Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 235

Epidemiology and Management of Tikka Disease of

Groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori and


Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and Curt.) Deighton

SADANAND K. MUSHRIF
PAK 6067

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY


UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
BANGALORE-560065
2010
Epidemiology and Management of Tikka Disease of
Groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori and
Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and Curt.) Deighton

SADANAND K. MUSHRIF
PAK 6067

Thesis submitted to the


University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the award of the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy (Agriculture)


in

Plant Pathology

BANGALORE July, 2010


 
 
 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I feel the inadequacy of diction in expressing my profound sense of gratitude and


indebtness to Dr. NAGARAJU, Professor and Head, Department of Plant Pathology,
University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, the esteemed Chairman of my
advisory committee, for suggesting the problem, valuable guidance, scientific excellence,
critical review of the manuscript and above all, persistent encouragement and
inspiration provided to me right from the planning of research programme upto writing
up of thesis, without which this work would not have accomplished.

On this occasion I remember with deep sense of reverence to


Dr. S.C. CHANDRASHEKHAR, Associate Professor, Department of Plant
Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, for serving as a
member of advisory committee during my research work. I owe my heartfelt gratitude to
him for his constant encouragement, inspiration and for building up my confidence
during my research period.

I avail this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to


Dr. N.G. RAVICHANDRA, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology,
University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, Dr, P. VENKATARAVANA,
Breeder, AICRP on Groundnut, Agricultural Research Station, Chintamani and
Dr. C.S. JAGADISH BABU, Associate Professor of Entomology, AICRP on
Pigeonpea, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, for having served as
members of my Advisory Committee and for their keen interest, valuable guidance and
sensible criticism in animating and ameliorating the thesis manuscript. I place on record
the heartfelt respect and thanks to Dr. D.L. SAVITHRAMMA, Professor,
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences,
GKVK, Bangalore and Dr. C. A. SRINIVASAMURTHY, Professor and Head of the
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural
Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore for their cooperation and generous treatment to carry out
biochemical and physiological work in their respective departments. I would like to take
this opportunity to express my heartfelt gratitude to Dr. NATARAJA KARABA,
Associate Professor, Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural
Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore and Mr. K. V. PRAKASH, Assistant Professor,
Department of Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore,
for providing facilities and valuable suggestions during my research period. I am equally
indebted to Dr. NANJA REDDY, Professor of Crop Physiology AICRP on Small
Millets, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, for his valuable
suggestions during my research work.

I am thankful to all my teachers and staff for their cooperation and help which
added to the success of this work.

I wish to take this opportunity to express my indebtedness to Dr. SANJAY


KUMAR DWIVEDI, Director (Research), United Genetics India Pvt. Ltd.,
Bangalore, for his kind assistance in providing the land facilities for carrying out my
field experiments. He staunchly stood by my side during all the ups and downs I faced
during the period. I have always cherished the support he has lent in various facets of
my studies.

I am deeply grateful and express my sincere gratitude to my friend


Y.B. SRINIVASA, Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore,
for his encouragement and building my confidence during the period. I am grateful to
my friends Dhanaraj, Nagendra, Murali Mohan, Shivaprakash, Prasad, Sundaresha,
Thimmegowda, Mahesha, Pratibha, Wickramaarachchi, Japet Muthamia, Ravikumar,
Madhu, Sajjiv, Ramesh, Divya, Shivareddy, Basavaraj, Thippeswamy, Prema,
Shivakumar, Manjunath and other P.G. students who encouraged me in each and every
step during my research period and they deserve a more personal note of gratitude.
I cannot acknowledge in words, the sacrifice, kindness, confidence, and selfless
help showered to me by my beloved wife RAJESHREE and all the members of my
family, relatives and my friend SUNIL KULKARNI who always backed me
throughout my studies and helped in my research.

I would like to thank all my classmates and juniors for their kind help and co-
operation. I also express my sincere thanks to Puttaraju and Kumara for their constant
help in conducting laboratory experiments.

I am indebted to Rubber Research Institute of India (RRII), Rubber Board,


Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, Kottayam, for encouraging
me to pursue Doctoral research. RRII granted me study leave for the purpose and
extended the best of cooperation during my study period. I will ever be indebted to
RRII. In this regard, I also acknowledge the University of Agricultural Sciences,
Bangalore for accepting me as a student and for providing me the necessary facilities to
conduct my research work.

Last, but not least, I wish to express my indebtedness to all those whose names
might have been left over but without their help my thesis would not have been seen the
light of the day.

Bangalore

July, 2010 SADANAND K. MUSHRIF


CONTENTS
 

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO.

I INTRODUCTION 1-4

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5-31

III MATERIALS AND METHODS 32-52

IV RESULTS 53-129

V DISCUSSION 130-152

VI SUMMARY 153-158

VII REFERENCES 159-177


LIST OF TABLES

Table PAGE
Title
No NO.

1 List of treatments imposed against tikka disease of groundnut 52

Survey for the incidence and severity of tikka disease of


groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola and
2a 55
Cercosporidium personatum during Kharif -2008 in Southern
Karnataka.

Survey for the incidence and severity of tikka disease of


groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola and
2b 56
Cercosporidium personatum during Summer-2009 in
Southern Karnataka

Cultural characteristics of Cercospora arachidicola and


3 61
Cercosporidium personatum on eight solid media

Effect of different solid media on the growth of Cercospora


4a 63
arachidicola

Effect of different solid media on the growth of


4b 64
Cercosporidium personatum

Growth pattern of Cercospora arachidicola and


5 Cercosporidium personatum at different intervals (Growth 66
phase)

Effect of different carbon sources on the growth of


6 68
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Effect of different nitrogen sources on the growth of


7 70
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosoporidium personatum

Effect of different temperature levels on the growth of


8 72
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosoporidium personatum

Effect of different pH levels on the growth of Cercospora


9 74
arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Effect of different incubation periods on spore germination of


10 76
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum
Table PAGE
Title
No NO.

Effect of different temperature levels on spore germination of


11 78
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Severity of tikka disease in groundnut var. TMV-2 as


12a 81
influenced by different sowing dates

Severity of tikka disease in groundnut var. GPBD-4 as


12b 82
influenced by different sowing dates

Tikka disease severity (%) and weather parameters


13 87-89
corresponding to different sowing dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on chlorophyll content in


14a groundnut var. TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing 95
dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on chlorophyll content in


14b groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced by different sowing 96
dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total sugar content in


15a groundnut var. TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing 100
dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total sugar content in


15b groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced by different sowing 101
dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total phenol content in


16a groundnut var. TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing 104
dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total phenol content in


16b groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced by different sowing 105
dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total protein content in


17a groundnut var. TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing 109
dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total protein content in


17b groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced by different sowing 110
dates
Table PAGE
Title
No NO.

Effect of tikka disease severity on yield parameters of two


18 112
groundnut varieties as influenced different sowing dates

Field evaluation of ICRISAT germplasm for its


19 114
resistance/susceptibility to tikka disease of groundnut

In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on the spore


20a 116
germination of conidia of Cercospora arachidicola

In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on the spore


20b 117
germination of conidia of Cercosporidium personatum

In vitro evaluation of different botanicals on mycelial growth


21a 119
of Cercospora arachidicola

In vitro evaluation of different botanicals on mycelial growth


21b 120
of Cercosporidium personatum

Evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease


22 122
of groundnut cv. TMV-2 during kharif 2008 at Chintamani

Effect of fungicides on the yield parameters of groundnut cv.


23 125
TMV-2 during kharif 2008 at Chintamani

Evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease


24 127
of groundnut cv. TMV-2 during kharif 2009 at Sadahalli

Effect of fungicides on the yield parameters of groundnut cv.


25 129
TMV-2 during kharif 2009 at Sadahalli
LIST OF FIGURES

Between
Fig. No. Title
pages

Modified 9-point scale for field evaluation of tikka disease of


1 43-44
groundnut

Effect of different solid media on the growth of Cercospora


2a 64-65
arachidicola

Effect of different solid media on the growth of Cercosporidium


2b 64-65
personatum

Growth pattern of Cercospora arachidicola and


3 Cercosporidium personatum at different intervals (Growth 66-67
phase)

Effect of different carbon sources on the growth of Cercospora


4 68-69
arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Effect of different nitrogen sources on the growth of


5 70-71
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Effect of different temperature levels on the growth of


6 72-73
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Effect of different pH levels on the growth of Cercospora


7 74-75
arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Effect of different incubation periods on spore germination of


8 76-77
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Effect of different temperature levels on spore germination of


9 78-79
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Development of tikka disease severity in TMV-2 and GPBD-4


10 82-83
varieties of groundnut as influenced by different sowing dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on chlorophyll ‘a’ content in


11a TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as influenced by 97-98
different sowing dates
Between
Fig. No. Title
pages

Effect of tikka disease severity on chlorophyll ‘b’ content in


11b TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as influenced by 97-98
different sowing dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total chlorophyll content in


11c TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as influenced by 97-98
different sowing dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total sugar content in TMV-


12 2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as influenced by different 102-103
sowing dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total phenol content in


13 TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as influenced by 106-107
different sowing dates

Effect of tikka disease severity on total protein content in


14 TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as influenced by 110-111
different sowing dates

In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on the inhibition of


15a 117-118
spore germination of conidia of Cercospora arachidicola

In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on the inhibition of


15b 117-118
spore germination of conidia of Cercosporidium personatum

In vitro evaluation of botanicals on mycelial growth of


16a 120-121
Cercospora arachidicola

In vitro evaluation of botanicals on mycelial growth of and


16b 120-121
Cercosporidium personatum

Evaluation of fungicides against the tikka disease severity in


17 123-124
groundnut cv. TMV-2 at Chintamani-2008

Evaluation of fungicides against the tikka disease severity in


18 127-128
groundnut cv. TMV-2 at Sadahalli-2009
LIST OF PLATES

Between
Plate No. Title
pages

1 a, b, c, d Symptoms of tikka disease on leaves 57-58

2 Tikka disease symptoms on stem and petioles 57-58

Conidia and stromata of Cercospora arachidicola and


3 a, b 57-58
Cercosporidium personatum

Cultural characteristics of Cercospora arachidicola and


4 a, b 61-62
Cercosporidium personatum on eight solid media

Germinated spores of Cercospora arachidicola and


5 a, b 76-77
Cercosporidium personatum

March month sown crop involving two varieties (70 Days


6a 82-83
after sowing)

May month sown crop involving two varieties (40 Days After
6b 82-83
sowing)

June month sown crop involving two varieties (90 Days after
6c 82-83
sowing)

Evaluation of groundnut germplasm for their reaction to tikka


7a,b,c 114-115
disease severity

Evaluation of fungicides against the tikka disease severity of


8a,b,c 123-124
groundnut
Introduction
I INTRODUCTION

Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) originated in South America. It


is grown throughout the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the
world. It is one of the important oilseed crops in the world often known for its
global economic significance not only for its wide spread distribution but also for
the even wider areas of processing and consumption.

Groundnut is one of the major oilseed crops grown in India. It is grown


over an area of 5.64 m. ha and annual production of 4.91 m. tones with an average
yield of 870 Kg per hectare (Anon., 2008). It is mainly grown in Gujarat, Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In Karnataka, it is grown in an
area of 7.60 lakh hectares with production of 3.30 lakh tones and yield of 451 kg
per hectare (Anon., 2009).

The edible oil economy of India is primarily dependent on groundnut which


occupies approximately 45 per cent of total cropped area and contributes nearly 55
per cent of total major oilseed production. Even though, in India, groundnut is
being cultivated under large area the potential yield has still not been achieved.
There are several constraints which contribute to the low productivity of the crop.
The most important constraints in the production of the crop are the wide spread
occurrence and severity of several diseases and insect pests.

Groundnut crop suffers from many diseases caused by fungi, bacteria,


viruses and non-parasitic diseases. Among the fungal diseases, rust (Puccinia
arachidis), early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola), late leaf spot
(Cercosporidium personatum) are more prevalent and destructive in nature.

The early and late leaf spot diseases are together referred to as tikka disease
of groundnut. The tikka disease damages the plant by reducing the available
photosynthetic area by lesion formation and by stimulating leaflet abscission. This
disease of groundnut is very destructive on a world wide scale as evident from
maximum yield losses ranging from 10 to 50 per cent. Without the foliar
application of fungicides, the disease could cause up to 100 % defoliation prior to
harvest and losses in excess of 50 % of potential yield. But this loss varies
considerably from locality to locality and also between seasons (McDonald et al.,
1985).

Losses in yield due to leaf spots have been estimated around 10 per cent in
U.S.A., where application of fungicides are being commonly practiced. In the
semi-arid tropics, where chemical control is generally not practiced, losses in
excess of 50 per cent were common. Bunting et al. (1974) estimated that early and
late leaf spots alone cause the loss of about 3 m. tons of kernels per year. Losses in
yield to the tune of 20 to 25 per cent have reported in Georgia alone, resulting in a
monetary loss of 10 to 17 m. dollars annually (Miller, 1946).

In India, yield losses upto 70 per cent due to combined infection of rust and
leaf spot pathogens have been reported (Subrahmanyam et al., 1984). The
combined infection of rust (P. arachidis) and leaf spots (C. arachidicola and C.
personatum) cause losses to the extent of 52.65 per cent in pod yield, 27.25 per
cent in 100 kernel weight and 45.76 per cent in dry matter. Leaf spot alone
reduces 43.01 per cent in pod yield, 15.95 per cent in kernel weight and 32.9 per
cent in dry matter weight (Ghuge et al., 1981).

The disease is endemic in Karnataka and causes heavy loss in yield of


groundnut crop. Avoidable losses up to 45 per cent due to tikka, up to 42 per cent
due to rust and up to 60 per cent due to both have been reported in Karnataka
(Siddaramaiah et al., 1983). In addition to losses in pod yield, this disease also
affects the yield and quality of haulm which is a nutritious fodder (Alabi et al.,
1993).
Since the disease is endemic to Karnataka and causes huge losses in the
yield, it is imperative to have survey and surveillance to know the disease hot
spots.

Tikka disease of groundnut is perhaps the most widely studied disease in


the world. A number of management approaches viz., development of partially
resistant varieties, cultural practices, application of fungicides, biological control
measures, combination of approaches leading to integrated management were
evaluated and recommended (Smith and Littrell, 1980; Ghewande and Reddy,
1986). In spite of all these measures, the tikka disease is still a big constraint in the
production of groundnut. Apart from this, groundnut is grown under a wide range
of soil and agroclimatic environment almost throughout the year (Subrahmanyam
and Ravindranath, 1988). In addition to this, huge variation exists among different
genotypes and cultural practices in different regions. These spatial and quite often
temporal variations render it difficult to evolve common management strategies.
Therefore, the knowledge on the severity of the disease, the role of weather
factors, the factors associated with the disease in different localities in order to
identify, evolve and recommend the most suitable control measures to each
location looking in to the prevailing conditions that are affordable at the farmer’s
level. Keeping this in view, the present work on ‘Epidemiology and Management
of Tikka disease of groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola and
Cercosporidium personatum’ was undertaken with the following objectives:

A. Survey for the incidence and severity of tikka disease of groundnut during
kharif 2008 and summer 2009

B. Studies on morphological, cultural and physiological aspects of


Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

C. Studies on the epidemiological factors in relation to disease development


D. Studies on the chlorophyll content and biochemical changes influenced by
tikka disease severity

E. Screening the available groundnut germplasm against the tikka disease for
resistance

F. Studies on the management of the disease


Review of Literature
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important oilseed


crops grown all over the world. It is one of the major oilseed crops grown in
India. Among the diseases, leaf spot or tikka disease is the most important fungal
disease on this crop. Early and late leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola
Hori. and Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and Curt.) Deighton, respectively
are normally referred to as tikka disease.

Literature on Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum


causing tikka disease in groundnut and other species of Cercospora pertaining to
the present investigation is reviewed and presented here under.

2.1 SURVEY FOR THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF TIKKA


DISEASE OF GROUNDNUT DURING KHARIF 2008 AND
SUMMER 2009

Early and late leaf spots of groundnut have been reported throughout the
world wherever groundnut is grown. The two diseases though they occur
simultaneously in the same area, differ quite considerably in their relative severity
from one region to another depending upon the prevailing weather conditions,
inoculum and type of groundnut varieties grown (Gibbons, 1966).

Sturgeon Jr. (1986) found that the knowledge of the severity of diseases,
the yield loss and the associated environmental and cultural factors in different
localities would be essential to employ the available disease management practices
properly. According to him such knowledge could be generated by proper
techniques such as field monitoring programmes, disease control trials, crop
reporting service and also survey. Subrahmanyam and McDonald (1986) reported
that the late leaf spot was more severe in kharif season in all groundnut growing
areas of the country. The early and late leaf spots were present in almost all
rabi/summer groundnut growing areas and the late leaf spot is more predominant,
particularly serious in Guntur, Prakasam, Nellore, Chittoor, Krishna, East
Godavari, Kurnool, Nalgunda, Cuddapah districts of Andhra Pradesh, North
Canara, Bangalore, Dharwad, Mandya and Raichur districts of Karnataka and in
almost all groundnut growing districts of Tamil Nadu and Orissa.

Subrahmanyam et al. (1987) in his survey report carried out in Burkina


Faso noticed the severe outbreak of early leaf spot and all the groundnut varieties
were susceptible. They also reported the Southern Province was highly disease
prone area. Savary (1987) conducted a survey in West African region on the
disease incidence and severity of the foliar disease of groundnut and reported that
early and late leaf spots and rust were the most common and frequently occurring
diseases. Subrahmanyam and McDonald (1987) carried out a survey in India on
groundnut diseases from 1971 to 1981. They reported that the rust and late leaf
spot were most common and severe diseases in all major groundnut-growing areas
in India.

During the survey carried out in the major groundnut growing areas of
Niger and Burkina Faso, including 37 fields in 1986 and 58 in 1987 in Niger, and
64 fields in 1987, Subrahmanyam et al. (1992) reported that rust and late leaf spot
were the major diseases of groundnut and caused severe damage when the rainfall
was high.

2.2 SYMPTOMOTOLOGY AND CAUSAL ORGANISMS

Leaf spot symptoms are influenced by host genotype and environmental


factors. For both early and late leaf spots, small chlorotic spots appear on leaflets
ten days after infection. The spots then develop in about five days into mature and
sporulating lesions. Lesions caused by C. arachidicola are sub-circular and from
one to over ten mm in diameter. They are surrounded by a yellow halo from the
very beginning. They are dark brown on the adaxial (upper) leaflet surface, where
sporulation occurs mostly and a lighter shade of brown on abaxial (lower) leaflet
surface. The yellow halo is indistinct or not present on the lower leaf surface.
Lesions caused by Cercosporidium personatum are usually smaller, more nearly
circular which are one to 6 mm in diameter and darker in colour than those of C.
arachidicola. On the abaxial surfaces, where most sporulation occurs, the lesions
are black and slightly rough in appearance. Though, a chlorotic halo is often
present around C. arachidicola lesions, it is not of a good diagnostic character.
The presence and prominence of the halo is altered by host genotype and
environmental factors and similar halo may be found around the lesions of C.
personatum also. The colour of the lesion on the abaxial leaf let surface is light
brown for C. arachidicola and black for C. personatum and distribution of fruiting
structures, randomly on the adaxial surface for C. arachidicola and in circular
rings on the abaxial surface for C. personatum are useful characters for
distinguishing between the two leaf spots, in the field. In addition to causing leaf
spots, these produce lesions on petiole, stems and pegs. The lesions are oval to
elongate and have more distinct margins than the leaflet lesions. When the
infection is severe the affected leaflets first become chlorotic and then necrotic
lesions often coalesce and leaflets are shed. There will be extensive defoliation
with increase in severity of the disease.

Early and late leaf spots were considered as the most important diseases of
groundnut. Berkeley (1875) was the first to describe groundnut leaf spot and
named the causal fungus as Cladosporium personatum Berk. and Curt. Ten years
later Ellis and Everhart (1885) transferred the fungus to the genus Cercospora. In
1917 Hori described Cercospora arachidicola Hori. as the causal fungus of peanut
leaf spot. There was, however, a lot of confusion in the exact identity of the two
species of Cercospora until 1932 when Woodroof (1933) gave a clear account of
the existence of two distinct species of Cercospora, i.e., C. arachidicola causing
“early leaf spot” and C. personata (Berk and Curt). Ell. and Eve. causing “late leaf
spot”. Khan and Kamal (1961) from Pakistan named C. personata as Passalora
personata (Berk. and Curt.) Khan and Kamal. The nomenclature of the anamorph
of this fungus has several changes in the literature. Until recently Cercosporidium
personatum (Berk and Curt.) Deighton was widely used. In 1983, Von Arx
recognized the anamorphs of the genus Mycosphaerella. On the basis of
conidionatal structure and position on the host plant and on the types of scars on
the conidiogenous cells and conidia, twenty three form genera were enumerated.
He proposed the new combination Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. and Curt.)
V.Arx, mainly based on the formation of small synnemata or long conidiophores
and by less thickened and darkened, but bulging scars. The perfect of C.
arachidicola was Mycosphaerella arachidicola Jenkins whereas that of late leaf
spot fungus is Mycosphaerella berkeleyii Jenkins. (Jenkins, 1939). The perfect
stages of these fungi have been noticed only in U.S.A.

The mycelium of C. personatum in the host is septate and intercellular


sending haustoria into the palisade and mesophyll cells. Conidiophores develop on
a dense globular, brown to black stroma measuring 20-30µm in diameter. They
emerge in dense fascicles by rupturing the epidermis. These conidiophores are
uniformly olivaceous brown, continuous, sometimes 1-2 septate, unbranched and
geniculate. Conidia are obclavate to cylindrical, light coloured, 1-7 septate with
bluntly rounded ends. The mycelium of C. arachidicola is initially intercellular
and then intracellular when the host cells die. No haustoria are produced. The
stromata are slight or 25-100 µm in diameter and dark brown. Conidiophores are
olivaceous brown, continuous or 1-2 septate, unbranched and geniculate. Conidia
are hyaline or pale yellow, obclavate with rounded to distinctly truncate base and
sub acute tip (Singh, 1998).
2.3 ISOLATION AND PROVING THE PATHOGENICITY

Pradeep (2005) isolated the fungus Cercosporidium personatum from the


groundnut infected leaves using Richard’s agar medium. He proved the
pathogenicity by inoculating the mycelium bits of the culture on the groundnut
plants.

2.4 CULTURAL STUDIES

Kilpatrick and Johnson (1956) observed that the carrot leaf decoction agar
was the best medium to many species of Cercospora of different hosts.

Chandrashekharan and Rangaswami (1960) noticed that the pathogen


Cercospora cruenta causal agent of leaf spot of cowpea grew well on both
synthetic and complex organic media. In their studies, Czapek’s agar was a better
medium for the growth of the pathogen than Richard’s medium.

Berger and Hanson (1963) studied the radial growth of Cercospora zebrina
on 11 solid media and could record maximum growth on modified Richard’s agar
and potato dextrose agar media. In liquid culture, maximum growth was obtained
in cornmeal broth, modified Richard’s broth and oatmeal broth.

Dange and Patel (1968) obtained maximum growth of Cercospora beticola


in Czapek’s Dox broth whereas the growth was moderate in Richard’s and carrot
leaf decoction and poor in Asthana and Hawker’s broths.

Raghunathan (1969) observed that Richard’s broth was the best liquid
medium for the growth of Cercospora canescens and C. dolichi infecting Dolichos
lab lab.
Verma and Agnihotri (1972) obtained maximum growth Cercospora
cruenta and C. beticola on Czapek’s Dox agar followed by carrot leaf decoction
medium.

Kanti (1975) reported that, the isolate of Cercospora moricola made better
growth on potato dextrose agar.

Dinesha (1984) reported that potato dextrose agar supported the maximum
growth of Cercospora sorghi.

Khandar et al. (1985) reported that Richard’s medium was the best for the
growth of C. canescens infecting mungbean followed by Czapek’s Dox broth.

Zhang-YiXian et al. (2003) in his report on the biological characteristics of


Cercospora zea-maydis, the causal agent of leaf spot of maize, stated that the
growth of the pathogen was optimum on V-8 juice agar, groundnut leaf disc
medium, Richard’s medium and inferior potato dextrose agar medium.

Growth Phase

Kanti (1975) reported the maximum growth of Cercospora moricola on


20th day after inoculation in potato dextrose broth. Lakshminarayana (1981)
obtained maximum growth of Cercospora solani-melongenae on 22nd day of
inoculation in potato dextrose broth. Dinesha (1984) harvested maximum mycelial
growth of Cercospora sorghi on 16th day of inoculation in potato dextrose broth.

2.5 NUTRIONAL STUDIES

2.5.1 Carbon utilization

Tandon and Chandra (1962) reported that sucrose, maltose and glucose
were the most suitable carbon sources for the growth Cercospora ricinella. Sethi
and Munjal (1963) obtained good mycelial growth of Cercospora viticola on
dextrose, sucrose, mannose and fructose. Berger and Hanson (1963) reported that
glucose was one of the best sources of carbon for radial growth and maltose for
total growth of Cercospora zebrina.

Thind and Mandahar (1965) found that glucose, mannose, galactose,


sucrose and maltose supported good growth to all the three species of Cercospora
(C. hibiscina, C. withaniae and C. crotalariae).

Dange and Patel (1968) recorded the best growth of Cercospora beticola
when glucose was used as a carbon source. Rama Pandu and Appa Rao (1981)
noticed that maltose, sucrose galactose and raffinose among carbon sources
supported good growth of Cercospora arachidicola.

Lakshminarayana (1981) obtained maximum growth of Cercospora solani-


melongenae when sucrose was supplied as a source of carbon for its growth.
Khandar et al. (1985) found out that glucose supported the maximum growth of
Cercospora canescens followed by sucrose, maltose and fructose.

Among the tested carbon resources studied by Zhang-Yi Xian et al. (2003),
glucose, maltose, lactose supported good growth of Cercospora zea-maydis. Wang
Jun Feng and Chu Jian Jun (2006) found the maximum growth of the fungus of
Cercospora piaropi on water hyacinth when mannitol was used as carbon source.

2.5.2 Nitrogen utilization

Berger and Hanson (1963) obtained good growth of Cercospora zebrina


when asparagine, urea and potassium nitrate supplied as nitrogen sources.

Sethi and Munjal (1963) obtained good mycelial growth of Cercospora


viticola when asparagine and urea used as nitrogen sources. Aspargine was found
to be best source of nitrogen for the mycelial growth of Cercospora jasminicola
(Dayal Ram and Asha Ram, 1968). Dange and Patel (1968) reported that calcium
and potassium nitrate supported good growth of C. beticola.

Rama Pandu and Appa Rao (1981) noticed the good growth of Cercospora
arachidicola when yeast extract, potassium nitrate, peptone and ammonium
sulphate were used as nitrogen sources.

Dinesha (1984) obtained maximum growth of C. sorghi when sodium


nitrate was used as a nitrogen source. Siddaramaiah (1986) obtained the best
growth of C. moricola when asparagine was used as nitrogen source. Wang Jun
Feng and Chu Jian Jun (2006) noticed that sodium nitrate when used as nitrogen
source supported the good growth of Cercospora piaropi.

2.6 PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES

2.6.1 Temperature requirement

Chowdhury (1944) showed that a temperature range of 25˚C to 30˚C was


the best for the growth of Cercospora sesami on Sesamum indicum. Jackson
(1961) recorded the good growth of Cecospora insulana at 28˚C.

Berger and Hanson (1963) reported that the temperature level of 24˚C was
optimum for the growth of C. zebrina on solid and liquid media. Stavely and
Nimmo (1968) noticed the optimum growth of C. nicotianae at 26˚C.

Verma and Agnihotri (1972) recorded the best growth of C. cruenta and C.
beticola at a temperature of 26˚C. Chen et al. (1979) observed optimum growth of
C. kikuchii at the temperature of 28˚C.

Wang et al. (1998) reported that the temperature of 25˚C supported the
good growth of C. kikuchii. Wang Jun Feng and Chu Jian Jun (2006) obtained
good growth of C. piaropi at a temperature of 30˚C.
2.6.2 Hydrogen – ion concentration

Murakishi (1951) reported that the growth of the fungus C. kikuchii


occurred at a pH range of 3.9 to 8.6 and optimum pH for mycelial development
was 5.9. Chandrasekharan and Rangaswami (1960) noticed that C. cruenta grew
well at pH 6.0 whereas the growth of C. beticola was also found to be good at pH
6.0 (Dange and Patel, 1968).

Verma and Agnihotri (1972) reported that the growth of C. cruenta was
maximum at pH 6.8 whereas the growth of C. beticola was good at pH 7.4. Kanti
(1975) noticed that the pathogen C. moricola made good growth under wide pH
range and optimum was 6.0 to 6.5.Chen et al. (1979) reported that the optimum
pH was 4.5 in both solid and liquid media for the growth of the fungus C. kikuchii.
Growth was less rapid beyond pH 9.0.

Siddaramaiah (1986) found that C. moricola made good growth at pH level


of 6.0. Sinclair and Backman (1989) noted that the optimum pH for growth of
C. kikuchii in culture was 5.9. Wang et al. (1998) reported that the pH values
varied from 4.0 to 9.0 with 7.0 being optimum for the growth of C. kikuchii. Wang
Jun Feng and Chu Jian Jun (2006) recorded good growth of C. piaropi at a pH
level of 7.6.

2.7 SPORE GERMINATION STUDIES

2.7.1 Effect of different incubation periods on spore germination

Lakshiminarayana (1981) observed the spores of C. solani-melongenae


started germinating after six hours reach the maximum after 18 hours of
incubation in tap water. Khandar et al. (1985) noticed that distilled water was
slightly inferior and took eight hours for optimum germination of C. canescens.
They found that germtubes were longest and almost double in tap water.
Nakashima and Kobayashi (1997) after studying the etiology of brown spot of
pyracantha caused by Cercospora pyracanthae observed that the conidia could
germinate within 12 hours of incubation.

2.7.2 Effect of different temperature levels on spore germination

Jackson (1961) recorded 28˚C as the best temperature for C. insulana.


Sobers and Martinez (1965) observed the fungus C. bougainvillea produced higher
percentage of spore germination at 24 to 28˚C. Dayal Ram and Asha Ram (1968)
obtained maximum spore germination of C. jasminicola at an optimum
temperature of 28˚C. Nakashima and Kobayashi (1997) studied the etiology of
brown spot of pyracantha caused by Cercospora pyracanthae and found that the
conidia could germinate from 5 to 35˚C with optimum being 25˚C.

Oso (1972) observed the optimum germination of C. arachidicola at a


temperature of 20 to 30˚C. Dinesha (1984) noticed maximum spore germination of
C. sorghi at 25˚C. Best germination of C. canescens conidia was observed at 27˚C
(Khandar et al., 1985). Alderman and Beute (1986) made a study of the influence
of temperature and moisture on conidial germination and gem tube elongation of
C. arachidicola. Maximum germination of 82.85 per cent occurred at 24 to 48
hours at 16 to 25˚C.

Sommartya and Beute (1986) studied the temperature effects on the


germination of spores of C. personata. The percentage germination of spores of
Thai and USA isolates was greatest at 16 to 20˚C. Guo and Wan (1992) obtained
optimum conidial germination of C. destructive at temperature range of 25 to
30˚C. Zhang-Yi Xian et al. (2003) reported a temperature range of 20 to 30˚C was
optimum for the conidial germination of C. zeae-maydis.
2.8 EPIDEMIOLOGY

2.8.1 Effect of different sowing dates on the severity of tikka disease.

Chevaugeon (1953) reported that large scale sowing of groundnut should be


completed as quickly as possible as the last sown fields may become severely
infected. So, early sowing is better to get good yield than late sowing.

Bailey and Bridget (1966) predicted that groundnut sown early in the
season was less affected by C. arachidicola than late sown. C. personatum caused
more damage only on the late planting to near harvest.

Ravindranath and Kulkarni (1967) conducted experiments during 1961,


1962 and 1963 on rainfed TMV-2 variety and observed that as the sowing was
delayed the intensity of spotting decreased. Hence, the delay in sowing decreased
the disease severity but reduced the yield. The maximum disease intensity was
25.6 per cent on the crop sown on June 26 and the minimum 9.40 per cent when
the crop was sown on July 24. The yield of the crop also decreased with delay in
sowing. The reason for this could be that the early sown crop had the benefit of a
full season whereas the late sown crop had a shorter growth phase. These findings
indicate that in a rainfed crop delay of sowing is not advantageous even though the
disease could be reduced as the yield is also reduced.

Lewin et al. (1973) conducted field trial from 1969 to 1971 at Regional
Agricultural Research Station, Dindivanam on date of sowing and noticed that the
four earlier sowing of groundnut which was taken up at fortnightly intervals from
7th June to 22nd July had lesser incidence of tikka disease and higher yields. The
sowing that was done on 5th September gave the lowest yield and high incidence
of tikka. Both the time of sowing and tikka incidence were found to be negatively
correlated with yield. Tikka incidence was reported to be positively correlated
with rainfall and negatively correlated with the temperature.
Shokes et al. (1983) found six fold increase in the number of lesion per
leaflet and a decrease in yield when sowing was done during 21-23 May than the
sowing that was taken up between 22-25 April.

Gupta (1985) in his report on date of sowing experiment reported that early
and late leaf spots are best avoided by early sowing in April when there is little
inoculum present in the atmosphere. Tikka disease does not appear before 15th
June and Chemical control is then necessary. The early sown crop suffers least
whereas late sown crop suffers maximum because of the high inoculum pressure
in the atmosphere.

Dandnaik et al. (1996) conducted an experiment to know the effect of three


sowing dates (15 and 30 September, and 15 October 1994) on different diseases of
groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on four cultivars (JL24, SB XI, ICGS44 and
LGN2). All 4 cultivars showed decreasing leaf spot severity with successive
delays in sowing dates. The results showed that the severity of foliar diseases can
be reduced if sowing is delayed until 15 October.

Hazarika et al.(2000) took up eight sowing dates from May 5 to July 14 at


10-day interval and found that the crop sown on May 5 (early sown crop) had least
incidence of tikka disease and also recorded highest pod yield as against least
yield from the crop sown on June 24 and July 4 (late sown crops).

2.8.2 Effect of weather parameters on the severity of tikka disease as


influenced by different sowing dates

Plant disease epidemiology is the scientific discipline that addresses the


increase of disease in populations over time. The study of epidemics and the
application of that knowledge to plant pathological problems play an important in
plant disease management. Practical plant disease management is greatly
dependent on the knowledge on epidemiology, forecasting and yield loss.
Miller (1946) stated that, both the species of Cercospora spread rapidly
during periods of heavy rain. The fast spread of late leaf spot was facilitated by the
late wet spell in the growing season (Shanta, 1960). Increased concentration of
spores of C. arachidicola in the peanut fields was noticed shortly after the onset of
rainfall (Smith and Crosby, 1973).

Early leaf spot is less common than late leaf spot excepting in the year of
high rainfall than normal. However, no separate data are available on them. Leaf
spots are particularly severe during rainy season and are considered serious
limiting factor in production (Mayee, 1989).

Temperature, relative humidity and rainfall are the most important


epidemiological factors which have tremendous impact on the outbreak and spread
of leaf spots and rust of groundnut.

Sulaiman and Agashe (1965) found that the optimum temperature for
development of leaf spots ranged between 20 ˚C and 30˚C. Wangikar and Shukla
(1976) stated that most infection of C. arachidicola and C. personata occurred in
August with temperature of 25˚C-26˚C. Nath and Kulkarni (1967) stated that
maximum intensity was reached in the last month before harvest. Lewin et al.
(1973) stated that, the disease incidence was negatively correlated with
temperature. Due to the temperature, early sowing resulted in lower disease
incidence.

Jhorar et al. (1987) reported that, comparatively low temperature together


with long periods of RH > 90 per cent resulted in increased disease intensity. A
monograph was developed on the basis of analysis. As the curve between the two
parameters shifted towards the origin, disease development became faster and
more severe.
Benagi et al. (1998) observed that the rate of development of late leaf spot
disease (r) of groundnut was highly correlated to minimum temperature and
maximum relative humidity. Rainfall was also found to be positively correlated
with the rate of disease development. The ‘r’ was also positively correlated to
AUDPC values. Disease severity was negatively correlated with minimum
temperature, relative humidity and rainfall but it was positively correlated with
maximum temperature.

Hazarika et al. (2000) after relating the date of sowing with weather factors
noticed that there was a significant and positive correlation existed between
incidence of tikka disease and weather factors i.e. rainfall, relative humidity and
temperature. However, disease incidence had a strong negative correlation with
pod yield.

Galgunde and Kurundkar (2002) indicated that high humid and warm
climatic conditions to be favourable for the development of tikka disease of
groundnut. They noticed that there was negative correlation between disease
intensity and humidity and temperature. However, rainfall and bright sunshine
hours were found positively correlated with disease intensity.

Dubey (2005) in his studies conducted during 1998-2001 on the role of


weather parameters in relation to disease severity of early leaf spot reported that
the apparent infection rate was maximum from 15th July to 26th August (28-34
standard meteorological weeks) in different years on 30 to 50 day old plants
depending on date of sowing and weather conditions. He noticed that minimum
temperature was a critical factor for prediction of disease in nature and it was
significantly correlated negatively.
2.9 EFFECT OF TIKKA DISEASE SEVERITY ON CHLOROPHYLL
CONTENT, BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND POD YIELD AS
INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT SOWING DATES

2.9.1 Chlorophyll content

Chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were reduced in leaf samples


of 4 of 5 cultivars of almonds infected by C. circumscissa after infection in cv.
Kagzi. Chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll increased after infection. The ratio of
chlorophyll a:b increased in all 5 cultivars (Adhikari et al., 1987).

Bala and Dhillon (1987) noticed the reduction in chlorophyll content due to
leaf spot infection in susceptible groundnut varieties. The decrease in chlorophyll
a was significantly greater than that of chlorophyll b.

Kaur and Dhillon (1989) indicated that decrease in total chlorophyll content
was noticed in susceptible variety after infection by C. personatum. Bera et al.
(1999) reported that the Cercospora resistant genotypes maintained higher level of
chlorophyll.

Jyosthna et al. (2004) screened thirteen groundnut varieties for their


tolerance to late leaf spot disease and also studied the morphological and
biochemical characteristics. They noticed that the highest content of chlorophyll
was in the resistant cultivar which decreased upon infection in all cultivars.

2.9.2 Effect of tikka disease severity on biochemical parameters as


influenced by different sowing dates

2.9.2.1 Total Sugars

In general, infection by some pathogens brings about lot of changes in the


respiratory pathway and photosynthesis which is very vital process occurring in
the plant. This leads to a wide fluctuation in sugars in the plant-pathogen
interactions (Klement and Goodman, 1967).

Kuprevica (1947) studied the physiology of the diseased plant in relation to


the general question of parasitism and reported that the sugar content of infected
plant cell sap from leaves and stems was correspondingly less. Aulakh and Sandhu
(1970) noticed the low level of total sugars and reducing sugars but there was high
level of non-reducing sugars in resistant genotypes. Leaves infected with C.
personatum (M. berkeleyii) contained higher quantities of reducing sugars than
healthy ones.

Sindhan and Jaglan (1988) reported the enhancement of plant resistance


through decrease in sugar contents of treated groundnut plants with fungicidal
application of carbendazim, benomyl, thiophanate methyl and mancozeb against
P. personata in groundnut.

Kaur and Dhillon (1989) reported that infection by C. personatum (M.


berkeleyii) caused a decrease in sugar and starch. Susceptible cultivars showed a
rapid decrease of sugars and starch but the decrease was relatively slow in
resistant cultivars.

Gupta et al. (1992) Studied metabolic changes in groundnut leaf due to leaf
spot pathogens. The levels of total soluble sugars increased after infection in all
susceptible and tolerant cultivars.

Gobinathan and Ramabadran (1993) estimated changes in sugar contents of


groundnut leaves as influenced by tikka disease and fungicidal treatments. They
reported that the fungicidal treatment of plants increased the reducing sugars and
starch and reduced the non-reducing sugar contents than the control plants
(Untreated).
Sindhan et al. (1999) screened two hundred and sixty genotypes of
mungbean (Vigna radiata) against Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora canescens) in
field experiments under artificial inoculation conditions. He noticed that total
sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar content were higher in healthy
leaves of susceptible genotypes than resistant ones and their amount decreased in
diseased leaves of resistant and susceptible genotypes.

Suryawanshi et al. (2006) made comparative studies on metabolic changes


and their role in the resistance/susceptibility of groundnut to Phaeoisariopsis
personata. Under uninoculated healthy conditions, the amount of total, reducing
and non-reducing sugars were lower in the resistant PI 390590 genotype in
comparison with susceptible JL-24.The levels of total, reducing and non-reducing
sugars were decreased in both the genotypes after inoculation/infection with P.
personata.

2.9.2.2 Total Phenols

It has been widely recognized that, the aromatic compounds such as mono
and dihydric phenols, phenolic glucosides, flavonoids, anthocyanines, aromatic
amino acids and coumarin derivatives are increased in host tissues invaded by a
parasite. One of the major biological properties of phenolic compounds is their
antimicrobial activity and it is often assumed that, their main role in plants is to act
as protective compounds against disease causing agents such as fungi, bacteria and
viruses. Involvement of phenolic compounds in many aspects of plant-parasite
relationship other than plant protection has been reported (Friend, 1979). The role
of phenolics in the mechanism of disease resistance in plants has been reviewed by
several workers (Walker and Stahmann, 1955; Tomiyama, 1963; Kuc 1964;
Klement and Goodman, 1967 and Rohringer and Samborski, 1967). Concentration
of phenolic compounds is usually higher in resistant than in susceptible genotypes
of different crop plants (Arora and Wagle, 1985; Saini et al., 1988). Studies have
also shown that qualitative and quantitative changes in these compounds occur
after infection (Arora and Wagle, 1985 and Luthra et al., 1988).

Brahmachari and Kolte (1983) noticed higher levels of total phenol content
at all growth stages of groundnut plant resistant to late leaf spot than susceptible
cultivars.

Gupta et al. (1985) compared phenol content of susceptible and resistant to


C. personatum (M. berkeleyii) and noticed higher phenols in resistant genotypes
after the penetration and establishment of pathogen.

Sindhan et al. (1987) observed higher levels of total phenols in the resistant
cultivars (M-147, G-201 and M-13) to late leaf spot than susceptible cultivars of
JL-24, MH-l and AK-12-24.

Abraham et al. (1988) reported that, resistance to late leaf spot of


groundnut genotypes 1CG (FDRS)-40, ICG (FDRS)-50 and HYQ (CG) 5-14 had
high leaf phenol contents.

Sindhan and Jaglan (1988) have given evidences that, total phenols get
increased by application of fungicides and plant show enhanced resistance to late
leaf of groundnut.

Gupta et al. (1992) found out that total phenols were markedly higher in
tolerant cultivars than in suceptible cultivars.

Rani and Reddy (1998) investigated the changes in total phenols in leaves
infected by C. arachidicola [M. arachidis] in resistant, moderately resistant and
susceptible genotypes of groundnut. Susceptible cultivars had lower amounts of
phenols compared to resistant ones at pre-inoculative stage. In post-inoculation
stage of resistant and moderately resistant leaves there was rapid increase in total
phenolic content at an early stage of infection and a gradual decline in total
phenolic content. In susceptible cultivars, a steady increase in phenols was
observed.

Sindhan et al. (1999) screened two hundred and sixty genotypes of


mungbean (Vigna radiata) against Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora canescens) in
field experiments under artificial inoculation conditions. Analysis of the
biochemical constituents revealed that healthy leaves of resistant genotypes
contained a higher amount of total phenol. In diseased leaves the amount increased
in both the genotypes.

Motagi et al. (2004) studied the biochemical basis of resistance to late leaf
spot of groundnut and reported that the resistant genotypes had higher levels of
total free phenols than susceptible types at the pre-infection stage. The level of
phenolic compounds increased in all genotypes after late leaf spot infection, but a
greater accumulation was observed in mutant genotypes compared with
susceptible genotypes

2.9.2.3 Total Proteins

Kaur and Dhillon (1989) reported an increase in protein content in resistant


cultivars due to the infection by C. personatum and the alterations in protein
content was less.

Rani and Reddy (1998) investigated the changes in total proteins in leaves
infected by C. arachidicola [M. arachidis] in resistant, moderately resistant and
susceptible genotypes of groundnut. There was lower amount of total proteins in
susceptible cultivars compared to resistant ones at pre-inoculative stage. In post-
inoculation stage, the resistant and moderately resistant leaves showed rapid
increase in total protein content at an early stage of infection and a gradual decline
in total phenolic content. In susceptible cultivars, a steady increase in total protein
was observed.

2.9.3 Effect disease severity on pod yield

Naidu and Vasanthi (2002) took up 14 sowing dates (divided into periods
of early rabi, normal rabi, late rabi and summer) to understand the influence of on
tikka late leaf spot (TLLS, Phaeoisariopsis personata ) on pod and haulms yields
in groundnut during 1991-92, 1992-93 and 1993-94 rabi and summer seasons.
They noticed the maximum TLLS severity (7.83 to 8.42 per cent) in the crop sown
in early rabi (5 and 20 October). Later there was decrease in disease severity from
7.33 (in the crop sown on 5 November in normal rabi) to 1.33 (in the crop sown on
20 April in summer). They obtained highest pod and haulms yields (29 and 32
q/ha) respectively from the crop sown on 5 December. The crop sown on 20
November was the next best with pod and haulms yields of 28.0 and 30.66 q/ha
respectively.

Hazarika et al. (2000) conducted a field experiment involving eight sowing


dates from May 5 to July 14. They received highest pod yield from the May 5
(early) sown crop as against least yield on June 24 and July 24 (late sown crops).

2.10 EVALUATION OF GROUNDNUT GERMPLASM FOR THEIR


REACTION TO TIKKA DISEASE

Krishnaprasad et al. (1979) have shown that bunch varieties viz., BH-8-18,
C-501, HYG-13-3-18, T-98 and C-21011 a semi spreading variety showed good
resistance recording a disease index below 1.60 while S-206 recorded 3.596 and
4.882 during 1975 and 1976 respectively.
Subrahmanyam et al. (1983) screened 23 groundnut germplasm lines and
evaluated against rust and tikka diseases. Among these, nine were resistant to P.
arachidis and six of these (PI 1259747, PI 350680, PI 405132, PI 215696 and PI
341879) were also resistant to M. berkeleyii and could prove useful in breeding for
multiple disease resistance.

Gupta (1987) reported that only 21 of 253 groundnut cultivars screened in


the field were resistant to C. arachidicola and C. personatum.

Chaudhary (1988) evaluated 55 non-spreading and 45 spreading genotypes


of groundnut in the mid altitude conditions of Meghalaya during 1985-87. Five
non-spreading genotypes (NRCG accessions 512, 580, 4415, 4632 and 5956) and
two spreading genotypes (NRCG 76 and NRCG 6428) were rated resistant to M.
berkeleyii. However, there were more moderately susceptible spreading genotypes
than non-spreading ones.

Mehan et al. (1996) screened a total of 979 groundnut germplasm


accessions for resistance to rust and late leaf spot in preliminary field trials in
Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India during 1989-90. Selected genotypes were
further evaluated during 1991-93. Of the genotypes, 38 (21 erect bunch, 5
spreading bunch and 12 runner) were identified as resistant to rust and 7 (5 erect
bunch and 2 runner) to late leaf spot. Genotypes ICG no’s 6843, 10890, 11567 and
12112 showed resistance to both rust and late leaf spot.

ICRISAT has released a variety in 1994 reported a peanut variety ICGV


87165 (high-yielding groundnut germplasm line PI594923) derived from a cross
between PI261942 (Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) and A.
cardenasii because of its resistance to Puccinia arachidis and Phaeoisariopsis
personata. (Moss et al., 1997).
Pensuk et al. (2003) evaluated seven peanut cultivars for their resistances to
late leaf spot and rust. NC 17135 was the most resistant to late leaf spot and
moderately resistant to rust. NC 17090 was the most resistant to rust but
susceptible to late leaf spot. The Cultivars NC 17135 and NC 17090 should be
recommended as sources of late leaf spot and rust resistance, respectively. The two
Thai released cultivars, Tainan 9 and Lampang were highly susceptible to both
diseases.

Jyosthna et al. (2004) screened thirteen groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)


cultivars for resistance to Phaeoisariopsis personata under natural conditions.
They were classified into resistant (cultivar FDRS-10), moderately resistant
(cultivars K - 134, TCGS-l56 and Tpt-3) and susceptible (Tpt-l, Tpt-2, TCGS-29,
TCGS-91, TCGSl50, TCGS-341, Tpt-4 JL-24 and TMV-2), based on a disease
severity of 1-9 scale.

Hossain et al. (2007) evaluated 25 groundnut genotypes during 2000-01,


2001-02 and 2002-2003 against leaf spot and rust diseases to select resistant
sources. The genotypes were scored at 0-5 scale one week before harvest against
both the diseases. The genotypes namely; 259/88 and 262/88 were found
moderately resistant to both leaf spot and rust diseases. It was noticed that
genotype 269/89 was moderately resistant to leaf spot disease only.

2.11 DISEASE MANAGEMENT

2.11.1 In vitro evaluation of fungicides on inhibition of spore germination

Adisa (1989) reported that the chemical Brestan (fentin+maneb) was more
effective in inhibiting spore germination of C. cruenta than Benlate (benomyl). In
another experiment involving in vitro evaluation of chemicals on spore
germination C. zinniae, carbendazim was highly effective in inhibiting spore
germination (Reshi et al., 2001). Ruben et al. (2007) while working on chemical
control of leaf spot of husk tomato caused by Cercospora sp. obtained 100 per
cent inhibition of conidial germination with tebuconazole at 30 ppm.

2.11.2 In vitro evaluation of plant extracts against Cercospora arachidicola


and Cercosporidium personatum

Extract of Calotropis gigantea proved to be highly toxic to Cercospora


moricola by inhibiting the growth both under in vitro and in vivo (Sarvamangala et
al., 1993). Abhay Kumar Srivastava and Bihari Lal (1997) found that out of ten
plants screened, leaf extract of only Azadirachta indica, Calotropis procera,
Lantana camara and Ocimum basilicum inhibited the mycelial growth of all test
fungi. Pradeep (2005) found the aqueous extracts of Datura stramonium could
inhibit the mycelium growth of Phaeoisariopsis personata to the extent of 87.10
per cent.

2.11.3 Field evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease of


groundnut

Mehta et al. (1953) reported that the incidence of groundnut leaf spots in
Uttar Pradesh was greatly reduced by sulphur dusting (16 lb/ac.) resulting in 40
per cent yield increase with rounds at 10 days intervals and 30 per cent at 15 days.
Similarly, spray of Bordeaux mixture (2:2:50), Perenox (0.15 per cent) and
Cupravit (0.15 per cent) at 15 days intervals gave increase of 15, 20 and 30 per
cent, respectively in the yield in late maturing varieties.

Although C. arachidicola and C. personatum were reduced by lime-sulphur


or copper fungicides or dusting with sulphur but were not economic. The yield
was related to the number of wet days in December-February following planting.
Dithiocarbamate tested were ineffective against the pathogens (Corbet and Brown,
1966).
Ghuge et al. (1981) reported that tridemorph at the rate of 0.07 per cent
spray and carbendazim at the rate of 0.05 per cent spray inhibited the development
of rust and tikka leaf spots, respectively.

Sekhon and Dhillon (1981) conducted experiments for the control tikka
disease of groundnut with benomyl, carbendazim, captafol, sulphur, mancozeb
during 1975 and 1976. During 1977, daconil, zineb, mancozeb+ carbendazim and
daconil+carbendazim were added. benomyl, carbendazim and daconil were the
effective fungicides for the control of tikka disease of groundnut. Four sprays
starting from 30 days after sowing at fortnightly intervals increased groundnut pod
yield substantially.

Ponnaiah et al. (1982) observed bitertanol (Baycor) controlled both leaf


spot and rust diseases of groundnut.

Natarajan and Subramnian (1983) tested 17 fungicides under field


conditions over three years against Puccinia arachidis, M. arachidis and M.
berkeleyii. Bitertanol (Baycor) performed better against rust giving higher yields
and carbendazim (Bavistin) against leaf spot. A combined spray is recommended
when both diseases occur together in a particular locality and season.

Lande et al. (1983) reported that chlorothalonil controlled P. arachidis, C.


arachidicola and C. personatum effectively.

Lalithakumari et al. (1984) reported that among the fungicides tested


against leaf spot, bitertanol (Baycor) gave excellent control of the disease.

Gupta (1985) reported that five sprays of carbendazim (0.05%) + mancozeb


(0.2%) at 15 days interval were the best for the control of leaf spots in the late
sown crop of Manipur.
Shekhavat et al. (1985) reported that the spray schedule consisting two
sprays of mancozeb (0.2%) at 35 and 70 days after the germination and one spray
of carbendazim (0.25%) at 60 days after germination was most economical.

Thakore et al. (1987) evaluated twelve fungicides in vivo and in vitro and
found that bitertanol controlled early and late leaf spots as well as rust and
increased the yields considerably.

Brenneman and Murphy (1991) noticed in the field that tebuconazole


effectively controlled late leaf spot of groundnut at the lowest rate tested (188
g/ha). Efficacy of tebuconazole was essentially equivalent to chlorothalonil (1260
g/ha) as measured by visual disease ratings. The percentage of reflectance
recorded by a multispectral radiometer indicated that plants treated with
tebuconazole had more green leaf area than those treated with chlorothalonil.
Significantly higher yields were also obtained with tebuconazole.

Ghewande et al. (1992) found that early and late leaf spot control was
achieved where groundnut was intercropped with red gram and was sprayed twice
(55 and 70 DAS) with fungicide or received one spray each of neem leaf extract,
fungicide, and cell free filtrate of Pencillium islandicum inoculum.

Ghewande et al. (1993) reported that, karanj leaf extract reduced late leaf
spot by 15.73 per cent, while neem leaf extract reduced late leaf spot of groundnut
by 18.73 per cent. Application of neem and karanj leaf extracts as spray increased
pod yield by 24.08 and 23.30 per cent, respectively.

Naidu and Rao (1997) conducted the field trials at the Regional
Agricultural Research Station, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, during 1992-94 and
reported that 4 fungicidal sprays [carbendazim at 0.25%, difenoconazole at 0.05%,
propiconazole at 0.1% and mancozeb (0.25%) + carbendazim (0.1%)] gave
significant control of the disease on cultivar JL-24 and increased the pod yield.
Two sprays of mancozeb + carbendazim gave the greatest disease control and
highest pod yields, with a net incremental benefit cost ratio of 6.14.

Moraes et al. (2001) conducted four field experiments in Ribeira Preto and
Pindorama, Sao Paulo, Brazil during 1996-97 to evaluate the efficiency of
fungicides (chlorothalonil, tebuconazole, difenoconazole and propiconazole
applied at the rates recommended for groundnuts) for the control of late leaf spot
(caused by Cercosporidium personatum infection on groundnut cv. Tatu. They
found that the triazole fungicides were more efficient than chlorothalonil.
Tebuconazole greatly reduced late leaf spot intensity.

Tiwari et al. (2004) evaluated different fungicides against tikka disease of


groundnut in the field and noticed that the fungicide hexaconazole was superior
over other fungicides followed by mancozeb in controlling the disease and also
significantly higher pod yield and 100 seed were recorded from the plots treated
with these fungicides.

Vemana et al. (2005) conducted the experiment on management of foliar


diseases of rainfed groundnut. The results indicated that hexaconazole (2 ml/litre)
and propiconazole (1ml/litre) were effective among all the treatments in managing
the diseases. They also reported that Calotropis leaf extract alone was not
effective in controlling the diseases.

Hossain and Rahman (2007) evaluated the efficacy of the foliar spraying of
potash (K2O), neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) and carbendazim against
early leaf spot (C. arachidicola), late leaf spot (P. personata) and rust (P.
arachidis) of groundnut under field conditions. All the treatments reduced the
severity of leaf spot. However, significant reduction was obtained with
carbendazim at 0.1%, followed by 2% neem leaf extract + 1.0% K2O. Only the
application of 2% neem leaf extract + 1.0% K2O significantly reduced the severity
of rust. Considerable reduction in leaf defoliation and increase in pod yield were
also obtained with 0.1% carbendazim and 2% neem leaf extract + 1.0% K2O.

Nutsugah et al. (2007) conducted field trials from 2003 to 2005 at northern
Ghana to compare the efficacy of the fungicides thiophanate methyl, benomyl and
tebuconazole against early and late leaf spots of peanut. Tebuconazole applied
alone was the most effective fungicide in reducing leaf spot severity, resulting in
significantly higher biomass and pod yields compared to most of the treatments.
Material and Methods
III MATERIAL AND METHODS

The present investigations were taken up during the period 2008-2010. The
laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out in the Department of
Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences,
GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The field experiments were conducted at
different locations viz., Boodamanahalli village (Bangalore rural district), ARS,
Chintamani (Chickaballapura district) and Sadahalli (Bangalore rural district).

3.1 SURVEY FOR THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF TIKKA


DISEASE OF GROUNDNUT DURING KHARIF 2008 AND SUMMER
2009

Groundnut is one of the main kharif crops of Southern and Central part of
Karnataka and grown in rainfed conditions. However, it is also grown during
summer under protected irrigations. An intensive survey was conducted during
September/October 2008 and March-April 2009 to know the incidence and
severity of tikka disease in groundnut growing areas. The survey was conducted in
four districts viz., Tumkur, Chitradurga, Chikaballapura and Kolar. Three talukas
under each district were included. The talukas included under the survey were
Pavagada, Madhugiri and Koratagere talukas of Tumkur district, Holalkere,
Chellakere and Hiriyur talukas of Chitradurga district, Gouribidanur, Gudibande
and Bagepalli talukas of Chikaballapura district and Kolar, Mulabagal and
Srinivasapura talukas of Kolar district. Under each taluka three villages were
selected and under each village three farmers’ fields were assessed for the disease
severity. The tikka disease severity was recorded by following modified 9 point
scale developed by Subbarao et al. (1990).
3.2 SYMPTOMOTOLOGY AND CAUSAL ORGANISM

An attempt was made to identify the early leaf spot and late leaf spot
symptoms caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum
respectively. In the kharif season, 2008, the groundnut sown area in the G.K.V.K
farm was regularly visited for the identification and characterization of the
symptoms of the tikka disease caused by the two pathogens.

3.3 ISOLATION OF THE FUNGI

The leaves of groundnut variety TMV-2 showing typical symptoms of early


and late leaf spots caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum, respectively were collected from ZARS farm, University of
Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during September 2008. The standard tissue
isolation procedure was followed to isolate the pathogens. The infected leaf bits
along with some healthy portions were surface sterilized with 1:1000 mercuric
chloride solution for 30 seconds, and washed repeatedly in sterilized distilled
water to remove the traces of mercury if any and then transferred to sterilized
Petriplates containing modified Richard’s agar. Such Petriplates were incubated at
room temperature (28± 1˚C) and observed periodically for the growth. Pure
colonies, which developed from the bits, were transferred to modified Richard’s
agar slants and incubated at 28± 1˚C for 10 days. These slants were maintained in
refrigerator at 4˚C and renewed once in 30 days for further studies.

3.3.1 Proving the pathogenicity

The seeds of the groundnut plants of the highly susceptible cultivar TMV-2
were sown in polythene bags. For proving the pathogenicity, both the fungi were
grown in Richard’s broth and incubated for fifteen days and the mycelium was
harvested and ground in mixie and the suspension containing the mycelium bit
was made ready for the spray. Prior to the spray, an adhesive agent Tween-80 was
added to the suspension at the rate of 0.1 ml per litre. The groundnut plants after
thirty days of sowing were sprayed with the suspension containing the mycelial
bits. The controls were maintained by spraying the plants only with distilled water.
All these plants were covered with polythene bags for forty-eight hours in the
greenhouse at room temperature to maintain the high humidity. Later, the
polybags were taken out. Regular observations were made for the appearance and
development of symptoms. The fungi were reisolated from the infected leaves and
the culture obtained was compared with the original to confirm the identity.

3.4 CULTURAL STUDIES

The growth characters of the both the fungi were studied on 8 different
solid media viz., Asthana and Hawker’s medium, Czapek’s agar, Elliots agar,
Landers’ agar, Peanut oatmeal agar, Potato dextrose agar, Richard’s agar, and
Sabouraud’s agar. All the media were sterilized at 1.1 kg cm-2.

To carry out the study, fifteen ml of each of the medium was poured into 90
mm diameter Petriplates. Such plates were inoculated with five mm discs cut from
the periphery of the ten days old culture using sterile cork borer and incubated at
room temperature (28± 1˚C) for a period of ten days. Each treatment was
replicated three times. Cultural characteristics like, colony diameter, colour of the
colony, kind of aerial mycelium were recorded. The colony diameter was recorded
after two days of incubation every alternate day till the Petriplates were fully
covered with the fungus.

COMPOSITION AND PREPARATION OF DIFFERENT MEDIA

Synthetic and non-synthetic media were prepared as suggested by Tuete


(1969) except the Peanut oatmeal agar medium (Smith, 1971) which was prepared
by grinding fifty g of the host leaves in five hundred ml of sterile distilled water in
mixie. The extract was filtered through muslin cloth and the filtrate was collected.
In the remaining 500 ml distilled water 15 g of oats was taken and boiled for 15
minutes and the supernatant was collected. Both the solutions were mixed and 20
g of agar-agar was added and boiled and the volume was made to 1000ml.

Synthetic media

1. Asthana and Hawker’s agar medium


Glucose (C6H12 O6) 5.00 g
Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 .7 H2O) 0.75 g
Potassium nitrate (KNO3) 3.50 g
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) 1.75 g
Agar-agar 20.00 g
Distilled water – make the volume to 1 litre

2. Czapeks’ agar medium


Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) 3.00 g
Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) 1.00 g
Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 .7 H2O) 0.50 g
Potassium chloride (KCl) 0.50 g
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4. 7H2O) 0.01 g
Sucrose (C12 H22O11) 30.00 g
Agar-agar 20.00 g
Distilled water – make the volume to 1 litre

3. Elliot’s agar medium


Dextrose (C6H12 O6) 5.00 g
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 1.06 g
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) 1.36 g
Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 .7 H2O) 0.50 g
Aspargine [C3 H3O (NH2)2 COOH] 1.00 g
Agar-agar 20.00 g
Distilled water – make the volume to 1 litre

4. Landers’ agar medium


Glucose (C6H12 O6) 50.00 g
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) 5.00 g
Aspargine [C3 H3O (NH2)2 COOH] 2.00 g
Thiamine 200.00 µg
Agar-agar 20.00 g
Distilled water – make the volume to 1 litre

5. Richard’s agar medium


Potassium nitrate (KNO3) 10.00 g
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) 5.00 g
Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 .7 H2O) 2.50 g
Potassium chloride (KCl) 0.50 g
Ferric chloride (FeCl3. 6H2O) 0.02 g
Sucrose (C12 H22O11) 20.00 g
Agar-agar 20.00 g
Distilled water 1000.00 ml

All the above ingredients except potassium dihydrogen phosphate were


dissolved in 450 ml of distilled water. Agar melted in 500 ml distilled water was
mixed with the above solution. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate was dissolved
separately in 50 ml distilled water. The two solutions were autoclaved separately
and subsequently mixed together at the time of pouring to plates.

6. Sabouraud’s agar medium


Dextrose (C6H12 O6) 40.00g
Neopeptone 10.00 g
Agar-agar 20.00 g
Distilled water 1000.00 ml
Semi-synthetic media

1. Potato dextrose agar medium


Peeled and sliced potatoes 200.00 g
Dextrose (C6H12 O6) 20.00 g
Agar-agar 20.00 g

Two hundred grams of peeled and sliced potatoes were boiled in distilled
water and extract was collected after filtering through muslin cloth. The
ingredients were dissolved in the extract and final volume was made up to one litre
using distilled water.

Addition of Agar-agar was excluded while preparing liquid media.

Growth phase

Fifty ml of Richard’s broth was poured into each of the 100 ml conical
flasks. These flasks containing medium were sterilized at 1.1 kg cm-2 for twenty
minutes. After sterilization, these flasks containing the medium were inoculated
aseptically with five mm mycelial discs taken from the periphery of 10 days old
culture using sterile cork borer and incubated at room temperature (28± 1˚C). A
set of three flasks were harvested every 48 hours starting from 2nd day of
inoculation. Cultures were filtered through Whatman No. 42 filter paper. The
mycelial mat on the filter paper was thoroughly washed with distilled water to
leach out any salts associated with mycelium. Subsequently, the filter paper along
with the mycelial mat was dried in the hot air oven at 60˚C to a constant weight.
Later the mycelial weight was recorded. The data were analyzed statistically.
3.5 NUTRITIONAL STUDIES

3.5.1 Carbon utilization

The carbon requirement of the fungi was studied on Richard’s broth. The
quantity of carbon compounds added were determined based on their molecular
weights. To maintain the equal quantity of carbon in all the sources, the amount of
carbon present in 1 per cent glucose was taken as the standard. Carbon sources
used in the study were dextrose, galactose, fructose, cellulose, sucrose, arabinose,
mannose and mannitol. All the compounds were dissolved properly and sterilized
at 1.1 kg cm-2 for twenty minutes. Three replications were maintained per
treatment. The flasks were inoculated as described earlier and incubated at 28±
1˚C for sixteen days. The mycelial growth was harvested and dry mycelial weights
were obtained as described earlier. The results were analyzed statistically.

3.5.2 Nitrogen utilization

In this experiment, the utilization of eight nitrogen sources by the fungi


was studied in Richard’s broth. The quantity of nitrogen compounds added was
determined on the basis of their molecular weights. To maintain the equal quantity
of nitrogen in all the sources, the amount of nitrogen present in 0.2 per cent
asparagine was maintained as standard. The nitrogen sources used were viz.,
ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, calcium nitrate, sodium nitrate,
potassium nitrate, aspargine, peptone and urea. All the compounds were dissolved
properly and sterilized at 1.1 kg cm-2 for twenty minutes. Three replications were
maintained per treatment. The flasks were inoculated as described earlier and
incubated at 28± 1˚C for sixteen days. The mycelial growth was harvested and dry
mycelial weights were obtained as described earlier. The results were analyzed
statistically.
3.6 PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES

3.6.1 Effect of different temperature levels on the growth of the fungi

Richard’s broth was used in this experiment. Conical flasks of 100 ml


capacity and each containing 50 ml liquid were sterilized at 1.1 kg cm-2 for twenty
minutes. The flasks were inoculated as described earlier and incubated at 28± 1˚C
for sixteen days. The different temperature levels tested for the growth of the two
fungi were 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C. Three replications were maintained.
The mycelial growth was harvested and dry mycelial weights were obtained as
described earlier. The results were analyzed statistically.

3.6.2 Effect of different hydrogen-ion concentrations on the growth of the


fungi

For pH studies, the pH of the basal medium (Richard’s broth) was adjusted
to 2.0 to 9.0 (at 1.0 interval) with 0.1 N NaOH or 0.1 N HCl solutions. The growth
of the two fungi studied in the same manner as it was carried out in nutritional
studies. Conical flasks of 100 ml capacity and each containing 50 ml liquid with
the desired pH levels were sterilized at 1.1 kg cm-2 for twenty minutes. The flasks
were inoculated as described earlier and incubated at 28± 1˚C for sixteen days.
Three replications for each treatment were maintained. The mycelial growth was
harvested and dry mycelial weights were obtained as described earlier. The results
were analyzed statistically.

3.7 SPORE GERMINATION STUDIES

The effect of different incubation periods and temperature levels on


germination of conidia of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum were studied in vitro following ‘hanging drop’ method using cavity
slides. For all the treatments mentioned above, conidia of Cercospora
arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum were collected from the infected
leaves of a susceptible variety TMV-2 by scraping the surface of lesions with
clean stainless steel blade. Uniform suspension of conidia was prepared in distilled
water. A drop of spore suspension was placed on cover slips. It was then inverted
and placed over a cavity slide. The slides were then placed in Petriplates lined
with moistened coarse filter paper to provide sufficient humidity for germination
of conidia. Observations were taken at regular intervals and the percentage of
spore germination was calculated by taking the average number of spores
germinated, out of the total number of spores observed in the microscopic field.

3.7.1 Effect of different incubation periods on conidial germination of


Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Conidia of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum were


collected as described earlier. Uniform suspension of conidia was prepared in tap
water. A drop of spore suspension was kept on cover slips and inverted and kept
over a clean and sterilized cavity slide placed in the Petriplates lined with moist
blotting paper and then incubated at room temperature (25 ± 1˚C) at different time
intervals. The per cent germination of conidia was recorded after 6, 9, 12, 15, 18,
21, 24 and 48 hr of incubation. Proper care was taken to see that, not more than 10
to 15 minutes were lapsed between preparation of suspension and incubation. The
experiment was replicated thrice. Conidia with the germtubes longer than the
conidial diameter were considered as geminated and then per cent germination
was worked out by observing a range of 150 to 200 conidia in each replication.

3.7.2 Effect of temperature levels on the germination of conidia

The procedure followed was similar to the one explained earlier. The slides
were incubated for 24 hr at different temperature levels viz., 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30,
35 and 40˚C. Three replications were maintained for each temperature level. The
per cent germination of conidia was calculated on a count of a range of 150 to 200
conidia for each replication of a treatment.
3.8 EPIDEMIOLOGY

A field experiment was conducted at Boodamanahalli village, (Bangalore


Rural district) to know the

1. Effect of different sowing dates on the severity of tikka disease in two


groundnut varieties

2. Role of weather parameters on tikka disease severity

The experiment involved nine sowing dates starting from December 2008
till August 2009. The crop was sown at monthly intervals. The experiment was
laid out in RCBD design involving two varieties, a highly susceptible variety
TMV-2 and a resistant variety GBPD-4. The experimental plot was divided into
six subplots, three being for each variety. The trial was carried out without the
protected sprays. Three replications were maintained.

Details of layout of the Date of sowing experiment are given hereunder

Varieties : 2 (TMV-2 and GPBD-4)


Replications : 3
Design : RCBD
Gross plot size : 3M X3M
Net plot size : 2.8 M X 2.8 M
Spacing : 30 X 10 cm

3.8.1 Effect of different sowing dates on the severity of tikka disease in two
groundnut varieties.
In this experiment the assessment of tikka disease was made in order to
understand the variation in tikka disease severity in two varieties i.e. TMV-2 and
GPBD-4 as influenced by different sowing dates. The disease severity assessment
was made from the 30th day after sowing i.e. from the period of disease
appearance. The assessment of disease was made on the main stem from the
bottom most leaf right up to the top leaf. The disease severity was recorded at 3
different stages of the crop growth 30, 60, and 90 DAS. Five plants were selected
in each replication for the disease assessment. The severity of the disease was
recorded as disease score as per the modified scale given by Subbarao et al.
(1990). The response was recorded by using the following scale (Fig. 1).

3.8.2 Role of weather parameters on the severity of tikka disease as


influenced by different sowing dates

In this experiment, the weather data pertaining to maximum and minimum


relative humidity, maximum and minimum temperature were collected on daily
basis and subjected to the average of 7 days whereas the rainfall of 7 days was
summed. The weather data were then tabulated as per Standard Meteorological
Weeks (SMW). The disease assessment was made on the susceptible variety
TMV-2 as per the procedure mentioned above and the observations on disease
severity were recorded on the last day of every Standard Meteorological Week in
different sowing dates. Later, an attempt was made to understand the role of the
weather factors on tikka disease severity as influenced by different sowing dates.
Disease Per cent
Description
score disease severity

1. No disease 0

Lesions present largely on lower leaves;


2. 1-5
no defoliation.

3. Lesions present largely on lower leaves; very few


lesions on middle leaves; defoliation of some 6-10
leaflets evident on lower leaves.

Lesions are present on lower and middle leaves but


4. severe on lower leaves; defoliation of some leaflets 11-20
evident on lower leaves.

Lesions are present on all lower and middle leaves;


5. 21-30
over 50% defoliation of lower leaves.

Lesions severe on lower and middle leaves; lesions


present on Top leaves but less severe; extensive
6. 31-40
defoliation of lower leaves; defoliation of some
leaflets, evident on middle leaves.

Lesions present on all leaves but less severe on top


7. leaves; defoliation of all lower and some middle 40-60
leaves.

Defoliation of all lower and middle leaves; lesions 61-80


8. severe on top leaves and some defoliation of top
leaves evident.

Defoliation of almost all leaves leaving bear stems; 80-100


9. some leaflets may be present but with severe leaf
spots.
Fig. 1. Modified 9-point scale for field evaluation of tikka disease of
groundnut
3.9 EFFECT OF TIKKA DISEASE SEVERITY ON CHLOROPHYLL
CONTENT, BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND POD YIELD AS
INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT SOWING DATES

3.9.1 Chlorophyll content

Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, contents were


determined following the modified dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) method described
by Nanja Reddy et al. (1990). Fresh leaves from five plants in each replication
were brought in an ice box from the field and were cut into small pieces.
Approximately 100 mg of leaves were added separately to the test tubes
containing 9 ml of DMSO along with one blank DMSO without adding any leaf
sample. The test tubes containing leaf bits and DMSO were kept on hot water bath
at 75-80˚C for 45 minutes. The test tubes were cooled and volume was made to 10
ml by adding DMSO to each test tube. The chlorophyll extract was transferred to
cuvet and optical density of the solutions was read with spectrophotometer at 645
and 663 nm by setting blank DMSO at 100 per cent transmittance. The chlorophyll
a, b and total chlorophyll (chlorophyll a + chlorophyll b) were calculated by the
formula and were expressed as mg per gram of fresh weight of leaf sample.

V 10000
Chlorophyll a = (12.7 X A663 - 2.69 X A 645) X ------------- X ------------------
(mg/g) 1000 Fresh weight

V 10000
Chlorophyll b = (22.9 X A645 - 4.65 X A663) X ------------- X ------------------
(mg/g) 1000 Fresh weight

V 10000
Total chlorophyll = (22.2 X A645 + (8.02 X A663) X ------------- X ------------------
(mg/g) 1000 Fresh weight
3.9.2 Effect of tikka disease severity on biochemical parameters as
influenced by different sowing dates

Three biochemical parameters viz., total sugars, total phenols and total
proteins were estimated. For this purpose leaf samples were collected at 30, 60 and
90 DAS. Leaf samples were collected from 5 plants selected at random from each
replication and were brought in ice cube box. Desired quantity for each parameter
was weighed and the samples were dipped in liquid nitrogen to arrest the
metabolic activities and later stored in -70˚C deep freezer for further use.

3.9.2.1 Total Sugars

Total sugar content was estimated by Anthrone Reagent method


(Sadasivam and Manickam, 1996).

Materials

- 2.5 N HCl

- Anthrone Reagent- 200 mg of anthrone was dissolved in 100ml ice cold 95


per cent H2SO4. The reagent was prepared fresh before use.

- Standard Glucose: 100mg of glucose was dissolved in 100 ml distilled


water. The working standard was prepared by dissolving 10 ml of stock to
90 ml distilled water.

Procedure

100 mg of the leaf sample was put in to boiling tube. The sample was
hydrolysed by keeping it in a boiling water bath for three hours with 5 ml of 2.5
N- HCl and later cooled to room temperature. The sample was neutralized with
solid sodium carbonate until the effervescence ceased. Then volume was made up
to 100 ml and centrifuged. The supernatant was collected and from this 0.5 ml and
1.0 ml aliquots were taken for the analysis. Standards were prepared by taking 0,
0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 ml of the working standard. ‘0’ served as blank. All the
aliquots were made up to 1 ml by adding distilled water. Then 4 ml of anthrone
reagent was added to each tube. The test tubes were heated for 8 minutes in a
boiling water bath. Then the test tubes were cooled rapidly and the green to dark
green colour developed was read at 630 nm. The standard graph was prepared by
plotting concentration of the standard on the X-axis versus absorbance on the Y-
axis. The amount of total sugar present in the sample from the standard graph.

3.9.2.2 Total Phenols

Materials

- 80 per cent Ethanol

- Folin-Ciocalteau reagent – Commercial grade reagent was diluted 1:1 with


water

- 20 per cent sodium Carbonate solution: 20 g of Na2CO3 was dissolved in


water and volume was made up to 100 ml

- Stock catechol solution: A stock of catechol solution was prepared


containing 1 mg catechol per ml of distilled water. This solution was
diluted by 1:10 to obtain 100 µg catechol per ml of distilled water

Procedure

Total phenol content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (Sadasivam


and Manickam, 1996). Eighty per cent ethanol was employed for efficient extraction.
One gram plant material (fresh) was ground in to five ml portion of 80 per cent ethanol
and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 20 minutes. The extract (supernatant) was pooled and
0.1 ml of the supernatant was evaporated on a water bath. Six ml of water was added to it
and shaken well followed by addition of 0.5 ml of Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. After 5
minutes 2 ml 20 % sodium carbonate was added to each tube and mixed thoroughly and
incubated for 30 minutes. The absorbance was measured at 650 nm. Using catechol
(phenol) as standard phenol content in the leaf extract was determined. For the estimation
of total phenol present in the sample, a standard graph was prepared using different
concentrations of catechol.

3.9.2.3Total Proteins

Materials

- 2 per cent sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in 0.1N NaOH (Reagent A)

- 0.5 per cent CuSO4.5H2O in 1.0 per cent potassium sodium tartrate
(Reagent B)

- Alkaline Copper solution: 50 ml of reagent A was mixed with 1ml of


Reagent B prior to use (Reagent C)

- Folin-Ciocalteau reagent – Commercial grade reagent was diluted 1:1 with


water

- Protein solution (Stock standard): 50 mg of bovine serum albumin was


weighed and it was dissolved in distilled water and the volume was made
up to 50 ml in a standard flask.

- Working standard: 10 ml of stock standard was diluted to 50 ml with


distilled water in a standard flask. One ml of the working standard thus had
200 µg proteins.

Procedure

Total protein content was estimated by using the method suggested by


Lowry et al. (1951). The leaf sample (500 mg) was taken in a pre-cooled mortar
and pestle. The sample was homogenized by adding 5 ml buffer. The homogenate
was centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 20 minutes at 4˚C. The supernatant served as
protein source. From the sample extract, 0.1 ml and 0.2 ml were drawn into
separate test tubes and the volume was made up to 1 ml by adding sterile distilled
water. A tube with 1 ml water served as blank. To each tube 5.0 ml of alkaline
copper solution was added and mixed well and allowed to stand for 10 minutes.
Then Folin-ciocalteau reagent (0.5 ml) was added, mixed well and incubated at
room temperature for 30 minutes in the dark. The blue colour developed was read
in spectrophotometer at 660 nm. Using a standard graph plotted from
concentrations of bovine serum albumin, the protein in the sample was estimated
and was expressed in mg/g of leaf sample.

3.9.3 Effect disease severity on pod yield

For the pod yield, all the plants at physiological maturity stage were pulled
out and the pods were separated from the plant and all the pods pulled together
and allowed to dry under sun. Data on pod yield were recorded after allowing the
pods to dry in sun for ten days after the harvest.

3.10 EVALUATION OF GROUNDNUT GERMPLASM FOR THEIR


REACTION TO TIKKA DISEASE

Screening of germplasm of groundnut (ICRISAT germplasm collections)


against tikka disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum was carried out to identify the sources of resistance. Totally 90
germplasm ICRISAT accessions and 6 local checks comprising of the varieties
TMV-2, JL-24 and GPBD-4 laid out in an experiment on AICRP on groundnut
varietal trial at ARS, Chintamani in 2008 and 2009 under natural conditions, were
screened for their resistance/susceptibility to tikka disease. The experiment was
laid out with Randomized Complete block design and replicated thrice. The
observations on disease severity were recorded at 90 DAS following the disease
scale mentioned earlier.
3.11 DISEASE MANAGEMENT TRIAL

3.11.1 In vitro evaluation of fungicides on inhibition of spore germination

Different concentrations of fungicides were studied in the distilled water


on germination of conidia of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum in vitro following ‘hanging drop’ method using cavity slides.
Different fungicides viz., mancozeb, chlorothalonil, tebuconazole, propiconazole,
carbendazim, difenoconazole and bitertanol at various concentrations viz., 10, 25,
50, 100 and 200ppm were tested. Spores were collected as described earlier and
stock solutions of the chemicals mentioned above were prepared and each one
diluted in double concentrations to achieve required concentrations when placed
on a clean and sterilized cavity slide with spore suspension. The slides were then
placed for 24 hour incubation in Petriplates lined with moistened coarse filter
paper to provide sufficient humidity. Three replications were maintained for each
concentration. Control was maintained with only distilled water. The per cent
germination of conidia was calculated on a count of a range of 150 to 200 conidia
for each replication of a treatment.

3.11.2 In vitro evaluation of botanical extracts on mycelial growth of Cercospora


arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Plant derivatives possessing pesticidal properties are gaining worldwide


importance as alternatives for the existing chemical pesticides because of spiraling
cost, environmental hazards and development of resistance by the pathogens.
These chemicals are also known to leave harmful residues on plants and also
deleterious effect on the existing ecosystem (Toriyama, 1972).

In the present investigation, evaluation of four different plant species for


the possible presence of fungitoxicant properties against Cercospora arachidicola
and Cercosporidium personatum was carried out in vitro. The four plant species
viz., Calotropis (Calotropis gigantea), Datura (Datura stramonium), Lantana
(Lantana camara) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were collected and used for
extracting the presence of antifungal substances if any. About 100 g. leaves of
each plant species selected was weighed. The leaves were washed in the tap water
and finally passed through sterile distilled water three times and later dried using
the blotting paper. These leaves cut into small pieces under aseptic condition. The
chopped leaves were crushed in a mixer grinder by adding 100 ml sterile distilled
water so as to maintain the ratio of leaves and sterile distilled water by 1:1 (weight
by volume). The sample was spun at low speed for 10-15 minutes till the material
was ground to fine texture. The blended material was then squeezed through a
sterile muslin cloth so as to get a crude liquid extract. The crude extract was
filtered through Whatman no. 1 filter paper. The filtrate was collected in sterilized
conical flasks and the flasks were sealed under aseptic condition and labeled
properly. The water extract was kept at 4˚C as stock solution in a refrigerator for
further use.

The extracts thus obtained were evaluated for their antifungal properties
against both the fungi in vitro using poisoned-food-technique as suggested by
Nene and Thapliyal (1982). Four concentrations viz., 5, 10, 20 and 30% of the
extracts of each plant species tested. For this purpose stock solutions of 5, 10, 20
and 30 ml were mixed in 95, 90, 80 and 70 ml of sterilized molten modified
Richard’s agar medium respectively, so as to get the respective concentrations.
The medium was shaken thoroughly for uniform mixing of the plant extract.

Twenty ml of the poisoned medium was poured into each of the 90 mm


Petriplates. Each plate was seeded with 5 mm mycelial discs taken from the
periphery of ten day old fungal culture and incubated at 25±1˚C till the growth of
the colony touches the periphery in the control plate. The disc was placed upside
down in the centre of the Petriplate, so that the mycelium was in direct contact
with the medium poisoned with the requisite plant extract at required
concentration. Four replications were maintained. Control was maintained without
the plant extracts. Radial growth of the fungi was measured after complete growth
of the pathogens (90 mm) was observed in control plates. The per cent inhibition
of mycelial growth over control was calculated by using the formula given by
Vincent (1927).

C-T
I = ------------------ X 100
C
Where ,
I = Per cent inhibition of mycelium
C= Growth of mycelium in control
T= Growth of mycelium in treatment

3.11.3 Field evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease of


groundnut cv. TMV-2 during kharif 2008 at Chintamani and 2009 at
Sadahalli

The experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of 2008 and 2009 at
two locations to study the comparative efficacy of different fungicides and a
botanical i.e. Neem leaf extract (2 per cent) against tikka disease of groundnut. In
2008 kharif season, it was conducted at ARS, Chintamani and in 2009 Kharif
season, the experiment was taken up at Sadahalli village. The experiment was laid
out in randomized block design with three replications. The details of the layout
of the experimental plot are as follows:

Design : Randomized Block Design


Replications : Three
Gross plot size : 3M X3M
Net plot size : 2.8 M X 2.8 M
Table 1. List of treatments imposed against tikka disease of groundnut

Sl. No. Treatments Trade name Concentration (%)

1. Mancozeb Indifil-M-45 0.25

2. Chlorothalonil Kavach 0.25

3. Carbendazim Bavistin 0.1

4. Propiconazole Tilt 0.1

5. Tebuconazole Folicur 0.1

6. Difenoconazole Score 0.1

7. Bitertanol Baycor 0.1

8. Neem leaf extract 2.0

9. Control

For the preparation of 2.0 per cent Neem leaf extract, 20.0 g of fresh Neem
leaves were collected from the field and washed thoroughly and macerated in a
mixer. The suspension was filtered through two layers of muslin cloth. Finally, the
volume of the filtrate was made up to 1 litre. To this and adhesive agent Tween-80
was added @ 1 ml per litre. All the treatments each being comprised of 4 sprays
were imposed after the appearance of the disease at 15 days interval till 75 DAS
starting from 30 DAS. Observations on disease intensity were recorded from
appearance of the disease at 10 days interval till 90 DAS as per the modified scale
mentioned by Subbarao et al. (1990). Data on yield parameters like pod yield and
haulm were recorded after allowing the pods and haulm to dry in sun for ten days
after the harvest.
Experimental Results
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Investigations on epidemiology and management aspects of tikka disease of


groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum
during the period under report were carried out and the results obtained thereon
are presented in this chapter.

4.1 SURVEY FOR THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF TIKKA


DISEASE OF GROUNDNUT DURING KHARIF 2008 AND
SUMMER 2009

Survey was conducted during kharif 2008 and summer 2009 in different
talukas of Tumkur, Chitradurga, Chikaballapura and Kolar districts to know the
severity of tikka disease in farmers' fields where groundnut was under cultivation
since more than three decades. The observations pertaining to this study are
presented in Tables 2a & b.

It was observed from table 2a that the age of the crop assessed for tikka
disease ranged from 60 to 90 days during kharif, 2008. The varieties used by the
farmers were different in different locations. The disease severity varied from 32
to 75 per cent. In Tumkur district, the crop period was 60-65 days and the intensity
of the disease varied from 32 to 40 per cent. Among the talukas in Tumkur district,
Pavagada taluka registered less disease severity (32 to 36 per cent) whereas the
disease severity was almost at par in Madhugiri and Koratagere talukas (35 to 40
per cent in Madhugiri and 36 to 40 per cent in Koratagere). In Chitradurga district
the disease severity was more (42 to 48 per cent) compared to Tumkur district
even though the age of the crop was same as that of Tumkur (60-65 days). Among
the talukas in Chitradurga district, Chellakere taluka registered more disease
severity (45 to 48 per cent) compared to Holalkere and Hiriyur taluks where the
disease severity ranged from 42 to 45 and 43 to 46 per cent respectively. In
Chikaballapura district, the crop was little aged (70 to 75 days) and the disease
severity ranged from 50 to 58 per cent. Among the talukas in Chikaballapura
district, Gouribidanoor taluka recorded disease severity of 51 to 56 per cent
whereas Gudibande and Bagepalli talukas were almost on par (55 to 58 percent in
Gudibande taluka and 50 to 58 per cent in Bagepalli taluka). In Kolar district the
disease was more severe (64 to 75 per cent). At the same time, the crop was more
aged (85 to 90 days). Among the talukas in Kolar district, Kolar taluka registered
the disease severity of 64 to 65 per cent whereas in Mulabagal taluka, the disease
severity ranged from 65 to 68 per cent. In Srinivasapura taluka, the disease
severity was more (72 to 75 per cent) compared to Kolar and Mulbagal.

From the above table, it was observed that the disease severity was more in
Kolar district (64 to 75 per cent) followed by Chikaballapura district (50 to 58 per
cent), Chitradurga district (42 to 48 per cent). Tumkur district had least disease
severity (32 to 40 percent) among all the districts surveyed. The disease severity
could also be reflected by the age of the crop as from the above table it was
observed that as the age of the crop advanced the disease severity also increased.

The survey for summer 2009 was undertaken in the same districts and same
taluks but in different villages based on the availability of groundnut cultivated
areas as very few pockets in the districts surveyed had groundnut crops under
protected irrigation facilities. From the survey results (Table 2b.) it was observed
that the disease severity was very less compared to kharif sown groundnut crop (5
to 18 per cent). The varieties used by the farmers were local. The age of the crop
during the survey period varied from 55 to 75 days. In Tumkur district the disease
severity varied from 5 to 10 per cent and the crop age ranged from 55 to 60 days.
Among the talukas surveyed in Tumkur district, the disease severity in Pavagada
and Madhugiri talukas ranged from 8 to 10 per cent whereas it was 5 to 6 per cent
in Koratagere taluka. In Chitradurga district, the crop surveyed was little old and
Table 2a. Survey for the incidence and severity of tikka disease of groundnut
caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum
during Kharif -2008 in Southern Karnataka.

Stage
Per cent
Name of the Name of the Name of the of the
Variety disease
District Taluk village crop
severity
(Days)
1.Nalladigalabande TMV-2 60-65 35
Pavagada 2. Kanvenhalli TMV-2 60-65 36
3. Neneganhalli TMV-2 60-65 32
1. Midigeshi TMV-2 60-65 40
Tumkur Madhugiri 2. Hosakere TMV-2 60-65 35
3. Jadaganhalli TMV-2 60-65 40
1. Koratagere TMV-2 60-65 40
Koratagere 2. Mukkanhalli TMV-2 60-65 38
3. Dasarahalli TMV-2 60-65 36
1. Holalakere Local 60-65 42
Holalkere 2. Hossuru Local 60-65 45
3. Kenchapura Local 60-65 42
1. Kalamarahalli Local 60-65 45
Chitradurga Chellakere 2. Kyathanamali Local 60-65 45
3. Hulikunte Local 60-65 48
1. S.D. Kote TMV-2 60-65 43
Hiriyur 2. Rangenhalli TMV-2 60-65 45
3. Bidarakere TMV-2 60-65 46
1. Hudugur TMV-2 70-75 51
Gouribidanoor 2. D. Pallya TMV-2 70-75 56
3. Badimaralur TMV-2 70-75 55
1. Yallanudu Local 70-75 56
Chikaballapura Gudibande 2. Chotaguntalli Local 70-75 58
3. Cholashettahalli Local 70-75 55
1. Ulooru Local 70-75 50
Bagepalli 2. Timmanhalli Local 70-75 55
3. Margangunte Local 70-75 58
1. Belaganahalli TMV-2 85-90 65
Kolar 2. Vittanpanhalli TMV-2 85-90 64
3. Haralakunte TMV-2 85-90 64
1. Guttalli Local 85-90 65
Kolar Mulabagal 2. Halekuppa Local 85-90 68
3. Bewalli Local 85-90 65
1. Alavatta Local 85-90 75
Srinivasapura 2. J. Timmasandra Local 85-90 72
3. Kullur Local 85-90 74
Table 2b. Survey for the incidence and severity of tikka disease of
groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola and
Cercosporidium personatum during Summer-2009 in Southern
Karnataka

Name of the Name of the Name of the Variety Stage of the Per cent
District Taluk village crop (Days) disease
severity
1.Nalladigalabande Local 55-60 8
Pavagada 2. Kanvenhalli Local 55-60 10
3. Neneganhalli Local 55-60 10
1. Midigeshi Local 55-60 10
Tumkur Madhugiri 2. Hosakere Local 55-60 8
3. Jadaganhalli Local 55-60 10
1. Koratagere Local 55-60 6
Koratagere 2. Mukkanhalli Local 55-60 6
3. Dasarahalli Local 55-60 5
Singalhalli Local 60-65 12
Holalkere Nulenuru Local 60-65 10
Tuppadahalli Local 60-65 6
Gopanahalli Local 60-65 8
Chitradurga Chellakere Sanikere Local 60-65 10
Chikkenhalli Local 60-65 10
Hosakere Local 60-65 10
Hiriyur Yeraballi Local 60-65 15
Dharmapura Local 60-65 12
Kenkare Local 60-65 15
Gouribidanoor H. Nagasandra Local 60-65 12
Hanumanhalli Local 60-65 12
Lekkanahalli Local 60-65 14
Chikaballapura Gudibande Uppakuntahalli Local 60-65 10
Beechaganahalli Local 60-65 12
Venkatapura Local 60-65 12
Bagepalli Gallahalli Local 60-65 14
Shivapura Local 60-65 10
Belaganahalli Local 70-75 10
Kolar Veettapanahalli Local 70-75 14
Huttur Local 70-75 12
Kadenhalli Local 70-75 12
Kolar Mulabagal Bandaralahalli Local 70-75 14
Tammareddyhalli Local 70-75 16
Byreganahalli Local 70-75 18
Srinivasapura Gownapalli Local 70-75 18
Lakshmipura Local 70-75 16
the disease severity ranged from 6 to 15 per cent. Among the talukas in
Chitradurga district, the disease severity in Holalkere taluka varied from 6 to 12
per cent whereas in Chellakere and Hiriyur talukas the disease severity range from
8 to 10 and 10 to 15 per cent respectively. Hiriyur taluka, the disease severity was
slightly more than the other two talukas. In Chikaballapura district, the crop age
was 60 to 65 days and disease severity varied from 10 to 15 per cent. Among the
talukas in Chikaballapura district, the disease severity in Gouribidanoor taluka
varied from 12 to 15 per cent whereas it was on par in Gudibande and Bagepalli
talukas (10 to 14 per cent). In Kolar district, the crop was little old and the disease
severity varied from 10 to 18 per cent. Among the talukas survey in Kolar district,
Kolar taluka registered the disease severity of 10 to 14 per cent whereas
Mulabagal had 12 to 16 per cent and it was 16 to 18 per cent in Srinivasapura
taluka which was more compared to all other talukas surveyed.

In general, the tikka disease of groundnut was prevalent and in severe form
in all the districts surveyed and there was increase in the disease severity as the
crop age progressed. The kharif sown crop had severe disease than that of summer
crop. The disease was found to be endemic to these locations.

4.2 SYMPTOMOTOLOGY AND CAUSAL ORGANISM

The development of the symptoms of tikka disease was closely monitored


at GKVK farm during kharif season of 2008 from the day symptoms began
appearing. In the beginning small chlorotic spots were noticed on the leaves
around 30-35 days after sowing (DAS). These spots in C. arachidicola later
developed into black lesions on the upper surface and were surrounded by
chlorotic halo whereas the corresponding lesion on the lower surface exhibited
light brown colour. The yellow halo was not found on the lower leaf surface
(Plates 1a & b). In case of late leaf spot caused by C. personatum, lesions were
smaller, more in number, almost circular and darker in colour than those of C.
Pl t 1 E l l f
Plate 1a.Early leaf spot (Adaxial surface) 
t (Ad i l f ) Plate 1b.Early leaf spot (Abaxial surface) 

Plate 1c.Late leaf spot (Adaxial surface)  Plate 1d.Late leaf spot  (Abaxial surface)

Plate 1. Symptoms of tikka disease on leaves
Plate 2. Tikka disease symptoms on stem and petioles
Plate 3a. Cercospora arachidicola Plate 3b. Cercosporidium personatum

Plate. 3. Conidia and stromata of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum
arachidicola. On the abaxial surface, the lesions were tan or carbon black and
slightly rough in appearance (Plate 1c & d). The lesions were also observed on
petioles, stems and pegs (Plate 2). The lesions were oval to elongate and with
more distinct margins than the leaflet lesions. In severe cases, affected leaflets
became necrotic, coalesced, leading to shedding of leaves. In very severe
conditions, extensive defoliation was noticed.

Conidiophores of C. arachidicola were brown, continuous or 1-2 septate,


unbranched and geniculate. The stromata were dark brown. Conidia were hyaline
or pale yellow, obclavate with rounded to distinctly truncate base and sub acute tip
(Plate 3a). In case of C. personatum, the conidiophores were brown, continuous,
sometimes 1-2 septate, unbranched and geniculate on the black stroma. Conidia
were obclavate to cylindrical, light coloured, 1-7 septate with bluntly rounded
ends (Plate 3b).

4.3 ISOLATION OF THE FUNGI

Standard tissue isolation technique was followed to obtain C. arachidicola


and Cercosporidium personatum from the infected groundnut leaves showing the
typical tikka leaf spot symptoms. Isolations were repeated several times to obtain
pure culture. The pure culture was maintained in the slants and kept in the
refrigerator for further use. However, the fungi failed to sporulate on the medium.

4.3.1 Proving the pathogenicity

Pathogenicity test was carried out as described under ‘Material and


Methods’ by inoculating homogenized mycelial bits on the foliage of 30 days old
groundnut plants. Five days after inoculation, the symptoms started appearing on
inoculated leaves.

In the beginning, the small chlorotic spots were noticed in the plants
inoculated with C. arachidicola. Later the spots started enlarging and developed
into black lesions on the upper surface and later the chlorotic halos surrounding
the black lesions were noticed. The abaxial leaf surface when observed for the
corresponding lesions, it was found that the lesions were slightly brown in colour
and the yellow halo was not present. The symptoms observed on the inoculated
plants were typical to the symptoms that were observed in the field conditions.

In C. personatum, initially the spots were chlorotic in the inoculated plants,


typical to that observed in C. arachidicola inoculated plants in the beginning.
Later, the spots started increasing in size and were regular in shape and turned
light brown in colour. On the abaxial surface the corresponding lesions were tan
black in colour. The symptoms observed on the inoculated plants were similar to
those observed in the field conditions. Plants which were not inoculated with
fungal spore suspension did not show any symptoms of the disease.

The reisolated cultures from these artificially inoculated and infected leaves
were similar to that of original culture.

4.4 CULTURAL STUDIES

The growth characters of the both the fungi were studied on 8 different solid
media viz., Asthana and Hawker’s agar, Czapek’s agar, Landers’ agar, Elliot’s
agar, Peanut oatmeal agar, Potato dextrose agar, Richard’s agar and Sabouraud’s
agar.

The cultural characteristics like colony characters, colour of the colony and
kind of mycelium of both the fungi were observed and described in Table 3. The
colony characteristics differed among the different media.

The colony of C. arachidicola on Asthana and Hawker’s agar was white to


light pink in colour having regular margin and the mycelium was cottony. On
Czapek’s agar, the colony was deep pink in colour having regular margin with the
growth raised at the centre. On Elliot’s agar, colony was white to light pink in
colour having regular margin and the mycelium was slightly fluffy. The colony on
Landers’ agar was white to light pink in colour and the margin was irregular.
Mycelium was slightly fluffy. On Potato dextrose agar, the colony was typically
purplish brown with concentric rings and has raised growth at the centre with
regular margin. The mycelium was fluffy. On Potato oatmeal agar, the colony was
white to light purplish with regular margin and the mycelium was fluffy. The
colony on Richard’s agar was whitish pink with regular margin and the mycelium
was fluffy. Colony on Sabouraud’s agar was light pinkish and the margin was
highly irregular. The growth was slow and it was raised at margin having
concentric rings with brown ooze droplets (Plate 4a).

In case of C. personatum, the colony on Asthana and Hawker’s agar was


white to very light pinkish, slightly depressed with regular margin and raised
whitish growth at the centre. On Czapek’s agar, colony was deep orange and
whitish at the centre having regular margin. The mycelium was slightly fluffy. The
colony on Elliot’s agar was white and compressed. The margin was regular and
had concentric light pink rings. On Landers’ agar, the colony was white,
compressed with light pigments. The margin was regular and the mycelium was
fluffy. The colony on Potato dextrose agar was deep pink with regular margin
having concentric rings. The Mycelium was slightly fluffy whereas on the Peanut
oat meal agar the colony was white to light purple, raised at centre and the margin
was regular. The mycelium was slightly fluffy. The colony on Richard’s agar was
whitish pink, smooth. The margin was regular and was concentric with white
pigments. On Sabouraud’s agar, the colony was white to light pink with wavy and
raised at margin. The colony was concentric, smooth and white (Plate 4b).
Table 3. Cultural characteristics of Cercospora arachidicola and
Cercosporidium personatum on eight solid media

Cultural characteristics
Media
Cercospora arachidicola Cercosporidium personatum

Asthana and Colony is white to light pink Colony is white to very light
Hawker’s agar with regular margin pinkish with regular margin

Colony is deep pink with Colony is deep orange and whitish


Czapek’s agar regular margin and has at the centre with regular margin.
raised growth Mycelium is slightly fluffy

Colony is white to light pink Colony is white with regular


Elliot’s agar having regular margin and margin and compressed. It has
mycelium is slightly fluffy concentric light pink rings

Colony is white to light pink Colony is white with regular


Landers’ agar with irregular margin and margin and fluffy and is
mycelium is slightly fluffy compressed with light pigments

Colony is purplish brown


Colony is deep pink with regular
Potato dextrose with concentric rings and
margin having concentric rings.
agar has raised growth with
Mycelium is slightly fluffy
regular margin

Colony is white to light purple


Colony is white to light
Peanut oatmeal with regular margin and raised at
purplish with regular margin
agar centre. The mycelium is slightly
and the mycelium is fluffy
fluffy

Colony is whitish pink with Colony whitish pink, smooth with


Richard’s agar regular margin and the regular margin and is concentric
mycelium is fluffy with white pigments

Colony is light pinkish with


Colony is white to light pink and
highly irregular margin. It
Sabouraud’s has wavy margin, raised at margin.
has slow growth raised at
agar The colony is concentric, smooth
margin with brown ooze
and white.
droplets and is concentric
AHA CZA LA
EA AHA CZA EA LA

PDA POA RA SA PDA POA RA SA

Plate 4a. Cercospora arachidicola  Plate 4b. Cercosporidium personatum

Plate 4. Cultural characteristics of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium 
p
personatum on eight solid media
g
From the observation it was found that the two fungi varied among each
other on individual medium in their colony characteristics and also the colony
characteristics of individual fungus differed among the different media.

The growth of C. arachidicola and C. personatum was recorded by


measuring the radial growth of the colony on different media and the data are
presented in Tables 4a & b and Fig. 2a & b.

The data on the growth revealed that the growth of the fungus C.
arachidicola was statistically varying on all media tested on all the incubated
days. Maximum growth (90.00 mm) of C. arachidicola was recorded on 10th day
of incubation on Richard’s agar, Potato dextrose agar and Peanut oatmeal agar.
This was followed by the growth on Asthana and Hawker’s agar medium (84.00
mm). However, the growth on Czapek’s agar (83.00 mm) was on par with growth
on Asthana and Hawker’s agar. The least growth of the fungus was noticed in
Sabouraud’s agar (53.00 mm) followed by Landers’ agar (63.33 mm) and Elliot’s
agar (72.67 mm).

In case of C. personatum, maximum growth of 90.00 mm was recorded in


Richard’s agar and Potato dextrose agar on 10th day of incubation followed by
Sabouraud’s agar (88.00 mm) which was statistically on par with the above two
media. Whereas the growth of the fungus on Peanut oatmeal agar was 85.33 mm
which was on par with Czapek’s agar (83.33mm) and Asthana and Hawker’s agar
(82.00mm). The least growth of the fungus was noticed on Landers’ agar
(78.00mm).

From the above results it was found that the growth of both the fungi was
superior on Richard’s agar as the growth of both the fungi was faster compared to
all other media tested followed by Potato dextrose agar and Peanut oatmeal agar.
The least growth of C. arachidicola was noticed on Sabouraud’s agar in contrast
Table 4a. Effect of different solid media on the growth of Cercospora
arachidicola 

Radial growth (mm Ø)


Media
2nd 4th 6th 8th 10th

Asthana and Hawker’s agar 16.67 25.33 47.33 73.33 84.00

Czapek’s agar 16.33 24.33 51.33 71.67 83.00

Elliot’s agar 12.67 20.67 42.00 61.33 72.67

Landers’ agar 11.33 18.67 37.33 54.00 63.33

Potato dextrose agar 11.67 19.67 55.00 82.67 90.00

Peanut oatmeal agar 17.33 25.67 49.33 76.33 90.00

Richard’s agar 19.67 28.67 64.67 87.33 90.00

Sabouraud’s agar 16.67 25.67 38.67 49.33 53.00

SEm± 0.88 0.97 1.35 1.62 1.63

CD (P=0.05) 2.64 2.91 4.05 4.86 4.89

 
Table 4b. Effect of different solid media on the growth of Cercosporidium
personatum

Radial growth (mm Ø)


Media
2nd 4th 6th 8th 10th

Asthana and Hawker’s agar 13.33 18.67 35.67 67.67 82.00

Czapek’s agar 20.33 25.67 53.00 75.33 83.33

Elliot’s agar 16.00 22.00 42.33 69.00 80.33

Landers’ agar 18.33 24.33 44.67 65.33 78.00

Potato dextrose agar 17.67 23.67 56.67 76.67 90.00

Peanut oatmeal agar 20.33 26.67 49.33 71.67 85.33

Richard’s agar 23.67 30.33 62.33 84.33 90.00

Sabouraud’s agar 21.67 29.33 54.67 77.33 88.00

SEm± 0.99 0.99 1.34 0.96 1.26

CD (P=0.05) 2.96 2.96 4.02 2.88 3.78

 
Fig. 2a. Effect of different solid media on the growth of Cercospora
arachidicola

Fig. 2b. Effect of different solid media on the growth of Cercosporidium


personatum
to C. personatum which showed a better growth on Sabouraud’s agar. However,
both the fungi grew least on Landers’ agar as observed from the results. In general,
the growth of the fungus C. personatum was fast than C. arachidicola and the
growth of both the fungi was fast on Richard’s agar compared to other media.

Growth phase

The experiment was conducted as detailed in ‘Material and Methods’ to


ascertain the period at which the maximum growth of fungus could occur. Since
the growth of the fungi (Tables 4a & b) was best on Richard’s agar, the same
synthetic medium was selected in this study to record the dry mycelial weight at
two days interval from the 2nd day of incubation to 24th day of incubation.

The data are presented in Table 5 and Fig. 3. From the data, it was noticed
that, the growth of both the fungi started increasing as the incubation periods
increased and both the fungi yielded statistically maximum dry mycelium (435.33
mg in C. arachidicola and 509.33 mg in C. personatum) on 16th day of incubation
period. The growth of both the fungi showed an increasing trend (Fig.3) till 16th
day of incubation period and thereafter the growth started declining. From the
table it was also found that the growth of the fungus C. personatum was superior
compared to C. arachidicola as the dry mycelium harvested on all the incubation
period was more in C. personatum than in C. arachidicola.

As the maximum growth was observed on 16th day of incubation, this


period was used as a maximum growth period for further physiological and
nutritional studies.
Table 5. Growth pattern of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum at different intervals (Growth phase)

Dry mycelial weight (mg)


Incubation period
(days)
Cercospora arachidicola Cercosporidium personatum

2 92.33 163.67

4 103.67 195.00

6 157.67 225.00

8 188.33 315.33

10 245.33 352.00

12 319.33 416.33

14 356.67 447.67

16 435.33 509.33

18 348.67 462.00

20 309.67 423.33

22 253.33 346.67

24 203.67 287.00

S.Em± 11.03 9.94

CD (P=0.05) 32.20 29.01

Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth

 
Fig. 3. Growth pattern of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum at different intervals (Growth
phase)

Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth


4.5 NUTRITIONAL STUDIES

4.5.1 Carbon utilization

This experiment was carried out to study the utilization of various carbon
sources by the fungus. Eight carbon sources were used in the study as given in
‘Material and Methods’. The dry mycelium was harvested after 16 days of
incubation period. The data are presented in Table 6 and Fig. 4.

From the table was observed that maximum and statistically significant dry
mycelium (420.67 mg) of the fungus C. arachidicola was harvested when
cellulose was used as carbon source. The next carbon source preferred by this
fungus was mannitol (268.33 mg). However, mannitol was not statistically on par
with cellulose. The dry mycelial weights harvested on sucrose (173.33 mg),
mannose (167.67 mg) and fructose (164.67 mg) were on par with each other. The
least dry mycelium (134.33 mg) was harvested when dextrose was used as carbon
source followed by galactose (149.33 mg) and arabinose (154.67 mg).

Same trend was noticed in case of C. personatum. Maximum and


statistically significant dry mycelium (527.67 mg) was harvested when cellulose
was used as carbon source followed by the carbon source mannitol (282.67 mg),
sucrose (223.00 mg) and mannose (190.33 mg). However, the latter three carbon
sources were not on par with the carbon source cellulose. The least dry mycelial
weight (144.67 mg) was harvested when dextrose was used as carbon source.
However, the carbon sources galactose (153.33 mg), arabinose (165.33 mg) and
fructose (181.33 mg) were on par with the carbon source dextrose.

The data on carbon sources revealed that the carbon source cellulose when
used as carbon source yielded maximum and statistically superior growth in terms
of dry mycelial weight for both the fungi (420.67 mg and 527.67 mg for C.
arachidicola and C. personatum respectively). Both the fungi gave least growth
Table 6. Effect of different carbon sources on the growth of Cercospora
arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Dry mycelial weight (mg)


Carbon sources
Cercospora arachidicola Cercosporidium personatum

Dextrose 134.33 144.67

Galactose 149.33 153.33

Fructose 164.67 181.33

Cellulose 420.67 527.67

Sucrose 173.33 223.00

Arabinose 154.67 165.33

Mannose 167.67 190.33

Mannitol 268.33 282.67

S.Em± 9.82 12.85

CD (P=0.05) 29.44 38.53

 
Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth

 
Fig. 4. Effect of different carbon sources on the growth of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth


(134.33 mg and 144.67 mg in case of C. arachidicola and C. personatum
respectively) when dextrose used as carbon source. In general it was also observed
that the growth of the fungus C. personatum was superior compared to C.
arachidicola on all the carbon sources tested.

4.5.2 Nitrogen utilization

In the present investigation, the utilization of eight nitrogen sources by the


fungus was tested as detailed in the ‘Material and Methods’. The dry mycelium
was harvested after 16 days of incubation period. The results of the experiment
are presented in Table 7 and Fig. 5.

The results indicated that the fungus C. arachidicola yielded maximum


dry mycelium (263.33 mg) when peptone was used as nitrogen source followed by
the nitrogen source calcium nitrate (244.33 mg) which was statistically on par with
peptone. The nitrogen sources potassium nitrate (239.33 mg) and urea (231.33 mg)
were on par with each other followed by ammonium sulphate (167.33 mg),
asparagine (161.33 mg) and ammonium nitrate (143.67 mg) which were
statistically on par. The least and highly negligible dry mycelium weight (20.00
mg) was harvested on sodium nitrate.

In case of fungus C. personatum, maximum dry mycelium (345.67 mg)


was harvested when peptone was used as nitrogen source which was statistically
significant compared to all other nitrogen sources. This was followed by the
nitrogen source calcium nitrate (293.33 mg). However, the nitrogen sources viz.,
ammonium nitrate (267.00 mg) and potassium nitrate (260.33 mg) were on par
with calcium nitrate. The other nitrogen sources viz., ammonium sulphate (232.67
mg), asparagine (227.00 mg) and urea (221.33 mg) were on par. The least and
highly negligible dry mycelium weight (20.00 mg) was harvested when sodium
nitrate was used as nitrogen source.
Table 7. Effect of different nitrogen sources on the growth of Cercospora
arachidicola and Cercosoporidium personatum

Dry mycelial weight (mg)


Nitrogen sources
Cercospora arachidicola Cercosoporidium personatum

Ammonium nitrate 143.67 267.00

Ammonium sulphate 167.33 232.67

Calcium nitrate 244.33 293.33

Potassium nitrate 239.33 260.33

Sodium nitrate 20.00 20.00

Asparagine 161.33 227.00

Urea 231.33 221.33

Peptone 263.33 345.67

S.Em± 7.63 11.58

CD (P=0.05) 22.88 34.72

 
Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth

 
Fig. 5. Effect of different nitrogen sources on the growth of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth


It was concluded from the results that both the fungi yielded maximum dry
mycelial weight when peptone was used as nitrogen source followed by calcium
nitrate. The least and highly negligible growth of both the fungi was noticed when
sodium nitrate was used as nitrogen source. The growth of the fungus C.
personatum was superior compared to C. arachidicola.

4.6 PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES

4.6.1 Effect of different temperature levels on the growth of the fungi

Effect of temperature on the growth of the fungi was studied as explained


in ‘Material and Methods’. The dry mycelium was harvested after 16 days of
incubation period. The data of the results are presented in Table 8 and Fig. 6.

The results indicated that the maximum and statistically significant dry
mycelial weight (362.67 mg) of the fungus C. arachidicola was harvested at a
temperature of 25˚C followed by at a temperature of 30˚C (281.33 mg) and at
20˚C (279.67 mg) which were on par with each other. At 15˚C the dry mycelium
weight obtained was 221.33 mg followed by at 35˚C (190.00 mg) and a 10˚C
(146.00 mg). The least growth of the fungus in terms of dry mycelical weight was
obtained at 5˚C (75.00 mg) followed by at 40˚C (89.67 mg). However, none of the
treatments was statistically on par with each other.

In case of C. personatum, maximum and significant dry mycelial weight


was obtained at a temperature of 25˚C (410.33 mg) followed by at a temperature
of 30˚C (323.00 mg) and at 20˚C (317.67 mg). The latter two treatments were on
par with each other. At a temperature of 15˚C the dry mycelial weight obtained
was 257.00 mg followed by at 35˚C (209.33 mg) and at 10˚C (172.67 mg). The
least dry mycelial weight was obtained at temperature of 5˚C (87.00 mg) followed
by at 40˚C (108.33 mg).
Table 8. Effect of different temperature levels on the growth of Cercospora
arachidicola and Cercosoporidium personatum

Dry mycelial weight (mg)


Temperature levels
(˚C)
Cercospora arachidicola Cercosoporidium personatum

5 75.00 87.00

10 146.00 172.67

15 221.33 257.00

20 279.67 317.67

25 362.67 410.33

30 281.33 323.00

35 190.00 209.33

40 89.67 108.33

S.Em± 2.88 4.59

CD (P=0.05) 8.64 13.76

Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth


Fig. 6. Effect of different temperature levels on the growth of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum

Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth


Thus from the above results it can be concluded that the optimum
temperature for the good growth of both the fungi in terms of dry mycelial weight
was 20 to 30˚C with a temperature of 25˚C was best for maximum growth.

4.6.2 Effect of different hydrogen-ion concentrations on the growth of the


fungi

The experiment was carried out to know the effect of pH on the growth of
the fungi. The growth of the fungi was on eight pH levels as detailed in ‘Material
and Methods’. The dry mycelium was harvested after 16 days of incubation
period. The results are presented in Table 9 and Fig. 7.

At a pH level of 6, the fungus C. arachidicola yielded maximum dry


mycelium (392.33 mg) followed by at a pH level of 5 (360.00 mg) which were
statistically at par with each other. This was followed by the dry mycelial weight
harvested at pH 4 (332.33 mg) and at pH 7 (326.67 mg) which were statistically
on par with each other. The dry mycelial weight obtained at pH 3 (276.33 mg) was
not significantly on par with any of the treatments. However, the dry mycelial
weight obtained at pH 8 (180.33 mg) and at pH 9 (151.67 mg) were on par with
each other. The least dry mycelial weight of the fungus was harvested at pH of 2
(124.67 mg).

The fungus C. personatum at pH level of 5, produced maximum dry


mycelium (459.67 mg) followed by at pH level of 4 (428.33 mg) which were
statistically on par with each other. The dry mycelial weight harvested at pH 6
(416.67 mg) and at pH 7 (397.33 mg) were statistically on par with each other.
However, the dry mycelium harvested at pH 3 (296.67 mg) was not on par with
any of the treatments whereas the dry mycelium harvested at pH 8 (193.67 mg)
and at pH 9 (172.67 mg) were on par with each other. The least growth was
observed at pH 2 (131.67 mg).
Table 9. Effect of different pH levels on the growth of Cercospora
arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Dry mycelial weight (mg)


pH levels
Cercospora arachidicola Cercosporidium personatum

2 124.67 131.67

3 276.33 296.67

4 332.33 428.33

5 360.00 459.67

6 392.33 416.67

7 326.67 397.33

8 180.33 193.67

9 151.67 172.67

S.Em± 12.95 13.35

CD
(P=0.05) 38.83 40.03

Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth

 
Fig. 7. Effect of different pH levels on the growth of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Note: Standard medium used was Richard’s broth


From the above results it was concluded that the fungus C. arachidicola
yielded maximum dry mycelium at pH of 6 with optimum being 4 to 7 whereas
the maximum dry mycelium of the fungus C. personatum was obtained at pH 5
with optimum being 4 to 7. Thus both the fungi preferred the optimum pH range
of 4 to 7.

4.7 SPORE GERMINATION STUDIES

4.7.1 Effect of different incubation periods on conidial germination of


Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

The studies on the effect of different incubation period on spore


germination of both the fungi were carried out as described in ‘Material and
Methods’. The per cent germination of conidia was recorded after 6, 9, 12, 15, 18,
21, 24 and 48 hr of incubation. The results of the data are presented in Table 10
and Fig. 8.

The results indicated that spores of C. arachidicola started germinating at 6


hours of incubation and the germination went on increasing till 48 hours of
incubation. Maximum germination of the spores was noticed at 48 hours of
incubation (92.43 per cent). The minimum germination was noticed at 6 hours of
incubation (2.93 per cent).

Similarly in the fungus C. personatum, the spore germination was noticed


at 6 hours of incubation and the germination started increasing till 48 hours of
incubation. Maximum spore germination was noticed at 48 hours of incubation
(94.26 per cent) whereas the minimum was observed at 6 hours of incubation
(3.56 per cent).

From the above results it can be concluded that the maximum germination
in both the fungi was observed at 48 hours of incubation. In general the
Table 10. Effect of different incubation periods on spore germination of
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Germination (%)
Incubation periods
(hours)
Cercospora arachidicola Cercosporidium personatum

6 2.93 3.56

9 8.62 11.93

12 38.69 46.63

15 51.02 56.49

18 64.61 68.34

21 85.26 90.68

24 90.77 92.62

48 92.43 94.26

S.Em± 0.64 0.33

CD (P=0.05) 1.92 0.99

 
Fig. 8. Effect of different incubation periods on spore germination of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum
Plate 5a. Cercospora arachidicola  Plate 5b. Cercosporidium personatum

Plate  5. Germinated spores of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum
germination percentage was found to be more in C. personatum compared to C.
arachidicola at all levels of incubation periods (Plate 5a and 5b).

4.7.2 Effect of temperature levels on the germination of conidia

The effect of different temperature levels on spore germination was studied


as per the description presented in ‘Material and Methods’. The slides were
incubated for 24 hr at different temperature levels viz., 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35
and 40˚C. The results are given in Table 11 and Fig. 9.

From the table it was observed that the germination of both the fungi did
not start at 5˚C but started at 10˚C and reached maximum at 25˚C and thereon the
germination decreased.

In case of C. arachidicola, the maximum and statistically significant


germination (89.84 per cent) was observed at 25˚C. This was followed by at 20˚C
(82.04 per cent), 15˚C (62.38 per cent) and at 30˚C (60.51 per cent). The
germination at 10˚C (4.11 per cent) and at 35˚C (5.26 per cent) were statistically
on par with each other. As mentioned earlier no germination was noticed at 5˚C.

In the fungus C. personatum, statistically significant and maximum


germination (93.76 per cent) was recorded at 25˚C. This was followed by at 20˚C
(87.57 per cent), at 15˚C (67.45 per cent) and at 30˚C (58.70 per cent). The
germination at 10˚C (6.27 per cent) and at 35˚C (7.23 per cent) were statistically
on par with each other. No germination was observed at 5˚C.

From the above results it was concluded that the germination of both the
fungi was noticed from 10 to 35˚C with optimum being 15 to 25˚C. Maximum
germination of both the fungi was observed at 25˚C. The germination of C.
personatum was superior to the germination of C. arachidicola.
Table 11. Effect of different temperature levels on spore germination of
Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

Germination (%)
Temperature levels
(˚C)
Cercospora arachidicola Cercosporidium personatum

5 0.00 (4.05) 0.00 (4.05)

10 4.11 (12.39) 6.27 (15.09)

15 62.38 (52.46) 67.45 (55.52)

20 82.04 (65.30) 87.57 (69.79)

25 89.84 (71.90) 93.76 (76.13)

30 60.51 (51.36) 58.70 (50.30)

35 5.26 (13.89) 7.23 (16.14)

40 0.90 (6.80) 0.89 (6.77)

S.Em± 0.52 0.55

CD (P=0.05) 1.56 1.65

Note: Figures in parenthesis area arcsine transformed values 

 
Fig. 9. Effect of different temperature levels on spore germination of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum
4.8 EPIDEMIOLGY

A field experiment was taken up on DOS involving two varieties viz.,


TMV-2 (highly susceptible) and GPBD-4 (resistant). There were 9 sowing dates
starting from December 2008 to August 2009 at an interval of one month. This
field trial was conducted without protected sprays to know the

1. Effect of different sowing dates on the severity of tikka disease.


2. Role of weather parameters on the severity of disease

The details of the field trial have been explained in ‘Material and Methods’.
The results of the experiment are hereunder:

4.8.1 Effect of different sowing dates on the severity of tikka disease.

The disease severity was recorded at different intervals and from 30 DAS
of the groundnut crop. The disease severity was recorded at 30, 60 and 90 DAS of
crop. The details of methodology are given in ‘Material and Methods’. The results
are represented in Tables 12a & b and fig. 10.

From the data on the disease severity in TMV-2 (Table 12a) it was
observed that at 30DAS, the disease severity was negligible as the disease severity
ranged from 0.10 per cent to 0.80 per cent. At 60 DAS, maximum disease severity
(23.33 per cent) was noticed in August sown crop followed by July (13.50 per
cent) sown crop. The least disease severity (1.63 per cent) was observed in March
sown crop followed by April (5.07 per cent), January (6.77 per cent), May (7.13
per cent) and February (7.73 per cent) sown crops. At 90 DAS, maximum and
significantly highest disease was recorded in August sown crop (71.07 per cent)
followed by July (63.90 per cent), June (58.77 per cent) and May (53.30 per cent)
sown crops. Least disease severity (18.57 per cent) was noticed in March sown
crop. Disease severity of January (34.40 per cent), February (35.07 per cent) and
April (35.37 per cent) sown crops were statistically on par whereas the disease
severity of December sown crop (33.20 per cent) was very close to the above
sowing dates.

From the data represented in Table 12b on the disease severity in the
variety GPBD-4 it was observed at 30 DAS that the disease severity was
negligible as the disease severity ranged from 0.00 per cent to 0.57 per cent. There
was no disease in December, January, February, March, April and August sown
crops whereas the May and July sown crop recorded 0.57 per cent of disease
followed by 0.33 per cent of disease in June sown crop. At 60 DAS, the disease
severity did not cross 7.00 per cent. Maximum disease severity (6.70 per cent) was
recorded in August sown crop which was statistically significant over all other
sowing dates. This was followed by June (2.40 per cent) and July (2.20 per cent)
sown crop which were on par with each other. The least disease severity (1.53 per
cent) was observed in March sown crop. However, this was on par with December
(2.23 per cent), January (1.63 per cent), (1.57 per cent), (1.93 per cent) and May
(1.73 per cent) sown crops. At 90 DAS, maximum and significantly highest
disease was recorded in August sown crop (19.00 per cent) followed by July
(15.40 per cent), June (13.73 per cent) and May (9.93 per cent) sown crops. The
least disease severity (3.53 per cent) was noticed in March sown crop. The disease
severity of December (5.20 per cent) January (5.27 per cent), and April (5.27 per
cent) sown crops were statistically on par whereas the disease severity of February
sown crop (6.53 per cent) was very close to the above sowing dates.

From the figures (Fig. 11a & b) depicting the results on the severity disease
it can be concluded that the disease was negligible at 30 DAS. The disease was
progressing as the crop age started increasing. The disease was more severe in
susceptible variety (TMV-2) whereas the variety GPBD-4 had very minimum
disease intensity indicating its resistance to the tikka disease. The summer month
Table 12a. Severity of tikka disease in groundnut var. TMV-2 as influenced
by different sowing dates

Disease severity (%)


Sowing
Dates
30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS

December 0.20 (4.80) 10.17 (19.06) 33.20 (35.49)

January 0.13 (4.56) 6.77 (15.64) 34.40 (36.21)

February 0.17(4.68) 7.73 (16.67) 35.07 (36.61)

March 0.10 (4.44) 1.63 (8.40) 18.57 (25.89)

April 0.23 (4.91) 5.07 (13.65) 35.37 (36.79)

May 0.77 (6.46 7.13 (16.04) 53.30 (47.18)

June 0.37 (5.34) 9.53 (18.47) 58.77 (50.34)

July 0.80 (6.55) 13.50 (21.97) 63.90 (53.37)

August 0.37 (5.34) 23.33 (29.22) 71.07 (57.78)

SEm± 0.30 0.19 0.37

CD (P=0.05) 0.89 0.57 1.11

Note: Figures in parenthesis area arcsine transformed values

    DAS ‐ Days after sowing 
Table 12b. Severity of tikka disease in groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced
by different sowing dates

Disease severity (%)


Sowing Dates
30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS

December 0.00 (4.05) 2.23 (9.52) 5.20 (13.81)

January 0 .00 (4.05) 1.60 (8.33) 5.27 (13.89)

February 0 .00 (4.05) 1.60 (8.33) 6.53 (15.38)

March 0 .00 (4.05) 1.53 (8.20) 3.53 (11.59)

April 0 .00 (4.05) 2.00 (9.10) 5.27 (13.89)

May 0.57 (5.93) 1.57 (8.27) 9.93 (18.84)

June 0.33 (5.24) 2.40 (9.80) 13.73 (22.16)

July 0.57 (5.93) 2.20 (9.46) 15.40 (23.50)

August 0 .00 (4.05) 6.70 (15.56) 19.00 (26.21)

SEm± 0.15 0.24 0.24

CD (P=0.05) 0.45 0.72 0.72

Note: Figures in parenthesis area arcsine transformed values

DAS ‐ Days after sowing
Fig. 10. Development of tikka disease severity in TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as influenced by
different sowing dates (Note: DAS- Days after sowing)
Plate 6a. March month sown crop involving two varieties (70 Days after sowing)
Plate 6b. May month sown crop involving two varieties (40 Days After sowing)
Plate  6c. June month sown crop involving two varieties (90 Days after sowing)
crops of groundnut had very less disease compared to the kharif sown crops
(Plates 6a, b & c).

4.8.2 Role of weather parameters on the severity of tikka disease as


influenced by different sowing dates

The results of the table (Table 13) revealed that the disease severity in
December sown crop was less than 2 per cent (1.83 per cent) till 57 days after
sowing and increased by 6 folds (11.58%) during the crop period of 64 days;
thereafter disease severity increased steadily up to 34.10 % in 92 day old crop.

There was no considerable fluctuation in the recorded weather parameters


during the crop growth period (December sown crop). Maximum RH fluctuated
between 55.71 and 72.14 per cent, while minimum RH varied from 32.57 to 59.14
per cent. The maximum temperature varied from 25.50 to 34.29°C while the
minimum temperature ranged from 9.43 to 13.43°C and no rainfall during the
period.

In January sown crop, disease severity was negligible till 63 days after
sowing. During the subsequent period, there was a sudden increase in severity
(14.70 per cent at 70 DAS), which steadily increased as the crop period advanced.
Maximum disease severity (34.85 per cent) was noticed when the crop was 91
days old. During the crop growth period the maximum RH was 55.71 to 75.00 per
cent and higher RH values were recorded during the later stages of crop growth
period. The minimum RH varied from 36.14 to 59.14 per cent. The maximum
temperature was less in the initial phase (~31°C) and in the later stages it was more
(33 to 34°C). Similar trend was observed in case of minimum temperature. Initially
the temperature was less (10.57 to 13.43°C) and later it showed increasing trend
(13.57 to 18.29°C). The rainfall was almost negligible except during the crop
growth period of 71 to 77 days where it recorded 30.00 mm. It is noticed that the
age rather than the weather parameters which influenced the disease severity
except the maximum RH which was high during the later stages of crop growth
and during which the disease severity was high.

The disease severity trend in February sown crop showed the similar trend
as that as that of January sown crop. The disease severity in the initial stages was
very low. It was around 7.73 per cent when the crop age was around 60 days.
Afterwards, the disease started increasing and reached maximum (36.18 per cent)
when the crop age was 95 days. Maximum RH was found to be maximum (75 per
cent) in the initial phase of crop growth (40- 46 days) while minimum of 49.86 per
cent was recorded when the crop age was between 68 and 74 days, the later stage
of crop growth. There was a general descending trend in minimum RH recorded
along with the crop growth period (35.57 to 38.00 per cent). The maximum
temperature was less during the early crop growth period (32.86 to 34.29°C) and it
was more (33.57 to 35.57˚C) during the end period of crop growth. Minimum
temperature ranged from 13.43 to 18.29°C and in later stages it was more (18.57 to
20.57°C). Rainfall was high at the later stages of the crop. It was observed that in
the later stages the maximum RH, minimum RH were minimum while there was
increase in maximum and minimum temperature.

In the March sown crop, disease severity was least among all the sowing
dates. Till 81 days of crop growth period, the disease severity was below 10 per
cent, and it reached the maximum of 19.31 per cent when the crop was around 95
days old. From the weather parameters recorded, it was observed the maximum
RH varied from 49.86 per cent to 70.86 per cent and it was more during later
stages of crop growth. The minimum RH ranged between 34.86 and 55.43 per
cent. The maximum temperature was high almost throughout the growth period. It
ranged from 29.71 to 35.57°C. The minimum temperature range was between
18.29 and 20.86°C. The rainfall was high towards crop end phase.
In April sown crop, the disease severity was very low (6.79 per cent) till the
crop age was 64 days. Afterwards, the disease increased rapidly (13.07 per cent) in
the immediate week (the crop age was 71 days) and then increased steadily and
maximum disease severity (35.86 per cent) was noticed when the crop attained an
age of 92 days. The later stage of the crop had entered the kharif season. The
weather parameters recorded during this period indicated that the maximum RH
between 60.43 and 73.71 per cent and the later stages of the crop had more RH.
Similarly, the minimum RH ranged from 34.86 to 56.29 per cent. The initial stages
of crop had less minimum RHs compared to the later stages of the crop whereas
minimum temperature ranged from 29.29 to 33.57˚C. The temperature was more
during the initial stages of crop growth and then temperature started decreasing
with the increase in the crop age. Not much variation was noticed in the rainfall
pattern. Maximum and minimum RHs were high and the maximum and minimum
temperatures were lower in the later stages of crop growth.

In the May sown crop, the disease severity in the beginning had the same
trend as that of the above sown crops and it was 8.64 per cent till the crop age was
62 days. Thereafter, the disease severity increased steadily and maximum disease
severity (53.30 per cent) was noticed when the crop age was 90 days. The growth
period of the crop especially later stages had already entered the kharif season.
The weather parameters indicated that the maximum RH varied between 65.14 and
77.00 per cent and the RH was high during the later stages of crop growth. The
minimum RH ranged from 48.33 to 61.71 per cent. Maximum temperature was
little high during the initial phase of crop growth (30.14 to 31.29˚C) and was less
in the later stages of crop period (27.57 to 28.14˚C). The minimum temperature
varied between 19.71 to 20.43˚C and it remained constant between 19 and 20˚C.
The rainfall varied from 0.00mm to 41.40mm.
In the June sown crop, the disease severity trend in the initial phase of crop
growth was similar to that of above crops and it was below 10 per cent (9.53 per
cent) till the crop was almost 60 days old. Then there was steady increase in the
disease severity and the maximum disease severity (62.85 per cent) was noticed
when crop stage was 94 days. It was from the weather parameters that the
maximum RH was varied from 66.86 to 77.43 per cent and the minimum RH
ranged from 48.43 to 62.71 per cent. The maximum temperature did not cross
30˚C throughout the crop growth period. Similarly, the minimum temperature
remained almost constant between 19 and 20˚C. The rainfall was found to be
towards higher side at the later stages of the crop growth period (8.80mm to
34.00mm).

In July sown crop the disease severity remained low (4.20 per cent) till the
crop was 57 days old. Thereafter, there was sharp increase in the disease severity
(34.20 per cent) when the crop attained the age of 78 days. The maximum disease
severity (65.28 per cent) was noticed when the crop age was 92 days. The weather
parameters indicated that the maximum RH was very high throughout the crop
period (73.71 to 83.71 per cent) and it was more during the later stages of crop
growth whereas the minimum RH ranged between 53.33 and 67.86 per cent. The
minimum RH was comparatively less in the early stages of crop growth than in the
later stages of crop growth. The maximum temperature did not cross 30
throughout the cropping period as seen in the June sown crop. Similarly, the
minimum temperature remained constant between 19 and 20˚C. The rainfall
observed to be high during this period especially during later stages of crop
growth (8.80mm to 113.00mm).

The August sown crop had less disease severity (7.10 per cent) till the crop
was 54 days old. However, there was sudden increase in the disease severity by
almost 3 fold (24.01 per cent) in the immediate week (61 days old crop) and it
Table 13. Tikka disease severity (%) and weather parameters corresponding
to different sowing dates

Disease Max Min Max Min


Sowing Stage of Rainfall
SMW severity RH RH Temp Temp
Dates the crop (mm)
(%) (%) (%) (˚C) (˚C)
1 30-36 0.40 68.57 40.00 25.93 9.71 0.00
2 37-43 0.80 72.14 49.43 25.50 9.43 0.00
3 44-50 1.17 63.86 40.57 26.14 13.00 0.00
4 51-57 1.83 61.00 32.57 29.00 12.71 0.00
Dec-08 5 58-64 11.58 60.86 59.14 31.00 10.57 0.00
6 65-71 14.53 55.71 45.00 30.00 12.71 0.00
7 72-78 21.50 56.86 36.71 30.86 12.71 0.00
8 79-85 29.20 66.29 40.00 31.43 13.14 0.00
9 86-92 34.10 63.57 36.14 34.29 13.43 0.00

5 29-35 0.35 60.86 59.14 31.00 10.57 0.00


6 36-42 0.87 55.71 45.00 30.00 12.71 0.00
7 43-49 1.47 56.86 36.71 30.86 12.71 0.00
8 50-56 2.37 66.29 40.00 31.43 13.14 0.00
Jan-09 9 57-63 8.15 63.57 36.14 34.29 13.43 0.00
10 64-70 14.70 65.29 39.14 33.71 13.57 0.00
11 71-77 20.50 75.00 38.86 33.29 14.71 30.00
12 78-84 28.57 68.29 43.29 32.86 17.43 0.00
13 85-91 34.85 68.43 46.29 33.43 18.29 10.00

9 26-32 0.30 63.57 36.14 34.29 13.43 0.00


10 33-39 0.97 65.29 39.14 33.71 13.57 0.00
11 40-46 1.63 75.00 38.86 33.29 14.71 30.00
12 47-53 2.47 68.29 43.29 32.86 17.43 0.00
13 54-60 7.73 68.43 46.29 33.43 18.29 10.00
Feb-09
14 61-67 10.48 61.57 35.57 35.57 18.57 0.00
15 68-74 14.8 49.86 35.57 35.00 18.86 0.00
16 75-81 28.47 66.00 37.43 35.29 20.57 33.00
17 82-88 31.26 68.71 38.00 34.14 20.29 32.00
18 89-95 36.18 60.86 36.29 33.57 19.86 9.60
Note : SMW – Standard Meteorological Week
Table 13 contd..

Disease Max Min Max Min


Sowing Stage of Rainfall
SMW severity RH RH Temp Temp
Dates the crop (mm)
(%) (%) (%) (˚C) (˚C)
13 26-32 0.20 68.43 46.29 33.43 18.29 10.00
14 33-39 0.30 61.57 35.57 35.57 18.57 0.00
15 40-46 0.43 49.86 35.57 35.00 18.86 0.00
16 47-53 1.00 66.00 37.43 35.29 20.57 33.00
17 54-60 1.63 68.71 38.00 34.14 20.29 32.00
Mar-09
18 61-67 2.89 60.86 36.29 33.57 19.86 9.60
19 68-74 4.27 60.43 34.86 33.14 20.86 22.10
20 75-81 9.57 66.57 50.29 32.43 20.29 62.10
21 82-88 15.47 70.86 55.29 29.71 20.43 8.60
22 89-95 19.31 70.29 55.43 31.14 20.14 15.20

18 30-36 0.54 60.86 36.29 33.57 19.86 9.60


19 37-43 2.17 60.43 34.86 33.14 20.86 22.10
20 44-50 2.83 66.57 50.29 32.43 20.29 62.10
21 51-57 3.76 70.86 55.29 29.71 20.43 8.60
Apr-09 22 58-64 6.79 70.29 55.43 31.14 20.14 15.20
23 65-71 13.07 69.14 50.71 31.29 19.71 1.60
24 72-78 19.10 73.71 56.29 30.43 19.86 41.40
25 79-85 26.67 65.14 53.86 30.14 20.43 0.00
26 86-92 35.86 69.71 53.14 29.29 19.71 7.40

22 28-34 0.94 70.29 55.43 31.14 20.14 15.20


23 35-41 1.67 69.14 50.71 31.29 19.71 1.60
24 42-48 2.40 73.71 56.29 30.43 19.86 41.40
25 49-55 3.13 65.14 53.86 30.14 20.43 0.00
May-09 26 56-62 8.64 69.71 53.14 29.29 19.71 7.40
27 63-69 14.87 75.00 61.71 27.57 20.29 8.40
28 70-76 17.50 70.00 55.57 28.14 19.86 5.00
29 77-83 30.93 77.00 57.43 28.00 20.29 4.20
30 84-90 53.30 66.86 48.43 29.71 19.57 0.00
Note : SMW – Standard Meteorological Week
Table 13 contd..

Disease Max Min Max Min


Sowing Stage of Rainfall
SMW severity RH RH Temp Temp
Dates the crop (mm)
(%) (%) (%) (˚C) (˚C)
26 25-31 0.50 69.71 53.14 29.29 19.71 7.40
27 32-38 2.03 75.00 61.71 27.57 20.29 8.40
28 39-45 2.63 70.00 55.57 28.14 19.86 5.00
29 46-52 3.30 77.00 57.43 28.00 20.29 4.20
30 53-59 9.53 66.86 48.43 29.71 19.57 0.00
Jun-09
31 60-66 12.85 72.67 53.33 29.33 20.00 34.00
32 67-73 18.87 73.00 54.29 28.86 19.29 12.60
33 74-80 28.60 77.14 54.71 30.00 20.14 8.80
34 81-87 40.97 77.43 62.71 29.29 20.57 11.60
35 88-94 62.85 73.71 62.00 28.29 19.43 12.00

31 30-36 1.20 72.67 53.33 29.33 20.00 34.00


32 37-43 3.60 73.00 54.29 28.86 19.29 12.60
33 44-50 3.70 77.14 54.71 30.00 20.14 8.80
34 51-57 4.20 77.43 62.71 29.29 20.57 11.60
Jul-09 35 58-64 16.79 73.71 62.00 28.29 19.43 12.00
36 65-71 21.93 73.71 58.14 26.86 19.29 12.40
37 72-78 34.20 77.00 55.29 30.00 20.86 79.40
38 79-85 47.43 83.71 64.86 27.71 20.00 113.20
39 86-92 65.28 82.71 67.86 28.43 19.43 92.00

35 27-33 0.63 73.71 62.00 28.29 19.43 12.00


36 34-40 3.47 73.71 58.14 26.86 19.29 12.40
37 41-47 5.13 77.00 55.29 30.00 20.86 79.40
38 48-54 7.10 83.71 64.86 27.71 20.00 113.20
39 55-61 24.01 82.71 67.86 28.43 19.43 92.00
Aug-09
40 62-68 32.24 79.86 63.43 25.43 19.14 10.20
41 69-75 45.70 75.71 59.57 28.57 18.86 6.00
42 76-82 60.07 62.00 53.14 29.57 19.29 0.00
43 83-89 68.43 51.00 38.43 29.14 15.57 0.00
44 90-96 74.43 70.29 56.14 29.29 17.43 3.20
Note : SMW – Standard Meteorological Week
steadily increased and reached maximum (74.43 per cent) when the crop attained
an age of 96 days. The disease severity recorded at this stage was highest among
all the sown crops. From the weather parameters it was observed that maximum
RH was found to be high (75.71 to 83.71 per cent) till the crop was 75 days old.
Similarly, the minimum RH was high (55.29 to 67.86 per cent) till the crop was 75
days old. During later stage of the crop, there was sudden increase in the disease
was observed. The maximum temperature did not cross 30˚C throughout the
cropping period. The minimum temperature in the initial stage of the crop varied
between 18.86 and 20.86˚C and in the later stages of the crop it was reduced
(15.57 to 19.29˚C). The rainfall effect was noticeable till the 75 days of crop
(6.00mm to 113.20mm) and it was negligible in the later stages of crop growth.

From the above results, it was concluded that the disease was very less till
the crop was around 60 days in all sowing dates and then onwards, it started
increasing. The early sown crops had maximum disease severity of 34 to 36 per
cent and in these sown crops it was the age of the crop which might have
contributed to the increase in disease severity rather than the weather factors as
was observed from the above results. The kharif sown crops had more disease
severity and in these sown crops, apart from age of the crop, the weather
parameters favoured the severity of disease. In August sown crop, there was
sudden increase in the disease severity when the crop was 60 days old during
which period the weather factors were congenial for the disease development. The
disease was severe which might be due to the age of the crop rather than weather
parameters. Thus, it could be concluded that apart from weather parameters, the
factors which influenced disease severity was none other than the age of the crop.
It could be seen from the tables that as the age of the crop increased, disease
severity also increased. During the kharif sown crop, however, RH, and rainfall
might have influenced the disease severity.
4.9 EFFECT OF TIKKA DISEASE SEVERITY ON CHLOROPHYLL
CONTENT, BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND POD YIELD AS
INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT SOWING DATES

4.9.1 Chlorophyll content

Chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll contents were determined following


the modified dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) method described by Nanja Reddy et al.
(1990). The details of the experiment as well as the procedure for estimation of
chlorophyll content are explained in ‘Material and Methods’. The data pertaining
to the results are given in Tables 14a & b and in Fig. 11a, b & c.

Chlorophyll a

From the data (Table 14a) it was observed that at 30 DAS, the chlorophyll a
content in TMV-2 variety ranged from 0.74 to 1.06 mg/g of fresh leaf. There was
not much difference in the chlorophyll a content among different sowing dates
whereas at 60 DAS the chlorophyll a content showed increasing trend and
maximum chlorophyll a content was noticed in the March crop (1.45 mg/g of fresh
leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 1.63 per cent and the least was noticed
in August crop (1.06 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had registered the disease severity
of 23.33 per cent followed by the chlorophyll a content of July (1.10 mg/g of fresh
leaf) and June (1.17 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of
13.50 and 9.53 per cent respectively. In general summer crops had more
chlorophyll content than kharif crops. At 90 DAS, there was reduction in the
chlorophyll content. The August sown crop registered least chlorophyll a content
(0.32 mg/g of fresh leaf) followed by July crop (0.37 mg/g of fresh leaf) and June
crop (0.45 mg/g of fresh leaf). During this stage the disease severity was also high
as the disease severity in August July and June sown crops was 71.07, 63.90 and
58.77 per cent respectively. The maximum chlorophyll a content was recorded
from March crop (1.13 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of
18.57 per cent.

The data from the table (Table 14b) on the chlorophyll a content in GPBD
variety indicated that at 30 DAS there was not much difference in the chlorophyll
a content among all the sowing dates. At 60 DAS the chlorophyll a content
showed increasing trend and maximum chlorophyll a content was observed in
March crop (1.66 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 1.53
per cent which was followed by the chlorophyll a content in April (1.63 mg/g of
fresh leaf) and February (1.59 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease
severity of 1.93 and 1.57 per cent respectively. The lowest chlorophyll a content of
1.39 mg/g of fresh leaf was observed in August crop which registered the disease
severity of 6.70 per cent followed by July (1.49 mg/g of fresh leaf) and June (1.52
mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crops which recorded the disease severity of 2.20 and
2.40 per cent respectively. At 90 DAS, there was reduction in the chlorophyll a
content. The least chlorophyll a content of 0.96 mg/g of fresh leaf was observed in
July crop which recorded the disease severity of 15.40 per cent followed by
chlorophyll a content in August (1.01 mg/g of fresh leaf) and June (1.04 mg/g of
fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 19.00 and 13.73 per cent
respectively. The maximum chlorophyll a content of 1.22 mg/g of fresh leaf was
noticed in March sown crop which had the disease severity of 3.53 per cent
followed by the chlorophyll a content in April sown crop (1.19 mg/g of fresh leaf)
which registered the disease severity of 5.27 per cent.

Chlorophyll b

From the data (Table 14a) it was observed that at 30 DAS, the chlorophyll
b content in TMV-2 variety ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 mg/g of fresh leaf. The
chlorophyll b content did not vary much among different sowing dates. However,
at 60 DAS, there was increasing trend in the chlorophyll b content and maximum
chlorophyll b content was noticed in the March sown crop (0.44 mg/g of fresh
leaf) which had disease severity of 1.63 per cent followed by the chlorophyll a
content in April sown crop (0.42 mg/g of fresh leaf) and February sown crop (0.41
mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 5.07 and 7.73 per cent
respectively. The least chlorophyll b content (0.31 mg/g of fresh leaf) was noticed
in August crop which had registered the disease severity of 23.33 per cent
followed by the chlorophyll b content of July (0.34 mg/g of fresh leaf) and June
(0.36 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 13.50 and 9.53 per
cent respectively. In general, summer crops had more chlorophyll b content than
kharif crops. At 90 DAS, there was reduction in the chlorophyll content. The
August sown crop registered least chlorophyll b content (0.17 mg/g of fresh leaf)
followed by July crop (0.19 mg/g of fresh leaf) and June crop (0.21 mg/g of fresh
leaf). During this stage the disease severity was also high as the disease severity in
August July and June sown crops was 71.07, 63.90 and 58.77 per cent
respectively. The maximum chlorophyll b content was recorded from March crop
(0.38 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 18.57 per cent
followed by the chlorophyll b content in April and January sown crops (0.34 mg/g
of fresh leaf) and closely followed by February sown crop (0.33 mg/g of fresh
leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 35.37, 34.40 and 35.07 per cent
respectively.

The data from the table (Table 14b) on the chlorophyll b content in GPBD
variety indicated that at 30 DAS there was not much difference in the chlorophyll
b content among all the sowing dates. The chlorophyll b content at 60 DAS
showed increasing trend and maximum chlorophyll b content was observed in
March and February sown crops (0.52 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the
disease severity of 1.53 and 1.57 per cent followed by the chlorophyll b content in
January (0.51 mg/g of fresh leaf) and April (0.50 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crops
which recorded the disease severity of 1.63 and 1.93 per cent respectively. The
lowest chlorophyll b content of 0.42 mg/g of fresh leaf was observed in August
crop which registered the disease severity of 6.70 per cent followed by July and
June sown crops (0.46 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of
2.20 and 2.40 per cent respectively. At 90 DAS, the chlorophyll b content was
noticed to be reduced. The least chlorophyll b content of 0.39 mg/g of fresh leaf
was observed in August, July and February sown crops which recorded the disease
severity of 19.00, 15.40 and 6.53 per cent followed by chlorophyll b content in
June (0.40 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 13.73 per
cent. The maximum chlorophyll b content of 0.45 mg/g of fresh leaf was noticed
in March sown crop which had the disease severity of 3.53 per cent followed by
the chlorophyll b content in April sown crop (0.44 mg/g of fresh leaf) which
registered the disease severity of 5.27 per cent.

Total chlorophyll

The data (Table 14a) on total chlorophyll content in TMV-2 variety


indicated that at 30 DAS, the total chlorophyll content ranged from 1.02 to 1.42
mg/g of fresh leaf. Maximum total chlorophyll (1.42 mg/g of fresh leaf) content
was noticed in March sown crop which recorded the disease severity of 0.10 per
cent. The least total chlorophyll content (1.02 mg/g of fresh leaf) was noticed in
July sown crop which had the disease severity of 0.80 per cent. At 60 DAS, there
was increasing trend in the total chlorophyll content and maximum total
chlorophyll content was noticed in the March sown crop (1.89 mg/g of fresh leaf)
which had disease severity of 1.63 per cent followed by the total chlorophyll
content in April sown crop (1.80 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease
severity of 5.07. The least total chlorophyll content (1.37 mg/g of fresh leaf) was
noticed in August crop which had registered the disease severity of 23.33 per cent
followed by the total chlorophyll content of July (1.44 mg/g of fresh leaf) and June
(1.53 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 13.50 and 9.53 per
cent respectively. In general, summer crops had more total chlorophyll content
Table 14a. Effect of tikka disease severity on chlorophyll content in groundnut var. TMV-2 as influenced by
different sowing dates

Chlorophyll content (mg/g of fresh leaf)

30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS


Sowing
Dates Disease Chlorophyll Disease Chlorophyll Disease Chlorophyll
Severity Severity Severity
(%) ‘a’ ‘b’ Total (%) ‘a’ ‘b’ Total (%) ‘a’ ‘b’ Total

Dec. 0.20 0.96 0.26 1.22 10.17 1.23 0.39 1.62 33.20 0.61 0.32 0.93

Jan. 0.13 0.90 0.26 1.16 6.77 1.21 0.37 1.58 34.40 0.62 0.34 0.96

Feb. 0.17 0.94 0.27 1.21 7.73 1.25 0.41 1.66 35.07 0.55 0.33 0.88

Mar. 0.10 1.06 0.36 1.42 1.63 1.45 0.44 1.89 18.57 1.13 0.38 1.51

Apr. 0.23 0.99 0.28 1.27 5.07 1.38 0.42 1.80 35.37 0.67 0.34 1.01

May 0.77 0.87 0.32 1.19 7.13 1.28 0.37 1.65 53.30 0.48 0.28 0.76

Jun. 0.37 0.76 0.29 1.05 9.53 1.17 0.36 1.53 58.77 0.45 0.21 0.66

Jul. 0.80 0.74 0.28 1.02 13.50 1.10 0.34 1.44 63.90 0.37 0.19 0.56

Aug. 0.37 0.75 0.29 1.04 23.33 1.06 0.31 1.37 71.07 0.32 0.17 0.49

Note : DAS – Days After Sowing


Table 14b. Effect of tikka disease severity on chlorophyll content in groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced by
different sowing dates

Chlorophyll content (mg/g of fresh leaf)

30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS


Sowing
Dates Disease Chlorophyll Disease Chlorophyll Disease Chlorophyll
Severity Severity Severity
(%) ‘a’ ‘b’ Total (%) ‘a’ ‘b’ Total (%) ‘a’ ‘b’ Total

Dec. 0.00 1.01 0.37 1.38 2.23 1.49 0.49 1.98 5.20 1.16 0.43 1.59

Jan. 0.00 1.05 0.36 1.41 1.63 1.49 0.51 2.00 5.27 1.08 0.43 1.51

Feb. 0.00 1.07 0.39 1.46 1.57 1.59 0.52 2.11 6.53 1.12 0.39 1.51

Mar. 0.00 1.19 0.45 1.64 1.53 1.66 0.52 2.18 3.53 1.22 0.45 1.67

Apr. 0.00 1.08 0.43 1.51 1.93 1.63 0.50 2.13 5.27 1.19 0.44 1.63

May 0.57 1.03 0.41 1.44 1.73 1.54 0.49 2.03 9.93 1.10 0.41 1.51

Jun. 0.33 0.98 0.42 1.40 2.40 1.52 0.46 1.98 13.73 1.04 0.40 1.44

Jul. 0.57 0.95 0.42 1.37 2.20 1.49 0.46 1.95 15.40 0.96 0.39 1.35

Aug. 0.00 0.96 0.41 1.37 6.70 1.39 0.42 1.81 19.00 1.01 0.39 1.40

Note : DAS – Days After Sowing


than kharif crops. However, at 90 DAS, there was reduction in the total
chlorophyll content. The August sown crop registered least total chlorophyll
content (0.49 mg/g of fresh leaf) followed by July crop (0.56 mg/g of fresh leaf)
and June crop (0.66 mg/g of fresh leaf). During this stage the disease severity was
also high as the disease severity in August July and June sown crops was 71.07,
63.90 and 58.77 per cent respectively. The maximum total chlorophyll content was
recorded from March crop (1.51 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease
severity of 18.57 per cent followed by the total chlorophyll content in April sown
crop (1.01 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 35.37 per
cent.

The total chlorophyll content in GPBD-4 variety (Table 14b) at 30 DAS


varied from 1.37 mg/g of fresh leaf to 1.64 mg/g of fresh leaf. Maximum total
chlorophyll content of 1.64 mg/g of fresh leaf was observed in March sown crop
which had no disease. The least total chlorophyll content (1.37 mg/g of fresh leaf)
was recorded from July and August sown crop which had the disease severity of
0.57 and 0.00 per cent respectively. The total chlorophyll content at 60 DAS
showed increasing trend and maximum total chlorophyll content was noticed in
March sown crop (2.18 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of
1.53 per cent followed by the total chlorophyll content in April sown crop (2.13
mg/g of fresh leaf) which had the disease severity of 1.93 per cent. The least total
chlorophyll content (1.81 mg/g of fresh leaf) was observed in August crop which
registered the disease severity of 6.70 per cent followed by July sown crop (1.95
mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 2.20 per cent. At 90
DAS, the total chlorophyll content was found reduced. The least total chlorophyll
content of 1.35 mg/g of fresh leaf was observed in July sown crop which recorded
the disease severity of 15.40 per cent followed by the total chlorophyll content in
August sown crop (1.40 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had the disease severity of
19.00 per cent. The maximum total chlorophyll content (1.67 mg/g of fresh leaf)
Fig. 11a. Effect of tikka disease severity on chlorophyll ‘a’ content in TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as
influenced by different sowing dates (Note: DAS- Days after sowing)
Fig. 11b. Effect of tikka disease severity on chlorophyll ‘b’ content in TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as
influenced by different sowing dates (Note: DAS- Days after sowing)
Fig. 11c. Effect of tikka disease severity on total chlorophyll content in TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut
as influenced by different sowing dates (Note: DAS- Days after sowing)
was noticed in March sown crop which had the disease severity of 3.53 per cent
followed by the total chlorophyll content in April sown crop (1.63 mg/g of fresh
leaf) which registered the disease severity of 5.27 per cent.

The results on overall chlorophyll content from the experiment involving


nine sowings dates are represented in the Figures (Figures 11a, b & c). The results
revealed that there was not much difference in the chlorophyll content at 30 DAS
and during this period the infection was very minute. As the age of the crop
advanced there was increase in the chlorophyll content. However, the increase was
found to be less in TMV-2 than in GPBD-4 variety and correspondingly the
disease severity was more in TMV-2 compared to GPBD-4. At 90 DAS, the
chlorophyll content started decreasing. But the decrease was more pronounced in
the crops of TMV-2 of kharif months and during this period the severity of tikka
disease was high. In GPBD-4, there was decrease in chlorophyll content however
the decrease was less compared to TMV-2. Finally, the chlorophyll content was
more in summer crops than kharif crops and it was more in GPBD-4 than TMV-2.

4.9.2 Effect of tikka disease severity on biochemical parameters as


influenced by different sowing dates

Three biochemical parameters viz., total sugars, total phenols and total
proteins were estimated. For this purpose leaf samples were collected at 30 DAS,
60 DAS and 90 DAS. The methodology of collection of the samples and the
procedure followed for the estimation of above said biochemical parameters are
explained in detail in ‘Material and Methods’.

4.9.2.1 Total Sugars

Total sugar was estimated by Anthrone Reagent the details of which are
described in ‘Material and Methods’ chapter. The results in the total sugars are
presented in Tables 15a & b.
The total sugar content in TMV-2 variety (Table 15a) at 30 DAS did not
vary much among different sowing dates and during this period the disease
severity was negligible. The maximum total sugar content (62.27 mg/g of fresh
leaf) was observed in March crop which recorded the disease severity of 0.10 per
cent followed by the total sugar content in February (60.85 mg/g of fresh leaf) and
April (60.01 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had the disease severity of 0.17 and 0.23
per cent respectively. The least total sugar content of 56.01 mg/g of fresh leaf was
recorded from July crop which recorded the disease severity of 0.80 per cent
followed by August (57.21 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had disease severity of 0.37
per cent. At 60 DAS, increase in disease severity was noticed and consequently
there was decrease in the total sugar content. Maximum total sugar content (55.08
mg/g of fresh leaf) was noticed in March crop which recorded the disease severity
of 1.63 per cent followed by February (51.26 mg/g of fresh leaf), January (50.45
mg/g of fresh leaf) and April (50.23 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease
severity of 7.73, 6.77 and 5.07 per cent respectively. The minimum total sugar
content (36.74 mg/g of fresh leaf) was observed in August followed by July (40.70
mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 23.33 and 13.50 per
cent. At 90 DAS, the total sugar content decreased rapidly and also the disease
was noticed to be severe and it was more pronounced in kharif crops than in
summer crops. Maximum total sugar content of 48.23 mg/g of fresh leaf was
recorded from March crop which had disease severity of 18.57 per cent followed
by February (46.25 mg/g of fresh leaf), January (45.63 mg/g of fresh leaf) and
April (45.35 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crop which recorded the disease severity of
35.07, 34.40 and 35.37 per cent respectively. The minimum total sugar content of
29.75 mg/g of fresh leaf was recorded from August sown crop which had the
highest disease severity (71.07 per cent) followed by July (31.94 mg/g of fresh
leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 63.90 per cent.
Table 15a. Effect of tikka disease severity on total sugar content in groundnut
var. TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing dates

Total sugar content (mg/g of fresh leaf)

30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS


Sowing
Dates
Disease Total Disease Total Disease Total
Severity sugars Severity sugars Severity sugars
(%) (%) (%)

Dec. 0.20 58.55 10.17 46.59 33.20 40.39

Jan. 0.13 59.89 6.77 50.45 34.40 45.63

Feb. 0.17 60.85 7.73 51.26 35.07 46.25

Mar. 0.10 62.27 1.63 55.08 18.57 48.23

Apr. 0.23 60.01 5.07 50.23 35.37 45.35

May 0.77 57.74 7.13 49.20 53.30 36.48

Jun. 0.37 56.69 9.53 46.19 58.77 38.07

Jul. 0.80 56.01 13.50 40.70 63.90 31.94

Aug. 0.37 57.21 23.33 36.74 71.07 29.75

Note: DAS - Days after sowing


Table 15b. Effect of tikka disease severity on total sugar content in
groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced by different sowing dates

Total sugar content (mg/g of fresh leaf)

30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS


Sowing
Dates
Disease Total Disease Total Disease Total
Severity sugars Severity sugars Severity sugars
(%) (%) (%)

Dec. 0.00 52.37 2.23 47.24 5.20 41.29

Jan. 0.00 52.46 1.63 47.54 5.27 42.37

Feb. 0.00 52.06 1.57 46.17 6.53 41.26

Mar. 0.00 52.85 1.53 47.86 3.53 41.89

Apr. 0.00 53.06 1.93 46.83 5.27 40.26

May 0.57 51.40 1.73 45.72 9.93 38.06

Jun. 0.33 51.51 2.40 46.16 13.73 39.01

Jul. 0.57 49.06 2.20 43.89 15.40 34.12

Aug. 0.00 48.85 6.70 40.70 19.00 35.24

Note: DAS - Days after sowing 


 

 
In GPBD-4 variety (Table 15b), the total sugar content at 30 DAS did not
vary much. At 60 DAS, the total sugar content decreased as there was increase in
disease severity. However, the increase in disease severity was less compared to
TMV-2 variety and thus there was less reduction in the total sugar content.
Maximum total sugar content (47.86 mg/g of fresh leaf) was noticed in March
sown crop which was very closely followed by January (47.54 mg/g of fresh leaf),
December (47.24 mg/g of fresh leaf) and April (46.83 mg/g of fresh leaf) which
recorded the disease severity of 1.53, 1.63, 2.23 and 1.93 per cent respectively.
The minimum total sugar content was observed in August sown crop (40.70 mg/g
of fresh leaf) followed by July sown crop (43.89 mg/g of fresh leaf) which
recorded the disease severity of 6.70 per cent and 2.20 per cent respectively. At 90
DAS, there was further reduction in the total sugar content and correspondingly
there was increase in disease severity. The maximum total sugar content was
observed in January sown crop (42.37 mg/g of fresh leaf) followed by March
(41.89 mg/g of fresh leaf), December (41.29 mg/g of fresh leaf), February (41.26
mg/g of fresh leaf) and April (40.26 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crops which
recorded the disease severity of 5.27, 3.53, 5.20, 6.53 and 5.27 per cent
respectively. The minimum total sugar content was recorded in July sown crop
(34.12 mg/g of fresh leaf) followed by August sown crop (35.24 mg/g of fresh
leaf) which registered the disease severity of 15.40 and 19.00 per cent
respectively.

From the results (Fig. 12) on the total sugar content it can be concluded
that, in the initial stages of the crop the susceptible variety TMV-2 showed more
total sugars than the resistant variety GBPD-4. There was decrease in the total
sugar content as increase in disease severity in consequence to increase in crop
age. However, the decrease was more in TMV-2 than GPBD-4 in the later stages
as the disease severity was very less in GPBD-4 compare to TMV-2 indicating
that the disease severity had possible influence on total sugar content.
Fig. 12. Effect of tikka disease severity on total sugar content in TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as
influenced by different sowing dates (Note: DAS- Days after sowing)
4.9.2.2 Total Phenols

The sampling procedure, the methodology of collecting the samples and lab
procedure followed for the estimation of total phenol are detailed in ‘Material and
Methods’ chapter. The results are given in Tables 16a & b.

The data from table (Table 16a) indicated that the total phenol content in
TMV-2 variety at 30 DAS did not vary much among different sowing dates and
during this period the disease severity was negligible. The minimum total phenol
content (26.49 mg/g of fresh leaf) was observed in February sown crop which
recorded the disease severity of 0.17 per cent followed by the total phenol content
in March sown crop (27.07 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had the disease severity of
0.10 per cent. The maximum total phenol content of 33.01 mg/g of fresh leaf was
recorded from July sown crop which recorded the disease severity of 0.80 per cent
followed by December sown crop (31.87 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had disease
severity of 0.20 per cent. At 60 DAS, there was increase in the total phenol content
in consequence to increase in disease severity. Minimum total phenol content
(36.13 mg/g of fresh leaf) was noticed in February crop which recorded the
disease severity of 7.73 per cent followed by January (37.17 mg/g of fresh leaf)
and March (38.17 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 6.77
and 1.63 per cent respectively. The maximum total phenol content (47.52 mg/g of
fresh leaf) was observed in July followed by August (47.48 mg/g of fresh leaf) and
June sown crops (45.17 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of
13.50, 23.33 and 9.53 per cent respectively. At 90 DAS, the total phenol content
increased rapidly and at the same time the disease was severe and it was more
pronounced in kharif crops than in summer crops. Minimum total phenol content
of 54.27 mg/g of fresh leaf was recorded from December crop which had disease
severity of 33.20 per cent followed by March (54.29 mg/g of fresh leaf) and April
(56.17 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crop which recorded the disease severity of 18.57
and 35.37 per cent respectively. The maximum total phenol content of 73.58 mg/g
Table 16a. Effect of tikka disease severity on total phenol content in
groundnut var. TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing dates

Total phenol content (mg/g of fresh leaf)

30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS


Sowing
Dates
Disease Total Disease Disease
Total Total
Severity phenols Severity Severity
phenols phenols
(%) (%) (%)

Dec. 0.20 31.87 10.17 41.24 33.20 54.27

Jan. 0.13 30.28 6.77 37.17 34.40 56.46

Feb. 0.17 26.49 7.73 36.13 35.07 56.24

Mar. 0.10 27.07 1.63 38.17 18.57 54.29

Apr. 0.23 29.88 5.07 40.27 35.37 56.17

May 0.77 28.65 7.13 46.23 53.30 61.28

Jun. 0.37 30.89 9.53 45.17 58.77 67.14

Jul. 0.80 33.01 13.50 47.52 63.90 68.23

Aug. 0.37 31.28 23.33 47.48 71.07 73.58

Note: DAS - Days after sowing 


 

 
Table 16b. Effect of tikka disease severity on total phenol content in
groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced by different sowing dates

Total phenol content (mg/g of fresh leaf)

30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS


Sowing
Dates
Disease Total Disease Total Disease Total
Severity phenols Severity phenols Severity phenols
(%) (%) (%)

Dec. 0.00 35.27 2.23 48.17 5.20 61.27

Jan. 0.00 33.62 1.63 44.25 5.27 62.23

Feb. 0.00 30.84 1.57 41.85 6.53 60.92

Mar. 0.00 33.24 1.53 43.24 3.53 63.28

Apr. 0.00 31.45 1.93 44.19 5.27 63.49

May 0.57 33.28 1.73 54.27 9.93 66.28

Jun. 0.33 35.87 2.40 53.44 13.73 67.23

Jul. 0.57 33.47 2.20 52.17 15.40 70.12

Aug. 0.00 35.08 6.70 54.29 19.00 76.18

Note: DAS - Days after sowing 


 

 
of fresh leaf was recorded from August sown crop which had the highest disease
severity (71.07 per cent) followed by July (68.23 mg/g of fresh leaf) and June
(67.14 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 63.90 and 58.77
per cent.

The total phenol content in GPBD-4 (Table 16b) at 30 DAS did not vary
much. At 60 DAS, increase in total phenol content was observed as there was
increase in disease severity. However, the increase in disease severity was less
compared to TMV-2 variety. Minimum total phenol content (41.85 mg/g of fresh
leaf) was noticed in February sown crop which was followed by March (43.24
mg/g of fresh leaf) and April (44.19 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crops which
recorded the disease severity of 1.57, 1.53 and 1.93 per cent respectively. The
maximum total phenol content was observed in August sown crop (54.29 mg/g of
fresh leaf) followed by May (54.27 mg/g of fresh leaf), June (53.44 mg/g of fresh
leaf) and July (52.17 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crops which recorded the disease
severity of 6.70, 1.73, 2.40 and 2.20 per cent respectively. At 90 DAS, there was
further increase in the total phenol content and correspondingly there was increase
in disease severity. However the increase in total phenol content was more than
that was noticed in TMV-2. The minimum total phenol content was observed in
February sown crop (60.92 mg/g of fresh leaf) followed by December (61.27 mg/g
of fresh leaf), January (62.23 mg/g of fresh leaf), March (63.28 mg/g of fresh leaf)
and April (63.49 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crops which recorded the disease
severity of 6.53, 5.20, 5.27, 3.53 and 5.27 per cent respectively. The maximum
total phenol content was recorded in August sown crop (76.18 mg/g of fresh leaf)
followed by July sown crop (70.12 mg/g of fresh leaf) which registered the disease
severity of 19.00 and 15.40 per cent respectively.

From the results (Fig. 13) it can be concluded that the total phenol content
at 30 DAS did not differ much. The phenol content was to some extent found to be
Fig. 13. Effect of tikka disease severity on total phenol content in TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as
influenced by different sowing dates (Note: DAS- Days after sowing)
more in resistant variety GPBD-4 than TMV-2. As the age of the crop progressed
there was increase in the disease severity and consequently there was increase in
the total phenol content. The increase was observed to be more in the kharif crops
than in the summer crops. At 90 DAS, the increase in phenol content was more
pronounced in the TMV-2 of kharif crops than in summer crops. However, this
increasing trend was comparatively less than in GPBD-4 variety, a resistant
variety. In summer crops the increase in total phenol content was not much owing
to the fact that the disease severity was less.

4.9.2.3 Total Proteins

The total protein estimation was carried out as per the methodology and the
procedure given in ‘Material and Methods’. The results are represented in Tables
17a & b.

The total protein content in TMV-2 variety at 30 DAS (Table 17a) ranged
from 17.24 mg/g of fresh leaf in August crop to 22.94 mg/g of fresh leaf in March
crop. The variation at this stage of crop among different sowing dates was less and
during this period the disease severity was negligible. The maximum total protein
content (22.94 mg/g of fresh leaf) was observed in March sown crop which
recorded the disease severity of 0.10 per cent followed by the total protein content
in April (21.85 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had the disease severity of 0.23 per cent.
The minimum total protein content of 17.24 mg/g of fresh leaf was recorded from
August sown crop which recorded the disease severity of 0.37 per cent followed
by July sown crop (17.69 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had disease severity of 0.80
per cent. At 60 DAS, there was increase in the total protein content in consequence
to increase in disease severity. Maximum total protein content (24.67 mg/g of
fresh leaf) was noticed in April sown crop which recorded the disease severity of
5.07 per cent followed by March (24.29 mg/g of fresh leaf) and February (24.01
mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 1.63 and 7.73 per cent
respectively. The minimum total protein content (21.25 mg/g of fresh leaf) was
observed in July followed by August (23.14 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crops which
recorded the disease severity of 13.50 and 23.33 per cent respectively. At 90 DAS,
the total protein content increased and at the same time the disease was severe and
it was more pronounced in kharif crops than in summer crops. Maximum total
protein content (36.25 mg/g of fresh leaf) was recorded from August sown crop
followed by July sown crop (33.42 mg/g of fresh leaf) which had disease severity
of 71.07 and 63.90 per cent. The minimum total protein content (26.86 mg/g of
fresh leaf) was recorded in April sown crop followed by February (27.23 mg/g of
fresh leaf), December (27.55 mg/g of fresh leaf) and March (28.67 mg/g of fresh
leaf) which recorded the disease severity of 35.37, 35.07, 33.20 and 18.57 per cent
respectively.

The total protein content in GPBD-4 at 30 DAS (Table 17b) was more
compared to TMV-2 but there was not much variation among the different sowing
dates. Maximum protein content (24.87 mg/g of fresh leaf) was recorded from
March sown crop followed by April (24.19 mg/g of fresh leaf) and February
(24.12 mg/g of fresh leaf) all of which recorded 0.00 per cent of disease severity.
The minimum total protein content was noticed in August sown crop (20.14 mg/g
of fresh leaf) followed by July sown crop (20.19 mg/g of fresh leaf) which
recorded the disease severity of 0.00 and 0.57 per cent respectively. At 60 DAS,
total protein content showed increasing trend as there was increase in disease
severity. However, the increase in disease severity was less compared to TMV-2
variety. Maximum total protein content (28.21 mg/g of fresh leaf) was noticed in
March sown crop was followed by May (27.49 mg/g of fresh leaf) and April
(26.89 mg/g of fresh leaf) sown crops which recorded the disease severity of 1.53,
1.73 and 1.93 per cent respectively. The minimum total protein content was
observed in July sown crop (24.15 mg/g of fresh leaf) followed by January sown
crop (24.86 mg/g of fresh leaf), which recorded the disease severity of 2.20 and
Table 17a. Effect of tikka disease severity on total protein content in
groundnut var. TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing dates

Total protein content (mg/g of fresh leaf)

30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS


Sowing
Dates
Disease Total Disease Total Disease Total
Severity proteins Severity proteins Severity proteins
(%) (%) (%)

Dec. 0.20 19.74 10.17 22.42 33.20 27.55

Jan. 0.13 21.32 6.77 23.89 34.40 29.34

Feb. 0.17 20.89 7.73 24.01 35.07 27.23

Mar. 0.10 22.94 1.63 24.29 18.57 28.67

Apr. 0.23 21.85 5.07 24.67 35.37 26.86

May 0.77 19.43 7.13 23.64 53.30 30.16

Jun. 0.37 19.27 9.53 25.64 58.77 32.80

Jul. 0.80 17.69 13.50 21.25 63.90 33.42

Aug. 0.37 17.24 23.33 23.14 71.07 36.25

Note: DAS - Days after sowing 


 

 
Table 17b. Effect of tikka disease severity on total protein content in
groundnut var. GPBD-4 as influenced by different sowing dates

Total protein content (mg/g of fresh leaf)

30 DAS 60 DAS 90 DAS


Sowing
Dates
Disease Total Disease Total Disease Total
Severity proteins Severity proteins Severity proteins
(%) (%) (%)

Dec. 0.00 22.64 2.23 26.32 5.20 28.13

Jan. 0.00 23.19 1.63 24.86 5.27 28.34

Feb. 0.00 24.12 1.57 25.04 6.53 27.49

Mar. 0.00 24.87 1.53 28.21 3.53 31.28

Apr. 0.00 24.19 1.93 26.89 5.27 28.84

May 0.57 22.15 1.73 27.49 9.93 29.86

Jun. 0.33 22.86 2.40 26.45 13.73 32.43

Jul. 0.57 20.19 2.20 24.15 15.40 32.16

Aug. 0.00 20.14 6.70 25.63 19.00 31.15

Note: DAS - Days after sowing 


 

 
Fig. 14. Effect of tikka disease severity on total protein content in TMV-2 and GPBD-4 varieties of groundnut as
influenced by different sowing dates (Note: DAS - Days after sowing)
1.63 per cent respectively. At 90 DAS, there was further increase in the total
protein content and correspondingly there was increase in disease severity. The
maximum total protein content (32.43 mg/g of fresh leaf) was observed in June
sown crop followed by July sown crop (32.16 mg/g of fresh leaf) which recorded
the disease severity of 13.73 and 15.40 per cent respectively. The minimum total
protein content was recorded in February sown crop (27.49 mg/g of fresh leaf)
which registered the disease severity of 6.53 per cent.

From the results (Fig. 14) it was noticed that at 30 DAS, the total protein
content did not differ much among the different sowing dates. However, the
summer crops had more protein content than kharif crops and also the variety
GPBD-4 showed more protein content than TMV-2. At 60 DAS, the protein
content was found to be increased in both the varieties. At 90 DAS, the total
protein content was increased further and it was higher in the variety TMV-2 and
during this period the disease was severe. The increase was also noticed in
GPBD -4. However, the increase was less. The above results revealed that there
was an increase in the total protein content as the crop age progressed. The
resistant variety GPBD-4 did not show much difference in total protein content
compared to the susceptible variety TMV-2. However, the increase in total
protein content was much pronounced at fag end of crop at which stage the disease
took severe form.

4.9.3 Effect of disease severity on pod yield

Data on pod yield indicated that pod yield varied significantly among
different sowing dates and in two varieties (Table 18). In TMV-2 maximum and
statistically significant pod yield (1.82 kg/plot) was obtained from March sown
crop which recorded the disease severity of 18.57 per cent followed by April crop
(1.68 kg/plot) which registered the disease severity of 35.37 per cent. The
minimum of 0.77 kg/plot was recorded from August sown crop which had highest
Table 18. Effect of tikka disease severity on yield parameters of two
groundnut varieties as influenced different sowing dates

Pod yield in two groundnut varieties (Kg/plot)

TMV-2 GPBD-4
Sowing
Dates
Disease Disease
Pod yield Pod yield
severity Pod yield severity Pod yield
(kg/ha.) (kg/ha.)
(%) (%)

December 33.20 1.59 2028.06 5.20 1.77 2257.65

January 34.40 1.54 1964.29 5.27 1.82 2321.43

February 35.07 1.47 1875.00 6.53 1.86 2372.45

March 18.57 1.82 2321.43 3.53 1.81 2308.67

April 35.37 1.68 2142.86 5.27 1.75 2232.14

May 53.30 1.19 1517.86 9.93 1.59 2028.06

June 58.77 1.00 1275.51 13.73 1.51 1926.02

July 63.90 0.97 1237.24 15.40 1.46 1862.24

August 71.07 0.77 982.14 19.00 1.29 1645.41

Sem± 0.05 0.05

CD (P=0.05) 0.15 0.16


disease severity (71.07 per cent) followed by July crop (0.97 kg/plot) which
recorded the disease severity of 63.90 per cent. However the pod yield obtained in
June sown crop (1.00 kg/plot) was statistically significant with the pod yield of
July sown crop and which had registered the disease severity of 58.77 per cent.

In case of GPBD-4 the maximum pod yield (1.86 kg/plot) was noticed in
February sown crop which recorded the disease severity of 6.53 per cent.
However, the pod yield of December (1.77 kg/plot), January (1.82 kg/plot), March
(1.81 kg/plot) and April (1.75 kg/plot) sown crops were on par with the pod yield
of February sown crop and which recorded the disease severity of 5.20, 5.27, 3.53
and 5.27 per cent respectively. The least pod yield (1.29 kg/plot) was noticed in
August sown crop followed by July sown crop (1.46 kg/plot) which registered the
disease severity of 19.00 and 15.40 per cent respectively.

From the above results it was concluded that the variation in pod yield
w.r.t. different sowing dates was very less in GPBD-4 compared to the variety
TMV-2 as there was very less variation in disease severity in GPBD-4 among
different sowing dates and at the same time the pod yield was also more than
TMV-2. While the pod yield in TMV-2 was less compared to GPBD-4 and the
pod yield did vary among the different sowing dates. The pod yield was severely
reduced in kharif sown crops which recorded high disease severity.

4.10 EVALUATION OF GROUNDNUT GERMPLASM FOR THEIR


REACTION TO TIKKA DISEASE

Growing resistant varieties is the most economical and safe method of


managing the tikka disease of groundnut. In order to identify the resistant sources,
90 ICRISAT germplasm accessions and 6 local checks (TMV-2 and JL-24) laid
out in an experiment on AICRP on groundnut varietal trial, ARS, Chintamani were
screened for their tolerance/ susceptibility against tikka disease of groundnut under
Table 19. Field evaluation of ICRISAT germplasm for its resistance/
susceptibility to tikka disease of groundnut

Disease Disease
Category ICRISAT accessions
grade severity (%)
<3 <6 Resistant Nil
Moderately
3 to 5 6 to 30 ICGV 98372 (10.67 %) and ICGV 98374 (8.40 %)
resistant
ICGV 99181 ICGV 93280 ICGV 99229
ICGV 99195 ICGV 95440 ICGV 99231
ICGV 99206 ICGV 95460 ICGV 99233
ICGV 99210 ICGV 95469 ICGV 99235
ICGV 99211 ICGV 95492 ICGV 00340
ICGV 99213 ICGV 97281 ICGV 00343
ICGV 99219 ICGV 97328 ICGV 00349
ICGV 00290 ICGV 01005 ICGV 00350
ICGV 00298 ICGV 01014 ICGV 00351
ICGV 00308 ICGV 01015 ICGV 01246
ICGV 00309 ICGV 01043 ICGV 01249
ICGV 00310 ICGV 01080 ICGV 01260
ICGV 00321 ICGV 01105 ICGV 01263
ICGV 01020 ICGV 01124 ICGV 01265
ICGV 98375 ICGV 95058 ICGV 02260
>5 > 30 Susceptible ICGV 98376 ICGV 95063 ICGV 97079
ICGV 98377 ICGV 95066 ICGV 99083
ICGV 98378 ICGV 95069 ICGV 99085
ICGV 98379 ICGV 95070 ICGV 99102
ICGV 98381 ICGV 95090 ICGV 99105
ICGV 98382 ICGV 96153 ICGV 00380
ICGV 98383 ICGV 96155 ICGV 00387
ICGV 98385 ICGV 96172 ICGV 00391
ICGV 98389 ICGV 96174 ICGV 00401
ICGV 99017 ICGV 96175 ICGV 00429
ICGV 99019 ICGV 96176 ICGV 00440
JL-24 ICGV 96177 ICGV 00441
TMV-2 ICGV 96186 ICGV 00446
ICGV 96211 ICGV 00451
ICGV 00456
Plate 7a. Evaluation of groundnut germplasm for their reaction  to tikka
Plate 7a. valuation of groundnut germplasm for their reaction to tikka disease
disease severity
severity
Plate 7b. Evaluation of groundnut germplasm for their reaction to tikka disease severity
Plate 7c. Evaluation of groundnut germplasm for their reaction to tikka disease severity
field conditions in 2008 and 2009 (Plates 7a, b and c). The disease observations
were made at 90 DAS and the results are presented in Table 19.

From the table it was observed that none of the germplasm accessions were
resistant to tikka disease. However, the accessions ICGV 98372 and ICGV 98374
with disease severity of 10.67 per cent and 8.40 per cent respectively found to be
moderately resistant to tikka disease. The other accessions were susceptible to
tikka disease.

4.11 DISEASE MANAGEMENT TRIAL

4.11.1 In vitro evaluation of fungicides on inhibition of spore germination

In vitro evaluation of fungicides on inhibition of spore germination of C.


arachidicola and C. personatum was carried out as per the methodology described
in ‘Material and Methods’. Different fungicides viz., mancozeb, chlorothalonil,
tebuconazole, propiconazole, carbendazim, difenoconazole and bitertanol at
various concentrations viz., 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200ppm were evaluated. The data
pertaining to the results are detailed in Tables 20a & b and Fig. 15a & b.

From the table it was observed that 100 per cent inhibition of spore
germination of C. arachidicola in case of fungicide mancozeb was recorded at
100ppm. Similarly, the fungicides chlorothalonil, propiconazole and carbendazim
completely inhibited the germination of spores at 100ppm. The fungicide
tebuconazole was found to be highly effective as it inhibited the spore germination
completely at 50ppm. The least effective fungicides were difenoconazole and
bitertanol wherein the 100 per cent inhibition of spore germination was noticed at
200ppm. It was also noticed from the table that at 50 ppm the fungicide
carbendazim was effective after the fungicide tebuconazole as only 0.60 per cent
of spore germination was recorded and which was statistically on par with
tebuconazole.
Table 20a. In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on the spore germination
of conidia of Cercospora arachidicola

Per cent germination at concentrations (ppm)


Fungicides
10 25 50 100 200

10.09 5.03 2.04 0.00 0.00


Mancozeb
(18.99) (13.60) (9.16) (4.05) (4.05)

13.21 6.72 2.87 0.00 0.00


Chlorothalonil
(21.74) (15.59) (10.58) (4.05) (4.05)

8.62 2.94 0.00 0.00 0.00


Tebuconazole
(17.58) (10.69) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05)

21.17 9.22 3.48 0.17 0.00


Bitertanol
(27.75) (18.16) (11.50) (4.71) (4.05)

13.54 7.46 2.79 0.00 0.00


Propiconazole
(22.00) (16.38) (10.45) 4.05) (4.05)

23.81 10.07 3.65 0.61 0.00


Difenoconazole
(29.54) (18.98) (11.75) (6.06) (4.05)

8.83 3.21 0.60 0.00 0.00


Carbendazim
(17.79) (11.11) (6.02) (4.05) (4.05)

90.08 90.08 90.08 90.08 90.08


Control
(72.12) (72.12) (72.12) (72.12) (72.12)

SEm± 0.39 0.43 0.42 0.50 0.17

CD (P=0.05) 1.17 1.29 1.26 1.50 0.51

Note: Figures in parenthesis area arcsine transformed values

 
Table 20b. In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on the spore germination
of conidia of Cercosporidium personatum

Per cent germination at concentrations (ppm)


Fungicides
10 25 50 100 200

11.31 5.62 2.35 0.00 0.00


Mancozeb
(20.10) (14.33) (9.72) (4.05) (4.05)

14.63 7.68 3.42 0.00 0.00


Chlorothalonil
(22.89) (16.62) (11.42) (4.05) (4.05)

8.68 3.03 0.00 0.00 0.00


Tebuconazole
(17.64) (10.82) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05)

23.58 10.55 4.64 0.41 0.00


Bitertanol
(29.39) (19.41) (13.11) (5.46) (4.05)

15.22 8.38 3.50 0.00 0.00


Propiconazole
(23.36) (17.33) (11.53) (4.05) (4.05)

26.53 11.42 4.92 1.11 0.00


Difenoconazole
(31.33) (20.20) (13.47) (7.29) (4.05)

9.64 4.26 1.33 0.00 0.00


Carbendazim
(18.57) (12.60) (7.77) (4.05) (4.05)

92.59 92.59 92.59 92.59 92.59


Control
(74.76) (74.76) (74.76) (74.76) (74.76)

SEm± 0.37 0.51 0.35 0.20 0.17

CD (P=0.05) 1.11 1.53 1.05 0.60 0.51

Note: Figures in parenthesis area arcsine transformed values

 
Fig. 15a. In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on the inhibition of spore
germination of conidia of Cercospora arachidicola

Fig. 15b. In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on the inhibition of spore


germination of conidia Cercosporidium personatum
Similar trend was noticed in case of the fungus C. personatum. The
fungicides mancozeb, chlorothalonil, propiconazole and carbendazim were
effective as the complete inhibition of spore germination was recorded at 100ppm.
The fungicide tebuconazole was effective as 100 per cent inhibition of spore
germination was noticed at 50ppm similar to that in case of the fungus C.
arachidicola. Among the fungicides evaluated, the fungicides bitertanol and
difenoconazole were least effective as complete inhibition of spore germination
was observed at 200ppm in both these fungicides.

From the results it was concluded that the fungicide tebuconazole was the
most effective against both the fungi among all the fungicides evaluated followed
by carbendazim.

4.11.2 In vitro evaluation of botanical extracts on mycelial growth of


Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum

In vitro evaluation of different concentrations of four botanicals viz.,


Calotropis (Calotropis gigantea), Datura (Datura stramonium), Lantana (Lantana
camara) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) on radial growth of C. arachidicola and
C. personatum was carried out as per the methodology described in ‘Material and
Methods’. The data pertaining to the results are detailed in Tables 21a & b and
Fig. 16a & b.

From the table it was observed that in case of the fungus C. arachidicola
the botanical extract Calotropis inhibited the radial growth almost completely at
30 per cent concentrations and it was statistically significant over all the
treatments. This was followed by an inhibition of 83.56 per cent by Datura and
26.67 per cent by Lantana. The least inhibition of radial growth of the fungus
(2.89 per cent) was recorded in case of botanical extract Neem.
Table 21b. In vitro evaluation of different botanicals on mycelial growth of
Cercosporidium personatum

Per cent inhibition of mycelial growth at


different concentrations (%)
Botanicals

5 10 20 30

Calotropis 27.56 73.11 87.34 99.50


(31.99) (59.09) (69.59) (90.00)

Datura 6.45 35.11 76.47 87.56


(15.28) (36.64) (61.32) (69.78)

Lantana 2.67 6.67 24.44 64.00


(10.25) (15.53) (29.96) (53.43)

Neem 1.55 1.78 2.44 2.89


(8.24) (8.68) (9.88) (10.60)

Sem± 0.44 0.53 0.56 0.33

CD (P=0.05) 1.32 1.59 1.68 0.99

Note: Figures in parenthesis area arcsine transformed values

 
Fig. 16a. In vitro evaluation of botanicals on mycelial growth of Cercospora
arachidicola

Fig. 16b. In vitro evaluation of botanicals on mycelial growth of and


Cercosporidium personatum
Similarly, almost complete inhibition of radial growth of the fungus C.
personatum was recorded in case of botanical extract Calotropis at 30 per cent
concentration which was statistically significant over all other treatments. This
was followed by an inhibition of 87.56 per cent by Datura and 64.00 per cent of
inhibition by Lantana. The least inhibition of radial growth (2.89 per cent) was
obtained in case of Neem.

From the above results it was concluded that the botanical extract
Calotropis was highly effective as it showed complete inhibition of the radial
growth of both the fungi at 30 per cent concentration which was followed by the
botanical extract Datura. The botanical extract Neem was least effective against
both the fungi.

4.11.3 Field evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease of


groundnut cv. TMV-2 during kharif 2008 at Chintamani and 2009 at
Sadahalli

The experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of 2008 and 2009 at
two locations to study the comparative efficacy of different fungicides and a
botanical i.e. Neem leaf extract (2 per cent) against tikka disease of groundnut. In
2008 kharif season, it was conducted at ARS, Chintamani while during 2009
Kharif season, the experiment was taken up at Sadahalli village. The details of the
field experiment and the treatments imposed are described in ‘Material and
Methods’.

Disease management trial during kharif season of 2008 at Chintamani

Evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease of groundnut cv.


TMV-2 during kharif 2008 at Chintamani

Various treatments as mentioned in the above paragraph were imposed to


see the efficacy of these treatments on the development of the disease. Disease
Table 22. Evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease of
groundnut cv. TMV-2 during kharif 2008 at Chintamani
 
Per cent Disease intensity at different intervals
Treatments (Days after sowing)

30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Bitertanol 0.27 2.53 3.93 6.60 10.87 17.47 23.27


(0.1%) (5.02) (10.03) (12.15) (15.45) (19.70) (25.08) (29.18)

Difenoconazole 0.33 2.47 3.93 6.33 11.27 18.53 24.87


(0.1%) (5.24) (9.92) (12.15) (15.15) (20.06) (25.87) (30.24)

Propiconazole 0.47 2.27 3.80 5.20 9.33 15.47 20.13


(0.1%) (5.64) (9.57) (11.97) (13.81) (18.28) (23.55) (27.02)

Chlorothalonil 0.27 2.13 3.07 4.53 8.13 14.87 19.20


(0.25%) (5.02) (9.34) (10.89) (12.96) (17.09) (23.08) (26.35)

Tebuconazole 0.40 1.87 2.40 4.00 7.07 12.07 13.67


(0.1%) (5.44) (8.85) (9.80) (12.25) (15.97) (20.76) (22.11)

Carbendazim 0.33 2.00 2.67 4.73 7.53 12.87 14.67


(0.1%) (5.24) (9.10) (10.25) (13.22) (16.47) (21.44) (22.92)

Mancozeb 0.27 2.47 3.27 5.60 10.20 13.33 16.60


(0.25%) (5.02) (9.92) (11.19) (14.30) (19.09) (21.83) (24.43)

0.33 3.87 7.33 17.17 35.27 47.27 59.40


Neem (2.0%)
(5.24) (12.06) (16.25) (24.85) (36.73) (43.72) (50.71)

0.47 4.47 8.33 18.93 38.33 61.60 68.93


Control
(5.64) (12.88) (17.29) (26.16) (38.55) (52.00) (56.44)

SEm± 0.33 0.31 0.25 0.28 0.39 0.73 0.36

CD (P=0.05) NS 0.93 0.74 0.85 1.16 2.18 1.09


 

Note: Figures in parenthesis area arcsine transformed values


severity was recorded at 10 days interval starting from 30 DAS till 90 DAS. The
data are presented in the Table 22 and in Fig. 17.

The data on the disease severity from the table indicated that the disease
severity was negligible at 30 DAS and there was no statistical difference among
the treatments. At 40 DAS the disease severity response varied significantly to the
different treatments imposed in the trial. In tebuconazole treated plots the disease
severity was least (1.87 per cent). However, all other plots treated with treated
with different fungicides except neem leaf extract (3.87 per cent) were
significantly on par with each other. At 50 DAS, the fungicide tebuconazole was
found to be effective as the disease severity was minimum (2.40 per cent).
However, the plots treated with carbendazim and chlorothalonil with disease
severity of 2.67 and 3.07 per cent were on par with tebuconazole. The maximum
disease severity (8.33 per cent) was noticed in control plot followed by neem
treated plot (7.33 per cent). As the age of the crop started increasing, the disease
severity showed increasing trend in untreated plot. At 60 DAS, tebuconazole was
found to be effective with disease severity of 4.00 per cent. However, the
carbendazim and chlorothalonil treated plots with disease severity of 4.73 and 4.53
per cent were on par with tebuconazole. Highest disease severity was obtained in
control plot (18.93 per cent). At 70 DAS, tebuconazole was effective among all
the treatment as the disease severity recorded was 7.07 per cent which was on par
with carbendazim (7.53 per cent) and chlorothalonil (8.13 per cent) indicating that
the efficacy of these 3 fungicides till 70 DAS was significantly on par in
controlling the disease severity. The maximum disease severity (38.33 per cent)
was noticed in control plot. The efficacy of fungicides tebuconazole (12.07 and
13.67 per cent) and carbendazim (12.87 and 14.67 per cent) at 80 DAS and at 90
DAS respectively was significantly on par with each other but superior over the
other treatments. Maximum disease severity was recorded in control plot at 90
Fig. 17.  Evaluation of fungicides against the tikka disease severity in groundnut cv. TMV-2 at Chintamani-2008

(Note: DAS-Days after sowing)


Plate 8a. Evaluation of fungicides against the
tikka disease severity of groundnut
Plate 8b. Evaluation of fungicides against the
tikka disease severity of groundnut
Plate 5a. Cercospora arachidicola  Plate 5b. Cercosporidium personatum

Plate  5. Germinated spores of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum
Plate 8c. Evaluation of fungicides against the
tikka disease severity of groundnut
DAS (68.93 per cent) which was followed by the neem leaf extract treated plots
(59.40 per cent).

From the results mentioned above, it was concluded that the fungicide
tebuconazole was highly effective as in all the different observation intervals it
was effective followed by the fungicide carbendazim. The neem leaf extract was
least effective among all the treatments (Plates 8a, b & c).

Pod and haulm yield

From the result (Table 23) it was observed that significantly higher pod
yield was obtained from the plots treated with tebuconazole (1.80 kg/plot) which
was followed by the plots treated with carbendazim (1.68 kg/plot) wherein the
disease severity recorded was 13.67 and 14.67% respectively. Least pod yield was
recorded from the control plot (0.79 kg/plot) which recorded the disease severity
of 68.93 per cent. Even in the plots treated with neem leaf extract, the yield found
to be very low (0.94 kg/plot) and the disease severity observed in this plot was
59.40 per cent. Similar trend was observed in case of haulm yield. Tebuconazole
treated plot gave significantly higher haulm yield (2.13 kg/plot). The next best plot
was from carbendazim treated plot (1.82 kg/plot). Significantly lowest haulm
yield was obtained from control plot (0.97 kg/plot) followed by neem leaf extract
treated plot (1.03 kg/plot) which was significantly at par with control plot
indicating the neem leaf extract was ineffective.

Disease management trial during kharif season of 2009 at Sadahalli

Evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease of groundnut cv.


TMV-2 during kharif 2009 at Sadahalli

From the data (Table 24 and Fig. 18) it was noticed that at 30 DAS the
disease was negligible and thus there was no statistical difference among the
treatments. At 40 DAS the treatments started differing with each other
Table 23. Effect of fungicides on the yield parameters of groundnut cv.
TMV-2 during kharif 2008 at Chintamani
 

Disease Pod Pod Haulm Haulm


Treatments severity yield yield yield yield
(%) (kg/plot) (kg/ha) (kg/plot) (kg/ha)

Bitertanol
23.27
(0.1%) 1.28 1632.65 1.35 1721.94

Difenoconazole
24.87
(0.1%) 1.17 1492.35 1.26 1607.14

Propiconazole
20.13
(0.1%) 1.36 1734.69 1.47 1875.00

Chlorothalonil
19.20
(0.25%) 1.41 1798.47 1.54 1964.29

Tebuconazole
13.67
(0.1%) 1.80 2295.92 2.13 2716.84

Carbendazim
14.67
(0.1%) 1.68 2142.86 1.82 2321.43

Mancozeb
16.60
(0.25%) 1.50 1913.27 1.74 2219.39

Neem
59.40
(2.0%) 0.94 1198.98 1.03 1313.78

Control 68.93 0.79 1007.65 0.97 1237.24

SEm± 0.05 61.01 0.04 51.83

CD (P=0.05) 0.14 182.91 0.12 155.38


 

Note: Disease severity mentioned above is 90 days after sowing

 
significantly in their response to the disease severity. Least disease severity was
noticed in tebuconazole treated plots (2.13 per cent). However the other plots
treated with carbendazim (2.33 per cent), chlorothalonil (2.47 per cent),
propiconazole (2.60 per cent) and mancozeb (2.67 per cent) were significantly on
par with each other. All the treatments except the Neem were effective in
controlling the disease. But the disease started progressing in consequence to the
increase in the age of crop as evidenced in the untreated plot. At 50DAS, the
fungicide tebuconazole was highly effective with disease severity of 3.00 per cent
followed by carbendazim (3.47 per cent) which was on par with tebuconazole.
Maximum disease severity (9.73 per cent) followed by neem treated plot (8.53 per
cent). At 60 DAS, least disease severity (4.47 per cent) in tebuconazole treated
plots was noticed followed by chlorothalonil (5.27 per cent) which was on par
with tebuconazole. The maximum disease severity (21.93 per cent) was observed
in control plot followed by neem treated plot (18.27 per cent). At 70 DAS, the
tebuconazole was highly effective and statistically significant over all other
treatments as it recorded disease severity of 7.73 per cent followed by
chlorothalonil (8.67 per cent) and carbendazim (8.80 per cent). The highest disease
severity (44.20 per cent) recorded in untreated (control) plot followed by neem
treated plot (39.73 per cent). At 80 DAS, the least disease severity (12.87 per cent)
was noticed in tebuconazole treated plots which was statistically significant
compared to all other treatments. This was followed by carbendazim (13.87 per
cent) and mancozeb (14.87 per cent). The highest disease (64.40 per cent)
followed by neem treated plot (58.87 per cent). At 90DAS, the tebuconazole
treated plots had least disease severity (15.07 per cent) and significantly superior
compared to the other treatments which was closely followed by the plots treated
with carbendazim (17.60 per cent). In control plot the disease severity was
maximum (75.00 per cent). However, it was also noticed the plots wherein the
treatment involving neem leaf extracts was imposed showed very high disease
Table 24. Evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease of
groundnut cv. TMV-2 during kharif 2009 at Sadahalli

Per cent Disease severity at different intervals


Treatments (Days after sowing)

30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Bitertanol 0.40 3.00 4.73 6.87 13.13 19.93 25.33


(0.1%) (5.44) (10.78) (13.22) (15.75) (21.67) (26.87) (30.55)

Difenoconazole 0.33 3.07 4.73 7.60 13.27 20.67 26.27


(0.1%) (5.24) (10.89) (13.22) (16.54) (21.78) (27.39) (31.16)

Propiconazole 0.60 2.60 4.33 5.67 11.73 18.07 22.27


(0.1%) (6.02) (10.14) (12.70) (14.38) (20.47) (25.52) (28.50)

Chlorothalonil 0.47 2.47 3.80 5.27 8.67 16.13 20.07


(0.25%) (5.64) (9.92) (11.97) (13.89) (17.62) (24.07) (26.97)

Tebuconazole 0.40 2.13 3.00 4.47 7.73 12.87 15.07


(0.1%) (5.44) (9.34) (10.78) (12.88) (16.67) (21.44) (23.24)

Carbendazim 0.47 2.33 3.47 5.33 8.80 13.87 17.60


(0.1%) (5.64) (9.69) (11.49) (13.98) (17.76) (22.27) (25.18)

Mancozeb 0.53 2.67 3.80 6.33 10.73 14.87 19.20


(0.25%) (5.83) (10.25) (11.97) (15.15) (19.58) (23.08) (26.35)

0.40 4.73 8.53 18.27 39.73 58.87 62.93


Neem (2.0%)
(5.44) (13.22) (17.49) (25.67) (39.37) (50.40) (52.79)

0.53 5.47 9.73 21.93 44.20 64.40 75.00


Control
(5.83) (14.14) (18.66) (28.27) (41.96) (53.67) (60.33)

SEm± 0.40 0.27 0.20 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.47

CD (P=0.05) NS 0.82 0.61 0.81 0.81 0.83 1.40


 
Note: Figures in parenthesis area arcsine transformed values
Fig. 18. Evaluation of fungicides against the tikka disease severity in groundnut cv. TMV-2 at Sadahalli-2009

(Note: DAS-Days after sowing)


severity (62.93 per cent) indicating that the treatment was ineffective in checking
the disease.

From the above results, it was observed that the fungicide tebuconazole was
highly effective in controlling the disease severity followed by carbendazim. The
neem leaf extract treatment was found to be ineffective.

Pod and haulm yield

The data (Table 25) on pod yield reveled that all the treatments were
significant and maximum pod yield (2.00 kg/plot) was recorded from the plot
treated with tebuconazole which recorded the disease severity of 15.07 per cent.
However, the plot imposed with the treatment carbendazim (1.92 kg/plot) was also
on par with tebuconazole and the disease severity was 17.60 per cent. Least pod
yield was obtained from control plot (0.92 kg/plot) followed by neem leaf extract
treated plot (1.04 kg/plot) which registered the disease severity of 75.00 per cent
and 62.93 per cent, respectively. The trend was almost similar in case of haulm
yield. Tebuconazole treated plot gave significantly higher haulm yield (2.40
kg/plot) followed by the plot treated with carbendazim (2.02 kg/plot).
Significantly lowest haulm yield was obtained from control plot (1.04 kg/plot)
followed by neem leaf extract treated plot (1.12 kg/plot) which was significantly at
par with control plot indicating the neem leaf extract was ineffective.
Table 25. Effect of fungicides on the yield parameters of groundnut cv. TMV-
2 during kharif 2009 at Sadahalli

Disease Pod Pod Haulm Haulm


Treatments severity yield yield yield yield
(%) (kg/plot) (kg/ha) (kg/plot) (kg/ha)

Bitertanol
25.33 1.43 1823.98 1.42 1811.22
(0.1%)

Difenoconazole
26.27 1.35 1721.94 1.34 1709.18
(0.1%)

Propiconazole
22.27 1.50 1913.27 1.54 1964.29
(0.1%)

Chlorothalonil
20.07 1.55 1977.04 1.66 2117.35
(0.25%)

Tebuconazole
15.07 2.00 2551.02 2.40 3061.22
(0.1%)

Carbendazim
17.60 1.92 2448.98 2.02 2576.53
(0.1%)

Mancozeb
19.20 1.65 2104.59 1.87 2385.20
(0.25%)

Neem
62.93 1.04 1326.53 1.12 1428.57
(2.0%)

Control 75.00 0.92 1173.47 1.04 1326.53

SEm± 0.05 63.60 0.05 69.58

CD (P=0.05) 0.16 190.69 0.16 208.62

Note: Disease severity mentioned above is 90 days after sowing


Discussion
V DISCUSSION

In the present investigation, various experiments were conducted and the


results obtained thereon are discussed briefly in this chapter.

SURVEY FOR THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF TIKKA DISEASE


OF GROUNDNUT DURING KHARIF 2008 AND SUMMER 2009

Survey work that was taken up during kharif, i.e. September 2008 and
summer 2009 revealed that in kharif 2008, the Pavagada taluka of Tumkur district
registered less disease (32 to 36 per cent) and the crop age was between 60 and 65
days whereas Chellakere taluka of Chitradurga district had more disease (45 to 48
per cent) at the same crop age. The disease severity increased as the crop age
progressed which was evidenced by the fact that Srinivasapura taluka of Kolar
district recorded highest disease (72 to75 per cent) when the crop age was 85 to 90
days. In summer, 2009 the disease was very less (5 to 18 per cent) and the highest
disease was recorded in Srinivasapura taluka of Kolar district (16 to 18 per cent)
whereas, the lowest (5 to 6 per cent) was recorded in Koratagere taluka of Tumkur
district. The tikka disease was severe irrespective of the varieties grown in these
locations and the disease was found to be varying across the locations surveyed
and it was endemic in the southern parts of Karnataka. The disease severity was
also found to be increasing as the age of the crop progressing. The data also
revealed that the disease was more severe in kharif season. It may be attributed to
frequent rainfall which provided congenial conditions viz., decrease in maximum
temperature, increase in high relative humidity and the wetness of leaf surface
which help in early germination, penetration and successful infection within the
host tissue. On the contrary, during summer, 2009 the temperature was high
coupled with less relative humidity resulted in less infection of by the fungi. The
overall severity of the disease generally varied from taluka to taluka. The lower
severity may be because of non-congenial weather conditions. Subrahmanyam et
al. (1987) reported severe outbreak of early leaf spot in his survey report that was
carried out in Burkina Faso and noticed susceptibility of all the groundnut
varieties. Variations in the disease severity have also been observed by Nath and
Kulkarni (1967). Similarly the severity of the late leaf spot disease in kharif season
has also been reported by Subrahmanyam and McDonald (1986). Thus from the
results it was concluded that the kharif season recorded high disease severity and
in summer season the disease was very less. The disease severity showed
increasing trend as the crop age progressed.

SYMPTOMOTOLOGY AND CAUSAL ORGANISMS

The tikka disease symptoms were closely monitored at GKVK farm during
kharif season of 2008 from the day of symptoms began appearing. In the
beginning a small chlorotic spot was noticed on the leaves around 30-35 DAS. In
Cercospora arachidicola, the spots developed into black lesions on the upper
surface and were surrounded by chlorotic halo whereas the corresponding lesion
on the lower surface exhibited light brown colour. In Cercosporidium personatum
causing late leaf spot, the lesions were smaller, more, almost circular and darker in
colour than those of C. arachidicola. On the abaxial surfaces, the lesions were tan
carbon black and slightly rough in appearance. The lesions were also observed on
petioles, stems and pegs. The lesions were oval to elongate and have more distinct
margins than the leaflet lesions.

Conidiophores of C. arachidicola were brown, continuous or 1-2 septate,


unbranched and geniculate. The stromata were dark brown. Conidia were hyaline
or pale yellow, obclavate with rounded to distinctly truncate base and sub acute
tip. In case of C. personatum the conidiophores were brown, continuous,
sometimes 1-2 septate, unbranched and geniculate on the black stroma. Conidia
were obclavate to cylindrical, light coloured, 1-7 septate with bluntly rounded
ends. The results on symptomotology and causal organisms are in confirmation
with the description made by Woodroof (1933).

ISOLATION AND PROVING THE PATHOGENICITY

Isolation of the fungi was done employing standard tissue culture technique
by using modified Richard’s agar medium. The fungi did not sporulate when
observed under the microscope. The pathogenicity was proved by inoculating
homogenized mycelial bits of the fungi on the foliage of 30 days old groundnut
plants. The symptoms on the inoculated plants were noticed after five days. The
symptoms C. arachidicola and C. personatum causing early and late leaf spot
observed were similar to those observed under field conditions. Similar results on
pathogenicity were reported by Pradeep (2005).

CULTURAL STUDIES

The cultural characteristics like colony pattern, characters, colour of the


colony and kind of mycelium of both the fungi were studied on eight different
media. From the observation it was found that the two fungi differed in their
colony characteristics as well as the colony characteristics of individual fungus
differed among the different media. The results on the radial growth of the two
fungi studied on different solid media revealed that the growth of the fungus C.
arachidicola was statistically varying on all media tested on all the incubated
days. Maximum growth (90.00 mm) of C. arachidicola was observed on 10th day
of incubation on Richard’s agar, Potato dextrose agar and Peanut oatmeal agar
whereas that of C. personatum was observed on Richard’s agar and Potato
Dextrose agar. The least growth of both the fungi was noticed on Landers’ agar
medium. Similar results were obtained by Berger and Hanson (1963) while
studying the radial growth of Cercospora zebrina on 11 solid media and found the
maximum growth on modified Richard’s agar and Potato dextrose agar media.
However, Chandrashekharan and Rangaswami (1960) reported the medium
Czapek’s agar was better than Richard’s agar medium for the growth of pathogen
Cercospora cruenta, the causal agent of leaf spot of cowpea. There are reports of
Potato dextrose agar medium supporting maximum growth of Cercospora sorghi
(Dinesha, 1984) and Cercospora moricola (Kanti, 1975). Zhang-Yi Xian et al.
(2003) in his report based on the biological characteristics of Cercospora zea-
maydis, the causal agent of leaf spot of maize, noticed the optimum growth of the
pathogen on V-8 juice agar, Groundnut leaf disc medium, Richard’s medium and
Inferior potato dextrose agar medium. The results revealed that the maximum
radial growth of both the fungi was obtained on Richard’s agar followed by Potato
dextrose agar media on 10th of incubation.

Growth Phase

From the results on growth phase, it was observed that the growth of both
the fungi started increasing as the incubation period increased and both the fungi
yielded statistically maximum dry mycelium (435.33 mg in C. arachidicola and
509.33 mg in C. personatum) on 16th day of incubation period. The growth of both
the fungi showed an increasing trend till 16th day of incubation period and
thereafter the growth started declining. This might be possible due to autolysis of the
fungus and exhaustion of nutrients in the medium. This remark was in accordance
with the discussion of Lilly and Barnett (1951) who pointed out that the growth of the
fungus as in other organisms follows a definite pattern, which depends on species,
environmental and nutritional conditions. The result on maximum growth of the
fungi on 16th day of incubation falls in line with the result obtained by Dinesha
(1984) who reported the maximum growth of Cercospora sorghi on 16th day of
inoculation in Potato dextrose broth whereas Kanti (1975) obtained the maximum
growth of Cercospora moricola on 20th day of incubation on Potato dextrose broth
and Lakshminarayana (1981) who noticed maximum growth of Cercospora
solani-melongenae on 22nd day of inoculation in Potato dextrose broth.
The result showed that 16th day of incubation period was best in order to
get maximum dry weight of both the fungi on Richard’s agar medium.

NUTRITIONAL STUDIES

Carbon utilization

In this experiment, eight carbon sources were selected to know the best
carbon source for the maximum growth of the two fungi. The results on the carbon
sources indicated that the maximum dry mycelium (420.67 mg) of the fungus C.
arachidicola was obtained when cellulose was used as carbon source followed by
mannitol (268.33 mg). Similarly, the fungus C. personatum yielded maximum dry
mycelium (527.67 mg) when cellulose was used as carbon source followed by the
carbon source mannitol (282.67 mg). The least growth of C. arachidicola and C.
personatum was obtained with dextrose (134.33 and 144.67mg respectively).
Wang Jun Feng and Chu Jian Jun (2006) found the maximum growth of the
fungus of Cercospora piaropi on water hyacinth when mannitol was used as
carbon source. However, the present investigation is contrary to the results
reported by several authors. Lakshminarayana (1981) obtained maximum growth
of Cercospora solani-melongenae when sucrose was supplied as a source of
carbon for its growth. Rama Pandu and Appa Rao (1981) reported the maximum
growth of Cercospora arachidicola when maltose, sucrose galactose and raffinose
were used as carbon sources. Similarly glucose was reported to be one of the best
sources of carbon for radial growth and maltose for total growth of Cercospora
zebrina (Berger and Hanson, 1963).

Thus it was concluded that both the fungi preferred cellulose as their carbon
source followed by mannitol and the least preferred carbon source was dextrose.
Nitrogen utilization

Eight nitrogen sources were evaluated to know the better source of nitrogen
for the maximum growth of the fungi. From the results it was observed that
peptone when used as nitrogen source yielded maximum and statistically superior
growth in terms of dry mycelial weight for both the fungi (263.33 mg and 345.67
mg for C. arachidicola and C. personatum, respectively) followed by the nitrogen
source calcium nitrate (244.33 mg and 293.33 mg for C. arachidicola and C.
personatum, respectively). Both the fungi yielded least and negligible growth
when sodium nitrate was used as nitrogen source (20.00 mg for both the fungi).
Similar results were obtained when Rama Pandu and Appa Rao (1981) noticed the
good growth of Cercospora arachidicola on yeast extract, potassium nitrate,
peptone and ammonium sulphate. Similarly good growth of C. beticola was
obtained when calcium and potassium nitrate used as nitrogen source (Dange sand
Patel, 1968). However, the results obtained here are in contrast with the results
obtained by several authors. Berger and Hanson (1963) obtained good growth of
Cercospora zebrina when asparagine, urea and potassium nitrate supplied as
nitrogen sources. Sethi and Munjal (1963) reported asparagine and urea as good
nitrogen sources for the maximum mycelial growth of Cercospora viticola.
Asparagine was found to be best source of nitrogen for the mycelial growth of
Cercospora jasminicola (Dayal Ram and Asha Ram, 1968). Dinesha (1984)
obtained maximum growth of C. sorghi when sodium nitrate was used as a
nitrogen source. Siddaramaiah (1986) obtained the best growth of C. moricola
when asparagine was used as nitrogen source. Wang Jun Feng and Chu Jian Jun
(2006) noticed that sodium nitrate when used as nitrogen source supported the
good growth of Cercospora piaropi.

In the present investigation it was also noticed that the growth of the fungus
C. personatum was maximum than the growth of the fungus C. arachidicola.
Investigations revealed that peptone was the best nitrogen source for maximum
growth of both the fungi followed by calcium nitrate whereas both the fungi grew
negligibly on sodium nitrate.

PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES

Temperature requirement

Effect of different temperature levels viz., 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and
40˚C on the growth of the two fungi in terms of mycelial growth was studied using
Richard’s broth. It was noticed that the maximum dry mycelial weight (362.67
mg) of the fungus C. arachidicola was harvested at a temperature of 25˚C
followed by at a temperature of 30˚C (281.33 mg) and at 20˚C (279.67 mg).
Similarly, in case of C. personatum, maximum dry mycelial weight was obtained
at a temperature of 25˚C (410.33 mg) followed by at a temperature of 30˚C
(323.00 mg) and at 20˚C (317.67 mg). These results are in confirmation with the
results obtained by Wang et al. (1998) who reported that the temperature of 25˚C
was good for the growth of C. kikuchii. Similarly, a temperature range of 25 to
30˚C was the best for the growth of Cercospora sesami on Sesamum indicum
(Chowdhury, 1944). Jackson (1961) recorded the good growth of Cecospora
insulana at 28˚C. Verma and Agnihotri (1972) recorded the best growth of C.
cruenta and C. beticola at a temperature of 26˚C.

The result revealed that the optimum temperature for the good growth of
both the fungi in terms of dry mycelia weight was 20 to 30˚C with a temperature
of 25˚C was best for growth.

Hydrogen – ion concentration

pH is the most important physical environmental factor regulating


vegetative and reproductive activity of the fungi.
The effect of different pH levels on growth in terms of dry mycelial weight
of the fungi was studied using Richard’s broth. The results revealed that At a pH
level of 6, the fungus C. arachidicola yielded maximum dry mycelium (392.33
mg) followed by at a pH level of 5 (360.00 mg). Whereas the fungus C.
personatum at pH level of 5, produced maximum dry mycelium (459.67 mg)
followed by at pH level of 4 (428.33 mg). The results are in confirmation with the
results obtained by Stavely and Nimmo (1968) who found that the fungus
Cercospora nicotianae prefer a pH of 4.5 for its optimum growth. Similarly, the
fungus C. kikuchiii reported to grow well both in solid and liquid media when the
pH was 4.5 (Chen et al., 1979). Growth was less rapid beyond pH 9.0. Similar
results were obtained when C. cruenta grew best at pH 6.0 (Chandrashekharan and
Rangaswami, 1960). The growth of C. beticola was also found to be good at pH
6.0 (Dange and Patel, 1968). The differences may be due to the changed
environmental conditions, strain used and also in the type and state of basal
medium used.

The results indicated that both the fungi preferred the optimum pH range of
4 to 7 with pH of 6 was best for C. arachidicola and pH of 5 was for C.
personatum.

SPORE GERMINATION STUDIES

Effect of different incubation periods on spore germination

The investigations on the per cent spore germination recorded at different


incubation periods viz., 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 and 48 hr of incubation revealed
that the spores of C. arachidicola and C. personatum started germinating at 6
hours of incubation and the germination went on increasing till 48 hours of
incubation. Maximum germination of the spores of both the fungi was noticed at
48 hours of incubation (92.43 and 94.26 per cent respectively). The present results
are in conformity with work of Sommartya and Beute, (1986). Similarly Benagi
(1995) while working with the pathogen Phaeoisariopsis personata of late leaf
spot of groundnut observed maximum germination of spores at 48 hours of
incubation period. In contrary to the results mentioned above, the spores of C.
solani-melongenae started germinating after six hours reached maximum after 18
hours of incubation in tap water (Lakshiminarayana, 1981).

The results revealed that the spore germination of both the fungi began at 6
hours of incubation and maximum germination was noticed at 48 hours of
incubation period.

Effect of temperature levels on the germination of conidia

In vitro studies on the effect of different temperature levels on spore


germination of C. arachidicola and C. personatum indicated that the maximum
spore germination of C. arachidicola and C. personatum was observed at 25˚C
(89.84 and 93.76 per cent respectively). This was followed by at 20˚C (82.04 and
87.57 per cent respectively). There was no germination of the spores of both the
fungi at 5˚C. The results indicated that a temperature of 15 to 25˚C was found to
be optimum for the spore germination of both the fungi. These studies are similar
to the earlier findings of Dinesha (1984) who observed maximum spore
germination of C. sorghi at 25˚C. Similarly Alderman and Beute (1986) while
working with conidial germination C. arachidicola found that a temperature range
16 -25˚C was congenial for the optimum germination. Benagi (1995) reported the
maximum germination of conidia of Phaeoisariopsis personata, causal agent late
leaf spot of groundnut at 20˚C. Similarly Oso (1972) observed the optimum
germination of C. arachidicola at a temperature of 20 to 30˚C. Zhang-Yi Xian et
al. (2003) noticed the optimum conidial germination of C. zeae-maydis at a
temperature range of 20 to 30˚C.

Investigations reported germination of both the fungi in a temperature range


of 10˚C to 35˚C with optimum being 15˚C to 25˚C. A temperature of 25˚C found
to be best for maximum germination of both the fungi. The germination of C.
personatum was superior to the germination of C. arachidicola.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

The experiment was taken up with nine sowing dates. The sowing was
taken up at monthly intervals starting from December 2008 till August 2009. Two
varieties were included in this trial viz., TMV-2, a highly susceptible variety and
GPBD-4, a resistant variety to tikka disease. The field trial was conducted without
protected sprays to know the (1) Effect of different sowing dates on the severity of
tikka disease (2) Role of weather parameters on the severity of disease

Effect of different sowing dates on the severity of tikka disease

The results on the development of disease severity indicated that in the


beginning i.e. at 30 DAS, the disease was negligible. But the disease started
increasing as the age of the crop progressed. The disease was more in susceptible
variety (TMV-2) irrespective of the different dates of sowings and observed to be
severe in kharif crops. It was observed that delay in sowing during kharif seasons
resulted in more severity of the disease. However, the variety GPBD-4 had very
minimum disease severity even in kharif sown crops as at 90 DAS, maximum and
was recorded in August sown crop (19.00 per cent) followed by July (15.40 per
cent), June (13.73 per cent) and May (9.93 per cent) sown crops indicating its high
resistance to the tikka disease. But this variety also had comparatively more
disease in kharif crops than summer crops. The summer months crops of
groundnut had very less disease compared to the kharif sown crops as was
observed in March (3.53 per cent) and April (5.27 per cent) sown crops of GPBD-
4. However, in kharif season, the disease was very severe in the susceptible
variety TMV-2 as evidenced in August sown crop which registered maximum
disease severity (71.07 per cent) followed by the July sown crop (63.90 per cent)
and June sown crop (58.77 per cent) revealing influence of kharif sowing dates on
disease severity. These results especially late sown crops in kharif season having
more disease are in agreement with the results obtained by Chevaugeon (1953)
who reported the severe infection of the disease in late sowing than in the early
sowing crops. Similarly, Gupta (1985) in his report on date of sowing experiment
reported that early and late leaf spots are best avoided by early sowing in April
when there is little inoculum present in the atmosphere. Tikka disease does not
appear before 15th June and Chemical control is then necessary. The early sown
crop suffers least whereas late sown crop suffers maximum because of the high
inoculum pressure in the atmosphere. Similar results were obtained when
Hazarika et al.(2000) found that the crop sown on May 5 (early sown crop) had
least incidence of tikka disease and also recorded highest pod yield as against least
yield from the crop sown on June 24 and July 4 (late sown crops). Lewin et al.
(1973) after carrying out field trials from 1969 to 1971 at Regional Agricultural
Research Station, Dindivanam on date of sowing found that the four earlier
sowing of groundnut taken up at fortnightly intervals from 7th June to 22nd July
had lesser incidence of tikka disease and higher yields whereas the sowing that
was done on 5th September gave the lowest yield and high incidence of tikka.
Both the time of sowing and tikka incidence were found to be negatively
correlated with yield.

From the present investigations it was understood that the tikka disease was
less in the beginning and the severity was less till the crop was 60 days old.
Thereafter the disease severity increased as the age of the crop advanced. The
increase in severity was rapid in kharif and in TMV-2 and the severity was less in
GPBD-4.
Role of weather parameters on the severity of tikka disease as influenced by
different sowing dates

In the present investigations on the role of weather parameters on severity


of the disease in susceptible variety TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing
dates was studied. The results revealed that the till 60 days of crop growth the
disease was noticed to be very low in all sowing dates and then onwards, the
disease started increasing. Maximum disease severity of 34 to 36 per cent was
recorded in the early sown crops. From the results it was noticed that in these early
sown crops the age of the crop contributed to the disease severity rather than the
weather factors. The kharif sown crops had more disease severity. In these kharif
sown crops, the weather factors along with the age of the crop contributed to the
disease severity. In August sown crop, when the crop was 60 days old the disease
severity increased rapidly during which period the weather factors were congenial
for the disease development which played a role in increased disease severity. In
general the disease was severe at fag end of the crop which might be due to the
age of the crop rather than weather parameters.

These data are in confirmation with the report of Mayee (1989) which
states that leaf spots are particularly severe during rainy season. The above results
are appeared to be in agreement with the observations of Sulaiman and Agashe
(1965) who found that a temperature range of 20 and 30˚C was optimum for
development of leaf spots. According to Wangikar and Shukla (1976), the most
infection of C. arachidicola and C. personata occurred in August with
temperature of 25 to 26˚C. There was a similar report from Nath and Kulkarni
(1967) which stated that the last month before harvest is the period during which
time maximum intensity occurs. Lewin et al. (1973) stated that, the disease
incidence was negatively correlated with temperature. Due to the temperature,
early sowing resulted in lower disease incidence. Hazarika et al. (2000) while
working on the effected of different sowing dates on the development of tikka
disease and also the relation with the weather parameters found a significant and
positive correlation between incidence of tikka disease and weather factors i.e.
rainfall, relative humidity and temperature. However, the mean temperature in
their entire experimental period did not exceed or reach 29˚C, the mean relative
humidity ranged from around 89 per cent to 96 per cent and the mean rainfall
ranged from 8.0 mm to almost 10.0 mm.

EFFECT OF TIKKA DISEASE SEVERITY ON CHLOROPHYLL


CONTENT, BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND POD YIELD AS
INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT SOWING DATES

Chlorophyll content

The study revealed that, Chl.a, chl.b and total chlorophyll contents
decreased as increase in disease severity. It was noticed from the observations that
the chlorophyll content did not differ in the initial stages of the crop growth.
However, as the age progressed there was increase in the disease severity which
resulted in the reduction in the chlorophyll content. It also noted that the summer
crops had more chlorophyll content than the kharif season crops. Interestingly the
chlorophyll content in the resistant crop was more than that in the susceptible crop
and also the reduction in the chlorophyll content was very less in GPBD-4 than in
TMV-2 as the age of the crops progressed at which time disease took severe form
in the susceptible variety. Thus it clearly indicates that the tikka disease being the
leaf spot disease covers the green area of the leaf in severe conditions and thus
reducing the chlorophyll content. These results are in conformity with Bala and
Dhillon (1987) who reported reduction in chlorophyll content due to leaf spot
infection in susceptible groundnut varieties. The decrease in chl.a was
significantly greater than that of chl.b. A similar observation on reduction in total
chlorophyll content in the susceptible variety of groundnut after infection by C.
personatum was noticed by Kaur and Dhillon (1989). Bera et al. (1999) reported
that the Cercospora resistant genotypes maintained higher level of chlorophyll.
Jyosthna et al. (2004) noticed that the highest content of chlorophyll was in
the resistant cultivar which decreased upon infection in all cultivars.

The present investigations supported the above reports as from the


investigations it was revealed that as the disease severity increased there was
reduction in the chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll content was found to be
more in resistant variety GPBD-4. Thus the disease severity had influence on
chlorophyll content.

Biochemical parameters

Total sugars

From the results in the initial stages of the crop the total sugar content was
more and comparatively more sugar was noticed in the summer crops than in the
kharif crops and also in the susceptible variety TMV-2 than in the resistant variety
GBPD-4. Later, there was decrease in the total sugar content as increase in disease
severity in consequence to increase in crop age. However, the decrease was more
in TMV-2 than GPBD-4 in the later stages as the disease severity was very less in
GPBD-4 compare to TMV-2 indicating that the disease severity had possible
influence on total sugar content. The sharp decrease in the total sugar contents
during severe disease condition in the susceptible variety TMV-2 may be due to
rapid hydorsysis of sugars during pathogenesis through the enzymes secreted by
the pathogen (Jayapal and Mahadevan, 1968). These results are in agreement with
Kaur and Dhillon (1989) who noticed a decrease in sugar content in the groundnut
varieties after the by C. personatum (M. berkeleyii). Susceptible cultivars showed
a rapid decrease of sugars but the decrease was relatively slow in resistant
cultivars. Similarly, Sindhan et al. (1999) after screening two hundred and sixty
genotypes of mungbean (Vigna radiata) against Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora
canescens) reported that total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar
content were higher in healthy leaves of susceptible genotypes than of resistant
ones and their amount decreased in diseased leaves of resistant and susceptible
genotypes. The present results on the amount of total sugar being more in
susceptible variety than in the resistance one are in conformity with the results
obtained by Suryawanshi et al. (2006) who made comparative studies on
metabolic changes and their role in the resistance/susceptibility of groundnut to
Phaeoisariopsis personata. They found that under uninoculated healthy
conditions, the amount of total, reducing and non-reducing sugar were lower in the
resistant PI 390590 genotype in comparison with susceptible JL-24.The levels of
total, reducing and non-reducing sugars were decreased in both the genotypes after
inoculation/infection with P. personata.

The present study revealed that the total sugar content in the initial stages
was more. The total sugar content was more in TMV-2 than GPBD-4 and it started
declining as the crop age advanced. The reduction was more in the susceptible
variety as disease was more. This indicated the tikka disease severity played
significant role in the total sugar content.

Total phenols

The results revealed that there was not much difference in the total phenol
content at 30 DAS during which period the disease was negligible. The phenol
content was to some extent found to be more in resistant variety GPBD-4 than
TMV-2. Later, as the crop age progressed, there was increase in the disease
severity and consequently there was increase in the total phenol content. The
increase was observed to be more in the kharif crops than in the summer crops. At
90 DAS, the increase in phenol content was more pronounced in the TMV-2 of
kharif crops than in summer crops. However, this increasing trend was
comparatively less than in GPBD-4. In summer crops the increase in total phenol
content was not much owing to the fact that the disease severity was less. The
increase in the total phenolic contents in the susceptible variety TMV-2 during
high disease severity may be due to the enhancements in the synthesis,
translocation of phenolics to the site of infection and hydrolysis of phenolic
glycosides by fungal glycosidase to yield free phenols. The present report on
resistant variety showing more phenolic content than the susceptible variety is in
line with the report by Brahmachari and Kolte (1983) who noticed higher levels of
total phenol content at all growth stages of groundnut plant resistant to late leaf
spot had than susceptible cultivars. Similarly, the result on susceptible variety
showing more phenols after infection is in agreement with the work carried out by
Rani and Reddy (1998) who reported that the susceptible cultivars had lower
amounts of phenols compared to resistant ones at pre-inoculative stage. In post-
inoculation stage of resistant and moderately resistant leaves there was rapid
increase in total phenolic content at an early stage of infection and a gradual
decline in total phenolic content. In susceptible cultivars, a steady increase in
phenols was observed. Similarly, Jyosthna et al. (2004) reported phenol and upon
infection contents were increased in all the varieties including the susceptible
varieties. However, the increase was less in the susceptible varieties than the
resistant ones. Similarly, Sindhan et al. (1999) after screening two hundred and
sixty genotypes of mungbean (Vigna radiata) against Cercospora leaf spot
(Cercospora canescens) in field experiments under artificial inoculation
conditions revealed that healthy leaves of resistant genotypes contained a higher
amount of total phenol. In diseased leaves the amount increased in both the
genotypes.

The present investigations supported the authors observations as total


phenol content increased in the susceptible variety TMV-2 due to increase in
disease severity. However, the increase in total phenol content was more in
resistant variety, GPBD-4.
Total proteins

The results indicated that at 30 DAS there was not much variation in the
total protein content among the different sowing dates and during this period the
disease was negligible. However, the total protein content was more in summer
crops than kharif crops. The variety GPBD-4 showed more protein content than
TMV-2. At 60 DAS, the protein content was found increased in both the varieties.
At 90 DAS, further increase in the total protein content was noticed and it was
higher in the variety TMV-2 and during this period the disease was severe. The
increase was also noticed in GPBD-4. However, the increase was comparatively
less than TMV-2. The above results revealed that there was an increase in the total
protein content as the crop age progressed. There was not much variation in the
total protein content of resistant variety GPBD-4 compared to the susceptible
variety TMV-2. However, the increase in total protein content was much
pronounced at fag end of crop at which stage the disease took severe form. This
increase in the total protein content in susceptible variety TMV-2 may be due to
the superimposing effect of pathogen protein on host protein level (Kaur and
Dhillon, 1989). The resistant variety GPBD-4 did not show much difference in
total protein content compare to the susceptible variety TMV-2. This observation
is in agreement with the observation made by Rani and Reddy (1998) who after
conducting the experiment found the changes in total proteins in leaves infected by
C. arachidicola [M. arachidis] in resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible
genotypes of groundnut. They noticed the lower amount of total proteins in
susceptible cultivars compared to resistant ones at pre-inoculative stage. In post-
inoculation stage, the resistant and moderately resistant leaves showed rapid
increase in total protein content at an early stage of infection and a gradual decline
in total phenolic content. In susceptible cultivars, a steady increase in total protein
was observed. Similarly Kaur and Dhillon (1989) noticed increase in the protein
content in the susceptible variety after infection than in the resistant variety.
Effect of disease severity on pod yield

Based on the results on the pod yield it was observed that highest pod yield
(1.82 kg/plot) was obtained from March sown crop during which the disease
severity was least (18.57 per cent) followed by April month (1.68 kg/plot) which
recorded the disease severity of 35.37 per cent. The minimum pod yield was
recorded from August sown crop (0.77 kg/plot) in which period highest disease
severity (71.07 per cent) was recorded. It was also noticed that GPBD-4, a
resistant variety gave significantly maximum yield (1.86 kg/plot) in February
sown crop which had disease severity of 6.53 per cent followed by January (1.82
kg/plot) and March sown crop (1.81 kg/plot) having disease severity of 5.27 and
3.53 per cent respectively. These results are in agreement with the observation on
influence of sowing dates on leaf spot and yield of groundnut by Hazarika et al.
(2000). They conducted a field experiment involving eight sowing dates from May
5 to July 14. They could receive highest pod yield from the May 5 (early) sown
crop as against least yield on June 24 and July 24 (late sown crops). Naidu and
Vasanthi (2002) after conducting the field experiment to know the tikka late leaf
spot (TLLS, Phaeoisariopsis personata) on pod and haulms yields in groundnut
during 1991-92, 1992-93 and 1993-94 rabi and summer seasons of different
sowing dates reported the maximum TLLS severity in the crop sown in 5th
November (early rabi). They obtained highest pod and haulms yields respectively
from the crop sown on 5th December (normal rabi). The crop sown on 20th
November (normal rabi) was the next best with pod and haulms yields of 28.0 and
30.66 q/ha respectively.

All these parameters indicated that the early sown crops as summer crops
during which period the disease severity was very low were superior in terms of
yield and yield parameters whereas significant reduction in the yield and yield
parameters in which highest disease severity was recorded were noticed in the
kharif crops or late sown crops. This indicated that disease severity has significant
influence on the yield and yield parameters.

EVALUATION OF GROUNDNUT GERMPLASM FOR THEIR


REACTION TO TIKKA DISEASE

From the results on screening of ICRIAT germplasm accessions for their


tolerance/susceptibility to tikka disease it was observed that none of the
germplasm accessions were resistant to tikka disease. However, the accessions
ICGV 98372 and ICGV 98374 with disease severity of 10.67 per cent and 8.40 per
cent respectively were observed to be moderately resistant to tikka disease.
Remaining accessions were susceptible to tikka disease. Mehan et al. (1996)
screened totally 979 groundnut germplasm accessions for resistance to rust and
late leaf spot in preliminary field trials in Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India
during 1989-90. They further evaluated the selected genotypes during 1991-93. Of
the genotypes, 38 (21 erect bunch, 5 spreading bunch and 12 runner) were
identified as resistant to rust and 7 (5 erect bunch and 2 runner) to late leaf spot.
Genotypes ICG no’s 6843, 10890, 11567 and 12112 showed resistance to both rust
and late leaf spot. Gupta (1987) reported that only 21 of 253 groundnut cultivars
screened in the field were resistant to C. arachidicola and C. personatum. Patil et
al. (1984) observed only 14 cultivars among 250 varieties to be resistant to late
leaf spot.

DISEASE MANAGEMENT TRIAL

In vitro evaluation of different fungicides on spore germination

Spore germination assay is considered to be a standard tool in assessing the


efficacy of the fungicides (Shekhawat and Prasada, 1971; Tripathi et al., 1982).
The in vitro information on bioassay of fungicides against the spore germination
of fungi is the useful tool for the planning and execution of field experiment. In
the present investigation, altogether seven fungicides were evaluated at different
concentration against both the fungi. The results indicated that the fungicide
tebuconazole was highly effective as it inhibited the spore germination of both the
fungi completely at 50ppm followed by the fungicide carbendazim at 100ppm.
The least effective fungicides were difenoconazole and bitertanol wherein the 100
per cent inhibition of spore germination was noticed at 200ppm. These
observations are in tune with that of Ruben et al. (2007) who noticed while
working on chemical control of leaf spot of husk tomato caused by Cercospora sp.
100 per cent inhibition of conidial germination with tebuconazole at 30 ppm.
Similarly, Reshi et al. (2001) reported the efficacy of carbendazim in inhibiting
the germination of the spores of C. zinniae in vitro.

The investigations showed that the fungicide tebuconazole was highly


effective against the spore germination of both the fungi followed by carbendazim.

In vitro evaluation of plant extracts cercospora arachidicola and


cercosporidium personatum

From the results it was observed that in case of the fungus C. arachidicola
the botanical extract Calotropis inhibited the radial growth of both the fungi
almost completely at 30 per cent concentrations. This was followed by an
inhibition of 83.56 and 87.56 per cent in case of C. arachidicola and C.
personatum by Datura The least inhibition of radial growth of the fungus was
recorded in case of botanical extract Neem. These observations are in accordance
with the results obtained by Sarvamangala et al. (1993) who noticed the extract of
Calotropis gigantea proved to be highly toxic to Cercospora moricola by
inhibiting the growth both under in vitro and in vivo. Pradeep (2005) found the
aqueous extracts of Datura stramonium could inhibit the mycelium growth of
Phaeoisariopsis personata to the extent of 87.10 per cent.
The results revealed the botanical extract Calotropis was highly effective as
maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was obtained with Calotropis followed by
Datura.

Field evaluation of fungicides against the severity of tikka disease of


groundnut cv. TMV-2 during kharif 2008 at Chintamani and 2009 at
Sadahalli

The experiment was taken up during kharif seasons of 2008 and 2009 at
two locations viz., at ARS, Chintamani in 2008 and in 2009 at Sadahalli village to
study the comparative efficacy of different fungicides and a botanical i.e. Neem
leaf extract (2 per cent) against tikka disease of groundnut.

The observations on disease severity were recorded at 10 days interval


starting from 30 DAS till 90 DAS. It was observed that there was not much
disease in the initial phase of crop growth. However, as the crop age progressed
there was increase in the disease severity as noticed in the control (unsprayed)
plots. Severe disease was noticed at 90 DAS (68.93 per cent and 75.00 per cent in
the years 2008 and 2009 respectively). However, significant control of the disease
was noticed in the fungicide treated plots over the unsprayed plot. The fungicide
tebuconazole was found to be highly effective in checking the disease (13.67 and
15.07 per cent in the years 2008 and 2009, respectively) followed by the fungicide
carbendazim (14.67 and 17.60 per cent in the years 2008 and 2009 respectively).
The results thus highlighted the importance of fungicides in managing the tikka
disease.

Significantly maximum pod yield (1.80 kg/plot and 2.00 kg/plot) and
maximum haulm yield (2.13 kg/plot and 2.40 kg/plot) were obtained in the years
2008 and 2009, respectively followed by the plots treated with carbendazim
wherein the pod yield (1.68 kg/plot and 1.92 kg/plot) and haulm yield (1.82
kg/plot and 2.02 kg/plot) in 2008 and 2009 were recorded, respectively. Least pod
yield (0.79 kg/plot and 0.92 kg/plot) and haulm yield (0.97 kg/plot and 1.04
kg/plot) were recorded from the control plot in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Thus
by reducing the disease severity using fungicides one can get the good yields. It
was also noticed from the results that carbendazim was also found to be a good
fungicide after tebuconazole.

These results are in agreement with the results obtained by Nutsugah et al.
(2007) who conducted field trials from 2003 to 2005 at northern Ghana to
compare the efficacy of the fungicides thiophanate methyl, benomyl and
tebuconazole against early and late leaf spots of peanut. They found that when
tebuconazole applied alone was highly effective in reducing leaf spot severity and
it yielded significantly higher biomass and pod yields compared to most of the
treatments. Similarly Hossain and Rahman (2007) evaluated the efficacy of the
foliar spraying of potash (K2O), neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) and
carbendazim against early leaf spot (C.arachidicola), late leaf spot (P. personata)
and rust (P. arachidis) of groundnut under field conditions. All the treatments
reduced the severity of leaf spot. However, significant reduction was obtained
with carbendazim at 0.1%, followed by 2% neem leaf extract + 1.0% K2O.

Moraes et al. (2001) conducted four field experiments in 1996-97 in Brazil


to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides (chlorothalonil, tebuconazole,
difenoconazole and propiconazole) for the control of late leaf spot (caused by
Cercosporidium personatum infection on groundnut cv. Tatu. They found that the
triazole fungicides were more efficient than chlorothalonil. Tebuconazole greatly
reduced late leaf spot intensity.

The results revealed the efficacy of the fungicide tebuconazole as the


disease was significantly controlled and higher pod and haulm yield was obtained
which was followed by the fungicide carbendazim. The neem leaf extract was
least effective as disease was more and the pod and haulm yield were significantly
lower and the treatment was comparable with the control.

Future line of work:

1. Characterization of the pathogens causing tikka disease of groundnut using


molecular tools.

2. The biochemical studies are to be perfected in order to impart resistant


against tikka disease

3. Management practices have to be strengthened by testing the new


molecules with integrated approach to reduce the loss.
Summary
VI SUMMARY

Investigations carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences,


Bangalore on tikka disease of groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori.
and Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and Curt.) Deighton with special
reference to survey for the prevalence of the disease, severity of disease influenced
by different sowing dates, their relationship with weather parameters,
physiological attributes, biochemical nature, screening of germplasm and disease
management and the results obtained thereon are summarized here under.

Survey conducted during kharif 2008 and summer 2009 revealed that in
kharif season the disease severity was maximum in Kolar district (64 to 75 per
cent) and it was least in Tumkur district (32 to 40 percent) among all the districts
surveyed. The disease severity could also be reflected by the age of the crop as it
was observed that as the age of the crop increased, the severity also increased.

Symptoms of the tikka disease in the beginning appeared as small chlorotic


spots on the leaves. In Cercospora arachidicola these spots developed into black
lesions on the upper surface and were surrounded by chlorotic halo whereas the
corresponding lesion on the lower surface exhibited light brown colour. In
Cercosporidium personatum, the lesions were smaller, more, almost circular and
tan carbon black colour whereas on the abaxial surfaces, the lesions were tan or
carbon black and slightly rough in appearance. The lesions were also observed on
petioles, stems and pegs.

The fungi were isolated from the infected groundnut leaves showing typical
leaf spot symptoms using modified Richard’s agar medium. The pathogenicity was
proved by inoculating homogenized mycelial bits of the fungi on the foliage of 30
days old groundnut plants. The groundnut plants produced typical symptoms of
tikka disease. Reisolated fungi had the same colony characteristics as that of the
fungi isolated from the naturally infected leaves. The fungi involved in causing
tikka (leaf spot) disease of groundnut were identified as Cercospora arachidicola
and Cercosporidium personatum.

The cultural characteristics of both the fungi were studied on eight different
media. It was observed that the two fungi showed variation on individual medium
and the variation was also noticed in the growth of fungus on different media.
Maximum growth of the fungi was noticed on Richard’s agar followed by Potato
dextrose agar. Maximum dry mycelial weight of both the fungi was recorded on 16th
day after inoculation on the Richard’s broth.

Eight different carbon and nitrogen sources were tested for the growth of the
fungi. The growth of Cercosporidium personatum was superior to the growth of
Cercospora arachidicola. Cellulose has been recorded as best carbon source whereas,
peptone as the best nitrogen source.

Studies on the growth of fungi at eight different temperature levels in


terms of mycelial growth in Richard’s broth showed the optimum temperature for
the good growth was ranged from 20 to 30˚C with 25˚C as optimum.

Investigations on the effect of different pH levels on dry mycelial weight


showed that both the fungi preferred the optimum pH range of 4 to 6. The fungus
C. arachidicola yielded maximum dry mycelial weight at pH of 6 whereas, the
maximum dry mycelial weight of the fungus C. personatum was obtained at pH 5.

Studies on the different incubation periods on spore germination indicated


that spore germination of both the fungi was initiated at 6 hours of incubation and
maximum spore germination of both the fungi was noticed at 48 hours of
incubation which was very closely followed by at 24 hours of incubation.
From the results on the effect of different temperature levels on spore
germination, it was concluded that the both the fungi germinated at a temperature
level of 10˚C to 40˚C with optimum being 15˚C to 25˚C. Maximum germination
of both the fungi was observed at 25˚C.

The studies on the effect of different sowing dates on disease severity


revealed that the disease was negligible at the early stages of crop growth in all the
sowing dates. Thereafter, the disease started increasing as the age of the crop
advanced and at the fag end of the crop growth, the disease was severe. The
disease was more severe in susceptible variety (TMV-2) whereas the variety
GPBD-4 had least disease intensity indicating its resistance to the tikka disease.
The summer month crops of groundnut had very less disease compared to the
kharif sown crops.

The investigations on the role of weather parameters on severity of the


disease in susceptible variety TMV-2 as influenced by different sowing dates
revealed that the disease was very low in all sowing dates till 60 days of crop
growth and then onwards, the disease started increasing and at the fag end of the
crop the disease was severe. However, the disease in the summer sown crop
towards the fag end of the crop was much less compared to the kharif sown crops
indicating in early sown crops the age of the crop contributed to the disease
severity rather than the weather factors. The kharif sown crops had more disease
severity. In these kharif sown crops, the weather factors along with the age of the
crop contributed to the disease severity. In general the disease was severe at fag
end of the crop which might be due to the age of the crop rather than weather
parameters.

Thus, the disease severity was found to be more influenced by the age of
the crop as was seen from among all the sowing dates whereas, the meteorological
factors though influenced disease severity during kharif sown crops, did not have
any relationship among sowing dates during dry months.

Investigations on the effect of disease severity on chlorophyll content of


groundnut indicated that chlorophyll content at early stages of crop growth did not
vary as the disease was very less. Thereafter, the chlorophyll content increased as
age of the crop advanced (up to 60 days). However, at fag end of the crop, the
chlorophyll content started decreasing and the decrease was more pronounced in
the crops of TMV-2 of kharif months and the tikka disease was severe. In GPBD-
4, there was decrease in chlorophyll content however, the decrease was less
compared to TMV-2. The chlorophyll content was more in summer crops than
kharif crops and it was more in GPBD-4 than TMV-2.

Studies on the effect of tikka disease severity on the Biochemical


constituents revealed that the total sugar content in the initial stages of the crop did
not vary among the different sowing dates and during this period, the disease was
very low and also the susceptible variety TMV-2 showed more total sugars than
the resistant variety GBPD-4. However, as the disease severity increased in
consequence to increase in crop age, there was decrease in the total sugar content.
Further, the decrease was more in TMV-2 than GPBD-4 in the later stages as the
disease severity was very less in GPBD-4 compare to TMV-2 indicating that the
disease severity had possible influence on total sugar content. It was also inferred
that the total sugar content decreases as the age and severity of disease increases
which reflects its susceptible nature to the disease.

The total phenol content at initial stages did not differ much. Thereafter,
increase in total phenol was observed as the disease severity increased in
consequence to progress in the age of the crop. The increase in phenol content was
more pronounced in the TMV-2 of kharif crops than in summer crops. However,
this increasing trend was comparatively less than in GPBD-4 variety, a resistant
variety. In summer crops the increase in total phenol content was not much owing
to the fact that the disease severity was less. Further, it inferred that as the disease
severity increases with age, the phenol content was also triggered and
consequently reflecting the susceptibility to the disease.

The total protein content showed the same trend as was observed in total
phenol in the initial stages of crop growth. At later stages of crop growth, the total
protein content increased further and it was higher in the variety TMV-2 and
during this period the disease was severe. The above results revealed that there
was an increase in the total protein content as disease severity increased which
was reflected by the age of the crop and consequently reflects the susceptibility to
the disease. The resistant variety GPBD-4 did not show much difference in total
protein content compared to susceptible variety TMV-2.

Pod yield was found to be less in TMV-2 than in GPBD-4. The summer
season recorded highest yield compared to the kharif season.

Out of 88 ICRISAT germplasm accessions screened for their resistance


against tikka disease, the accessions ICGV 98372 and ICGV 98374 were
moderately resistant.

The results on the effect of seven fungicides evaluated at different


concentrations on spore germination against both the fungi indicated that the
fungicide tebuconazole (100 per cent inhibition at 50ppm) was highly effective
followed by carbendazim (100 per cent inhibition at 100ppm).

In vitro investigations on the effect of different botanicals on the radial


growth of the fungi showed that the plant extract of Calotropis was highly
inhibitory followed by Datura. The least inhibition effect was noticed in case of
Neem leaf extract.
In the disease management trial, the plots treated with tebuconazole
registered least disease severity resulting in highest pod and haulm yield followed
by the plots treated with carbendazim. Whereas, highest disease severity and the
lowest pod and haulm yields were recorded in the control (unsprayed) plots
followed by in the plots treated with neem leaf extract.
References
VII REFERENCES

Abhay Kumar Srivastava and Bihari Lal, 1997, Studies on biofungicidal properties
of leaf extract of some plants. Indian Phytopath., 50: 408-411.

Abraham, M.J., Sharma, K.D., Singh, B.P. and Prasad, R.N., 1988, Genotypic
differences in yield, disease resistance and biochemical composition in
groundnut selections on a P-deficient soils in Meghalaya. In: Proc. Indian
nat. Sci. Acad., B (Biol. Sci.), 54: 371-378.

Adhikari, R.S., Bora, S.S. and Sarkar, G. K., 1987, Biochemical changes in the
leaves of almond infected by Cercospora circumscissa. Progressive-
Horticulture, 19: 295-297.

Adisa, V.A., 1989, Studies on the germination of conidia and the sporulation of
Cercospora cruenta Sacc. Cryptogamie Mycologie, 10: 343-354.

Alabi, O., Olorunju, P.E., Misari, S.M., Boye and Goni, S.R., 1993, Management
of groundnut foliar diseases in Samaru, Northern Nigeria. In: Summary
proceedings of the Third regional Groundnut meeting for West Africa,
Ouagadougou,Burkina Faso, 14-17 Sep., 1992.

Alderman, S.C. and Beute, M.K., 1986, Influence of temperature and moisture on
germination and germ tube elongation of Cercospora arachidicola.
Phytopathology, 76: 715-719.

Anonymous, 2008, Agricultural research data book. Indian Agricultural Statistics


Research Institute, Library Avenue, Pusa, New Delhi, 369pp.

Anonymous, 2009, Report on Area, Production, Productivity and Prices of


Agriculture Crops in Karnataka, 2006-07. Directorate of Economics and
Statistics, Bangalore, 48pp.
Arora, Y.K. and Wagle, D.S., 1985, Inter-relationship between peroxidase,
polyphenol oxidase activities and phenolic content of wheat for resistance
to loose smut. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen., 180: 75-80.

Aulakh, K.S. and Sandhu, R.S., 1970, Free amino acids and carbohydrates in
healthy and ‘tikka’ affected groundnut leaves. Indian Phytopath., 23: 84-
87.

Bailey, E. and Bridget, E., 1966, Plant Pathology. Rep. Agric. Res. Coun. Cent.
Africa, pp52-55.

Bala, M. and Dhillon, M., 1987, Chlorophyll content of Cercospora infected


groundnut leaves in susceptible and resistant varieties. Ann. Biol., 3: 61-63.

Benagi, V.I., 1995, Epidemiology and management of late leaf spot of groundnut
caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. & Curt.) V. Arx. Ph.D. Thesis,
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.

Benagi, V.I., Advani, M.R. and Kulkarni S., 1998, Epidemiological factors in
relation to development and prediction of late leaf spot of groundnut.
Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 11:679-683.

Bera, G.C., Ghose, S.K. and Das, P.K., 1999, Biochemical defence and the nature
of gene action against 'Tikka' disease in groundnut. Indian J. Genet. Pl.
Breed., 59: 331-336.

Berger, R.D. and Hanson, E.W., 1963, Relation of environmental factors to


growth and sporulation of Cercospora zebrina. Phytopathology, 53: 286-
294.

Berkeley, M.J., 1875, Notices of North American fungi. Grev., 3: 106.


Brahmachari, B.K. and Kolte, S.J., 1983, Morphological and biochemical
difference in two Cercospora leaf spot resistant and susceptible varieties of
groundnut. Indian Phytopath., 36: 149-150.

Brenneman, T.B. and Murphy, A.P., 1991, Activity of tebuconazole on


Cercosporidium personatum, a foliar pathogen of peanut. Plant Disease,
75: 699-703.

Bunting, A.H., Gregory, W.C., Mauboussin, J.C. and Rayon, J.G., 1974, A
proposal for research on groundnuts (Arachis) by ICRISAT, Mimeo, 1:25-
32.

Chandrashekharan, S. and Rangaswami, G., 1960, Studies on Cercospora cruenta


occurring on Vigna catjang. Indian Phytopath., 13: 96-99.

Chaudhary, S.K., 1988, Field screening of groundnut germplasm against late leaf
spot under mild altitude conditions. Inter. J. Trop. Agric., 6: 267-269.

Chen, M.D., Lyda, S.D. and Halliwell, R.S., 1979, Environmental factors
influencing growth and sporulation Cercospora kikuchi. Mycologia, 71:
1150-1157.

Chevaugeon, J., 1953, Researches on Cercosporiosis of groundnut in Middle


Casamance. Rev. Appl. Mycol., 32: 661.

Chowdhury, S., 1944, An Alternaria disease of safflower, J. Indian Bot. Soc., 23:
59-65.

Corbet, D.C.M. and Brown, P., 1966, Fungicidal control of Cercospora leaf spots
of groundnut in Malawi. J. Agric. Res., 4: 13
Dandnaik, B.P., Wadikar, V.B. and Mujawar, D.Y., 1996, Varietal response to
various diseases of groundnut at different sowing dates in the post rainy
season in India. Inter. Arachis Newsl., 16: 29-31.

Dange, S.R.S. and Patel, P.N., 1968, Influence of nutrition and pH on the growth
and sporulation of Cercospora beticola Sacc. from Spinach. beet. Indian
Phytopath., 21: 434-439.

Dayal Ram and Asha Ram, 1968, Physiological studies on Cercospora


jasminicola Muller and Chupp. II. Nitrogen requirements. Proc. Nat. Acad.
Sci. India, Sect. B., 37: 293-298.

Dinesha, L.G., 1984, Studies on grey leaf spot of sorghum [Soghum bicolor (L.)
Moench] caused by Cercospora sorghi Ell. and Eve. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis,
Univ. Agri. Sci., Bangalore.

Dubey, S.C., 2005, Role of weather on development of Cercospora leaf spot


(Cercospora arachidicola) on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Indian J.
Agric. Sci., 75: 232-234.

Duncan, W.G., McCloud, D.E., Mcgraw, R.G. and Boote, K.J., 1978,
Physiological aspects of peanut yield improvement. Crop Sci., 18: 1015-
1020.

Ellis, J.B. and Everhart, B.M., 1885, North American Cercosporae, J. Mycol., 1:
63.

Friend, J., 1979, Phenolic substances and plant disease. In: Biochemistry of plant
phenolics (Swin. T., Harbone, B.J. and Sumere, F.V., eds.). Plenum press,
New York, pp557-588.
Galgunde, L.P. and Kurundkar, B.P., 2002, Occurrence of groundnut diseases as
influenced by weather parameters in rabi crop. J. Maharashtra Agric.
Univ., 27: 113.

Ghewande, M.P. and Reddy, P.S., 1986, Strategy for the management of major
diseases of groundnut. Pesticides, 20: 57-61.

Ghewande, M.P., Desai, S., Narayan, P. and Ingle, A.P., 1992, An integrated
approach to the management of foliar diseases of groundnut. In:
Groundnut: a global perspective: (Nigam, S.N. ed.). Proceeding of an
International workshop, ICRISAT, Center, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh,
India, 25-29 Nov, 1991, 477pp.

Ghewande, M.P., Desai, S., Narayan, P. and Ingle, A.P., 1993, Evaluation of new
fungicides and plant products to manage foliar diseases of groundnut. Paper
presented at IPS meet: Western chapter November, 1-2, 1991, Indian
Phytopath., Suppl issue CIII.

Ghewande, M.P., Pandey, R.N., Shukla, A.K. and Misra, D.P., 1983, Sources of
resistance of late leaf spot and rust of groundnut. Indian Bot. Rep., 2: 174.

Ghewande, M.P., Shukla, A.K., Pandey, R.N. and Misra, D.P., 1983, Losses in
groundnut yields due to leaf spots and rust at different intensity levels.
Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 13: 125-127.

Ghuge, S.S., Mayee, C.D. and Godbole, G.M., 1981, Assessment of losses in
peanut due to rust and tikka leaf spots. Indian Phytopath., 34: 179-182.

Gibbons, R.W., 1966, Mycosphaerella leaf spots of groundnuts. FAO Plant Prot.
Bull., 14: 25.
Gobinathan, R. and Ramabadran, R., 1993, Changes in sugar contents of
groundnut leaves as influenced by tikka disease and fungicidal treatment in
Paper presented at IPS Meet: Southern Chapter, October 9-10, 1991.
Indian Phytopath., (Suppl. Issue), 45: XCIII.

Gorbet, D.W., Shokes, F.M. and Jackson, L.F., 1982, Control of peanut leaf spot
with a combination of resistance and fungicide treatment. Peanut Sci., 9:
87-90.

Guo, X.M. and Wan, H., 1992, Study on leaf spot of Euonymus. J. Huazhong
Agri. Univ., 11: 140-144.

Gupta, D.K., 1985, Fungicidal control of tikka disease of groundnut in Manipur.


Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 15: 99-101.

Gupta, D.K., 1987, Susceptibility of groundnut varieties against tikka disease in


Manipur. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 17: 289.

Gupta, P.P., Gupta, S.K., Kaushik, C.D. and Yadava, T.P., 1985, Biochemical
changes in leaf surface washings of groundnut due to tikka disease
Cercosporidium personatum. Indian Phytopath., 38: 339-340.

Gupta, S.K., Gupta, P.P., Kaushik, C.D. and Chawla, H.K.L., 1992, Metabolic
changes in groundnut leaf due to infection by leaf spot pathogens. Indian
Phytopath., 45: 434-438.

Hazarika, D.K., Dubey, L.N. and Das, K.K., 2000, Effect of sowing dates and
weather factors on development of leaf spots and rust of groundnut. J.
Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 30: 27-30.

Hori, S., 1917, Studies on a new case of the rot which affects the leaf of peanut
(trans. Title), Annu. Rep. Nishigahara Agric. Exp. Stn., Tokyo.
Hossain, M.D. and Rahman, M.Z., 2007, Efficacy of foliar spray with potash,
neem leaf extract and Bavistin to manage leaf spot and rust of groundnut.
Bangladesh J. Pl. Pathol., 23: 85-88.

Hossain, M. D., Rahman, M. Z., Abeda Khatun and Rahman, M. M., 2007,
Screening of groundnut genotypes for leaf spots and rust resistance. Int. J.
Sustain. Crop Prod., 2: 07-10.

Jackson, C.R., 1961, Cercospora leaf spot of statice. Phytopathology, 51: 129-130.

Jayapal, R. and Mahadevan, A., 1968, Biochemical changes in banana leaves in


response to leaf spot pathogenesis. Indian Phytopath., 21: 43-48.

Jenkins, W.A., 1939, The development of Mycosphaerella berkeleyii. J. Agric.


Res., 58: 617-620.

Jhorar, O.P., Mavi, H.S. and Dhiman, J.S., 1987, A graphical technique for short-
range forecast of early and late leaf spot disease of groundnut. J. Res. PAU.,
24: 607-612.

Jyosthna, M.K., Reddy, N.P.E. Chalam,T.V. and Reddy, G.L.K., 2004,


Morphological and biochemical characterization of Phaeoisariopsis
personata resistant and susceptible cultivars of groundnut (Arachis
hypogaea). Pl. Pathol. Bull., 13: 243-250.

Kanti, K.S.R., 1975, Studies on Cercospora leaf spot of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).
M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agri. Sci., Bangalore.

Kaur, J. and Dhillon, M., 1989, Biochemical alterations in groundnut (Arachis


hypogaea L.) leaf induced by Cercosporidium personatum (Berk and Curt.)
Deighton. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 19: 151-156.
Khan, S.A. and Kamal, M., 1961, Identity of Cercospora personata (Berk and
Curt.) Ellis and Everhart causing leaf spot of groundnut (Arachis
hypogaea). Pakistan. J. Sci. Res., 56: 317.

Khandar, R.R., Bhatnagar, M.K. and Rawal P.P., 1985, Cultural conditions
affecting growth and sporulation of Cercospora canescens, incitant of
mungbean leaf spot and germination of its spores. Indian J. Mycol. Pl.
Pathol., 15:165-171.

Kilpatrick, R.A. and Johnoson, H. W., 1956, Purple stain of legume seeds
caused by Cercospora species. Phytopathology, 47: 131-135.

Klement, X. and Goodman, R.N., 1967, The hypersensitive reaction to infection


by bacterial plant pathogens. Annu. Rev. Phytopathology, 5: 17-44.

Krishnaprasad, M.S., Hegde, R.K., Siddaramaiah, A.L. and Jayaramaiah, H., 1979,
Screening of groundnut varieties for tikka disease resistance. Curr. Res., 8:
104-105.

Kuc, J., 1964, Phenolic compounds and disease resistance in plants. In: Phenolics
in normal and diseased fruits and vegetables (Ed.) Revneckles, V.C., pp
63-81.

Kuprevica, V.F., 1947, The physiology of the diseased plants in relation to the
general questions of parasitism. U.S.S.R. Accrd. Sci., Moscow, Leningrad,
219pp.

Lakshminarayana, H.K., 1981, Studies on Cercospora solani-melongenae Chupp.


causing leaf spot of brinjal. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agri. Sci.,
Bangalore.
Lalithakumari, D., Ganesan, T. and Nageswara Rao, M., 1984, Effect of systemic
fungicides on the physiological response of groundnut plant against tikka
leaf spot. Indian Phytopath., 37: 111-114.

Lande, H.I., Vande, M. and Frankel, L.T., 1983, The effect of delayed
chlorothalonil sprayings on Cercospora, Cercosporidum and Puccinia leaf
spots in peanut. Surinaamse Landbouw, 31: 87-91.

Lewin, H.D., Natarajan, S. and Govindarajan, K., 1973, Correlation between


sowing time and weather factors on the intensity of groundnut disease.
Indian J. Mycol Pl. Pathol., 3: 26-32.

Lilly, V.G. and Barnett, H.L., 1951, Physiology of the fungi Mc Graw Hill book
company. Inc. New York, 439pp.

Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.C. and Randall, P.J., 1951, Protein
measurement with the folin- phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265-277.

Luthra, Y.F., Gandhi, S.K., Joshi, U.N. and Arora, S.K., 1988, Total phenols and
their oxidative enzymes in sorghum eaves resistant and susceptible to
Ramulispora sorghicola Harris. Acta Phytopathol. Entomol (Hungarica),
23: 393-339.

Mayee, C.D., 1989, Dynamics of disease progress in groundnut: An


Epidemiological View. In: Researhes in Ecology, Environment and
Pollution (Tilak, S.T. ed.) 3:109-118. Today and Tommorrow’s printers
and publication, New Delhi.

McDonald, D., Subrahmanyam, P., Gibbons, R.W. and Smith, D.H., 1985, Early
and late leaf spots of groundnut. Information Bulletin No.21. ICRISAT,
Patancheru, A.P., 19pp.
Mehan, V.K., Reddy, P.M., Subrahmanyam, P., McDonald, D. and Singh, A.K.,
1996, Identification of new sources of resistance to rust and late leaf spot in
peanut. Inter. J. Pest Manage., 42: 267-271.

Mehta, P.R., Singh, B. and Mathur, S.C., 1953, Observations on known and new
diseases of field crops in Uttar Pradesh during 1951-52. Pl. Prot. Bull., 5:
52.

Miller, L.I., 1946, Peanut leaf spot control. War. Agr. Expt. Stat. Tech. Bull., 104:
85.

Moraes, S.A., Godoy, I.J., Pezzopane, J.R.M., Pereira, J.C.V.N.A. and Silveira,
L.C.P., 2001, Efficiency of fungicides in the control of peanut late leaf spot
and scab by monitoring method. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 26: 134-140.

Moss, J.P., Singh, A.K., Reddy, L.J., Nigam, S.N., Subrahmanyam,P., McDonald,
D. and Reddy, A.G.S., 1997, Registration of ICGV 87165 peanut line with
multiple resistance. Crop Sci., 37: 1028.

Motagi, B.N., Gowda, M.V.C. and Nalini Prabhakar, 2004, Biochemical basis of
resistance to late leaf spot in groundnut. Pl. Pathol. Newsl., 22: 19-20.

Murakishi, H.H., 1951, Purple seed strain of soybean. Phytopathology, 41: 305-
318.

Naidu, P.H. and Rao, A.S., 1997, Weather based control of groundnut late leaf
spot with fungicides and plant extracts. J. Oilseeds Res., 14: 241-243.

Naidu, P.H. and Vasanthi, R.P., 2002, Influence of sowing dates on tikka late leaf
spot (Phaeoisariopsis personata) in rabi and summer groundnut. Legume
Res., 25: 279-281.
Nakashima, C. and Kobayashi, T., 1997, Etiological studies on brown spot disease
of Pyracantha. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan, 63: 309-315.

Nanja Reddy, Y.A., Chaudhuri, D. and Krishnakumar, A.K., 1990, A comparison


of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and acetone extracts for the determination
of chlorophyll in Hevea leaf tissue. Indian J. Nat. Rubber. Res., 3: 131-134.

Natarajan, S., and Subramnian, K.S., 1983, Fungicidal control of rust and leaf spot
of groundnut. In: Management of Diseases of Oilseed Crops. Madurai,
India, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. pp36-38.

Nath, V.R. and Kulkarni, L.G., 1967, Effect of different dates of sowing on
groundnut on the development and intensity of leaf spot disease by
Cercospora spp. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 37: 362-368.

Nene, Y. L. and Thapliyal, P.N., 1982, Fungicides in plant disease control.


Oxford & IBH Publishing House, New Delhi,163 pp.

Nutsugah, S. K., Abudulai, M., Oti, B.C., Brandenburg, R.L. and Jordan, D.L.,
2007, Management of leaf spot diseases of peanut with fungicides and local
detergents in Ghana. Pl. Pathol. J. Faisalabad, 6: 248-253.

Oso, B.A., 1972, Conidial germination of Cercospora arachidicola Hori. Trans.


British. Mycol. Soc., 59: 169-172.

Patil, M.S., Attarde, K.A. and Deokar, A.E., 1984, Control of late leaf spot and
rust of groundnut by combination spray of carbendazim and Tridemorph. J.
Oilseeds Res., 1: 23-28.

Pensuk, V., Patanothai, A., Jogloy, S., Wongkaew, S., Akkasaeng C. and
Vorasoot, N., 2003, Reaction of peanut cultivars to late leafspot and rust.
Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 25: 289-295
Ponnaiah, S., Sachithanantham, K. and Madhava Rao, S., 1982, Evaluation of
fungidides against tikka and rust disease of groundnut. Pesticides, 16: 27-
38.

Pradeep, G.R., 2005, Evaluation of selected botanicals for their fungitoxic activity
against new phytopathogenic fungi. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agri. Sci.,
Bangalore.

Raghunathan, A.N., 1969, Comparative physiology of two Cercospora species


occurring on Dolichos lablab. Madras Agric. J., 56: 734-736.

Rama Pandu, S. and Appa Rao, A., 1981, Studies on the nutritional requirements
of Cercospora arachidicola. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 11: 183-188.

Rani, A.S. and Reddy, G.M., 1998, Biochemical differences in compatible and
incompatible interactions of groundnut leaf spot induced by Cercospora
arachidicola. Legume Res., 21: 188-192.

Ravindranath, V. and Kulkarni, L.O., 1967, Effect of different dates of sowing of


groundnut on the development and intensity of leaf spot disease by
Cercospora spp. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 27: 362-368.

Reshi, N.A., Khan, M.A., Mushtaq Ahmad and Dar, G.H., 2001, Effect of
fungicides and their application methods on Cercospora leaf spot disease
and some agronomic traits in zinnia. Appl. Biol. Res., 3: 15-18.

Rohringer, R. and Samborski, D.J., 1967, Aromatic compounds in the host-


parasite interaction. Annu. Rev. Phytopath., 7: 77-86.
Ruben, F.G., Jeovan, A.A.D., Beatriz O.V.C., Jose A.T.S. and Rosa, M.L.E.,
2007, Identification and chemical control of the causal agents of leaf spot
and powdery mildew of husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) in northern
Sinaloa, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de-Fitopatologia, 25: 1-10.

Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A., 1996, Biochemical methods. New Age


International (P) Limited Publishers, New Delhi, 256pp.

Saini, R.S., Arora, Y.K., Chawla, H.K.L. and Wagle D.S., 1988, Total phenols and
sugar content in wheat cultivars resistant and susceptible to Ustilago nuda
(Jens) Rostrup. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen., 183: 89-93.

Sarvamangala, H.S., Govindaiah and Datta, R.K., 1993, Evaluation of plant


extracts for the control of fungal diseases of mulberry. Indian Phytopath.,
46: 398-401.

Savary, S., 1987, A survey of fungal diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in


the Ivory Coast. 1. Survey methods and descriptive study: Cropping
techniques and the main diseases. Netherland J. Pl. Pathol., 93: 167-188.

Sekhon, S. and Dhillon, A.S., 1981, Studies on chemical control of tikka disease
of groundnut. Pesticides, 15: 19-21.

Sethi, K.K. and Munjal, R.L., 1963, Studies on the nutritional requirements of
Cercospora viticola (Ces.) Sacc. (= Mycosphaerella personata Higgins).
Indian Phytopath., 16: 185-194.

Shanta, P., 1960, Studies on Cercospora leaf spots of groundnut. J. Madras Univ.,
30: 166-177; 179-185.

Shekhawat, P.S. and Prasada, R., 1971, Antifungal properties of some plant
extracts II. Growth inhibition studies. Sci. and Cult., 37: 40-41.
Shekhawat, P.S., Patel, V.N. and Patel, J.G., 1985, Economic fungicidal spray
schedule for control of tikka and rust diseases of rainfed groundnut. Indian
J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 17: 11-16.

Shokes, F.M., Gorbet, D.W. and Jackson, L.F., 1983, Control of early and late leaf
spots on two peanut cultivars. Peanut Sci., 10: 17-21.

Siddaramaiah, A.L., Desai, S.A. and Hegde, R.K., 1983, Studies on estimation of
loss due to rust and tikka of groundnut. Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 17: 365-367.

Siddaramaiah, A.L., 1986, Studies on leaf spot of mulberry (Morus alba L.)
caused by Cercospora moricola with special reference to epidemiology and
control. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Agri. Sci., Bangalore.

Sinclair, J.B. and Backman, P.A. 1989, Compendium of soybean diseases (3rd
Edition). American Phytopathological society, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA,
p.106.

Sindhan, G.S. and Jaglan, B.S., 1988, Effect of fungicides on the biochemical
responses of groundnut plant against tikka leaf spot. Plant Dis. Res., 3: 57-
59.

Sindhan, G.S., Jaglan, B.S. and Parashar, R.D., 1987, Changes in phenols and
carbohydrates in resistant and susceptible cultivars of groundnut in relation
to tikka disease. Plant Dis. Res., 2: 100-101.

Sindhan, G.S., Indra Hooda and Parashar, R.D., 1999, Sources of resistance to
Cercospora leaf spot in mungbean and biochemical parameters for
resistance. J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 29: 130-132.

Singh, R.S., 1998, Plant Diseases, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi,
686pp.
Smith, D.H., 1971, A simple method for producing Cercospora arachidicola
conidial inoculum. Phytopathology, 61: 1414.

Smith, D.H. and Crosby, F.L., 1973, Aerobiology of two leaf spot fungi.
Phytopathology, 63: 703-707.

Smith, D.H. and Littrell, R.H., 1980, Management of peanut foliar disease with
fungicides. Plant Disease, 64: 356-361.

Sobers, E. K. and Martinez, 1965, Alternaria leaf spot of Pittosporium.


Phytopathology, 55: 478-479.

Sommartya, T. and Beute, M.K., 1986, Temperature effects on germination and


comparative morphology of conidia for Thai and USA isolates of
Cercosporidium personatum. Peanut Sci., 13: 67-70.

Stavely, J.R. and Nimmo, J.A., 1968, Relation of pH and Nutrition to growth and
sporulation of Cercospora nicotianae. Phytopathology, 58: 1372-1376.

Stern, V.M., Smith, R.F., Van Den Bosch, R. and Hagan, K.S., 1959, The
integrated control concept. Hilgardia, 9: 81-101.

Sturgeon, R.V., Jr., 1986, Peanut disease loss estimates for major peanut
producing states in the United States for 1984 and 1985. In: American
Peanut Research and Education Society. p 18.

Subbarao, P.V., Subrahmanyam, P. and Reddy, P.M., 1990, A modified 9 point


scale for assessment of rust and late leaf spot of groundnut. In: 2nd
International congress of the French Phytopathological Society, 28-30
Nov., 1990, Montpellier, France.
Subrahmanyam, P. and McDonald, D., 1986, Diseases of Rabi groundnut in India.
Workshop cum seminar on high yielding tehnology for Rabi/Summer
oilseeds. Directorate of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad,
November, 25, 1986.

Subrahmanyam, P. and McDonald, D., 1987, Groundnut rust disease:


Epidemiology and Control. In: Groundnut Rust diseases. Proceedings of a
Discussion Group Meeting 24-28 Sept., 1984, pp 27-39, ICRISAT,
Patancheru, A.P., India.

Subrahmanyam, P., Bosc, J.P., Hassane, H., Smith, D.H., Mounkaila, A.,
Ndunguru, B.J. and Sankara, P., 1992, Groundnut diseases in Niger and
Burkina Faso. Oleagineux, 47: 119-133.

Subrahmanyam, P., Hammons, P.O., Nigam, S.N., McDonald, D., Gibbons, R.W.,
Fan, M.Y. and Yea, N.L., 1983, International co-operative screening for
resistance of peanut to rust and leaf spot. Plant. Disease, 67: 1108-1111.

Subrahmanyam, P. and Ravindranath, V., 1988, Fungal and nematode diseases. In:
Groundnut (Reddy, P.S., ed.). ICAR Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan, New
Delhi, pp. 453-507.

Subrahmanyam, P., Shankara, P., Bosc, P.J. and Smith, D.H., 1987, Survey of
groundnut diseases in Burkina Faso. Inter. Arachis Newsl., 2: 12.

Subrahmanyam, P., Williams, J.H., McDonald, D. and Gibbons, R.W., 1984, The
influence of foliar diseases and their control by selective fungicides on a
range of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes. Ann. Appl. Biol., 104:
467-476.
Sulaiman, M. and Agashe, N.C., 1965, Influence of climate on the incidence of
tikka disease of groundnut. Indian Oilseeds J., 9: 176.

Suryawanshi, A.P., Mayee, C.D., Dhoke, P.K. and Indulkar, B.S., 2006, Role of
phenols and sugars in resistance of groundnut against late leaf spot caused
by Phaeoisariopsis personata. J. Pl. Dis. Sci., 1: 195-197.

Tandon, R.N. and Chandra, S., 1962, Nutrional studies on Cercospora ricinella
(Sacc. and Berl.) Speg. Phyton., 18: 165-171.

Thakore, B.B.L., Sneh Mathur and Singh, R.B., 1987, Management of leaf spot
and rust disease of peanut by single fungicide. Korean J. Pl. Prot., 26: 113-
115.

Thind, K.S. and Mandahar, C.L., 1965, The influence of various carbon sources on
the growth of Cercospora spp. In: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., India, 348: 387-
393.

Tiwari, R.K. S., Ojha, B.M. and Chandravanshi, S.S., 2004, Efficacy of fungicides
in controlling leaf spots (Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium
personatum) and rust (Puccinia arachidis) in groundnut. J. Mycol. Pl.
Pathol., 34: 520-521.

Tomiyama, K., 1963, Physiology and biochemistry of disease resistance of plants.


Annu. Rev. Phytopathology, 3: 295-324.

Toriyama, K., 1972, Breeding for resistance to major diseases in Japan. In: Plant
Breeding for Pest and Disease Resistance, London. pp110-115.

Tripathi, R.N., Pandey, D.K., Tripathi, M.V. and Dixit, S.N., 1982, Antifungal
activity in pollens of some higher plants. Indian Phytopath., 35: 346.
Tuite, J. 1969, Plant Pathological methods, Fungi and Bacteria. Burgess
publishing Company, USA, 239pp.

Vemana, A. M., John Sudheer, R.S., Jayalakshmi Devi and Anandam, R.J., 2005,
Management of foliar diseases in rainfed groundnut. J. Mycol Pl. Pathol.,
35: 410-411.

Verma, P.R. and Agnihotri, J.P., 1972, Effect of nutrition, pH and temperature on
the growth and sporulation of Cercospora cruenta Sacc. and Cercospora
beticola Sacc. Phytopathol. Miditerr., 11: 25-29.

Vincent, J.M., 1927, Distortion of fungal hypha in the presence of some inhibitors.
Nature, 159: 850.

Von Arx, J.A., 1983, Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs. Proceedings of the
Konenklijke Nederlandse Academie van Weten Schappen Series C., 86: 32-
43.

Walker, J.C. and Stahmann, M.A., 1955, Chemical nature of disease resistance in
plant . Annu. Rev. Pl. Physiol., 6: 351-366.

Wang Jun Feng and Chu Jian Jun, 2006, Biological characteristics of Cercospora
piaropi strain BA-57 for biological control of water hyacinth. Weed
Science-China, 3: 10-13.

Wang, W., Yi, C.S., Zhao, Q. and Wang, L., 1998, Studies on the biological
characteristics of Cercospora kikuchii. Soybean Science, 17: 280-285.

Wangikar, P.D. and Shukla, V. N., 1976, Influence of prevailing temperature and
relative humidity on tikka disease of groundnut. J. Maharashtra Agril
Univ., 1:259-264.
Woodroof, N.C., 1933, Two leaf spots of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Phytopathology, 23: 627.

Zhang-Yi Xian, Lu Guozhong, Liang Jingyi, Yang Hong and Bai Jinkai, 2003,
Biological characteristics of Cercospora zeae-maydis. Acta-
Phytopathologica-Sinica, 33: 292-295.

Оценить