we will utilize the fact that the eigenvectors are
complex conjugates of each other since the eigenvalues are complex conjugates.
1  (1  i ) 5 0  2  i 5 0 
  1  i ,   
 1 3  (1  i ) 0   1 2  i 0 
 5 5(2  i) 0   1 (2  i) 0 
R1 (2  i )  R1*    
1 2  i 0   0 0 0
r 2i
x2  r , x1  (2  i)r  v1,2   r
 1 
b) (Final Fall 1996 Problem 4)
Solutions
dx dy
a)  y 1  0  y  1 ,  y 2  x 2  0  y 2  x 2  1  x 2  x  1
dt dt

Hence the equilibria (1,1) and (-1,1)

 0 1 
b) J   
 2 x 2 y 

0 1 
   (2   )  2    2  2
2
det 
 2 2
At equilibrium point (1,1),
2  4  4(1)(2)
 1,2   1 i
2

Since alpha =1 is greater than 0, the solution is unstable , repelling spiral


point.

0 1 
   (2   )  2    2  2
2
det 
 2 2
At equilibrium point (-1,1),
2  4  4(1)(2)
 1,2   1  12
2
Since the eigenvalues are real distinct roots and one eigenvalue is positive
with the other eigenvalue negative, the equilibrium point is a saddle and the
solutions are unstable.
c) (Final Fall 1998 Problem 6) For the linear system of differential equations
x1   x1  3x2 , x2  3 x1  x2 .
Solutions
 x1   1 3   x1 
a)      
 x2   3 1   x2 
1   3 
b) det    0  (1   )(1   )  9  0
 3 1   
 1       2  9  0   2  8  0
eigenvalues   2 2i

1  i 2 2 3 0  9 3(1  i 2 2) 0 
c)    ( R1*  (1  i 2 2))   
 3 1  i 2 2 0   3 1  i 2 2 0 
 

 3 (1  i 2 2) 0 
   x2  r ,3x1  (1  i 2 2)r  0
0 0 0
 1  i2 2 
 r 
 3  are the eigenvectors (utilizing the fact the eigenvectors will
 1 
 
be complex conjugates because the eigenvalues are complex numbers)
Note that any multiple (where r can be any complex number) would be an
acceptable solution.

1  2 2 
r     r r
a. Since v  3  i  3   p  iq , the general solution is equal to
   
1  0 
 1  2 2   1 2 2


x(t )  c1  e 0t cos 2 
 

2t 3  e sin 2 2t
 
0 t 
  
 3  2 
 0t
 
 c e sin 2 2t 3  e cos 2 2t  3

 
 0t
  
  0    0
 1     1  
 1  2 2   1  2 2 


x(t )  c1  cos 2 2t  
 3   sin 2 2t
  
 3





   
 c2  sin 2 2t  3   cos 2 2t  3  
   

  0    0 
 1    1  
   1 
 1 2 2
  cos 2 2t 
3

3
sin t   
  sin 2 2t 
2 2
 
cos 2 2t   
e) x(t )  c1      c2   3 3 
 
 
cos 2 2t 



 


 
sin 2 2t   

x1 (0)  1 , x2 (0)  3
1 2 2
 x1 (0)      1
   c1  3   c2  3    
 x2 (0)  1  0   3
   

 c1  3 and 1 c1  2 2 c2  1  1  2 2 c2  1  c2  0
3 3 3

f) 1,2    i  ,   0 means trajectories are closed loops. See p. 347 of the
text of how to Figure 6.3.3 and Example 4 to draw the phase-plane.
d) (Final Fall 1998 Problem 7) For each of the following answer TRUE or
FALSE.

Solutions
a) True
b) False
c) False
7  6 
d) det    (7   )(6   )  12  0
 2 6
 42  6  7   2  12  0   2  13  30  0
 (  3)(  10)  0    10,   3
Since both eigenvalues are positive, the solutions are moving away from the
equilibrium point. False

e)
1   2 2 
  1  2 2 2 2 2
det  2 1   2   (1   ) 2 2 0
 2  2 3   2 3   1   2
 2 3   
 (1   )[(1   )( 3   )  4]  2[2(3   )  4]  2[4  (2(1   ))]  0
 (1   )[ 2  2  1]  2[ 6  2  4]  2[4  2  2 ]  0
 (1   )(1   ) 2  2[2  2 ]  2[2  2 ]  0
 (1   )[(1   )(1   )  4  4]  0
 (1   ) 2 (1   )  0    1,   1,   1
Since the exponents of the exponentials in the proposed solution do not
agree with the eigenvalues found, the proposed set is not a fundamental set
of solutions.

False