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CONSTITUTIONAL

COMMISSIONS
Aside from the three
branches of
government, Article IX
of the 1987
Constitution
established three
independent, fiscally-
autonomous
commissions: the Civil
Service Commission
(CSC), the Commission
on Elections
(COMELEC), and the
Commission on Audit
(COA). In addition,
Article XIII of the
constitution and the
Administrative Code of
1987 created the
Commission on Human
Rights (CHR).

CIVIL SERVICE
COMMISSION
The constitution
entrusts the
administration of the
civil service, inclusive of
all the branches,
subdivisions,
instrumentalities and
agencies of the
government, and
government-owned or -
controlled
corporations, to the
Civil Service
Commission (CSC).

The Career Service


Eligibility examinations
for prospective
government officers
and employees are
being administered by
the CSC.
The CSC shall be led by
a chairman and two
commissioners, who
shall be appointed by
the President—with
approval from the
Commission on
Appointments—for
single seven-year
terms. The
abovementioned must
possess the following
qualifications:

1. A natural-born
citizen of the
Philippines.
2. At least thirty-five
years of age.
3. Proven capacity for
public
administration.
4. Must not have been
candidates for any
elective position
preceding their
appointment.
COMMISSION ON
ELECTIONS
The Commission on
Elections (COMELEC) is
the primary
government agency
responsible for the
conduct of regular and
special elections in the
country. Similar to
other constitutional
commissions, the
COMELEC is an
independent and
fiscally-autonomous
body free from political
interference or
influence from the
three branches of
government, which
makes possible the
conduct of free, fair,
and honest elections.

The COMELEC shall be


composed of a
chairman and six
commissioners, who
shall be appointed by
the President with
approval from the
Commission on
Appointments for
single seven year
terms. The
abovementioned must
satisfy the following
qualifications:
1. A natural-born
citizen of the
Philippines.
2. At least thirty-five
years of age.
3. Holder of a college
degree.
4. Has not been a
candidate for any
elective position in
the immediately
preceding elections.

COMMISSION ON
AUDIT
Envisioned as an
anti-graft and
corruption body, the
Commission on
Audit (COA) was
established to audit,
examine, and settle
all accounts
pertaining to the
revenue, funds,
expenditures and
property owned or
held in trust by
government
agencies, including
other constitutional
commissions,
government-owned
or -controlled
corporations,
autonomous state
colleges and
universities, and
non-governmental
entities receiving
subsidy or equity
from or through the
government.

The COA shall be


comprised of a
chairman and two
commissioners, who
shall be appointed
by the President—
with approval from
the Commission on
Appointments—for
single seven-year
terms. The officials
mentioned must
possess the
following criteria:
1. A natural-born
citizen of the
Philippines;
2. At least thirty-
five years of age;
3. A certified
public
accountant, with
not less than ten
years of auditing
experience, or a
member of the
Philippine Bar
who has been
engaged in the
practice of law for
at least ten years.
4. Has not been a
candidate for any
elective position
in the preceding
elections.

COMMISSION ON
HUMAN RIGHTS
Apart from the three
bodies created in
Article IX of the
constitution, Sections
17 and 18 of Article XIII
and the Administrative
Code of 1987
established an
independent
Commission on Human
Rights (CHR).
The CHR is composed
of a chairman and four
commissioners, who
shall be appointed by
the President for single
seven-year terms. The
qualifications for the
chairman and
commissioners are as
follows:
1. A natural-born
citizen of the
Philippines;
2. At least thirty-five
years of age.
3. Has not been a
candidate for any
elective position
preceding their
appointment.