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English Year 7

Ministry of Education,
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Suva, Fiji
Copyright – Ministry of Education

All Rights Reserved. The Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) of the Ministry of Education owns
the copyright to this English Communications Year 7 Textbook.

Schools may reproduce this in part or in full for classroom purpose only. Acknowledgement
must be included in any reproductions. Any other use of this book must be referred to the
Curriculum Development Unit, Ministry of Education, Fiji.

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Acknowledgement:
We would like to acknowledge the following organisations and people for the
help they rendered in writing this book.

World Wildlife Foundation – Climate Change Poster

Fiji Times

Pita and Vika Rabuka

Pita and Elisabeta Siata

Taraima Rara Mitchell

Vivian Koster

St Agnes Primary School, Suva Primary School and Latter Day Saints Primary
School - for their resources and facilities.

Mrs Katonibau-Former CDU Officer n-charge of English for her help and advice

Mrs Ana Vecenayawa

Juliet D Toro
Roseline Sidal
Make Sorovakarua

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Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 5

Contents and Overview of Units ................................................................................................... 12

UNIT 1 ........................................................................................................................................... 18

UNIT 2 ........................................................................................................................................... 35

UNIT 3 ........................................................................................................................................... 48

UNIT 4 ........................................................................................................................................... 63

UNIT 5 ........................................................................................................................................... 78

UNIT 6 ........................................................................................................................................... 96

UNIT 7 ......................................................................................................................................... 109

UNIT 8 ......................................................................................................................................... 126

UNIT 9 ......................................................................................................................................... 148

UNIT 10 ....................................................................................................................................... 166

UNIT 11....................................................................................................................................... 178

UNIT 12....................................................................................................................................... 193

UNIT 13 ....................................................................................................................................... 209

UNIT 14 ....................................................................................................................................... 233

UNIT 15 ....................................................................................................................................... 249

UNIT 16 ....................................................................................................................................... 266

UNIT 17 ....................................................................................................................................... 283

UNIT 18 ....................................................................................................................................... 301

UNIT 19 ....................................................................................................................................... 316

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UNIT 20 ....................................................................................................................................... 336

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 350

Introduction
This Year 7 English Genre Approached Workbook comprises of twenty units. It aims to develop
students' knowledge and understanding of texts and how they are structured. This knowledge
will help students to create different spoken and written texts, as well as interpret and respond
more effectively to varied texts they will encounter throughout their lives.

The book covers the following genres:

Factual Texts Literary texts

recount narrative
transaction information narrative
report poetry
procedure
persuasive
explanation
biography

Genre Units

Recount 1 Survivors
Records a series of events in which they occurred. It tells
how, what, where and when. E.g. diaries, letters/postcards,
journals autobiographies and biographies.
Transaction 3 Informal Letter-Letter about
Is used to sustain relationships and involves simple Archbishop
interactions and negations , often in the form of letters , 20 Formal Letter- Application Letter
cards and invitations
Report 9 Blue Whales
Classifies and describes general classes of phenomena. It is 13 Solar System
accurate and factual, and uses clear, straight forward 17 Olympic Games
language.
Procedure 2 Doughnuts
Tells how to achieve a goal or an outcome through a 6 Fire Evacuation Procedure

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sequence of step. E.g. instruction manual, recipe book,
safety manual and science books.
Persuasive Text 10 Why Recycle?
Persuades the reader to agree with a point of view. E.g. 15 Are Cell-phones Becoming a Social
advertisements, debates, pamphlets, letters to the editor, Problem?
references, posters, book and film reviews. 16 Poster-Playing Soccer?
Genre Units

Explanation 4 Why Should You Be Worried About


Describes in scientific terms how natural and technological Corruption?
phenomena come into being. They are written to add to our 11 What are Volcanoes?
store of knowledge. 14 What is Lightning?
Biography 18 Gandhi
Provides life details of a person, usually presented in
chronological order. It includes precise details about
birthplace, and birth and death dates.
Narrative 5 Crime Never Pays
Tells a realistic or imagines story. It is written to entertain, 19 Crash and Bash
stimulate, motivate, guide and teach the reader. E.g. myths,
legends, fables, fairy tales, short stories and picture books.
Structure:
 Orientation ( setting the scene)
 Complication(Problems/ Conflict)
 series of Events
 Resolution (solution of problems)
 Re-orientation/ coda (optional)
Information Narrative 7 Edward Jenner
Is written to entertain, inform, describe or extend the
reader's imagination. Factual information is often woven
into the structure.
Poetry and Data Visualization 8 Digestive System
Helps the reader to think about familiar things in different
ways. It uses language, rhythm, rhyme and structure to
capture the essence of a feeling, thought, object or scene.
Forms of poetry include cinquain, haiku, limericks,
diamante, lyrics, ballads, humorous verse.

Data Visualization/Charts are used to present complicated 12 Weather Chart

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ideas in a way that is easy to understand and read. It
persuades the reader of the viewpoints.

This book is divided into 3 main parts:

1. Listening and Speaking

Teachers can facilitate students’ spoken language development in the following ways:
provide regular opportunities for pairs and small groups of students to work together;
encourage purposeful talking and listening in pairs and small groups;
introduce students to ways of talking and listening in whole-class situations;
ensure that each student has ample opportunities to converse with the teacher or other adults;
model the different ways to ask questions to clarify meaning, enhance understanding or elicit
information;
model spoken text commonly used in the curriculum;
encourage students to recount events, retell stories, instruct, describe and ask questions;
model how to be an active listener;
provide regular opportunities for students to hear examples of English
In different contexts;
engage students in a variety of spontaneous and structured play involving speaking and listening,
e.g. exploration and construction activities, dramatic play, role-play and games;
when interacting with ESL students, use repetition, simplification and paraphrasing and allow the
student time to process the language;
remember that students will have greater difficulty comprehending when there is background
noise, e.g. other students talking;
make allowance for the fact that speaking and listening in an unfamiliar language requires a lot of
concentration and can be tiring for young learners.

2. Reading and Viewing

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Teaching students to become effective readers is an important goal of the compulsory years of
schooling. It involves extending student’s vocabularies and knowledge of the world, developing
their knowledge of English grammar and their decoding skills, developing their reading fluency
and extending their ability to comprehend what they read and view from the literal level to the
inferential and critical levels.

This book provides teachers with a collection of strategies and activities for developing students’
comprehension. The strategies and activities are categorized according to the stages of the
reading process:
 activating, expanding and refining prior knowledge

 Pre-reading activities

 Building Background

 Key Vocabulary

• retrieving information

 Reading the text

• interpreting texts

 Comprehension Skills

 Problem Solving
 Sequencing
 Topic, Main Events and Supporting Details
 Noting Details
S-H-A-R-P Word Study
 Understanding Poetry
Procedure
 Author's Viewpoint
See the word
 Categorize and Classify
 Making Inferences
 Look at the word
 KWL Chart
 Think about the letters
that spell the word
 Compare and Contrast Hear the word
 Literature Circle  Say the word
 Fact and Opinion  Listen to the consonant
 Story Structure and vowel sound
Adopt the word
 Close your eyes
 See the word in your
mind's eye
 Think about how it looks
and sounds
Record the word
 Cover the word
 Write the word
Proofread the word
 Correct the word
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 Touch each Letter
 Think about the word
 Predicting outcomes
 Comprehension Check
 reflecting and creating personal knowledge.

 Word Knowledge and meaning


 Sentences
 Usage and Punctuation
 Grammar
 Dictionary Skills
 spelling

 SHARP Procedure

 Visual Warm-ups
 Vowel Hunt
 Break the Code
 Synonyms
 Scrambled Words, etc...
Writing and Shaping

Typical features of the main genres found in written English are listed above. However, there
are many examples of mixed genres: for example, advertisements are often descriptive followed
by persuasion, or a mixture of the two, as the product is described in persuasive terms. A
biography can also be a narrative text. The notion of genre includes: purpose and features of
layout as separate things ie. a letter may be written in very similar format for very different
purposes (description, recount, persuasion, even instruction – if we give the reader directions to
reach our house), and the language used will reflect these different purposes.

No matter what genre we use for writing we always need to follow the writing process.

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THE FIVE STEPS OF THE WRITING PROCESS

STEP 1: PREWRITING
THINK
 Decide on a topic to write about.
 Consider who will read or listen to your written work.
 Brainstorm ideas about the subject.
 List places where you can research information.
 Do your research.
STEP 2: DRAFTING
WRITE
 Put the information you researched into your own words.
 Write sentences and paragraphs even if they are not perfect.
 Read what you have written and judge if it says what you mean.
 Show it to others and ask for suggestions.
STEP 3: REVISING
MAKE IT BETTER
 Read what you have written again.
 Think about what others said about it.
 Rearrange words or sentences.
 Take out or add parts.
 Replace overused or unclear words.
 Read your writing aloud to be sure it flows smoothly.
STEP 4: PROOFREADING
MAKE IT CORRECT
 Be sure all sentences are complete.
 Correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.
 Change words that are not used correctly.
 Have someone check your work.
 Recopy it correctly and neatly.
STEP 5: PUBLISHING
SHARE THE FINISHED PRODUCT
 Read your writing aloud to a group.
 Create a book of your work.
 Send a copy to a friend or relative.
 Put your writing on display.
 Illustrate, perform, or set your creation to music.
 Congratulate yourself on a job well done!

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Contents and Overview of Units
Theme Unit Reading Comprehension Word Sentences Usage and Grammar Dictionary Word Spelling Just for
Skill knowledge Punctuation Skills Meanings Fun
1. Recount- Problem Solving More Four kinds 'who' and Proper Alphabetic anchor -tion Ocean
Survivors about 'whom' /commo al order paradise Word
Ships n nouns Search/
Fish
Cross
Word
2. Procedure Sequence of More Beginning commas Negative Word pour -ance Kitchen
– Events About with preset s Meanings stir -ble Word
Doughnut Cooking participle Search
s
Family and Culture

3. Transactio Sequence of Synonyms Beginning better Collective Guide regards -ment Puzzle
n- Events with past word; 'got' Nouns words ordinatio
Informal participle and 'nice' n
Letter

4. Explanatio Topic, Main Homonym Compound punctuating Noun Beginning dodge id- Tree
n –Why Idea, s Sentences a poem Plurals with ‘bio’ adhere oa- Crosswor
Should Supporting cap- d
You be Details prin-
Worried ad-
About
Corruptio
n?

5. Narrative - Literature Circle Word direct and four kinds Direct beginning cover -ate Crime
Crime

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never Building indirect Speech with 'poly' piece -tion and
pays speech Punishm
ent
Crosswor
d
6. Procedure Sequence of Clothing Singular/ dashes Relative Classificati evacuate -ing Safety
– Fire Events Words Plural Nouns on inhale miscellane Word
Safety ous Search
Procedure
7. Informatio Noting Details Antonyms Complex unnecessary Noun beginning effective -ry -ne Riddles/
n / Diseases Sentences words Clauses with 'para' inject -an -n Human
Health and Safety

Narrative - and -ion Body


Edward Ailments Word
Jenner Search

8. Poetry – Understanding Foods we Subject and apostrophe Adjective What kind precious -ur -or Riddles/S
Digestive Poetry eat Predicate s of doctor? glorious -ar imile
System Crosswor
d

Them Uni Reading Comprehension Word Usage and Grammar Dictionary Word Spelling Just for
e t Skill knowledg Sentence punctuation Skills meaning Fun
e s
9. Report – Topic, Main More Beginning Using Compara word protect -ly Fish
Environmen

Blue Idea, about with verbs commas tive and meanings prey -ate Word
whales Supporting oceans Superlati Search
t

Details ve
Adjective

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s

10. Persuasive Author's Acronym Concord semicolons Simple beginning material -ent Recycling
- Why Viewpoint Verbs with 'tri' transport -ant Word
Recycle? Search

11. Explanatio Categorize and More Beginning direct and Compoun classificatio layer -ty -gy Volcano
n What Classify about the with linking indirect d Verbs n build -rd -or Word
are land words speech -in Search
Volcanoes
?
12. Chart - Making Confusing Jumbled hyphens Adverbs beginning chart -y -tti Weather
Weather Inferences/Dra pairs Sentences with 'auto' weather -re Word
wing Search
Conclusions

13. Report – Topic, Main Root Adverbial commas Verb misspelt massive -ed Space
Solar Idea, words Phrases that change Tense words debris -ant Cross
Science and Technology

System Supporting meanings Word


Details

14. Explanatio KWL analogies euphemism 'must', Its and weather charges -ent Lighting
n- Chart/Compare s 'ought to', it's words waves -ant and
What is and Contrast and ' have' electricit
Lightning?
y Word
Search

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15. Persuasive Problem Solving Suffixes Types of change of Prepositi Cell phone capture -al Telephon
-Are Cell -able Adjectives speaker onal Jargon notice -e e Word
phones phrases -er Search
Becoming
a Social
Problem

Them Uni Reading Comprehension Word Sentences Usage and Grammar Dictionary Word Spelling Just for
e t Skill knowledg Punctuation Skills Meaning fun
e s

16. Persuasive Fact and More Inverted Neither Indirect word teams -ize Sports
–Playing Opinion about ,nor, either Speech meanings uniforms -y Word
Sports and Entertainment

Soccer ? Sports ...or -ee Search

17. Report- Topic, Main Idioms better 'lie' , 'lay' Apostrop beginning member miscellane Sport
Olympic Ideas, words than he of with appointe ous Word
Games Supporting 'went' contracti 'micro' d Search/
Details on Olympic
torch
maze
18. Biography Noting Details More on Homophone ‘unnecessar Apostrop correct foreigner miscellane Biograph
– Gandhi Occupatio s y words he of endings s ous y Cross
ns Possessio passive Word
Careers

19. Narrative Story Structure Motoring Principal 'affect' and Simile beginning thundero miscellane Car maze
– Crash Words Clause 'effect' with 'sub' us ous Jobs
and Bash

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echoed Crosswor
d
20. Transactio Predicting Proverbs Subordinate revising Metapho Journalism outgoing miscellane Jobs
n- Outcomes clause punctuation r and reference ous Crosswor
Applicatio Publishing s d
n Letter
Words

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LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 1

Genre: Recount

Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on recounts, to be conducted in class. A
recount records a series of events in which they have occurred. It tells how, what, where & when. Each of you is
required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities
Lesson Outcome Responses
Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

As I listen, I sit up, pay I listen carefully and


respond accordingly.
attention and focus on
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and tell them what you did in the weekend.
Get them to recount to the class your story.

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READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES
A. Pre-reading Activity
i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)
 Have you ever travelled any where away from home?
 Where did you go?
 Have you ever been on a ship/ boat?
 How did you feel about the trip? Why?
 Have you ever been stranded in a place?
 How did you feel about it? Why?
 How did you manage?

The type for this unit is recount. Study what a recount is and try to distinguish the
features of a recount in the passage "Survivors. "

Text Type: Recount Writing


Recount tells the reader what happened and this may involve the author’s personal
interpretation of events. There are different types of recounts which including personal (my trip
to the farm), factual (retelling an accident) and imaginative recounts (a day in the life of a
puppy).

Recount writing is organised by setting, events in chronological order and a concluding


statement.
ii.The
Key Vocabulary
main features of recount writing are specific participants, action verbs and past tense.
Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

cruising thumped paradise anchor life boat snapping


desperately battered reluctantly creatures survivors apologizing

4-Fold Vocabulary

In this activity, students fold their papers into rows of 4 sections each. The number of
rows can relate to the number of words to be studied. In the first section, the student
writes the word. In the 2nd section, the student writes a definition of the word in their
own words. In the 3rd section, the student draws a picture or symbol to represent the
word. In the 4th section, the student writes a sentence with the word based on their
definition. After completing the page, students cut apart the sections and put them in
an envelope. The words are review by having students reassemble the word rows.
Students can trade rows/envelopes with others.

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Word Definition Picture Sentence

kitchen appliance We baked


Oven used for baking or cookies in the
roasting oven.

B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

Survivors

The plan to go for a one-month sailing trip- cruising the


ocean with their parent and some family friends -seemed
like the vacation of a lifetime for Apenisa and his
sister, Mere.

For a week the weather was beautiful with calm seas and
a warm sun, straight from the paradise. This changed
late one afternoon, when fierce storm clouds began
gathering in the sky. As the wind picked up and began
howling, Mere and Apenisa were sent below the decks by their parents and told to put on
their life jackets. Mere clung to Apenisa , terrified. Apenisa’ s heart thumped his chest as he
tried to grab hold of something- anything - to stop them from being thrown about as if on a
roller -coaster ride.

The skies were at their blackest when a terrifying crack boomed through the cabin. Apenisa
thought it was lightning; never did he imagine that it was the sound of the boat snapping in
two. Seawater gushed through the cabin, knocking the children off their feet and into the
wild ocean. When his life jacket pulled him back to the surface, Apenisa could just make out
the distant shadows of the adults in the blow-up life boat. They were screaming for him
and Mere. Apenisa yelled back, but he couldn't be heard over the howl of the wind.

For the next few hours, the siblings clung desperately to each other as they were tossed
around in the ocean like clothes in a washing machine.

Apenisa woke up bruised and battered, but alive, on a sandy beach. Mere was next to him.
He shook her awake. They hugged each other and cried as they thought about what might
have happened to their parents. It was then that Apenisa noticed a large white shape at the
other end of the beach. They bolted across the sand. It was their boat, half of it anyway- but
there was nobody in sight.

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They gathered a few useful items: a sewing kit. a fish knife, a piece of broken anchor and a few
soggy blankets. Remembering a movie he'd once seen, Apenisa used rocks to mark out the word
"HELP" in the sand. He made it as large as he could, so the letters might be seen from far away. As
he finished, Apenisa heard a loud grumbling from his tummy. It had been almost a day since his
last meal. He felt dizzy from hunger, thirst and sunburn.

Mere suggested that they rest in the shade for a while, and the two fell asleep beneath the palm
trees.

Pouring rain woke the pair up some time later. Rain meant fresh water. Desperately, they licked
the raindrops off leaves. By this time they were so hungry it hurt. Using one of the needles from
the sewing kit, Mere made a fishing hook, which she attached to a stick with some cotton. Apenisa
found some oyster-like creatures in a nearby rock pool and decided they would make good bait.
For hours they sat with the fishing rod. By sunset their efforts had only managed to catch them two
tiny fish. Reluctantly, Apenisa killed and gutted the small creatures with the fish knife,
apologizing to the fish as he did it. The experience of eating cold, raw fish was even worse, but it
was the only food they had.

Life continued like this for the next two weeks. They both ached with hunger and throbbed with
sunburn. They were beginning to think they would have to live on this desolate island forever.
Then early one morning, they heard the best sound of their lives. A large coastguard boat with
horns blaring came steaming towards them. After jumping excitedly aboard the boat, the captain
had some good news for them. "Your parents are safe and well back at our
base. Looks like you're all survivors!"

i. Comprehension Skills: Problem Solving

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
Give the following problem to the class to solve: You and your mother are having a surprise
party for your dad this afternoon, but you can't get your dad out of the house. What should
you do?
Give the students five minutes to come up with a solution.

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Use the discussion to help students identify the five steps of the problem -solving
process:
1. Define the problem.
2. Consider possible solutions.
3. Evaluate possible solutions.
4. Decide on the best solutions.
5. Carry out the solution.
 Model the steps for the students.

Practice
Tell students that the characters in Survivors have several problems to solve. Display the
chart below on the board. Ask the students to follow in their passage.
Ask: What problems are Apenisa and Mere having?
Write the problem on the chart.
Then ask: How do they solve the problem?
Have the students read the passage independently and complete the problem -solving
chart.

Apply
Have students keep track of the problems and solutions on the chart below as they read
their comprehension passage.

Read the problem stated in the left-hand column. Fill in the solution column
with the information from the passage.

PROBLEM SOLUTION
They rough seas were making Grab hold of something.
them tumble.

The boat snapped in two tossing


them into the rough ocean.

They were thirsty.

They were hungry.

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They didn’t have any fishing
line.

They didn't have any bait.

ii. Comprehension Check


Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. What seemed like a vacation of a lifetime?
2. Why were Mere and Apenisa sent below decks?
3. What had happened to the ship?
4. How were the two children saved from drowning?
5. How did the children manage to survive on the island?
6. List the 10 nouns from the passage.
7. Look at the following sentences and arrange them in the order as they it occurred.
The kids made a HELP message.
Mere made a fishhook.
Seawater rushed through the boat.
The kids licked raindrops off the leaves.
The kids found the wrecked ship.
The kids put on their life jackets.

C. Word Knowledge: More about Ships


Match each word in the box to the clues below.

helm port aft hull starboard bow


beam galley kayak companionway yacht canoe
tugboat ferry dinghy submarine

1. ship's kitchen 4. width of a ship


2. left-hand side 5. towards the back of a ship
3. warship that travels under water 6. ship's body

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7. used for pushing or towing other 12. stairs
ships 13. front of ship
8. ship's wheel 14. American Indian boat
9. sailing pleasure craft 15. small rowing boat
10. right-hand side 16. small Eskimo boat used for
11. transports people across rivers hunting
and harbours
D. Sentences: Four Kinds
Write each sentence using the correct punctuation. Write in brackets whether each is a
statement, question, command or exclamation.

1. fish swim 6. is it raining


2. do not smoke 7. how tall are you
3. are you going inside 8. leave the room at once
4. these are the girls 9. what is the time
5. what a beautiful day 10. i love chocolate

E. Usage and Punctuation: 'Who' or 'whom'

"Who” replaces "he" or "she" in a sentence? "Whom" replaces "him" or "her". Apply this
test to these sentences and use "who" or "whom" in the sentences.
1. I have no idea _________________ will win the match.
2. The boy ________________ I injured is recovering in hospital.
3. Anne, ____________ I know well, is getting married soon.
4. The man to _____________ you refer is my teacher.
5. The doctor _____________ I consulted was an eye specialist.
6. Charles Dickens was a writer ___________ lived in London.
7. From _____________ did you receive a letter today?
8. I do not know ____________ has the better eyesight.

F. Grammar: Common and Proper Nouns

A common noun is a word used to name ordinary things like table, tree, and egg.
Proper nouns are special names of people, place, or things. A proper noun always begins
with a capital letter.

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Circle the common nouns and underline the proper nouns in the following sentences.
Example: Mere and Apenisa were sent below decks by their parents.

1. The cow is grazing.


2. University of the South Pacific is the oldest university in Fiji.
3. Suva is the capital city of Fiji.
4. Raju loves roti and chicken curry.
5. On Friday Philip left his school bag at the bus stop.
6. Maria gave her brother a ball for Christmas.
7. In December my father is going on a business trip to Brazil.
8. Ropate was taken to the hospital last night.
9. Seini and Sumit took their fishing gear to Suva Point.
10. The boys were playing rugby at Farnival Park.

G. Dictionary Skills: Alphabetical order


Arrange the following words in alphabetical order
1.

brain brand branch bread braid


breadth
bran braze brass bramble brave

2.

bream briar breech bridge breeze breaker


brew breed breath braid

H. Word Meanings: 'anchor ' and 'paradise'

Use ‘anchor’ and 'paradise' in two different sentences to show that each word has more than
one meaning,( Write four sentences altogether).

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I. Spelling

association pronunciation description


precipitation quotation liquidation
congratulations organization illustration
abbreviation competition introduction
commotion eruption cancellation
interruption

i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure


See the word
Hear the word
Adopt the word
Record the word
Proofread the word

ii. Visual Warm up: Fill the spelling words in the correct word shapes.

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iii. Vowel Hunt: Fill in the missing vowels and write the spelling words.

1. _ b b r _ v _ _ t _ _ n 9. d _ s c r _ p t _ _ n
2. p r _ n _ n c _ _ t _ _ n 10. _ r _ p t _ _ n
3. c _ m m _ t _ _ n 11. p r _ c _ p _ t _ t _ _ n
4. _ n t _ r r _ p t _ _ n 12. c _ n g r _ t _ l _ t _ _ n s
5. q _ _ t _ t _ _ n 13. c _ m p _ t _ t _ _ n
6. l _ q _ _ d _ t _ _ n 14. _ r g _ n _ z _ t _ _ n
7. _ l l _ s t r _ t _ _ n 15. c _ n c _ l l _ t _ _ n
8. _ s s _ c _ _ t _ _ n 16. _ n t r _ d _ c t _ _ n

iv. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
6 2 24 23 9 11 19 3 13 26 10 20 14 17 22 16 8 15 12 5 7 21 4 25 18 1

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
8 7 22 5 6 5 13 22 17 13 20 20 7 12 5 15 6 5 13 22 17

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
6 2 2 15 9 21 13 6 5 13 22 17 23 9 12 24 15 13 16 5 13 22 17

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
24 22 17 19 15 6 5 7 20 6 5 13 22 17 12 24 22 14 14 22 5 13 22 17
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
24 22 14 16 9 5 13 5 13 22 17 24 6 17 24 9 20 20 6 5 13 22 17
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
6 12 12 22 24 13 6 5 13 22 17 9 15 7 16 5 13 22 17
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
13 17 5 9 15 15 7 16 5 13 22 17 16 15 9 24 13 16 13 5 6 5 13 22 17
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
20 13 8 7 13 23 6 5 13 22 17 13 17 5 15 22 23 7 24 5 13 22 17

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
22 15 19 6 17 13 1 6 5 13 22 17 16 15 22 17 7 17 24 13 6 5 13 22 17

27
v. Generally Speaking: Write each spelling word for the group it best fits

1. contraction, ellipsis 9. stoppage, interval

2. explanation, report 10. rainfall, rain

3. best wishes, many happy returns 11. insolvency, bankruptcy

4. hubbub, upheaval 12. prologue, opening

5. rivalry, opposition 13. institute, society

6. abolition, termination 14. articulation, elocution

7. connection, alliance 15. citation, extract

8. outbreak, epidemic 16. design, diagram

vi. Scrambled Words

1. bivbaeortnai _____________________ 9. nriieturonpt _____________________

2. indoicsprte _____________________ 10. ioititperapnc _____________________

3. naignosotluacrt _____________________ 11. ailnodtuiqi _____________________

4. comotonmi _____________________ 12. idutirnntcoo _____________________

5. poniocemtit _____________________ 13. znaogtirnaio _____________________

6. ainatcolnelc _____________________ 14. prooctinniuan _____________________

7. sosaacointi _____________________ 15. iutnotqoa _____________________

8. etpinruo _____________________ 16. itlusroilatn _____________________

28
vii. Cross Word Puzzle

Across Down
1.society or club 1. MD is the ________ for medical doctor
8. disruption 2. explosion
9. is the same as deletion 3. precipitating rain or snow
11. articulation 4. estimate
12. we say ___________ when someone gets married 5. statement that describes something or someone
or has a baby 6. group of people working together
13. image , picture or graphic 7. presentation of one person to another
14. bankruptcy 10. The kids took part in the swimming _____________
15. means uproar or disorder

29
viii. Double Puzzle: Unscramble the words and find the secret word.

ix. Word Search : Find the words from the spelling list

30
WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES

A Recount tells about events that


happened to you or to other
people.
What is a Recount?

USE

Reported Speech-Many
residents say..., A number of
newspapers have reported...
Past tense -was, went , came
Title A brief name for the experience or event Quoted Speech - The police
officer yelled " Stop"
Orientation Tells when and where the event began and Reported Speech The police
who was there officer called to the thief to
stop.
Events Tells the events in the order that they Conjunctions and
happened connectives- when, then
first , next
Noun Groups - all the small
Tell how the experience ended and some
Ending dogs, my shoes
thoughts you may have about it

31
Structure A Day in My Life Language Features
Title
My name is Jone, and I am ten years old. I live in a village
Proper Nouns
Setting called Somosomo in Taveuni. I make up lots of stories. Here showing ' who'
is a story of what I did yesterday. and 'where'

Sequence of I got up, put on my clothes, came out of the bedroom and Order of events
events finished of my homework. Then I had breakfast, fed my using time
Paragraph 1 connectives eg.
chickens and went off to school. „Then‟, 'After',

After school, I walked home, did half my homework. I played


Paragraph 2
soccer with my brother for a while, then watched TV, had
Past Tense Verbs
my shower, had my dinner, had family devotion and then eg. 'got', 'did',
went to bed. So that was my day, and most week days are
just the same.
Conclusion
Boring, isn't it?
Jone

1. The first paragraph always sets the scene. look at the first paragraph above, answer these questions:
a) Who is it about? _____________________________
b) Where did he live? _______________________________________________
c) What does he like doing? __________________________________________
d) When did the events happen?_________________________________________

2. This recount has many verbs in the past tense. There are four such verbs in the
second paragraph. Can you list them?
1. _____________________ 2.______________________
3._____________________ 4. _____________________

32
Write a recount...

Jone's recount is a bit dull. He could have used details to add interest. For example, 'walked'
'home' could be ' trudged home', and instead of ' I got up, put on my clothes', it could be ‘Oh, no! The
alarm! I got up; put my ugly uniform....'Write a typical day or a special day in your life. Do not forget to
include the interesting details.
. ____________________________________________________________
Structure
______________________________________________________________________________
Title
______________________________________________________________________________
Orientation
______________________________________________________________________________
Sequence of
events ______________________________________________________________________________
Event 1
Something ______________________________________________________________________________
that happened
first ______________________________________________________________________________

Event 2 ______________________________________________________________________________
Second thing
that happened
______________________________________________________________________________
Next Events
______________________________________________________________________________
Start a new
______________________________________________________________________________
paragraph for
each new
event ______________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion ______________________________________________________________________________
A personal
comment ______________________________________________________________________________
about the More to do
main event ______________________________________________________________________________
Revise and Edit
R -Replace words,
______________________________________________________________________________
phrases and sentences Write a letter to your grand
with more effective ones
parent or friend whom you
I -insert better words, have not seen for a while.
phrases and sentences Recount some of the interesting
or unusual things that have
D-Delete ineffective
happened to you over the past
words, phrases and
sentences weeks. Ask for a reply.
SPELLCHECK

33
Just for Fun

34
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 2

Genre: Procedure

Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on procedural texts, to be
conducted in class. A procedural text talks about how to achieve a goal or an outcome through a series of
steps. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

As I listen, I sit up, pay I listen carefully and


attention and focus on respond accordingly.
the speaker

I mind my manners and not


speak

Listening Outcome Responses


1. This reminds me of __________________
2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair Share: Pair up with a friend and share a favourite
recipe. Get them to share the recipe to the class.

35
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES
A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background (Class Discussion)


 How many of you enjoy eating?
 What types of food do you like?
 Have you eaten food from another country?
 What about cooking? How many of you know how to cook or bake?

The text for this unit is procedure. Study what a procedure is and try to distinguish the
features of a procedure in the recipe "Doughnuts. "

Procedure Writing
A procedure tells us how to achieve a goal or an outcome through a series of steps. These
steps are in order or in sequence.

When we cook or bake we use a recipe. Some recipes are written out for us while others are stuck in
our head because we have made it so many times. A recipe is like a procedure – there are steps to
follow. Each step is important if we want a great end product.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

divine assemble ingredients sift supervision knead

As a class, scan through the reading and try to use context clues to decipher the meaning of the key
vocabulary. (decipher = to make out)

Write them down in your books. Use them in sentences orally.

B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

36
Doughnuts Galore!

Have you eaten delicious doughnuts with your favourite topping? Yum…that fresh just-cooked smell is
divine. Then you get to sink your teeth into topping and soft, fluffy doughnuts. I’m hungry now so
let’s make doughnuts.

Remember if you’re wanting to make this then you need mum or dad’s permission and supervision.
This is very important.

The first thing we do is assemble our ingredients.

Ingredients

3 cups of flour
1 cup of warm water
1 teaspoonful of baking powder
1 cup of powdered milk
¼ cup of oil
¼ cup of sugar
1 egg
¼ teaspoonful of salt
1 tablespoon of yeast
Lots of extra oil for frying
Method
1. Place your warm water, yeast, sugar, salt, milk, oil, sugar and egg into a basin.
2. Stir the mixture very well.
3. Sift your flour and your baking powder into a separate basin
4. Add your flour mix into the basin of ingredients – 1 cup at a time.
5. Stir this mixture really well before you add the next cup. It should now look like roti dough.
6. Pour a little oil onto your hands and knead your dough very well (approximately 10 mins).
7. Roll your dough back into a ball, cover it with a tea towel and leave it to rise (10 mins).
8. Divide the dough into 2 and knead each section for another 2 minutes.
9. Roll out your dough into a very thick (2cm) roti.
10. Cut out your doughnut shapes. If you don’t have a doughnut cutter use a cup and a bottle cap.
11. Place your cut doughnuts onto a well-oiled tray or board. Leave space for it to rise. After 5
minutes it is ready to cook.

37
12. Pour oil half way up a pot that is big enough to cook 4 doughnuts at a time.
13. Heat the oil up and then place your doughnuts into the oil.
14. Fry on both sides until golden brown.
15. Place them into a tray and when they have cooled top them with your favourite topping.
ENJOY!
i. Comprehension Skill: Sequencing/Order of Events.

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach-I Do

What do you notice about the set of instructions? How are they put in order?

Each set of instructions begins with a verb. What type of sentence begins with a verb?

We can now conclude that instructions have at least 2 features.

Feature #1___________________________________________________

Feature #2___________________________________________________

Practice – We do

Together list down the 14 verbs that begin each instruction.

Choose 5 verbs and write instructions for boiling an egg. Remember they are imperative
sentences – they must begin with a verb.

Apply – You Do

Write down a set of instructions to make a hot drink (tea, lemon leaf tea or cocoa). You should
have 4-6 steps.

ii. Comprehension Check


1. Your dough should resemble another dough. What other dough is it?
2. What colour should my cooked doughnut be?

38
3. After I have sifted the dry ingredients (flour and baking powder), what do I do with it?
4. What do you use to knead?
5. Step 6 advises us to pour a little oil onto our hands. Why do you think they want us to do this?
6. Why wouldn’t you want to cook more than 4 doughnuts at a time?

C. Word Knowledge: More about Cooking

Match the verbs in the box with its meaning below.


baste broil roast bake sauté
coat scald stir-fry marinate blend
smoke blanch dressing stuff stew

Pronunciation: Sauté (saw-tey) scald (skawld)

1. To cook by direct exposure to heat ____________________________

2. To drop in then remove from boiling water for a few minutes only ____________________________

3. To cover with a layer of flour, breadcrumbs etc ____________________________

4. To fill chicken or meat with other food ___________________________

5. To moisten meat while cooking ___________________________

6. A source of food ____________________________

7. To scald briefly and then drain ___________________________

8. To combine by mixing smoothly ___________________________

9. To cook by direct heat on a gridiron ___________________________

10. To soak into flavoured liquid like soy sauce ___________________________

11. To cook by simmering or slow boiling __________________________

12. To cook overheat quickly, stirring constantly _________________________

13. To cook with dry heat in an oven ___________________________

39
14. To cure or preserve meat, fish etc. __________________________

15. To cook or brown in a small amount of oil or fat _________________________

D. Sentences : Beginning Sentences with Present Participles

Present participle is when we add the suffix – ing to the base form of a verb.
Base form of verb + suffix – ing = present participle
e.g. laugh + ing = laughing
We can begin sentences using present participles.
Holding tightly to the ball, he dived down for a try.
Holding – is a present participle
Tightly – adverb

Holding tightly to the ball - is a participle phrase that includes an adverb

Complete the sentences below. Choose a present participle and an adverb from the boxes below to
begin our Sentences.

Present participle Adverb


Struggling Angrily
Holding Uncontrollably
Smiling Crazily
Screaming Madly
Shouting Grimly
*Diving Foolishly
Dancing *desperately
*laughing *hysterically
* Words already used below

Use the words only once

1. _________________________________ the wrestler freed himself.


2. ________________________________ the spectators’ ___________________.
3. _________________________________Donna ______________________.

40
4. _________________________________the teenagers ______________________
5. _________________________________ the survivors’ _____________________.
6. Diving desperately the seagull ___________________________.
7. _________________________________ the singers fans pushed over the barrier .
8. Laughing hysterically the girl ________________________________.

E. Usage and Punctuation : Commas


A non-restrictive clause or phrase gives information that is not essential to the meaning of
principal clause.
Clause

-a collection of words that


Phrases has a subject actively doing
-a collection of word something.
where subject is not
doing something

A comma is used to set apart non – restrictive clauses or phrases.


e.g. The man, whom I knew, was killed in the car crash.
The man in the picture is the killer.
Using commas, write and punctuate these sentences correctly .Place capital letters where
needed.
1. the airbus which flys regularly to Hawaii was made in france.
2. the boy who stole the pig is my neighbour.
3. romy who delivers mail is a nice man.
4. the doctor who is a family man lives in suva.
5. my dog who is dying is a wonderful pet.
F. Grammar: Negatives
Negatives are words that mean “no” or “not”
Negatives

No not none never neither hardly

A common error students make is using double negatives in a sentence.

e.g. Incorrect – Mary didn’t not go to town

Double negative

41
Correct – Mary didn’t go to town.
Rewrite each of the sentences below to correct the double negative.
1. She had not done nothing about the problem.
2. There isn’t nobody who can cook like my mum.
3. Since watching the movies, he can’t never enough about harry potter.
4. Samu didn’t never plan to do that.
5. He wasn’t never curious about his birth mother.
6. I don’t hardly go there.
7. Neither mary nor the lamb never went to school.
8. None of my brothers never went to war.
9. Christopher hadn’t no worries about the exam
10. Neither John nor Peter hardly went to the games.

G. Dictionary Skill : Word Meanings

Approximate [adj]
Find the meanings of the different word forms
Approximate [v]
of approximate. Use them in sentences.
Approximating
Approximately [adv] Remember the parts of speech

Approximation [n]

H. Word Meaning : 'Pour' and 'Stir'

Write 2 sentences for each word to show you understand the different ways they are used.
incredible
I. Spelling
admittance
i. SHARP Word Study Procedure influence
nuisance
See the word capable
Hear the word valuable
Adopt the word adjustable
Record the word grievance
Proofread the word endurance
changeable
ii. Visual Warm-up(word shapes) absence
assistance
Draw all the word shapes on the spelling list. irresistible
innocence
reasonable
42
accessible
iii. Break The Code
Use your skills to find the missing word. You must first solve the puzzle below.

The missing word is _____________________________________

iv. Word forms

Write down the base word for each word on the spelling list.
e.g admittance – admit

v. Dictionary work

Divide yourself into groups and divide the words amongst each member of the group. Search for the
meanings of the words and plot them on a chart.
Add pictures to go with the spelling word. Display your charts for the rest of the class to admire.

WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES

A procedure text tells how to


What is a procedure?
do something.

43
USE

Title Tells what is being explained.

Goal Tells what the procedure aims to produce. Action Verbs-Cut, stir,
mix, nail, glue
Describes or lists what is needed to Precise Vocabulary -
Needs
complete in the procedure Whisk vigorously,
lukewarm, 3 level
Describes step by step how to complete the teaspoons
Steps
procedure Complex Sentences-
...so that...., ...if then...
Check How to check if the procedure worked

How to Make Pancakes

Structure Ingredients: Language Features


• 1 cup flour
Title • 1 tablespoon sugar
• 2 teaspoons baking powder
• 1/4 teaspoon salt
• 1 egg, beaten Instructions
• 1 cup milk should be
• 2 tablespoons vegetable oil numbered
1. ......................
Method: 2. .....................
Ingredients 1. Mix the flour, sugar, salt and baking powder in a bowl. Make sure the 3. ......................
batter is well mixed.
2. In another bowl, beat the egg then add the milk and oil. Mix until it is
thoroughly combined.
3. Add the wet and dry ingredients and whisk them together for about a Instructions begin
minute. The mixture will be a bit lumpy. with action words
4. Heat ½ a teaspoonful of butter in a large frying pan. e.g. „Add‟,
'Place','Draw'
5. Pour about a third of a cup of batter into the pan – more or less
depending on the size you want.
6. It will take about two minutes to cook the first side. You will know it is
cooked when bubbles form on the top.
7. Flip it over and let it cook for a minute more. When the pancakes are
Instructions in golden brown, put them on a plate and enjoy.

sequence

44

Yummy! Perfection!
Include a
diagram

In procedural texts, we use sentences that begin with verbs and are stated as commands; for
Write a'Place
example, procedure...
the top...'

Write
Write a procedure
out onwhich
the sentences how to light
begin a bulb.
with action words (verbs). What type of sentences are they?
Circle all the verbs in the procedure.
Structure ____________________________________________________________

Title ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Materials
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Sequence of ______________________________________________________________________________
steps
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
45

______________________________________________________________________________
Just for Fun

46
Across
4. What do you eat
soup in?
7. What do you slice
bread with?
9. Where do you fry
eggs?
10. What do many
Asians use to eat
food?
11. What do you
make soup in?
13. What do you
make lemonade in?
14. Where do you
keep milk cold?
16. Where do you
keep meat frozen?

Down 8. What do you keep ketchup in?


1. Where do you heat pots and pans? 10. What do you pour coffee into?
2. What do you eat soup with? 12. What do you serve food on?
3. What do you drink water from? 13. What do you keep jam in?
5. Where do you wash dishes? 15. Where do you bake bread?
6. Where do you keep cups, glasses, plates, and bowls

47
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 3

Genre: Transaction
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on transactions, to be
conducted in class. A transaction is used to sustain relationships and involves simple
interaction, often in the form of letters, cards & invitations. Each of you is required to listen
and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


As I listen, I sit up, pay
respond accordingly.
attention and focus on
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

48
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

49
Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and look up a letter in the news paper. Get them to share
the letter to the class.

READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity
i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Whom do we write letters to?
 What do we normally write about?
 Have you ever been to a celebration?
 What usually happens in celebrations?
 Who do you meet at celebrations?
 Have you been to a celebration lately?
 What was it like?
The text for this unit is transaction. Study what a transaction is and try to
distinguish the features of a transaction in the letter.

A transactional text is used to sustain relationships and involves


simple interactions and negotiations.

ii. Key Vocabulary

Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class. Write down all
the words and their meanings into your book. Beside each word draw a little
picture or icon to help you remember the word.

.
episcopal ordination principal
consecrating bishop immigrant regards

50
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

15 Mammas Place,
Caubati,
Suva
Fiji Islands.
15th August, 2013.

Dear Keiko,

How are you? I hope you are fine. Thank you for your last letter describing your trip to the
zoo. My family and I also had an amazing time at the Episcopal Ordination of Fiji’s new
Archbishop – Reverend Father Peter Loy Chong. The ordination was held at the Vodafone
Arena in Suva on the 8th of June.

Mum woke us up early, at 5am, so that we could leave early for the occasion. When we
reached the venue it was already full. We were lucky to get good seats inside. There were
about 3000 people inside and another 2000 listening outside. The Principal Consecrating
Bishop was Archbishop Petero Mataca. The choir was made up of 300 people from around
Suva.

Father Chong’s dad was an immigrant from China but he was born in Bau, Tailevu, where
his mum comes from. He is the second youngest of seven siblings. After Mass we met some
of mum’s cousins from Lautoka before returning home. When we reached home we were
so tired that we didn’t even have time to eat. We were out as soon as our heads hit the
pillow.

I look forward to your reply. Give my regards to Aunty Ima and Uncle Jim and to cousins
Jess, Bianca, Charlize and Imelda.

Your cousin,
Charmelia Wong
Charmelia Wong

51
i. Comprehension Skills: Sequence of Events

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
Study the sequence or order of events. Try to figure out what happens first, next and last.

Practice
Identify phrases that indicate the order of events.

Apply
Have students list the events in order, using words or phrases to signal the order of
events.
Use the table below to assist you.

Write each story event in sequence.

ii. Comprehension Check.

52
1. Where do you think Keiko lives?
2. Who do you think was being ordained?
3. When did the ordination take place?
4. Why do you think Charmelia’s mum woke the family up early?
5. What was Archbishop Petero Mataca’s role?
6. Where is the new Archbishop from?
7. How many siblings does the new Archbishop have?
8. How are Keiko and Charmelia related?

C. Word Knowledge -Synonyms

A synonym is a word with a similar meaning to another word. For Example:


huge: great, big

Write the Synonyms for the Following words.

1. seat - ______________ 11. watch - ______________


2. spin - ______________ 12. build - ______________
3. retrieve - ______________ 13. drown - ______________
4. high - ______________ 14. meet - _______________
5. leap - ______________ 15. blink - _______________
6. ordain - ______________ 16. feel - _______________
7. row - ______________ 17. steal - _______________
8. stain - ______________ 18. little - _______________
9. merge - ______________ 19. poor - _______________
10. apply - ______________ 20. crown - ______________

D. Sentences. Beginning With Past Participles.


For Example: The town was attacked by the enemy. It was easily captured.
Attacked by the enemy, the town was easily captured.
Join the Sentences Below using the past participle.

1. The rider whipped the horse. The horse galloped out of the town.
2. The wind blew the leaves. They piled up along the wall.
3. The captain steered the ship. The ship entered a narrow harbour.
4. The bullet hit the thief. He collapsed in a heap.
5. A snake bit the dog. The dog nearly died.
6. A stone hit the car. It veered off the road.

53
7. Lightning struck the tree. The tree burst into flames.
8. The house caught fire. Lighting struck.
9. The tree looked pretty. It was covered with coloured lights.
10. The forger was copying the drawings. They were real.

E. Punctuation. Better Words.


Write the sentences using the words from the box, in place of the underlined word.

gained enjoyable beautiful delicious recuperated


won friendly polite comfortable
arrived received mounted crowd
interesting became neat piece scored

1. I got sick yesterday. 11. Epeli got the best mark in the test.
2. She read a nice book. 12. Our doctor is nice as he talks to
3. Give me a bit of cake. everyone.
4. She got a goal in the last match. 13. Jane is a good girl as she says,
5. I got a letter from my aunt. ‘please’ and ‘thank you’.
6. A lot of people were at the 14. Mrs. Johns got home from
grounds. Melbourne last night.
7. Deborah has nice writing. 15. We had a nice meal at the
8. Josaia got on a horse. restaurant.
9. My brother got better. 16. The scenery in Taveuni is nice.
10. We had a nice time in Labasa. 17. Kaitlyn got a trophy for swimming.

F. Grammar : Collective Nouns

A Collective noun names a group of things or


people.

For example: A bunch of grapes, a fleet of ships.

Write the collective nouns from the box that would be best used for these groups.

bunch army pack school team string class herd flock


swarm band library nest suite convoy

54
1. sheep - ________________ 9. fish - ________________
2. bees - ________________ 10. beads - ________________
3. football players - ________________ 11. musicians - ________________
4. bananas - ________________ 12. trucks - ________________
5. wolves - ________________ 13. eggs - ________________
6. cattle - ________________ 14. furniture - ________________
7. school students- ________________ 15. books - ________________
8. soldiers - ________________

G. Dictionary Skills: Guide Words

In brackets are pairs of guide words from a dictionary page. Next to them are
three words – one of which would be found on that page. Write the one word out
of the three that would be on that page for each exercise.

1. (fortification found) fountain forsook forward


2. (headpiece heart) hazy health hearth
3. (powerful prank) praise pair powder
4. (lotion low) loosing lowly lounge
5. (meeting memoir) melody medley memorable
6. (dodgy dole) dolphin doily document
7. (quickly quit) quiz quintet quicken
8. (feature fauna) faulty federate feathery
9. (offensive offset) official offend offspring
10. (hit hock) hither hiss hold
11. (shrivel shuttle) shrill sickly shudder
12. (peer peak) penal peace pear

H. Word Meanings: ‘Regards' and 'Ordination’


Use each word in two separate sentences to show that each has two different
meanings. Write four sentences altogether.

55
I. Spelling
Spelling List
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure complement
accomplishment
See the word achievement
Hear the word amusement
Adopt the word environment
Record the word
involvement
Proofread the word
movement
descendant
ii. Re-arrange the spelling words in the list in alphabetical order. (A- Z).
1. ___________________ 7. ___________________ category
2. ___________________ 8. ___________________ scenery
3. ___________________ 9. ___________________ cemetery
4. ___________________ 10. ___________________ stationery
5. ___________________ 11. ___________________
6. ___________________ 12. ___________________

iii. With the help of your dictionary find the definitions of the spelling words.

1. complement - __________________ 7. movement - __________________


2. accomplishment - __________________ 8. descendant - __________________
3. achievement - __________________ 9. category - __________________
4. amusement - __________________ 10. scenery - __________________
5. environment - __________________ 11. cemetery - __________________
6. involvement - __________________ 12. stationery - __________________

iv. There is one word missing from the following sentences. Use the list of the
spelling words to help you fill the blanks.

1. The photographer loves to take photos of the ________________ on Korovou Highway.


2. Jesus was a __________________ of David.
3. It’s always nice to _______________ each other after a hard day’s work.
4. The teacher reminded the children to buy their _____________ for the exam.
5. Father Chong’s greatest ___________________ was being ordained as the Archbishop of Fiji.
6. Marion saw a _________________ in the bushes and thought it was a cat.
7. The little boy found a puppy by the _________________.
8. Fredrica’s ___________________ in Girl Guides has led her to be one of the speakers at the
International Women’s conference.
9. The boys were found loitering in the _____________________ park on Friday afternoon.
10. The best milk to buy is _______________ A milk from Fiji.
11. Always keep our __________________ clean.
12. It was a great ___________________ for Banuve to win the Blue Ribbon Event.

56
v. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
o p q z y w x a d e c b u v f g h m n z l k s r t i
1. dvkfbkyuyvz - ____________________
2. qozyxfmt - ____________________
3. nzozdfvymt - ____________________
4. oqadykyuyvz - ______________________
5. qfugbyuyvz - ______________________
6. nqyvymt - ______________________
7. qyuyzomt - ______________________
8. zynqyvzovz - ______________________
9. oulnyuyvz - ______________________
10. ufkyryvz - ______________________
11. yvkdmfvuyvz - ______________________
12. oqqfugbdnauyvz - ______________________

vi. Word Search


t j s y n d y p t a k b
n q u r a o r r n i t y
e m m e m s e c a n l r
m h o t u t n o d v r o
n m m e s a e m n o i g
o o f m e t c p e l z e
r v u e m i s l c v z t
i e z c e o z e s e i a
v m h p n n l m e m k c
n e l x t e q e d e s b
e n m s w r r n f n d a
q t g g r y r t f t z k

amusement category cemetery complement


descendant environment involvement movement

57
scenery stationery

MANAGING MONEY (Fin ED Component)

Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to:

a) Learn new financial vocabularies and find their meaning


b) Appreciate the importance of Family budgeting
c) Comprehend the story and answer the questions
d) Write a personal or family budget & use financial tools and records to monitor
e) Identify some financial consequences of obtaining credit and getting into debt.

Look at Tomu’s Family Budget and answer the questions

FEBRUARY BUDGET FOR TOMU’S HOUSEHOLD

Budget Amount Actual Amount Difference

Category $ $ $

Income

Wages 850:00 850:00 -

Rental Income 250:00 250:00

Interest 15:00 15:00

Child Support Non applicable

Fundraising Income 50:00 65:00 15:00

Total Income 1165:00 1180:00 15:00

Expenses

Vehicle Registration Renewal 30:00 30:00 0


*

City/Town Rates * 67:00 67:00 0

Insurance 37:00 37:00 0

58
Electricity Bill 65:00 60:00 5:00

Telephone Bills 45:00 46:00 (1:00)

Water Bill 20:00 20:00 0

Internet Bill 40:00 35:00 5:00

Mortgage Payments(plus 300:00 300:00 0


bank fees)

Medical Bills 25:00 10:00 15:00

Groceries 350:00 340:00 10:00

Transportation/Fuel 100:00 90:00 10:00

Entertainment 30:00 15:00 15:00

Dining 45:00 47:00 (2:50)

Total Expenses 1154:00 1097:00 56:00

Surplus/(Deficit) 11:00 82:50 71:50

(Revenue-Expenses)

NB: * The family budget these amounts monthly but pay annually. These amounts are
transferred to a bills account for payment at a later due date.

J.Answer these questions in pairs or in threes or a group of four.


a) What is the largest spending item for Tomu’s household?
b) Is this spending a need or a want?
c) What is the next largest spending item?
d) Is this spending a need or a want?
e) Which spending categories you think the family has some control over how much is
spent?-in the short term or long term?
f) Why do you think this family budget for Vehicle Registration and City /town rates
each month although it is paid annually?
g) Draw up your family budget with the assistance of your parents/guardians similar
to Tomu’s.
h) Identify some places where your parents obtain credit and why?

59
i) Discuss some consequences of obtaining a credit and getting into debt?
K. Vocabulary -Find the meanings of these words
i. Income
ii. Wages
iii. Expenses
iv. Surplus
v. Deficit
vi. Revenue

WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES


A Transactional text is used to sustain relationships and
What is a involves simple interactions and negotiations, often in
Transactional Text? the form of letters, cards and invitations.

Puppy for Adoption!


A letter of Agreement.
I have 3 lovely puppies and can
only look after 2.
Structure Contact me through the school
office if you would like to adopt a
14 Vuna Road puppy.
Date
Nabua. You must sign an agreement.
11th August 2015. Flora Brown
Address
Of the Dear Anna,
Person
Receiving
Thank you for answering my advertisement in the school newsletter about
The letter
adopting my puppy.
Greeting
He is a very special puppy. He is white and fluffy and extremely timid.
I will be very sad to lose him and I want him to go to a good home, that is why I
am asking you to sign this agreement. If you adopt him you will have to agree to
the conditions below.
This agreement is between Anna Bogi and Flora Brown.
Anna Bogi agrees to adopt the puppy under the following
conditions.
Formal
 Brush his fur all over twice a week
Agreement
 Promise to look after him day and night.
 Buy him a special rug, plenty of toys
 Take him to the vet immediately when he is sick 60
 Find him a good home if you get sick of him.
Signed by __________________ (Anna Bogi)
Signed by __________________ (Parent of Anna Bogi)
Signed by __________________ (Flora Brown)
Name
Dot Points
to indicate
separate
points in
logical
sequence.

Write an Agreement.
Imagine that the class leaders in your
Deuba Christian
grade have been given the responsibility
of helping to draw an agreement Outdoor Camp.
for the end of the year school camp.
Book now for Next Year.
You have been appointed to write up Great Activities including:
the rules of agreement for your class.  Giant Swing
Brainstorm as a class first and then  Kayaking
complete the agreement.  Leap of Faith
 Mountain Climbing
 Swimming
Structure
Also environmental activities.
DRAFT AGREEMENT. Accommodation for 110.
Fully accredited
Year For Year _____ behaviour at school camp. For further enquiries phone:
3312-423/980453
Formal This agreement is between
agreement
__________________________________

(insert year and school)

And __________________________, Head Teacher of the School


Dot Points (insert name of head teacher)
Work out We agree to the following rules and conditions while we are on our end-of-year camp:
essential  _______________________________________________________________
rules for  ___________________________________________________________
the safety  ___________________________________________________________
and  ___________________________________________________________
happiness  ___________________________________________________________
of everyone  ___________________________________________________________
 ___________________________________________________________
 ___________________________________________________________
61
 ___________________________________________________________

Signed: _______________________ Date: _____________


(student)
(including
teachers)
while on
the camp.

The Student

The student’s
Parents
The Head teacher

J. Just For Fun


Complete each word by choosing the correct pair of letters from the last column.

1
M A G E RD
2
N O C E LA
3
M U E R TI
4
C O U R ST
5
I S N D NA
6
L I E N LO
7
M I L E TT
8
O B I N TU
9
S T C H DD
10
B E E F IT
62
11
B O L E LI
12
N A R E TA

LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 4

Genre: Explanation
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on explanation, to be
conducted in class. An explanation describes in scientific terms how technological phenomena
come into being. They are written to add to our store of knowledge. Each of you is required to
listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


As I listen, I sit up, pay
respond accordingly.
attention and focus on
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

63
Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions


to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

64
2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and explain to them how lightning and thunder occur. Get
them to explain to the class.

READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 What do you think is corruption?
 How can you stop corruption?
 Do you know of any stories of corruption?
 Would you like to share your story with the class?

The text for this unit is explanation. Study what an explanation is and try to distinguish the
features of an explanation in the passage "Corruption”

Explanation
Explanations are written to explain how something works or the process involved in
actions, events or behaviour. E.g. How does a rainbow occur?
Explanation texts are organised by: a definition or statement, and a sequenced
explanation.
The features of explanation writing are: non-human participants, cause and effect
relationships, passives and timeless present tense.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

65
corruption governance norm adhere procedures
policies regulations manipulate unethical dodged

Guess the Meaning

Word My Guess Context Meaning

B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

Why you should be worried about Corruption?

Corruption threatens good governance, fair business


practices and sustainable development. It encourages social
and economic gaps in Fiji, whereby the rich get richer and
the poor sink further into poverty.
Corruption has become so deeply rooted in the public service
that for years, it has become a norm that is widely accepted in Fiji.

Causes of Corruption

 Weak self control of an individual – Greed and pressure to accumulate wealth as fast
as possible and live a lifestyle beyond normal income.
 Weak controls in Government departments – Public officials do not adhere to
procedures, policies and regulations and there is no follow up in place to monitor
the performance of public officials especially departments prone to corrupt activity.
Outdated Laws and Procedures – Individuals manipulate the intention of
legislation/policies/procedures for their own personal gain.

Signs and Symptoms of Corruption

 Sudden change in lifestyle

66
 Possession of unexpected property/wealth
 Frequent practice of overtime work although workload has been reduced
 Refusal for transfer or promotion.
 Close relationship with distributor/contractor and the said distributor/contractor
refuses to deal with other public officials.
 Unusual involvement with other departments or contractors outside their normal
work responsibilities.

RED FLAGS
Red flags are early warning signs of something unethical. Developing mature decision
making skills involves recognizing problems when they occur.
How can you tell when you are facing issues that have unethical dimension?
The following may help.
 Frequent use of words such as right or wrong; conflict of interest; bottom line;
ethics; and values.
 Desire to call the state regulatory agency or professional hotline.
 Making lists of advantages and disadvantages of an action.
 Feeling torn between two or more values, goals, or parties.
 Wondering how the outcome of this problem would look in the newspaper
headlines.
 Loss of sleep.
 Use of expressions such as:
 “Well, maybe just this once....”
 “We’d better look the other way.....”
 “No one will ever know....”

i. Comprehension Skills: Topic, Main Idea, and Supporting Details

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
The topic is the subject the author is writing about. The main idea is the most important
idea that the writer wants readers to understand about the topic. Supporting details are
pieces of information that explain or tell more about the main idea. Supporting details may
include facts and examples.
Practice
Point out the topic of the passage. Discuss the main idea with the students,
Apply
Ask students to infer main ideas by summing up supporting details in the passage. Use the
chart below to assist.

67
What's the Big Idea?
Complete the chart below about the main idea, and supporting details based on "Why
You Should Be Worried About Corruption?".
Topic:_______________________________________

Main Idea Main Idea


___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

Supporting Details
Supporting Details ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________

Main Idea
___________________________________
___________________________________

Supporting Details
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

ii. Comprehension Check

Answer the following questions in a complete sentence.

1. What does corruption threaten?


2. What is one cause of corruption?
3. List down three signs of corruption?
4. What are red flags?
5. What do you think is the purpose of this article?
6. Which group of people is the article aiming at?

68
7. How do you think the statement “the rich get richer and the poor sink further into
poverty” may mean?
8. The line “We’d better look the other way” What do you think this means?
9. Why do you think you will not sleep well?
10. Where do you think this article is from?

C. Word Knowledge: Homophones


Homophones: Homophones are words that sound the same but are spelled differently
and have different meanings. For example: pale (a light color) pail (a bucket)

Write homophones for the following words.

1. bred - _____________________ 11. time - _____________________


2. cereal - _____________________ 12. course - _____________________
3. ceiling - _____________________ 13. herd - _____________________
4. peace - _____________________ 14. cell - _____________________
5. presents - _____________________ 15. creak - _____________________
6. hoarse - _____________________ 16. sail - _____________________
7. patience - _____________________ 17. suit - _____________________
8. pain - _____________________ 18. raise - _____________________
9. whale - _____________________ 19. break - _____________________
10. need - _____________________ 20. flower - _____________________

D. Sentences: Compound Sentences

A simple sentence has one idea.


A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences put together. In the
compound sentence, each verb has a different subject.
The sentences are joined three ways.
1. By a comma and coordinating conjunction (and, but, yet, so, or, for, nor.)
Example: Martha has been painting her room, but Sunita went to the movies.
2. With a semicolon (;)
Example: Mrs. Ali likes to play chess; Shobna is her favorite partner.
3. With a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb (then, however, therefore, consequently,
etc.)
Example: Our trip to Taveuni took eighteen hours; consequently, we are
exhausted.

69
i. Identifying Compound and Simple Sentences.
Place "S" for simple or "C" for compound after the sentence.

1. I haven't seen Anna lately, and I won't see her again until December.
2. Mr. Tuilada listens to the news every night, and then he goes to bed.
3. Juliet is going to Hawaii today and will return home on November 25th.
4. Will you wait for me, or do you want to go ahead?
5. The children argue and wrangle over every little thing.
6. We had nearly finished our thirty-six holes of golf, and I was exhausted.
7. I had originally planned to attend the meeting; however, now I think I can't.
8. Mrs. Tamani likes to drive; she finds it relaxing.
9. Marica is afraid of the water; consequently, she had trouble passing the
swimming test.
10. Should I wash the clothes, or do you want to do it?
11. Ellen was calm after the accident, but Jane was very nervous.
12. On their vacation, the Smiths fished and swam every day.
13. The Millers and the Fishers like to attend concerts together.
14. I did my grocery shopping today; consequently, our cupboard is full.
15. The President will hold a press conference today.
16. Raksha and Vasiti went to the Hibiscus Festival together.
17. Mr. Baba looked angry; accordingly, I wasn't eager to introduce myself.
18. Shall we have a picnic, or would you like to eat inside?
19. Dan showered and dressed in his best clothes.
20. The ice cream was partly melted; nevertheless, it tasted good.

ii. Join the following sentences together to make compound sentences. Choose
the most suitable conjunction from the list below. Use each conjunction once only.

and because so as but or

70
1. I enjoy reading. I don’t enjoy cooking.

2. Ben is thoughtful. He always plays with me when I’m lonely.

3. Kate walked home from school slowly. She was tired.

4. Babies cry all of the time. They can get some attention from their mum.

5. Year Five is a hardworking class. All of the children want to do well at school.

6. I can use simple sentences in my writing. I can use compound ones to make it more
interesting.

D. Usage and Punctuation: Punctuating a Poem


See if you can write and punctuate this poem by Olimiva Luveniyali. She used two
commas, a hyphen and a question mark. Do not forget to begin each new sentence with
a capital letter.

she sits
with tears on her cheeks
her cheek on her hand
the child in her lap
weary rough
pointing at me
do you care

E. Grammar: Noun Plurals


When making plurals some nouns need to be changed or added to, and some
words stay the same.
i. Write the Following nouns as plurals.
For Example: box – boxes.
1. photo - __________________ 9. mosquito - __________________
2. ostrich - __________________ 10. room - __________________
3. moose - __________________ 11. life - ___________________
4. shelf - __________________ 12. glass - ___________________
5. potato - __________________ 13. foot - ___________________
6. wolf - __________________ 14. echo - ___________________
7. gas - __________________ 15. volcano - ___________________
8. aircraft - __________________

71
ii. Change the following sentences to Plurals.
1. Mr. Seru asked the student to open his dictionary.
___________________________________________________________
2. The frightened kitten hid behind the shelf as the dog tramped by.
________________________________________________________
3. Bill brought the flower and hid it in the room.
____________________________________________________________
4. The lawyer was paid a million dollars for winning the case.
____________________________________________________________
5. The boy crossed the bridge to get to the field.
___________________________________________________________

F. Dictionary: Beginning with ‘bio’


Find a word that begins with ‘bio’ that goes with each clue. Use your dictionary
to help you.

1. To break down by bacteria -_____________________


2. Removing a small tissue from your body to test for disease -_____________________
3. Study of all living things -______________________
4. Story of a persons’ life written by someone -______________________
5. Relating to a family member -______________________
6. Theory -_______________________
7. Pattern of one cycle -_____________________

G. Word Meaning : 'Dodge' and 'Adhere'


Write 2 sentences for each word to show you understand the different ways they are used.

H. Spelling. Spelling List


principle
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure
principal
See the word paralysis
Hear the word paralyze
Adopt the word analyse
Record the word analysis
Proofread the word advise
advice
ii. Re – arrange the spelling words in the list in alphabetical idle
order from A-Z.
idol
1. ______________________ 5. ______________________
2. ______________________ 6. ______________________ oases
3. ______________________ 7. ______________________ oasis
4. ______________________ 8. ______________________ capital
capitol
72
9. ______________________ 12. ______________________
10. ______________________ 13. ______________________
11. ______________________ 14. ______________________
iii. 10 words are incorrectly spelt. Find them and write them.

1. princeapal 8. analysis
2. capityiol 9. principel
3. capital 10. oasus
4. idol 11. oacis
5. paralize 12. advize
6. paralysis 13. idel
7. analise 14. advase

iv. Word Search.


M A N A L Y S I S M W M K Z I
C B U O D Y Q F Q T E V S O V
P R S W L O D I D U G B Q S Q
R N U Y Y I A W O I M J C B P
I W E I C R Y S I S U U U R L
N S L X K A E C I V D A I O R
C I D V P M P E C S L N T A P
I S I R N T Z I M H C I N V I
P Y L P D Y U D T I P A V H X
L L N W L X G I P A L K X K O
E A F A R H G A C Y L N Y P A
I R R K R Y L W Z U S H V J S
Y A L I S N M E V L T F S W E
P P Z B D P L S J S R A F O S
R S O I W F D N H L X T R T Q

advice analysis analyze capital capitol


idle idol oases oasis paralysis
paralyze principal principle

v. Make two or more new words from the Spelling list. The first one is done for you.
1. principle : prince, rice, price, clip, rip,
2. principal : _____________________ 7. advise : _____________________
3. paralysis : _____________________ 8. advice : _____________________
4. paralyze : _____________________ 9. idle : _____________________
5. analyse : _____________________ 10. idol : _____________________
6. analysis : _____________________ 11. oases : _____________________

73
12. oasis : _____________________ 14. capitol : _____________________
13. capital : _____________________
vi. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
s t v u w z x c d e a b q t r k l j o n m p f h g i
1. supdvw : _______________________ 8. vskdnsb : _______________________
2. kjdtvdksb : _______________________ 9. rsoplo : _______________________
3. ksjsbgiw : _______________________ 10. stsbgow : _______________________
4. stsbgodo : _______________________ 11. durb : _______________________
5. kjdtvdkbw : _______________________ 12. rsowo : _______________________
6. vskdnrb : _______________________ 13. supdow : _______________________
7. ksjsbgodo : _______________________ 14. dubw : ______________________

An explanation tells how


WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES
something works. They are used
in all the arts and sciences.
What is an explanation?

USE

Explanations have four parts in their structure. Noun Groups-the drought


affected area, your body
Passive Voice -
Title This is a short statement (question) about the
Adverbial Phrases - In all
topic. insects..... , ..... most parts of
the country
Introduction Gives a description Action Verbs- erupts,
evolves
Of the part or elements in the process.
Conjunction and
Explanation connectives- when, as , if .
Sequence cause, create, than
Simple Present Tense- The
Process How/ why the thing or process works. Can include the planets revolve..... , If the
cause. button is pushed....
Technical Language -The
Concluding statement may have the effects of the whole wheel axle, the digestive
Conclusion
system
process.

74
Structure How to make an organic compost for your family garden? Language Features

Question in To grow beautiful flowers or tasty vegetables, gardeners Technical terms


the heading
often put compost in their soil. Compost is produced by
Introduction allowing vegetable matter to decompose naturally.
Includes a
description or How do you start?
definition.
First, the compost’s ingredients have to be collected. Any
raw vegetable or plant material is suitable, including leaves
grass, vegetable peelings and fruit cores. To introduce
Words showing
helpful bacteria into the compost, some garden soil is also how and why
mixed in.

Where do you put it?


Explanation
Sequence Next, the compost mixture is put into a special composting Timeless present
telling how bin, or piled up in the corner of the garden. The compost is tense
and why
left alone for many months while nature does its work.
Cause

What turns it into compost?

Microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, soon begin to rot the


vegetable material. As a side-effect, natural warmth is
produced in the compost. This, in turn, helps to speed up the
process. Eventually, natural decomposition transforms the
waste vegetable material into soft brown compost.
Effect
What is the compost used for?

Conclusion Finally, gardeners either dig the compost into the soil or
spread it on the surface. Compost replaces nutrients in the
soil, because it contains nitrogen and other important
elements.

75
Write an explanation...

Write an explanation of how plants make food. You may need to look up
photosynthesis in a dictionary or encyclopaedia.
Structure ____________________________________________________________
Title ______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction ______________________________________________________________________________
Write a
______________________________________________________________________________
description
______________________________________________________________________________
Explanation
sequence ______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Effect
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Concluding
sentence ______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
__
Revise and Edit More to do
Conclusion
R -Replace words,
phrases and sentences Write an explanation about
with more effective ones
any topic that interests you.
I -insert better words,
phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences
SPELLCHECK

Just for Fun

76
1

5 6

7 8

9 10

11

12

13

14

Across
2 These insects often pollinate trees. (4) Down
3 A building material that comes from trees. 1 These gather sunlight to make food for trees.
(4) (6)
4 This can grow into a new tree. (4) 2 Flowers just before they open. (4)
5 Apples, oranges, or bananas. (5) 3 Trees soak this up through their roots. (5)
7 The part of a tree that attaches it to the 6 A colourful part of some trees that later makes
ground and soaks up water. (5) seeds or fruit. (6)
9 Where the seed of a pine tree is. (4) 8 The sticky liquid inside a tree. (3)
11 The skin of trees. (4) 10 The leaves of a pine tree. (7)
13 The thick part of a tree. (5) 11 The part of a tree where leaves are. (6)
14 Trees need this to make food. (8) 12 The leaf of a flower. (5)

77
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 5

Genre: Narrative
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on narratives, to be
conducted in class. Narratives tell a realistic or imaginative story. It is written to entertain,
stimulate, motivate, guide and teach the reader.e.g myths, legends, fairy tales etc. Each of you is
required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond accordingly.
As I listen, I sit up, pay attention
and focus on the speaker

I mind my manners and not speak

Listening Outcome Responses


1. This reminds me of ________________
2. I know the word ______ means ______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were ________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were _______
5. What I heard made me _____because
___________________________________

78
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple
is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t
isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t
could/n‟t
Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex

Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? ______________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?_____________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?___________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _____________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Group or Class work: One person in the class begins a narrative with one
sentence....the rest follow suit, each adding a sentence to the story. keep going
until the story ends. This can also be done as group work. Have fun making up
the wackiest story.

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READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)


 Have you ever done something that you regretted later?
 Did you get punished for it? Each of us has choices to make every day of our lives.
 With these choices come the consequences.
Should I go to school or stay home?
Should I eat rice or roti?

Sometime the choices you make doesn’t really matter because it doesn’t hurt you
or anyone else but then there are times that our choices become very important. It matters
because it affects not only you but those around you. Be wise, think carefully because the
choices you make will determine the consequences you receive.

Our story today is about a boy who made a poor choice and unfortunately had to pay the
consequences for his actions. As you read think about the author’s purpose

Myths, legends,
fables, fairytales, A narrative tells a realistic or imagined story. It is written to
short stories and entertain, stimulate, motivate, guide and teach the reader.
picture books
Narrative texts are organised according to setting, event
leading to a problem and a solution.

The main features of narratives are : defined characters,


descriptive language, past tense.

ii. Key Vocabulary


vague, belligerently, initiated, contraption, sullenly,
dismay, shuffled. etched, subdue, ranting raving

Scan through the story and use the context clues to find the meaning of the words above.
Discuss them as a class. Draw little icons by each word to help you remember them.

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B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow

Crime Never Pays

“Johnny? Johnny? Johnny, are you okay? Oh my goodness! Someone help! Help! Please help!”
cried Mrs Tuni.

It all began on a cool summer day. Johnny and his friends, Mariko and Nitesh, were helping
Mr Tuni clean the garage. There was so much rubbish everywhere - well it wasn’t useful
anymore, so in Johnny’s eyes that was rubbish.

They “Oood and Ahhd” over everything they took off the shelves. For Johnny most of the
things were vague memories of the past. On the other hand Mr Tuni had tonnes of
information about each piece of item.

“What’s this for Johnny?” inquired Mariko. “It looks interesting.’

“How should I know?” replied Johnny belligerently. He was feeling irritated. He wanted
the work to be over and done with. There was a game to be played at the park and of course
people to meet.

“Why did dad have to pick today, of all days?” Johnny thought to himself.

“Mr Tuni, can you tell us what’s this for?” asked Mariko holding out this little blue
contraption.

“Hmmmm…let me see if I can remember,” replied Mr Tuni. He took it out of Mariko’s hands
and turned it over and over. “I am not too sure…wait let’s call Mrs Tuni and ask her. Mary!
Mary!”

“Yes. Who’s that?” Mrs Tuni answered.

“Dear, can you come out here for a second?”

“I am in the middle of baking brownies, Of course I can’t come out,” she shouted.

“Come on boys, forget that rubbish and let’s move on. We have a game to catch – remember,”
said Johnny.

“But….,” said Mariko.

“No buts. Just move it,” he replied nastily.

‘Hey Johnny! Take it easy bro. We’re here to help, not fight,” commented Nitesh.

“Yes Johnny… where is your manners? You should be grateful that your friends offered to
help,” replied Mr Tuni.

“But we’re going to miss the game at this rate,” whined Johnny getting more and more upset.
In fact he was so upset that he hit the blue contraption right out of Mr Tuni’s hands. It fell to
the floor and broke in two. Just then Mrs Tuni poked her head around the door.

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“What’s all the fuss about?’ she asked.

You could have heard a pin drop, it was all so quiet.

“What’s the matter?” she asked.

Mariko and Nitesh looked at each other uneasily. Everyone in the neighbourhood knew what
a bad temper Mr Tuni had. Johnny just stared on sullenly.

“Hon, is something wrong? I thought you wanted to show me something,” asked Mrs Tuni.

“Wrong! Wrong! Just look at ……,” exploded Mr Tuni, pointing to the floor while struggling to
get the words out.

Mrs Tuni looked down and dismay came over her face.

She slowly walked forward, bent and picked up the blue pieces. As she held on to them silent
tears tracked down her cheeks.

Slowly she looked up.

“What happened? Who did this?”

“It was an accident ma,” started Johnny. No sooner had he said the words did his father begin
shouting.

“Accident! Accident! Come here boy and I’ll show you what an accident is,” shouted Mr Tuni.
He was beside himself with rage.

“Dear – please – enough,” implored Mrs Tuni as more tears rolled down her cheeks.

‘Oh Johnny! How could you? Don’t you know that this belonged to your brother Nick?” she
whispered quietly.

Nick had died eight years ago in a boating accident. Johnny barely remembered him but he
sure was tired of hearing Nick’s name. Every time anything happened someone would bring
up Nicks name.

“Isa Nick….remember when Nick used to….What would Nick do…..”

He was seriously sick of hearing Nick’s name.

“How was I supposed to know it belonged to Nick,” he muttered.

“Whether it belonged to Nick or not, you did not have to break it,” Mrs Tuni quietly
commented.

Feeling all eyes on him, Johnny turned and stamped out of the garage.

“Come here boy! Come here right now!” thundered Mr Tuni.

A soft hand on his arm made him quickly glance down into the soft but hurt eyes of his wife.

“Leave him be, my dear, leave him be,” she quietly murmured.

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‘What’s wrong with him? Mariko? Nitesh? Have you noticed anything wrong lately?”
questioned Mr Tuni.

Nitesh and Mariko quickly glanced at each other and looked down. Mariko shuffled his feet
while Nitesh’s head sunk lower and lower. Both boys could feel Mr Tuni’s hard eyes on their
heads. They began to feel uncomfortable.

“Boys? Do you know something that we don’t?” inquired Mrs Tuni.

“Uh…Uh…ummmm,” began Mariko.

“Speak up boy! Speak up!” Mr Tuni’s voice boomed across the garage.

Nitesh decided he had better give his two cents worth before they really got into trouble. He
glanced over at Mariko who gave a quick nod.

“Well, we have noticed that Johnny disappears every afternoon after school. We tried to
follow him one day but he got angry. He chased us away and when we kept after him he
started throwing stones at us and swore.”

“What? He swore!” exclaimed Mrs Tuni.

“Yes, well, we climbed up a tree after he left and were able to spy on him. We saw him
speaking to this strange looking man. Next thing we saw them exchanging things. Mariko
thinks it was drugs but I don’t know. Maybe it was, maybe it wasn’t. I really don’t know.”

“That’s it. Come on let’s go,” shouted Mr Tuni. He stormed out of the garage. Mrs Tuni,
Nitesh and Mariko ran after him. The two boys looked at each other, worry etched on their
faces.

“Show us the way boys. Come on, show us the way,” growled Mr Tuni.

Mariko ran to the front and quickly led the way. They approached the path and Mariko put
up his hand…..Shhhhh…..

Everyone stopped, looked around then quietly moved forward. After five minutes Mariko
put his hand up again and signalled to stop.

“What’s wrong! ‘hissed Mr Tuni.

“Shhhhh…I can hear something. Quickly take cover in those bushes,” whispered Mariko.

Suddenly they heard loud voices.

“Where’s my money?” demanded a strange voice.

“I’ll get it, I told you I would.”

“That’s Johnny’s voice,” whispered Mrs Tuni.

Whack! Boom! Whack!

“Oi!” yelled Mr Tuni.

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He jumped out of the bush. Johnny was bent over in pain. The strange looking man tried to
run away but Nitesh and Mariko tackled him to the ground. They managed to subdue him.
They grabbed his backpack and pulled out a brown parcel. As they pulled it out the bag fell
and burst open. White powder spread all over the ground. Nitesh looked at Mariko and
mouthed, "Drugs.”

Mr Tuni was ranting and raving while Johnny was moaning in pain.

“Johnny? Johnny? Johnny, are you okay? Oh my goodness! Someone help! Help! Please help!”
cried Mrs Tuni.

Mariko quickly pulled out his phone and called the police while Nitesh sat on the strangers
back so that he couldn’t move.

In the distance they could hear the sound of sirens getting louder and louder.

Johnny had stopped moaning and Mrs Tuni stood by him, rubbing his back.

“Mum, dad. I am so sorry. I don’t know what I was thinking


of. I am sorry. Please, please don’t let the police take me,”
whimpered Johnny.

“I am sorry son but this is one lesson you will have to learn
the hard way,” replied Mr Tuni.

“But honey…..”

“No Mary. Johnny has to learn the hard way,” said Mr Tuni.

Mariko and Nitesh bowed their heads, sadness etched on


their faces.

That day was a wakeup call for all of them. Mr and Mrs Tuni were hurting but they knew that
sometimes one had to be cruel to be kind. Nitesh and Mariko learnt that it never pays to fool
around with drugs and poor Johnny, he learnt what the inside of a police cell looked like. He
was a special guest of the Korovou Correction Centre for two long years.

i. Comprehensive Skill :Literature Circle

Divide the class into 6 groups.

1. Action Tracker/Summarizer
2. Character Captain
3. Speaker of the House
4. Literary Luminary
5. Connector
6. Talented Artist

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1. Action Tracker/Summarizer

You keep track of the action in the story. Complete the following table to share with the rest
of the class.

In the Beginning In the Middle At the End

2. Character Captain

List down the main characters in the story. Describe the characteristics they have and give
examples.

Mr Tuni – Bad tempered. He finds it difficult to control his temper.

Mrs Tuni –

Johnny –

Nitish –

Mariko –

3. Speaker of the House

As a group write out at least 4-6 questions whose answers can be inferred from the clues in
the story e.g. Did Mrs Tuni love and miss Nick?

Yes she did, she cried when she saw the broken blue contraption. It belonged to Nick.
She also spoke about Nick a lot.

4. Literary Luminary

Luminary is like a light – something bright and noticeable.

Which paragraph or sentence stood out to you and why? Copy down the paragraph or
sentence. Complete the table below, an example has been provided.

e.g. She slowly walked forward and picked up the blue pieces. As she held on to them silent
tears tracked down her face.

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Reason for choosing this section:

I felt sorry for her. The blue thing was a remembrance of her son who had died.

5. Connector

The connector makes connections between what happened in the story and similar things
that have happened to themselves. Text to self, to other stories – text to text and to the world
around them – text to world.

E.g. Text-Self

This story is similar to what I went through when I spoke rudely and hurt my
mother’s feelings. When I saw her crying I felt very bad.

Text to Text

This is similar to a story I read about a little boy whose parents used him to carry
drugs. They always gave him 2 lunch boxes. One was filled with drugs and an old man would
be waiting for him in school.

Text to World

This story relates to what I saw in a movie. Students made bad choices and were
caught doing wrong.

6. Talented Artist

This group creates a poster/picture as a cover for the story. It must relate to the story.

After each group has finished their assigned topic they now present to the rest of the class.

ii. Comprehensive Check

Read the story again before attempting to answer the question below.

1. What were the Tuni family doing?


2. Why was Johnny feeling irritated?
3. How would you describe Johnny as a person?
4. What was Mr Tuni known for?
5. Mr and Mrs Tuni questioned Mariko and Nitesh, how could you tell that they were
scared?
6. Mr Tuni said that Johnny had to learn the hard way.
a) What did he mean by this?
b) Why did he want Johnny to learn the hard way?

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7. What do the following expressions mean?

“… one had to be cruel to be kind.”

“… it never pays to fool around with drugs.”

8. What is a lesson you have learnt from this short story?

C. Word Knowledge: Word building.

Use the prefixes and suffixes in the boxes below to make new words.

Prefix Suffix

mis in dis able ible ful

im un ir less ence ance

allow ignore
regular annoy
carriage appear
convinced diligent
essential sever
possible convey
credible imagine
truth laugh
famous dishonour
active care
change behave
hope mature

Use 2 of your new words to write sentences about Johnny.

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D. Sentences: Direct to Indirect

Write the following sentences in reported (indirect speech)

e.g. “Hey Johnny! Take it easy bro. We’re here to help, not fight, “commented Nitesh.

Report speech

Nitesh commented that Johnny should take it easy as they were there to help and not fight.

1. “Yes, Johnny...where is your manners? You should be grateful that your friends offered to
help,”

Mr Tuni told...

2. "What’s all the fuss about? asked Mrs Tuni.

Mrs Tuni asked

3. “Boys? Do you know something that we don’t?” inquired Mrs Tuni.

Mrs Tuni inquired if

4. “Where’s my money?” demanded a strange voice.

E. Usage and Punctuation: Four Kinds of Sentences

There are many examples of the four kinds of sentences in the story.

Commands, Questions, Statements and Exclamations.

Identify 2 of each sentence type in the story. Write them into your books and watch
carefully for the punctuation marks.

F. Grammar: Direct Speech

Rewrite the following in direct speech. Place all the punctuation marks in the correct place.

Mr Tuni: Where are you going:?

Johnny: I am going to town.

Mrs Tuni: Don’t go to the movies.

Johnny: Who said I was going to the movies?

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G. Dictionary Skills: Beginning with 'poly'

Polynomial Polynesian Polyethene

Polymer Polyester Polygon

1. Place all the words in the box in alphabetical order.

2. Use a dictionary to help you match the words with the following nouns.

1. Plastic
2. compound
3. figure
4. race
5. names
6. fabric

H. Word Meanings: Cover and piece

Use each word in two separate sentences to show that it has more than one
meaning. Write four sentences altogether.

I. Spelling: Spelling List


culminate
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure concentrate
appreciate
See the word alternate
Hear the word candidate
fabricate
Adopt the word
irate
Record the word
negotiate
Proofread the word tolerate
hesitate
ii. Pair Share violation
recognition
In pairs look up the meaning of the words in the subscription
dictionary and write them down. situation
emotion
iii. Review Phonics

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Divide the words according to the first vowel sound in the word. Choral spelling of the
words. (the teacher will say the word, you will repeat it and spell it out, and say the word
again)

Eg Teacher: culminate Students: culminate, c-u-l-m-n-a-t-e, culminate

iv. Jumbled Words


6. troccennate __________________
1. triea ____________________ 7. fricabate __________________
2. stuaioint ____________________ 8. teteaoing ___________________
3. treeloat ____________________ 9. invioloat ___________________
4. imenoot _ ___________________ 10. creotioning ___________________
5. atrenteall __________________

v. Icons
Choose any 10 words and draw an icon (little picture) to represent the word. Draw an icon
that will mean something to you and help you remember to spell the word correctly.

vi. Sentence Completion


Complete the sentences below by filling in the blank spaces with the appropriate spelling
word.

1. Mr Nitesh Nand was a _________________ in the elections.


2. Johnny made it a goal to __________________ on his studies.
3. That is a traffic ____________________ violation.
4. She was in a bad ____________________ so we decided to help her.
5. You have to pay a yearly _________________ we you want to receive your magazine in the
mail every month.
6. The festival will ____________________ in a grand ball at the end of the week.
7. If you _____________________, you may be able to get a pay rise.
8. The old man showed no _________________ as he was sentenced to life imprisonment.

90
WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES

I wonder what a narrative


A narrative tells a realistic or
is. . imagined story. It is written to
entertain, stimulate, motivate,
guide and teach the reader.e.g
myths, legends, fables, fairy tales,
short stories and picture books.

Narratives have three main parts with an optional fourth part.


USE
Orientation The introductory paragraph where the
characters, setting and time are introduced. Dialogue – elicits an emotional
response from the reader.
Clues to the problem are also included.
Descriptive language- …the
sound of the insects was
Complication Were the problem/problems in the story develop. overwhelming …a strong gust
Usually contains events that occur in sequence. of wind…helps us visualize
what is happening
Effective characterization
Resolution Were the major problem is solved.
… my eyes shot wide open…
helps us understand how the
character feels….shocked and
Reorientation The change the main characters undergo and the scared.
message or moral of the story. Noun phrases …a big hungry
cat
m Adverbials of time or
place…early that morning,
Examples of Narratives through the sky
 Myths/ Legends Consistent tense…past or
present
 Fable/ Fairy tales
Sentence Variety… simple,
 Short stories/ Novels compound and complex
 Short stories/ Novels A variety of sentence
 Parables beginnings
 Science fiction stories

91
The Shark
Structure
Evan was walking along a deserted beach at dawn. In the distance he
Title saw a young woman and a small boy.
Orientation Suddenly the little boy ran down to the waterline. The young woman
Who? When? shouted and ran after him but he did not stop. A huge wave swept over him
Where? What? and he was gone.
Evan raced towards the sea. He heard a shout. He spun around and
Complication
saw the young lady pointing. When he looked back his heart almost stopped.
Begins a
A dorsal fin was slowly approaching. What should he do?
series of
events “Please! Please! Help me!” shouted the young woman. What could he
do? He couldn‟t leave that poor child alone. All these thoughts crowded his
Event 1 head.
He dived in and swam as hard and as fast as he could. He reached the
limp body, grabbed him around the neck and began swimming for shore. The
Event 2 fear of a shark attack made him swim as though demons were after him.
His leg hit the sand. He felt arms dragging him forward. Together
Climax
they stumbled onto the shore. They looked back and saw the shark circling
nearby. Thank goodness they were safe.
The young lady, Nina, quickly called an ambulance and we were soon on

Resolution our way. The last I saw of Peter, he was smiling happily in bed surrounded by

(He is free) his family.

Writers Challenge Making connections.

Have you ever been in dilemma


Using the context, find out what the bold words mean. and thought, " This is it, I'm in
big trouble now...."But suddenly
overwhelming ____________________________________
it’s ok. You're saved. Tell us
toppled ____________________________________ about it.
pounce ___________________________________
stealthily ___________________________________
rustle ____________________________________
crouched _____________________________________
soared ____________________________________

92
Write a narrative....
Write a narrative on "What is a true friend?" Use examples and names. Draft your narrative
using the template below to guide your writing.

Structure _________________________
Title
_______________________________________________________________________

Orientation
______________________________________________________________________________
Who? When?
Where? What?
______________________________________________________________________________

Complication ______________________________________________________________________________
Begins a series
of events ______________________________________________________________________________

Event 1 ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Event 2
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Climax

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Resolution

Revise and Edit


R -Replace words,
phrases and sentences
with more effective ones

I -insert better words,


phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences

SPELLCHECK

93
Just for Fun

Crime and Punishment

Across Down
2. Someone who saw a crime. 1. Someone the police think may
5. People who catch criminals. have done a crime.

7. Not guilty. 3. Things or facts used to show that


someone is guilty.
8. The place where a trial is held.
4. A story used to show someone is
9. The head of a court.
innocent.
6. Not innocent.

94
95
UNIT 6
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES
Genre: Procedure
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on procedural texts, to be
conducted in class. A procedure tells how to achieve a goal or an outcome through a sequence of
steps.e.g.recipe, safety manual etc. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


As I listen, I sit up,
respond accordingly.
pay attention and
focus on the speaker

I mind my manners
and not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

96
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

97
Extra Activities: Class Activity

Discuss and practice different classroom procedures. Also discuss classroom


procedures. Also discuss procedures for fire drills, earthquakes and any other
evacuation procedures you brainstorm.

READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Do you know of any fire safety rules?
 What do you do in case of a fire?
 What measures can be taken to prevent a fire from spreading?
 What number do you call when there’s a fire in your area?
 Do you know of incidents where a fire has occurred?

Procedural Writing
Procedures are written to explain how something is done, in a series of sequenced
steps.
They are organized by goal, material, method and evaluation.
Features of procedural writing include: detailed factual description, reader referred
to in a general way (draw a line), linking words to do with time, tense is continuous

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

Context Clues:

Context Clues are words that say, “Stop - don’t touch that dictionary. The definition of
the word you don’t know is right here in the text!" They are often used in content area
reading.

For Example: If the first attempts to put the fire out do not succeed , evacuate the building
immediately.
Using the clue, the word attempts in this sentence means try.

Fire alarm automatically evacuate fire extinguisher


extinguish inhale toxic elevators stairwells
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B. Comprehension

FIRE EVACUATION PROCEDURE

1. Assist any person in immediate danger to safety, if it can be accomplished without


risk to yourself.
2. Immediately activate the building fire alarm system. This will automatically
notify the fire department and get help on the way. It will also sound the fire alarm
bells to evacuate the building and shut down the air handling units to prevent the
spread of smoke. It is best to have the fire department respond and not be needed
than to have them arrive too late for potential rescue. If you are in a building
without a fire alarm system, dial 911 from a safe location to report the fire.
3. If the fire is small enough, use a nearby fire extinguisher to control and
extinguish the fire. Do not fight a fire if the following conditions exist:
o You don't know what's burning.
o The fire is spreading rapidly.
o You don't have the proper equipment.
o You can't do so with your back to an exit.
o The fire might block your means of escape.
o You might inhale toxic smoke.
o Your instincts tell you not to do so.
4. If the first attempts to put out the fire do not succeed, evacuate the building
immediately.
5. Doors, and if possible, windows, should be closed as the last person leaves a room
or area.
6. Do not use elevators, use building stairwells.
7. Upon evacuation of the building, all should proceed to a designated meeting area
where head counts can be taken.
8. Never re-enter a building without permission from the fire department.

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i. Comprehension Skill: Sequencing

What do you do first? Arrange in order.

 Evacuate the building


 Assist any person in immediate danger
 Use a nearby fire extinguisher
 Activate the building fire alarm

ii. Comprehension Check.

Answer the following questions in complete sentences.

1. What happens when the building alarm system is activated?


2. What do you do when you are in a building with no fire alarm system?
3. When should a fire extinguisher be used?
4. What should you do when your first attempts to put out the fire does not succeed?
5. Why do you think elevators shouldn’t be used in fires and what should you use instead?
6. What should be done upon evacuation of a building?
7. Why do you think no one is allowed to re-enter the building without the permission of the
fire department?

C. Word Knowledge: Clothing Words.


The words below are to do with your clothing. Match the words in the box with the
clues.

dungarees dhoti habit stole lingerie


Chaps anorak caftan
raglan
brogues diaper cravat negligee
ermine

1. Leather trousers for riding 7. Waterproof jacket with hood


2. Garment worn by Hindus 8. Men’s scarf
3. Overalls made of coarse cotton 9. Baby’s nappy
4. Thin nightie 10. Type of coat sleeve
5. Dress worn by nuns 11. Valuable white fur
6. Strip of fur 12. Women’s underwear

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13. Strong leather shoes with decorative 14. Loose garment with long, wide sleeves
holes on surface

D. Sentences: Singular/Plural
Re-write these sentences changing all singular words to plural.
1. Mr Waqa asked the girl to open her dictionary.
2. The family caught the punt across the river to the city at least once a week.
3. The frightened cat hid in the corner as the dog and the horse tramped by.
4. Miriama took her scissors, shears and needle and in a moment she had created the most
fantastic dress that her mother had ever seen.
5. Marika lost his shirt and shoes on Monday.
6. My friend bought me an orange at lunch time.
7. I had to write a thesis on the mango, which grows in Nadi.
8. A ship carrying a cargo of tuna was ransacked by a thief.
9. The lady ate jelly and strawberry.
10. My brother-in-law travelled with his baby in a boat.
11. The dwarf lived a long life with the princess.
12. A pigeon nests in the roof of the porch.
13. We found the larva of the caterpillar on the roof.
14. The volcano by the reef gave out gas.
15. The fireman saved the child from the burning building.

E. Usage and Punctuation: Dashes

Dashes create a change of direction in a sentence. They are stronger


than a comma but not as strong as a full stop.
Dashes are used:
1. to indicate an explanation is coming.
2. to create dramatic effect (as in a newspaper headline).
3. to indicate an unfinished or interrupted comment.
4. (a pair of dashes) to indicate a group of words that
provide an explanation or comment.
For example:
1. The teacher has a strategy – a strategy which will provide results.
2. They’ve made it – Finally!
3. ‘I have to say that I –’
4. The entire school – students, staff and parents – were present at
the Prize Giving Ceremony.

101
i. Copy these sentences. Put in the missing dashes.

1. I’m going to buy sweets lots of them.

2. When he went to university his mum gave him a big pile of money enough to
last him a month.
3. The trip has been rescheduled for Monday maybe Thursday.
4. Molly found her purse down the back of the sofa.
5. There is only one meal worth eating pie and chips.

ii. Copy these sentences. Put in the missing dashes.

1. Suzi wants to buy Mark a new pair of trainers I can see why.
2. There is no room left in the hotel let me repeat: No Room.
3. The dog a hairy beast jumped up at me.
4. Permission is granted subject to the following conditions.
5. The films all three of them took years to complete.

F. Grammar : Relative Pronouns.


What is a Relative Pronoun?
A pronoun introducing relative clause: a pronoun that refers to a previously
used noun and introduces a relative clause, e.g. 'that', 'which', or 'who' .

Choose one of the following relative pronouns who, which or whose to correctly fill in the
blanks.

1. I talked to the girl ____________ car had broken down in front of the shop.
2. Mr Singh _____________ is a taxi driver, lives on the corner.
3. We often visit our aunt in Qamea ______ is an island off Taveuni.
4. This is the girl___________ comes from Australia.
5. That's Peter; the boy ________________ has just arrived at the airport.
6. Thank you very much for your e-mail _________________ was very interesting.
7. The man, _____________________ father is a professor, forgot his umbrella.
8. The children, ____ ___________________ shouted in the street, are not from our school.
9. The car, ____________________ driver is a young man, is from Ireland.
10. What did you do with the money ______________ your mother lent you?

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G. Dictionary: Classification
Look these words up and write in brackets next to each one whether it is a tool, fruit,
vegetable, fish, bird or weapon.
1. foil
2. perch
3. stiletto
4. rasp
5. kale
6. shag
7. sole
8. hod
9. damson
10. lentil
11. nectarin
12. Dodo

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Word Meanings: 'evaluate' and 'inhale'

Use each word in two separate sentences to show that it has more than one
meaning. Write four sentences altogether.

H. Spelling

i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure

See the word


Hear the word
Adopt the word
Record the word
Proofread the word

ii. Word Puzzle


controlling
I RBI T gossiping
G D E VVQT U knitting
I O C NN L OW fascinating
Q NE ME D J DK travelling
ANI P NSB WF I securing
P VI Z T FL B OUQUE T qualifying
G I G I MR UF QUA L I F YI NGJ J threatening
N B E NE F I T I NG B S C E C VF B HL receiving
GZ B WL G G NI L L O R T NOC Z VDUM benefitting
J S D O UQ L B F AS C I N AT I NGAHK transferring
DI WT R A N S F E R R I N GI T AE KF S enclosing
S WQ L Z B G NI NE T AE R HT R I I S U humid
G N I S O L C NE C WZ H P Z UT J P N bureau
Q I LX B AXS bouquet
QE AI

iii. Use your dictionary to find the definitions of the words in the box.

1. controlling : ________________________ 5. travelling : ________________________


2. gossiping : ________________________ 6. securing : ________________________
3. knitting : _________________________ 7. qualifying : ________________________
4. fascinating : _________________________ 8. threatening : ________________________

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9. receiving : ________________________ 13. humid : ________________________
10. benefitting : ________________________ 14. bureau : _________________________
11. transferring : ________________________ 15. bouquet : __________________________
12. enclosing : ________________________

iv. New Words. Make New Words from the words in the list. The first one is done for you.

1. controlling : control, con, not, rot, troll


2. gossiping : ___________________________________________
3. knitting :___________________________________________
4. fascinating : ___________________________________________
5. travelling : ___________________________________________
6. securing : ___________________________________________
7. qualifying : ___________________________________________
8. threatening : ___________________________________________
9. receiving : ___________________________________________
10. benefitting : ___________________________________________
11. transferring : ___________________________________________
12. enclosing : ___________________________________________
13. humid : ___________________________________________
14. bureau : ___________________________________________
15. bouquet : ___________________________________________

v. Other Word Forms:


example: decorate: decorated, decoration

1. controlling 9. receiving
2. gossiping 10. benefitting
3. knitting: 11. transferring
4. fascinating 12. enclosing
5. travelling 13. humid
6. securing 14. bureau
7. qualifying 15. bouquet
8. threatening

i. Sentence Construction

Use the words to make up sentences. Depending how you use the word, identify the
part of speech it is (noun/verb).

ii. Alphabetical order

Write the words in alphabetical order.

105
WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES

A procedure text tells how to


What is a procedure?
do something.

USE

Title Tells what is being explained.

Action Verbs-Cut, stirs, mix,


Goal Tells what the procedure aims to produce. nail, glue
Precise Vocabulary - Whisk
Describes or lists what is needed to complete in the vigorously, lukewarm,3 level
Needs procedure teaspoons
Complex Sentences- ...so
Steps Describes step by step how to complete the procedure that...., ...if then...

Check How to check if the procedure worked

Structure How to Make French Toast? Language Features


Title
Ingredients:

 6 thick slices of bread Instructions


 2 eggs should be
numbered
 2/3 cups milk
4. ...................
 ¼ teaspoon cinnamon
5. ...................
Materials  ¼ teaspoon nutmeg 6. ...................
 1 teaspoon vanilla extract ...
 Salt to taste
Directions
Instructions begin
with action words
1. Beat together egg, milk, salt, desired spices and
e.g 'Beat' , 'Heat'
vanilla.
2. Heat a lightly oiled griddle of skillet over medium-
high flame.
3. Dunk each slice of bread in egg mixture, soaking
Sequence of both sides. Place in pan, and cook on both sides until
Events golden. Serve hot.

106
In procedural texts, we use sentences that begin with verbs and are stated as commands; for
example, Beat together...'
Underline sentences above which begin with action words( verbs).
Circle all the verbs in the procedure.

Write an procedure
Write a procedure on how to make a garden salad.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

Title ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Materials
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Sequence of ______________________________________________________________________________
steps
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Revise and Edit
R -Replace words,
______________________________________________________________________________
phrases and sentences
with more effective ones
______________________________________________________________________________
I -insert better words,
phrases and sentences
______________________________________________________________________________

_ D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences
SPELLCHECK

107
Just for Fun
Safety Words Absorption
Assessment
Find these words! Carcinogenic
Competent
U I E S S E X C A V A T I O N S R Cosh
Excavations
L P G A F A L L S I R I D D O R O
Exposure
I C T F V E O X L R I E A U N M E Falls
D O L E G S R U E R S L N A R A X Fatal
N O I T A L A H N I K I E C N N P Flammable
Harmful
W A N Y A H B E S T A F F O N D O
Hazards
E S G S S A S Q C A S T L M O A S Incidents
L B S I S R O I A N S I A P X T U Ingestion
Inhalation
F E T G E M R N F T E N M E I O R
Irritants
A S N N S F P G F S S G M T O R E Lighting
R T E S S U T E O E S O A E U Y P Lpg
E O D E M L I S L T M V B N S T R Mandatory
Noxious
W S I I E F O T D O E R L T V I G
Riddor
U R C O N E N I M X N R E A I D A Risk
Y T N N T E D O O I T R I P S R N assessment
S L I P S Y J N O C L A D D E R S Safety signs
Scaffold
C O I C A R C I N O G E N I C L I
Slips
Toxic
Training
Trips

108
UNIT 7
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES

Genre: Information Narrative


Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on information narrative,
to be conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


As I listen, I sit up, pay
respond accordingly.
attention and focus on
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

109
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

110
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity
i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Have you ever been sick?
 Have you ever had an injection?
 Do you like injections? Why?
 Do you think we should have injections? Why?
 Have you ever been vaccinated for small pox?
 What other disease are people vaccinated against?
The passage given below is about a man who invented vaccinations.

The text for this unit is information narrative. Study what a information narrative. is and
try to distinguish the features of a information narrative in the passage "Edward Jenner."

INFORMATION NARRATIVE

Presents factual information embedded in an entertaining , imaginative narrative style.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class. Use the template below
to find the meanings of each word.

inoculation vaccination injected preventing attacked


smallpox swelling noticed cowpox effective

Guess the Meaning

Word My Guess Context Meaning

111
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

Edward Jenner

For many hundreds of years , people were afraid of the dangerous disease called
smallpox. When a person catches smallpox, he has a fever at first. A few days
later, small swellings appear on his body, mostly on the face. the swelling become
sores. When the sores heal, ugly marks called scars are left on the skin. lf the attack
of smallpox is severe, the person usually dies.

The disease spreads easily from one person to another. lf you touch a person who
has smallpox or if you touch his clothes, you can get smallpox . You can also get
smallpox by breathing the air that the sick person breathes out.

There was a lot of smallpox in Europe during the 17th


century. Many people used to die every year after catching
smallpox. Nobody knew how to cure smallpox but people
noticed that if someone had smallpox once, he seldom
caught the disease again. They also noticed that when
smallpox attacked children, the effects of the disease were
not very serious. That is why parents sometimes took their
children to someone who was sick with smallpox. They
hoped that the children would get smallpox, too. The
children would not be harmed a great deal by the illness, and they would not catch
smallpox again when they became adults.

Sometimes adult also tried to catch smallpox on purpose. They waited until
someone had an attack of smallpox which was not severe. They then took some dry
skin from the sores which had healed and they rubbed it on their bodies. Soon they
became ill themselves but the illness was mild and they did not catch smallpox
again. Some doctor scratched the arm of a person and rubbed dry skin from
smallpox into the scratch. This was called smallpox inoculation. It was not very
safe, because some people became very ill and died after one of these inoculations.

In the 18th century, an English doctor named Edward Jenner found a safe way of
preventing smallpox. Jenner was born on May 17th , 1749.Many people believed
that smallpox could not harm anyone who had already caught cowpox . Cowpox
was not a harmful illness. It was sometimes caught by workers who milked sick
cows . Jenner wanted to learn more about cowpox and smallpox . He found out that

112
there were two different kinds of cowpox. People who had the first kind of cowpox
sometimes caught smallpox. Those who had the second kind did not catch smallpox.
Jenner believed that if he could give people an inoculation with this second kind of
cowpox, these people would not get smallpox later. Jenner wanted to try this
immediately but at that time there was hardly any cowpox in the place where he
lived. It was about twenty years before Jenner found the right kind of cowpox.

In 1796 Jenner found a girl who had the kind of cowpox that he wanted. Jenner
took some liquid from the swellings on her hands and on May 14th he injected the
liquid into the arm of an eight-year-old boy called James Phipps. Six weeks later
Jenner scratched the boy's arm and rubbed dry skin from smallpox sores into the
scratch. He wanted to see if James would catch smallpox after this . James did not
become ill at all. He did not catch smallpox. Jenner was very happy. He had at last
found a safe way to prevent smallpox. This way of preventing smallpox was later
called vaccination.

At first, other doctor did not believe Jenner but later they found that vaccination
was really effective. Thousands of people were given vaccinations. About 2,000
people used to die every year in Britain because of smallpox. After doctors began to
use vaccination, the number of people who died of smallpox was only about 600 a
year. Today, hardly anyone catches smallpox except in a few places in Africa and
India. In these places doctors are working hard to get rid of the disease completely.

Jenner became famous. He died in January, 1823 but we still remember him today
because he has helped to save many lives.

i. Comprehension Skills: Noting Details

FOR THE TEACHER:


Teach
Discuss how important details help readers’ picture characters, setting, and actions in
their minds. Help students write a set of tips for noting details such as :
To find important details I could ask myself these questions:
 What do I think this (person, place, thing) is like?
 What details gave me this idea?
 Do these details 'add up'?
Practice
Have students work in groups to locate important story details..
Apply
Have students keep track
ii. Comprehension of details as they read the passage.
Check

113
Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. Why were people very frightened of small pox?
2. How can a person catch small pox even if he does not touch a person who has the
disease?
3. What might you notice about a person who has had small pox?
4. Why would parents hope that their children would catch smallpox?
5. Why is Jenner's way of preventing smallpox safe?
6. Why did Jenner want to find out more about smallpox?
7. What kind of people caught smallpox?
8. What was wrong with John Phipps?
C. Word Knowledge: Antonyms/Ailments and Diseases
i. Antonyms
Choose the word that is nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letter.
1. COUNTERFEIT A. meek B. chill
A. unmarked B. grave C. comfort
B. assumed C. light-hearted D. startle
C. fraudulent D. hopeful E. elate
D. genuine E. passionate
E. specific 10. LAVISH
6. FRUITLESS A. unsightly
2. ABRUPT A. useless B. petite
A. hurried B. futile C. awful
B. impulsive C. purposeful D. economical
C. methodical D. mirthful E. grand
D. reluctant E. profitable
E. gradual 11. WARY
7. MURKY A. rash
3. BYSTANDER A. luminous B. conscientious
A. participant B. charitable C. daring
B. detective C. smoky D. thrifty
C. colleague D. miserable E. indiscreet
D. pedestrian E. upright
E. witness 12. SUBSTANTIAL
8. UTMOST A. impoverished
4. INFAMOUS A. remotest B. affluent
A. sincere B. minimal C. insignificant
B. glorious C. supreme D. suffering
C. notorious D. limitless E. abundant
D. outrageous E. mediocre
E. innocent 13. QUENCH
9. COW A. stifle
5. GRIM A. condense B. soak

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C. disappoint C. exaggerate B. comfortable
D. allay D. taper C. distracted
E. parch E. stockpile D. unemotional
E. anxious
14. NURTURE 16. CORRUPT
A. neglect A. wicked 19. PEEVISH
B. underestimate B. dishonest A. morose
C. mother C. sanitary B. patient
D. treasure D. principled C. flattering
E. detest E. reliable D. crusty
17. FIASCO E. excitable
A. miracle 20. IRATE
B. blunder A. bitter
C. triumph B. riled
D. catastrophe C. courteous
E. flop D. content
15. RECEDE E. annoyed
A. wane 18. POISED
B. advance A. collected
ii. Ailments and Diseases

tonsillitis baldness coma carbuncle arthritis tetanus


dandruff mumps glaucoma asthma influenza hernia
malaria ulcer amnesia measles pneumonia dyslexia jaundice
leprosy trauma melanoma callus thrombosis lumbago

1. painful inflammation of joints 14. infection causing lock jaw


2. eye disease 15. greasy scales on the scalp
3. pain in the back 16. viral infection of nose and throat
4. disease spread by mosquitoes 17. open sore
5. yellowing of skin 18. memory loss
6. difficulty in breathing 19. brain disorder that causes difficulty
7. loss of hair in the head in difficulty in reading spelling.
8. hard, thickened area of skin 20. disease of skin and nerves causing
9. infectious disease which causes extensive deformities
spots 21. tear in stomach muscle
10. deeply unconscious 22. disease in which neck glands swell
11. sore throat 23. suffer from sudden shock
12. deep- seated skin infection worse 24. clotting in blood vessel that can
than a boil cause sudden death
13. inflammation of lungs 25. mole that can be cancerous

115
D. Sentences: Complex Sentences.

A complex sentence contains a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
For Example: The monster which had been sleeping soundly opened its deadly eyes
as the hero approached with a sword in his hands.

Make complex sentences by joining the sentences using one of the conjunctions in the box.

although because until before which

1. The dog howled with pain. His leg had been injured by the big bad wolf.
2. The tired woman cooked dinner. She washed the dirty clothes.
3. Malcolm came to visit his sick mother. Victor got into a bad accident.
4. The sly cat had been sleeping soundly. He opened his eyes at the sound of music.
5. The manager of the company will spend five years in the old Korovou Prison. He
bribed another businessman.
6. The naughty boys were shouting. Their teacher walked into the room.
7. Milika attended the Women’s meeting in Levuka. She was ill.

E. Usage : Unnecessary Words

Circle the word that is not necessary and which does not change the meaning of each
sentence .

1. Have you got any fresh strawberries today?


2. We were all unanimous in voting her the class captain.
3. The policeman, when he saw the robber, he sprinted after him.
4. Mum cut the apple for us into four quarters.
5. After watching the parade I returned back home.
6. The old man slowly ascended up the ladder with the pot of paint.
7. He and I can both sit on the back seat going home.
8. Mrs Mata lived by herself also with her pet.
9. Many shoplifters are being caught out lately.
10. The two twins were dressed alike and carried identical bags.
11. The return trip back to Australia by ships was pleasant.
12. The taxi and the truck collided together at the crossroad.
13. It seems as if Dad has to rewind the clock again every week.
14. I always make sure I cross over the street on a zebra crossing.
15. We chatted for so long that we missed out the food that was being starved.

116
F. Grammar: Noun Clauses

Noun clauses do the work of nouns. They can be the subject or object of
sentence.

Subject
What my dad grows in the garden is good to eat.
What my dad grows in the garden is the subject of the verb is.
Object
I know what makes flowers grow.
What makes flowers grow is the object of the verb knows.

 To find the noun clause which is the subject, ask who or what in front of the
verb. verb
Question: What is good to eat?
Answer: What my dad grows in the garden.
 To find the noun clause which is the object, ask who or what after the verb.
verb
Question: Know who or what?
Answer: What makes flowers grow.

i. Find the noun clauses , subject of the verbs in these sentences. Underline them.
1. What is in the fruit shop was once in the garden.
2. What I eat makes me grow.
3. Where the carrots grow is not easy to see.
4. Who took the mangoes is a mystery.
5. That the weather was real dry was a real problem for farmers.

ii. Find the noun clauses, object of the verbs in these sentences. Underline them.
1. They heard what you said.
2. I asked where the money was kept.
3. We saw that the boy was winning.
4. The gardener believed that you should water your garden every day.
5. We knew that we would plant in the garden.

G. Dictionary Skills: Words beginning with "para"

117
Find words from the dictionary beginning with para (which means "at the side of") to
match each clue given below.

1. person who lives on others 7. miscellaneous belongings


2. having a military structure 8. an illicit lover
3. low defensive wall 9. rewording of writing
4. contradicting statement 10. of the same direction
5. chief in importance 11. oil from petroleum
6. example 12. extremely poisonous weed killer

H. Word Meanings: 'effective' and 'inject'


Use effective and inject in two different sentences to show that each word has more than one
meaning. (Write four sentences altogether)

I. Spelling

i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure

See the word extraordinary


laboratory
Hear the word
genuine
Adopt the word unnecessary
Record the word anniversary
Proofread the word pedestrian
musician
ii. Vowel Hunt: Fill in the missing vowels and write the spelling words. elementary
secretary
1. _xtr__rd_n_r_ 9. _m_g_n_r_ boundary
companion
2. l_b_r_t_r_ 10. st_t__n_r_ imaginary
3. b__nd_r_ 11. p_d_str__n stationary
foreign
4. c_mp_n__n 12. f_r__gn ordinary
5. g_n__n_ 13. m_s_c__n
6. _nn_c_ss_r_ 14. _l_m_nt_r_
7. s_cr_t_r_ 15. _nn_v_rs_r_
8. _rd_n_r_

iii. Visual Warm up: Fill the spelling words in the correct word shapes

118
iv. Generally Speaking: Write each spelling word for the group it best fits

1. lab, workshop 9. gratuitous , superfluous


2. birthday, centenary 10. stationary, stationary
3. basic, straightforward 11. overseas, alien
4. edge, limit 12. authentic, unadulterated
5. fantasy, pretend 13. singer , instrumentalist
6. regular , common 14. walker, person on foot
7. astonishing, amazing 15. cohort, mate
8. escritoire , bureau

v. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

119
vi. Other Word Forms:
example: important- importance, importantly
1. laboratory 9. unnecessary
2. anniversary 10. stationary
3. elementary 11. foreign
4. boundary 12. genuine
5. imaginary 13. musician
6. ordinary 14. pedestrian
7. extraordinary 15. companion
8. secretary

vii. Scrambled Words


Write the word on the line.

120
1. oatrblyora ___________________________ 9. eesrcnsynua ___________________________

2. varnsaeiryn ___________________________ 10. atyiroatns ___________________________

3. atnemrleey ___________________________ 11. nofgire ___________________________

4. dbyrauon ___________________________ 12. guinene __________________________

5. argianyim ___________________________ 13. sumician _________________________

6. onrirday ___________________________ 14. esdetinrpa ___________________________

7. yartnideorxra ___________________________ 15. inocmpona ___________________________

8. rtsaercye ___________________________

viii. Word Search : Find the words from the spelling list

121
WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES

An information narrative text is


written to entertain, inform,
What is an information describe, or extend the readers
narrative? imagination. Factual information is
often woven into the structure.

USE

Title It is usually something that gets attention of the Factual Information - facts
reader Action Verbs - verbal and
mental processes e.g. found,
The starting point of a story. It tells who begins wondered, threw, trembled
Orientation Saying Verbs -said,
(Setting) the action and when and where it begins.
whispered, yelled
Past tense - came across,
The event that starts the action and involves the stumbled, thought
Series of characters in some problem. The events that happens Conjunction and
events that as the characters try to solve the problem. connectives (linking words
to do with time) - ...when,
then, first, next
Resolution Tells how the problem is solved. Factual Information
subject-specific vocabulary
specific participants
descriptive language
Conclusion Tells what has come from the experience.

Examples of information narrative: Purpose of information narrative:

 Poetry
 Speech  to amuse
 Joke, riddle etc.  to entertain
 Song – social comment  to describe
 Cartoon

122
Structure Language Features
WHERE DO WRITERS GET THEIR IDEAS?
Title
Suggests what Every writer would give a different answer. An idea is a
The question in the
is going to be thought or a plan formed in the mind, and is based on title is answered by
in the text
everything a writer does. the author‟s account
of an earlier event.
Orientation
The American Author , Dr Seuss, once visited Australia and
Tells who?
when? where? told them how he 'got' his idea for his book Horton Hatches
the Egg.
Sequence of Proper Nouns
events When Dr Seuss drew his pictures he used huge sheets of
Event 1 tracing paper. One day , he began sketching funny elephants
and , later on, some strange -looking trees.

He was called out of the room , and when he came back the
Action Verbs
Event 2 wind had blown the sheets of tracing paper all over the floor.
eg. 'drew'
Right in the middle he saw that a large elephant had blown
on top of a tracing -paper tree.
Concluding
statement
"Now what's the elephant doing there? he asked.

And that's the story of how Horton came to be written. The


idea came from two sheets of tracing paper.

Horton Hatches the Egg is about


a faithful elephant who sits the
nest of Maisie the lazy bird, who
flies off to have fun in Las Vegas.

Look in the passage to find:

1. Proper nouns. Circle them in red.

2. Time words such as ' later'. Underline them in black.

3. List the action verbs such as 'drew'.

123
Write an information narrative...
My Special Person
Choose someone you admire - a relative or any person who is special to you. Tell us
about this person. What is so special about him or her?
Provide accurate facts about the person.
Use strong adjectives to describe the person.
Don't spend too much time on what this person looks like.
Give examples of ideas, actions, involvements and events.
At the end we should know about this person‟s character. What kind of person he
or she really is.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Title
______________________________________________________________________________

Setting
______________________________________________________________________________
Who?
______________________________________________________________________________
Where?
What?
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Sequence of
events ______________________________________________________________________________
Includes
biographical ______________________________________________________________________________
details
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

124
Revise and Edit
R -Replace words,
phrases and sentences
with more effective ones

I -insert better words,


phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences

SPELLCHECK
Just for Fun

RIDDLES

1. What has a face and two hands but no arms or legs?

2. What five-letter word becomes shorter when you add two letters to it?

3. What word begins and ends with an „e‟ but only has one letter?

4. What has a neck but no head?

5. What type of cheese is made backwards?

6. What gets wetter as it dries?

Human Body Word Search

ARM BLOOD BONE


BRAIN EYE FEET
FINGER HAIR HEART
KIDNEY KNEE LIVER
LUNG MUSCLE NOSE
RIB SHOULDER SKELETON
SPINE TEETH
6. A towel
5. Edam
4. A bottle
3. Envelope
2. Short
1.
Solutions for riddles
A clock

125
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 8

Genre: Poetry
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on poetry, to be
conducted in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


As I listen, I sit up, pay
respond accordingly.
attention and focus on
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

126
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and write a poem on the skeletal system. Get them to
share it to the class by 'reading aloud'.

127
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Do you love to eat?
 What is your favourite food? Why?
 Which foods are good for us? Why?
 Which foods are not good for us?
 Have you ever wondered what happens to food when we eat it?

The text for this unit is poetry. Study what poetry is and try to distinguish the features of
poetry in the poem "So that's where my Lunch goes!”

Poetry
Poetry helps the reader to think about familiar things in different language, rhythm, rhyme and
structure to capture the essence of a feeling, thought, object or scene. Forms of poetry include
cinquain, haiku, limericks, diamante, lyrics, ballads, humorous verse.

It is literary text that uses words in imaginative ways to express an idea or describe a subject.
Poetry is often written with the expectation that it will be read aloud, making the language,
sound patterns and rhythmic qualities an important part of the meaning.
Some poems may make use of rhyme while others use a free verse form.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

Context Clues:
When you come across a word you don't know, don’t stop reading. You can often figure out
the meaning of an unfamiliar word by using the words around it. The surrounding sentence
or paragraph is known as the context.
For example: Veena's boss was a callous man. He did not react to her tears and apologies.
From the context you know that a callous man does not react to tears and
apologies. Callous means “hard-hearted” or "insensitive to emotion."

Use the context to figure out the meaning of the key vocabulary.

precious ditty journey esophagus squirted glorious


jostle chemicals astounding garbage energy
B. Comprehension

128
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

So that's where my Lunch goes!

Food, glorious food


It's what keeps you going every day.
This little ditty will hopefully help
To explain how it goes on its way.

The journey begins in the mouth


Where you'll get such a wonderful taste.
Then it twists and turns its way down
Till it exits at the end as waste.

Down the esophagus or gullet it goes


Together with lots of saliva.
And if you find that you don't vomit or choke
Your meal will continue on further.

Next it moves into your stomach


Which it enters with quite a rush.
Here it gets squirted with chemicals
And is jostle till it turns into mush.

Now, the small intestine is truly astounding


As it's more than twenty feet long.
It's from here that the good stuff gets into your blood
And makes you grow big and strong.

But there's still some work to be done


As the large intestine gets into the act.
It removes the precious water and salt
And leaves behind garbage, that's a fact.

Finally, for what is left behind


They journey is almost over.
It's time for you to go to the loo
Or the yard, if your name is Rover.

At last your meal is done


And your body has what it needs.
It now has the energy to keep going
Until the next time it feeds!

129
i. Comprehension Skills: Understanding Poetry

FOR THE TEACHER:


Teach
Review elements often found in poetry. Discuss how a poem
 looks different from other forms of writing. Use term -lines, stanzas , and shape.
 uses sound to support meaning and tone. Use the terms rhyme, rhythm, and
repetition.
 includes imaginative uses of language. Use the terms imagery, figurative language,
personification, metaphor, simile and wordplay.
Talk about poet's purposes. Have students tell elements they would expect to find a
poem with each purpose:
 to express a feeling
 to capture a mood or moment
 to tell a story
 to describe someone or something
 to amuse or entertain
Practice
Have partners review the list of purposes and choose one that they think is the passages
main purpose.
Apply
Students think about poet's purpose as they read a variety of poems.
Fill the table below.

Element Poem Title Examples


Rhyme: similar end sounds
Examples: round/frowned,
white/tonight
Sense Words: words that appeal to sight, smell, taste,
touch , hearing
Examples : glisten, thorny,
sour
Figurative Language:
Imaginative comparisons between unlike things
.Examples: Spring arrived laughing. Flowers covered
the hillside like a quilt.
Wordplay: clever or funny uses of meanings, sounds,
and nonsense. Example: I scream/ You scream/ We all
scream for ice cream.

130
ii. Comprehension Check
Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. Where does your food's journey begin?
2. What is another name for your esophagus?
3. Where is food squirted with chemical?
4. How long is the small intestine?
5. What is the purpose of the large intestine?

C. Word Knowledge: Foods we eat


Match each word in the box to the clues below.

lobster mutton cashew sausage hamburger

spaghetti salmon muesli yoghurt oyster

scallop venison fudge mango chop suey

muffin strudel poultry sirloin macaroni

1. chopped meat and filling in a skin 11. any domestic fowl we eat
2. made from sour cream 12. tropical fruit
3. long thin pasta 13. shell fish found on sea bed
4. a tasty nut 14. round spongy food we eat
5. minced meat inside a bun 15. shellfish eaten raw
6. meat from sheep 16. cake of thin pastry filled with fruit
7. expensive shellfish 17. thick pasta
8. fish with pink flesh 18. Chinese dish
9. cut of beef 19. meat from deer
10. breakfast cereal 20. soft chewy sweet

D. Sentences: Subject and Predicate

Sentences have two parts. One part, the subject, explains the person or thing we are
talking about. The subject may consist of one word- a noun, or other describing
words.
Jill climbed the hill.( The subject is the noun Jill - one word only)
A girl named Jill climbed the hill. (The subject consists of the noun and describing words)
Subjects can contain a noun plus adjectives:
A stray dog came into the school.

131
Subjects can come in various positions in sentences:
In the corner near the table stood the grandfather clock.
Why does that man talk so much? There was a mouse in the cupboard.
Opening the door the little girl came in.
During the holidays my aunt stayed with us.
The other part, the predicate, is made up of whatever is said about the subject. It
must have a verb and may have other words that tell more about the verb.
Tevita swam.( The predicate is the verb swam.)
Tevita swam several lengths of the pool. (The predicate includes the verb and other words)

i. Underline the subject of each sentence. ( To find the subject , ask WHO or WHAT in
the front of the verb. The answer is the subject)

1. Wame stepped into the room.


2. I like Christmas cake.
3. A stray dog limped past our school.
4. Boxes of pineapples were piled up to the ceiling.
5. Justin Bieber, the latest pop singer, is appearing on television.
6. Often Mere calls in to our house.
7. Our radio broke down.
8. A vase of flowers stood on the table.
9. Slowly we prodded up the muddy road to the village.
10. How did Mathew break his arm yesterday?

The simple subject of a sentence is the main word in the complete subject. It is always a noun or a pronoun.
Sometimes, the simple subject is also the complete subject.

Example: Most birds | can fly.


Example: They | can fly because they have wings.

The simple predicate is the complete verb within the complete predicate. The simple predicate may be
one or more words.

Example: Most birds | can fly.


Example: They | can fly because they have wings.

The beautiful young girl looked at herself in the mirror.


The phrase, The beautiful young girl, is the subject. The simple subject is girl.
The phrase looked at herself in the mirror, is the predicate. The simple predicate is just the verb, looked.

132
ii. In each sentence below, underline the subject and circle the simple subject.

1. Meena typed on the computer keyboard.


2. The first grade teacher wrote the lesson on the board.
3. The ridiculously tall hat blocked my view in the Village 6 Cinemas.
4. My favorite video game was on sale at the store.
5. The energetic children ran around on the playground.
6. The lady with the hairnet on served lunch in the cafeteria.

iii. In each sentence below, underline the predicate, and circle the simple predicate.

7. Alan and Bryan walked to the store on Votua Road after school.
8. The enthusiastic fans cheered when they saw the soccer game score.
9. The tired principal got into her car at the end of the day.
10. Mrs. Sautu's students went on a field trip to the museum.
11. We met our neighbour’s at Singh's Curry House, the Indian restaurant.
12. My Aunt Sally quizzed me on the multiplication facts last weekend.

E. Punctuation : Apostrophe(')

The apostrophe is used to show where letter are left out. The apostrophe is
used when words are shorted or formed into contractions.
I have - I've
I am - I'm
Apostrophes are also used to show ownership.
Alipate’s book
Ramu's story
When the person possessing the object is singular, the apostrophe goes
before the’s’.
the boy’s bat = the bat of one boy
the girl’s dress = the dress of one girl
When 'possession ' is by more than one, the apostrophe follows the’s’.
the boys' bats = the bats of more than one boy
the girls' dresses = the dresses of more than one girl
We also add ‘‘s ' to plural nouns that do not end in’s’.
the children's toys
the men's clothes

133
i. Rewrite these sentences. Shorten the words and then put in the apostrophe.
1. Do not hit Jane.
2. They have bought two dancing dogs.
3. I am fed up.
4. He is fully responsible.
5. There is a strange dog in my yard.
6. Terry did not play last night.
7. It is his fault.
8. You have told me all I need to know.

ii. Using the apostrophe, write the correct version of these phrases.
1. the cup of Dick
2. the letter of the boy
3. the dog of the man
4. the bags of the pupils
5. the nest of the birds
6. the saw of the carpenter
7. the car of Renu
8. the boats of the fishermen
9. the flowers of the neighbours
10. the coconut scraper of Tomu

F. Grammar: Adjectives

An adjective is a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun. They tell what kind ,
which ones , how many , what position or what colour.
Example: Ripe apples fell from the tree.

A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and modifies the subject of the sentence.
Example: The apples are red and shiny.

The present participle and past participle verb forms are sometimes used as adjectives and
as predicate adjectives.
Example: We heard alarming news.
The table is painted.
A and an are indefinite articles, adjectives that refer to one of a general group of people,
places, things, or ideas. The is a definite article that identifies specific people, places, things,
or ideas.
Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns. Like proper nouns, they begin with
capital letters.
Example: Irish lace French perfume.

134
i. Identifying Adjectives
Underline the adjectives in each sentence. Underline the articles twice. Rewrite proper
adjectives in the space provided, adding capital letters where needed.

1. The brown shoes may be old and worn, but they are also comfortable. _______________
2. Solemn guards stand outside important foreign buildings._________________________
3. When I am cold, I like nestle cocoa and cookies. ______________________________
4. If I feel warm, I enjoy a tall glass of cool juice. __________________________________
5. Bill plays the electric guitar, but he wants to learn Spanish classical guitar._____________
6. A sandy desert can be hot, dry, and silent.______________________________________

ii. _ Using Adjectives


Add an adjective to each sentence to replace each blank line.

1. _____________ birds circled the _____________ harbour.


2. The jungle was alive with the sound of _____________ creatures.
3. The _____________ guests were dressed in their _____________ clothes.
4. The _____________ audience applauded the _____________ performance.
5. The artworks in the museum were _____________ and _____________.

G. Dictionary Skills: What Kind of Doctor?

paediatrician neurologists orthopaedist psychiatrist

cardiologist ophthalmologist dermatologist radiologist

1. treats heart complaints 5. treats skin diseases


2. treats children's disease 6. studies x-rays
3. treats eye diseases 7. treats nervous diseases
4. treats mental diseases 8. treats broken bones

H. Word Meanings: 'Precious' and 'glorious '


Use precious and glorious in two different sentences to show that each word has more than
one meaning,( Write four sentences altogether)

135
I. Spelling

i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure ancestor


grammar
See the word popular
Hear the word extinguish
Adopt the word conductor
Record the word murmur
Proofread the word exchange
compressor
ii. Visual Warm up: Fill the spelling words in the correct word shapes encounter
extinct
instructor
character
execute
traitor

136
iii. Vowel Hunt: Fill in the missing vowels and write the spelling words.

1. _xt_ng__sh 8. _xt_nct

2. _nstr_ct_r 9. ch_r_ct_r

3. p_p_l_r 10. gr_mm_r

4. c_nd_ct_r 11. _nc_st_r

5. c_mpr_ss_r 12. m_rm_r

6. tr__t_r 13. _x_c_t_

7. _xch_ng_ 14. _nc__nt_r

iv. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

137
v. Generally Speaking: Write each spelling word for the group it best fits

1. predecessor, forerunner 8. admired, trendy


2. instrumentalist , composer 9. mutter , mumble
3. mechanical device , increases pressure 10. syntax , sentence structure
4. coach , trainer 11. replace , switch
5. defector, spy 12. implement, accomplish
6. personality, quality 13. quench, douse
7. meet, come upon 14. destroyed, vanished

vi. Scrambled Words

1. crnetaos ____________________ 3. rspmorsoce ____________________

____________________ 4. ttsonrurci ____________________


2. onuccdrto

138
5. traroit ____________________ 10. amrgamr ____________________

6. tcearhcar ____________________ 11. ghncexea ____________________

7. cetrnoenu ____________________ 12. teuexec ____________________

8. uropapl ____________________

9. mumrru ____________________

____________________
13. esnixuhgti ____________________ 14. nxticet

vii. Other Word Forms:

example : important- importance, importantly


1. ancestor -__________________________ 8. popular -__________________________
2. conductor -__________________________ 9. murmur -__________________________
3. compressor -__________________________ 10. grammar -__________________________
4. instructor -__________________________ 11. exchange -__________________________
5. traitor -__________________________ 12. execute -__________________________
6. character -__________________________ 13. extinguish -__________________________
7. encounter -__________________________ 14. extinct -__________________________

viii. Word Search : Find the words from the spelling list

139
ix. Alphabetise: Write the following words in alphabetical order.

ancestor character execute popular traitor


extinguish grammar extinct conductor murmur
instructor encounter exchange compressor
1. _____________________________ 8. _____________________________

2. _____________________________ 9. _____________________________

3. _____________________________ 10. _____________________________

4. _____________________________ 11. _____________________________

5. _____________________________ 12. _____________________________

6. _____________________________ 13. _____________________________

7. _____________________________ 14. _____________________________

140
WRITING ACTIVITIES
A poetry text helps the reader to think
about familiar things in different language,
What is a poetry? rhythm, rhyme and structure to capture the
essence of a feeling, thought, object or
scene.

USE
 language in unique
patterns
 rhyme - this is particularly
Title What the poem is about found in poetry for young
children
 repetition - which gives
Stanzas a series of steps or moves emphasis to certain words
and phrases
 stanzas
Figures of A vast range of devices that poets  musical language
draw upon to shape their poems  onomatopoeia
Speech  alliteration
 assonance, consonance, and
Free verse dissonance
Types of Poetry A poem that does not use  line breaks – which give
traditional emphasis to words or
rhythm or rhyme, and
therefore often phrases, and draw
sounds like natural speech. attention to the rhythm of the
Acrostic It is popular with modern piece
A poem in which certain letters of poets, as there are
the lines, usually the first letters, no restrictions on expressing  figurative language
form a word or message relating their thoughts
to the subject. and emotions.  similes
 metaphors
Haiku
Dust and drought  personification
A form of Japanese poetry which Epic
Reddening the sky
uses three lines and 17 syllables A long  symbolism
Outback dustbowl narrative  words which create
arranged in the pattern 5, 7, 5.For
Unrelenting thirst poem which
Goading our resolve
example, this translation of a pictures in the minds of the
traditional haiku by Basho: tells of
Heat and dust heroic reader
Testing our faith deeds or
The first cold shower Concrete (or shape)
Even the monkey seems to want significant poetry
A little coat of straw national A poem which creates a
events. visual image on the
(Creative Commons, Wikipedia) page. It is meant to be
viewed rather than read
aloud.

141
Ballad
A long poem (or song)
that tells a story through a
Lyric series of stanzas. Most
A poem which expresses the ballads have these
personal feelings and thoughts of elements:
a speaker. Most poems, except for
 An abrupt beginning
ballads and epics, are lyrics.
 Simple language
Three common themes in
traditional lyric  A story told through
poems include: dialogue and action
Love  A chorus
Lamentation (sadness)  Four-line or six-line
Nature stanzas.
Limerick
A poem of five lines,
Dramatic monologue with humorous intent
A poem which presents and a strict rhyme
Elegy
someone other than the poet scheme. A poem which laments
addressing an audience. It the death of someone
offers an insight into the
feelings of the speaker.
Soliloquy
A poetic speech in a play
Rhyming couplets that is spoken by a person
Pairs of lines that rhyme, alone on stage as if there
often used in were no audience present?
poems that recount an or as if the audience is the
event speaker’s confidante. A famous
soliloquy:
To be or not to be – that is the question:
Villanelle Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind to suffer
A poem of five three-line The slings and arrows of outrageous
stanzas fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of
concluding with a stanza of troubles
four lines. And, by opposing, end them. To die, to
They contain only two rhyme sleep…
sounds, eg ay, ill. Shakespeare Hamlet (ca 1600)
(Creative Commons, Wikipedia)
Cinquain Blank verse
A poem with a standard A poem without rhyming
syllable pattern, like a lines, but often
haiku, of five lines and a with a rhythmic pattern
total of 22 syllables in
the pattern: 2, 4,6,8,2.
Magpies
in my garden
pilfering the insects
lift their throats to sing and
warble
Magic.

142
Language Features
Structure
Our teacher says
Title
Our teacher says that pasta is good for you. Question
Verses It's full of carbohydrates, which give you energy.
We should eat lots of pasta.
Our teacher says.
Repetition of
Our teacher says that beans are full of protein.
the words " our
Protein helps you grow and helps repair your body.
We should eat lots of beans. teacher says"
Our teacher says.

Our teacher says that you should eat cereals.


They're full of fibre, which helps you digest your food.
We should eat Weetbix for breakfast.
Our teacher says.

Our teacher says that fruits and vegetables are good for
you.
They're full of vitamins and minerals, which keep your
body healthy.
We should eat fruit and veg.
Our teacher says.

But what we want to know is;


How come, sir, you just always seem to eat chocolate?
"Be quiet and get on with your work!"
Our teacher says.

- Gareth Pitchford
Poet

Work in groups of two. Imagine that you are the heart. Let your thoughts run wild. Brainstorm what
you might see. List you thoughts. Share with others in class.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
143
Write a poem...
Use the ideas generated in the brainstorm to write a poem of your own.
Write draft copies before publishing.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

Title ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Verses ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Poet ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Revise and Edit
There is no one way to write a poem. In fact, there are many R -Replace words,
______________________________________________________________________________
phrases and sentences
ways, and many different forms! Sometimes it is the meter of with more effective ones
the poem that gives you the form, sometimes it’s the content,
and sometimes it is the organization of it. I -insert better words,
phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences
SPELLCHECK

144
FOR FUN
RIDDLES

7. Why did the boy bury his flashlight?


8. Which letter of the alphabet has the most water?
9. What starts with a ‘P’, ends with an ‘E’ and has thousands of letters?
10. What has to be broken before you can use it?
11. Why can’t a man living in New York be buried in Chicago?
12. What begins with T, ends with T and has T in it? A teapot
13. How many letters are there in the English alphabet?,
14. Which month has 28 days?

8.

7.
6.
5.
4.
3.
2.
1.

Solutions For Riddles


All of them of course
7 in 'English', and 8 in 'alphabet'.
There are 18: 3 in 'the',
A teapot
Because he is still living
An egg
The post office
The C
Because the batteries did

145
1 2

4 5

9 10 11

12 13 14

Down
Across 2. As tall as a _____________.
3. As ____________ a bee.
1. As _____________ as a feather. 5. As ____________ as a mule.
3. Fly like a ___________. 6. Waddle means to walk like a
4. Swim like a _____________. _____________.
7. Cry like a ___________. 7. As blind as a _____________.
9. As ____________ as a bunny. 8. As _____________ as a mouse.
11. As ____________ as an ox. 10. As _____________ as ice.
12. As ____________ as an eel. 11. As ______________ as a fox.
14. As slow as a _____________. 13. Eat like a ___________.
14. As white as ___________.

146
147
UNIT 9
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES

Genre: Report
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on report, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

148
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and research on killer whales Write a report on killer
whales. Get them to share to the class your report.

149
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Have you ever gone fishing?
 Did you enjoy being at sea or were you afraid? Why?
 Did you see/catch any fish?
 Were they large or small?
 Some mammals also live in the sea. Think of some and list them.

The text for this unit is report. Study what a report is and try to distinguish the features of a
report in the passage "Blue Whales!”

Report Writing
Reports are written to describe or classify the way things are or seem to be.
They organise and record information.
Reports are organised by; classification, description and summarising comment.
The features of report writing are; generalised participants, impersonal objective
language, timeless present tense and subject specific vocabulary.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

dinosaurs mammals unfortunately creatures krill


blowhole prey spots endangered protect

Write down all the words and their meanings into your book.

Meeting New Vocabulary

Word Drawing Or Symbol For Word Predicted word meaning Sentence

150
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

Blue Whales

Blue whales are the largest creatures that have ever lived - bigger even than the
largest dinosaur. Blue whales can grow to more than 100 feet in length and can weigh
up to 190 tons. They are as long as six medium cars and about as heavy as 2000 men.

The top part of the blue whale's body is blue-grey with light spots, while the lower part
is pale grey to white.

Blue whales live in most oceans of the world and feed on krill which are small shrimp-
like animals. They can eat up to 8 tons of krill a day.

Blue whales are not fish -they are mammals. They breathe air through their lungs just
like other mammals. However, they can hold their breath for long periods of time,
breathing out air through a blowhole when they surface. They give birth in the same
way as dogs and cats and feed their 23-feet-long newborn calves on mother's milk.

The blue whale's most common enemies are killer whales and humans. They are
sometimes hunted illegally or get caught up in fishing nets. These large animals can do
little to protect themselves and are easy prey.

Unfortunately, blue whales are now an endangered species, which means they are in
danger of disappearing forever. Many countries have now passed laws to protect the
remaining whales.

151
i. Comprehension Skills: Topic, Man Idea, and Supporting Details

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
The topic is the subject the author is writing about. The main idea is the most important idea
that the writer wants readers to understand about the topic. Supporting details are pieces of
information that explain or tell more about the main idea. Supporting details may include
facts and examples.
Practice
Point out the topic of the passage . Discuss the main idea with the students,
Apply
Ask students to infer main ideas by summing up supporting details in the passage. Use the
chart below to assist .

What's the Big Idea?


Complete the chart below about the main idea, and supporting details based on "Blue
Whales".
Topic:_______________________________________

Main Idea
Main Idea
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________

Supporting Details
Supporting Details ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________

Main Idea
___________________________________
___________________________________

Supporting Details
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

152
ii. Comprehension Check
Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. The top part of the blue whales is ___________________.
2. How many medium cars could fit along a blue whale?
3. What kind of animal is a blue whale?
4. What do blue whales eat?
5. How do blue whales have their young?
6. Why are blue whales endangered?
7. Fill in the blank spaces
The blue, humpback, sperm and killer are all types of ____________________. Whales,
dolphins and seals are mammals that live in the __________________. Whales are huge
animals that breathe oxygen like humans. They can hold their __________________ for
a long time but they must come to the _______________ to get air. They don't have
gills like fish. Some whales are known to sing to _________________ in their pod.

C. Word Knowledge: More about the Ocean


Match each word in the box to the clues below.

stingray food chain abalone atoll spring tide sediments


sea turtle benthos biodegradable neap tide trench
nodules kelp eel coral tsunami anemones
octopus sonar oceanography Mid Atlantic Range star fish
fringe tidal power sponge reef rift zones crab
jellyfish hydrophyte

1. Small pieces of things that drift to the bottom.


2. Name used for any plant that is specifically adapted to live in water.
3. Underwater volcanic mountain range.
4. A coral island or group of islands that surround an area of shallow water called a
lagoon.
5. Mineral lump found on the ocean bottom.
6. Results when the pull of the sun is at right angles to the pull of the moon.
7. Neap tides are not as high as normal tides. Usually occurs when the moon is near its
1st & 3rd quarter.

153
8. An arrangement of all things into levels, with higher forms of life eating the forms
below them to survive.
9. A marine snail found in most wild and tropical seas. Its shell is used to make
mother-of-pearl costume jewellery.
10. A sea animal that has no backbone and feels like jelly. It has a rounded bell-shaped
body with dangling tentacles. Small hairs on the tentacles can cause a painful sting.
11. An animal with a hard, flat shell, 8 legs, and 2 claws in the front. It moves sideways
to go from place to place.
12. An instrument that uses sound waves to locate objects in the water.
13. Plants and animals that live on the ocean bottom.
14. Can be broken down especially by the action of bacteria.
15. Submerged platforms of living coral animals that extend from the shore into the sea.
16. Electricity made from the moving water of tides.
17. Brown seaweed.
18. A wide, flat ocean fish with sharp spines on its whip-like tail. These spines can cause
painful injury.
19. A snakelike fish that lives in fresh or salt water.
20. Reptiles with long shells, they live in warm seas throughout the world. Females
leave the water only to lay eggs. Males usually never leave the water once they
hatch.
21. A system of cracks in the ocean floor through which lava rises.
22. A huge ocean wave caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption. Also
called a tidal wave.
23. Results when the pull of the earth combines with the pull of the moon to produce
tides that is higher than normal. Usually occurs during new full moon time and new
moon time.
24. A deep narrow valley in the ocean floor.
25. A colourful, stone-like material that forms from the skeletons of small sea animals.
26. An underwater animal with a skeleton that has many holes and absorbs water.
27. A saltwater animal with a soft bulb-shaped body and 8 long arms covered with rows
of suckers.

154
28. An animal that looks like a flower. It can move slowly but usually remains fixed to a
rock or other surface.
29. The science having to do with the study of the ocean and the things that live there.
30. a sea animal whose flat body has 5 or more arms spreading out in a star shape from
its centre.

D. Sentences: Beginning with verbs

Verbs tell us what the subject is doing in the sentence. These sentences open with
verbs to grab the reader's attention.

i. Circle the verb openers in the sentences below.

Example: Accept the gift from your friend.

1. Bang the drum loudly at the concert.


2. Calculate the difference between five and seven.
3. Decorate the hall for the holidays, please.
4. Encourage your children to read every day.
5. Fix the hole in the boat so that it will float.
6. Gather up the dishes and we will wash them together.

ii. Underline the verb in the following sentences. Then re-write the sentences
using the verbs as sentence openers.

1. Several people are walking around the mall.


2. Hissing, the snakes slither through the tall grass.
3. Mr. Burns agreed that the car would not move.
4. Snow covers the ground like a fluffy, white blanket.
5. Their boots were filling with water.
6. Flocks of swans honk as they fly North in Spring.
7. Behind the door, the coats are hanging.

155
iii. Match the beginning verb phrase with the sentence ending.

The first one has been done for you.


Verb Phrase Answer Sentence ending
1) Don't tell D A) the newspaper.
2) Mary reads B) in a restaurant tonight.
3) The construction crew built C) a trench across her yard.
4) Tom will eat D) anyone my secret.
5) Were you asleep E) six inches this year.
6) She is digging F) when I called you?
7) My daughter has grown G) the bridge.

Write the completed sentences . Then re-write the sentences using the verbs
as sentence openers.

Example: Don't tell anyone my secret.


The changed sentence would be: Tell no one my secret.

E. Punctuation : Using the Comma

Commas are used to separate words, phrases, or clauses that occur within the
sentence. These added words may add extra information but they don't change the
meaning of the sentence.

i. Separating Words
Mr Smith, our gardener, has moved to Nadi.

Put in commas where they are needed.


1. Discount Flights my mum's company is offering a great holiday to New Zealand.
2. Fiji Airways the Fijian airline will fly you there.
3. Josephine my sister wants to be an airline flight attendant.
4. Suva the capital city is very windy.
5. Dad's company Sidal’s Automotive will pay his fare.

ii. Separating Phrases


That boy, at the far end of the beach, is my brother.
Put in commas where they are needed.
1. That holiday shown in the brochure looks exciting.
2. The cost for many good reasons is kept low.

156
3. That cruise sailing to Australia sounds very interesting.
4. The brochure with the picture of the Fijian warrior on it is very attractive.
5. Mount Victoria in Fiji is Fiji’s highest mountain.

iii. Separating Clauses


The trip, which we planned last year, had to be cancelled.

Put in commas where they are needed.


1. Jale Waqa who is our travel agent did a good job.
2. The bus which was always overcrowded never ran on time.
3. Joeli who wants to be an airline pilot is learning Japanese.
4. Taveuni which hardly has a town has a unique flower called Tagimoucia.
5. The brochure which is on the front desk gives information about a trip to Japan.

F. Grammar: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives.

The comparative form of an adjective compares two things or people. The superlative
form of an adjective compares more than two things or people.

For most adjectives of one syllable and some of two syllables, -er and -est are added to
make the comparative and superlative forms.
Example: The diamond is harder than the emerald.
The diamond is the hardest gem of all.

To make the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives with two or more syllables,
add more or most before the adjective.
Example: Dogs are more intelligent than pigs.

To make the negative comparative and superlative forms, add less or least before the
adjective.
Example: The least complicated step is last.

Identifying and Using Comparative and Superlative Adjectives


For each sentence, write the adjective form that completes the sentence correctly.
Then write whether it is comparative or superlative.

1. My new blanket is (softer, softest) than my old one.

2. Kim is the (older, oldest) of my three sisters.

3. Sirius is the (brighter, brightest) star in the southern sky.

4. Miriama’s memory is (worse, worst) than mine, but Ben’s is the (worse, worst) one of all.

157
5. The (most unusual, unusualest) costume was awarded the prize.

6. David’s interest in conservation is (more strong, stronger) than most people’s.

7. The (more beautiful, most beautiful) time of day at the lake is the morning.

8. Kings Road is (longer, more long) than Queens Road.

9. Fizah has little interest in ballet, but Rita is even (less interested, least interested) than
Fizah.

10. I think that my roses are the (prettiest, more pretty) flowers in my garden.

G. Dictionary Skills: Word Meanings


Choose one or more words from the bracket that means the same as the first in each
exercise.
13. sham (guilty. pretend , shine) 17. yew (mineral , tree, liquid)
14. remnant (leftover, traveller, painting) 18. tally ( paw, cry , score)
15. repast (meal, history, sleep) 19. devise ( break, hate , plan)
16. caulk (fill gaps, refuse, argue) 20. wrath ( ghost ,anger, wreck

H. Word Meanings: 'Protect' and 'Prey'


Use protect and prey in 4 different sentences to show that each word has more than one
meaning,

I. Spelling
accurate
vigorously
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure
extremely
politely
See the word unfortunately
Hear the word legibly
Adopt the word immediately
Record the word ordinarily
Proofread the word consequently
sincerely
obviously
absolutely
frequently
adequate
supposedly

158
ii. Visual Warm up: Fill the spelling words in the correct word shapes

iii. Vowel Hunt: Fill in the missing vowels and write the spelling words.
1 . p_l_t_l_ 9 . _bs_l_t_l_
2 . fr_q__ntl_ 1 0 . _bv___sl_
3 . s_pp_s_dl_ 1 1 . s_nc_r_l_
4 . _cc_r_t_ 1 2 . _nf_rt_n_t_l_
5 . c_ns_q__ntl_ 1 3 . _xtr_m_l_
6 . l_g_bl_ 1 4 . v_g_r__sl_
7 . _rd_n_r_l_ 1 5 . _d_q__t_
8 . _mm_d__t_l_

159
iv. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

v. Generally Speaking: Write each spelling word for the group it best fits
1. energetically , enthusiastically 9. regularly, habitually
2. regrettably , unhappily 10. tremendously, particularly
3. evidently ,allegedly 11. completely, extremely
4. genuinely, truthfully 12. thus, accordingly
5. graciously, respectfully 13. instantly, instantaneously
6. apparently, perceptibly 14. sufficient, satisfactory
7. generally, usually 15. precise, perfect
8. readable, clearly

vi. Scrambled Words

1. iyusg l voor _____________________ 3. dslpeuopys _____________________

2. ytftun e anlruo _____________________ 4. cnlysreie _____________________

160
5. iteypoll _____________________ 11. slaeyoutlb _____________________

6. lsuvoyoib _____________________ 12. tulneyocqnes _____________________

7. yoadrlirin _____________________ 13. imtmeiydale _____________________

8. blyileg _____________________ 14. uaqeadte _____________________

9. uyfnteqlre _____________________ 15. crcaeuat _____________________

10. ryxleeemt _____________________

vii. Other Word Forms:

example : important- importance, importantly


1. vigorously -_______________________ 9. frequently -_______________________
2. unfortunately -_______________________ 10. extremely -_______________________
3. supposedly -_______________________ 11. absolutely -_______________________
4. sincerely -_______________________ 12. consequently -_______________________
5. politely -_______________________ 13. immediately -_______________________
6. obviously -_______________________ 14. adequate -_______________________
7. ordinarily -_______________________ 15. accurate -_______________________
8. legibly -_______________________

viii. Word Search : Find the words from the spelling list

161
WRITING ACTIVITIES

A report tells about what a thing is,


what a thing looks like, where it is
found and what it can do.
What is a report?

USE

Timeless Present Tense-


Vultures circle their prey,.... is
Title Names the thing a popular holiday destination
General Nouns -ski resort,
Classification Tells what the thing is rock musician, mountain goat.
Technical Terms - Dolphins
are mammals..., is situated on
Tells what the thing has. the Date Line
Description Rational Process ...Jupiter is
Tells what it looks like.
the largest planet in our solar
system.; unlike rabbits the
Locations Tells where the thing lives or young foxes are born fully
is found. haired.

Dynamics Tells what the thing can do

162
Structure Language Features
Mangrove Trees
Title
A mangrove is a tropical marine tree or shrub. Mangroves
Classification Technical language
have special aerial roots and salt-filtering tap roots that enable
them to thrive in brackish water (brackish water is salty, but not
as salty as sea water).
There are several species of mangrove trees found all over Timeless
Description the world. Some prefer more salinity, while others like to be present tense
A series of eg. 'prefer'
very close to a large fresh water source (such as a river). Some
paragraphs
about topic.
prefer areas that are sheltered from waves. Some species have
their roots covered with sea water every day during high tide.
Other species grow on dry land, but are still part of the
ecosystem. Action Verbs
Mangrove need to keep their trunk and leaves above the eg. 'thrive' ,'twist'
surface of the water. Yet they also need to be firmly attached to
the ground so they are not moved by waves. There are three
types of mangrove roots that play an important role for it:
1. Support roots which directly pierce the soil.
Diagrams
2. Level-growing roots which twist upwards and downwards,
with the upward twists emerging on the water surface.
3. Level-growing roots whose downward twist (sub-roots)
appear on the water surface.
Conclusion Any part of a root that appears above the water flows oxygen
Sums up the
to the plant under water surface. As the soil begins to build up,
report
these roots produce additional roots that become embedded in
the soil.

Most reports contain a number of actions verbs. List the action words found in the
passage above.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

163
Write a report...
Write a report about insects which eat plants-butterflies.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

Title ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Classification
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Description ______________________________________________________________________________
Paragraph
about the ______________________________________________________________________________
topic
______________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion ______________________________________________________________________________
Sums up your More to
report ______________________________________________________________________________
Do
Fact File ____
Work by yourself, in a
group or as a class.
Use this box of facts to help with your report. Choose a topic of
1. Butterflies and moths form the order Lepidoptera, which has about 150 000
special interest. Use
species. the internet to find
2. They have wings with tiny scales.
information about the
3. Most butterflies fly by day, while most moths fly by night.
4. Butterflies undergo a complete metamorphosis during their life cycle:topic. Write a report.
 egg
 larva(caterpillar)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
pupa(chrysalis)
 imago (adult)
Use an encyclopaedia to help with more information
___________________________________________________________________________

164
Revise and Edit
R -Replace words,
phrases and sentences
with more effective ones

I -insert better words,


phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences
SPELLCHECK

Just for Fun

angelfish
anglerfish
aquatic
bony
cartilaginous
catfish
clownfish
cod
cold-blooded
eel
eggs
fins
flounder
freshwater fry
gills
goldfish
great white shark
hammerhead shark
halibut herring
lake
lateral line mackerel manta ray minnow mudskipper ocean piranha puffer
fish reef river salmon
saltwater scales school shoal tiger shark
trout tuna vertebrate whale shark

165
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 10

Genre: Persuasive Text


Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on persuasive texts, to
be conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

166
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and tell them why we should have a compost. Get them
to share to the class your persuasive text.

167
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 When you hear the word recycling, what’s the first thing you think of?
 What good comes out of recycling?
 How can you help with the recycling in your home?
 In what ways can we recycle?

The text t for this unit is Persuasive text. Study what a persuasive text is and try to
distinguish the features of a report in the passage "Why we should recycle?

 Persuasive Text

Persuasive texts are written to argue or persuade. They promote the writers point of

view.

Persuasive texts are organised with: Proposition to be argued, arguments in logical
 reiteration.
order,
The features of persuasive writing are: generalised participants, passives to help text

structure, linking words associated with reasoning, nominalisation (actions become

things) e.g. To pollute becomes pollution.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class. Write down all the
words and their meanings into your book. Beside each word draw a little picture or icon
to help you remember the word.

Recycling landfills reusing


Energy transport materials
Pollution factories aluminium

168
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

WHY SHOULD WE RECYCLE?

Recycling is a very important thing to do in our modern world and everybody should do it.
Many millions of tons of waste are dumped in landfills every year. As much as 80 percent of this can
be recycled.

Natural resources such as forests and oil supplies will run out if we don’t recycle. If we recycle we are
helping our planet by reusing things more than once.

Recycling can save energy. We use a lot of energy to make metals like aluminium and steel. The fuel
used to make one aluminium can could be used to make lots of recycled cans. This is because we have
to mine raw materials from the ground, transport them and then melt them to make new cans.
Recycling can save money. By recycling things like glass, plastics and paper we are saving money on
the cost of producing new products made from raw materials.
Recycling allows us to continually use the same materials for the same purpose. For example, glass is
made into bottles over and over again.
Recycling cuts down on pollution. Many new items are made into
factories which pollute our air and water.

If we follow three simple rules – reduce, re-use, and recycle – we will help
our planet by using less, reusing what we already have and recycling waste
materials.

Be smart and save our planet, follow the 3R’s…… reduce, reuse and recycle.
i. Comprehension skill: Author's Viewpoint

ii.
FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
Encourage students to recall a time they had an opinion on an issue . Ask them to write two sentences to
describe their views on an issue.
Read one volunteer’s sentence aloud. Ask students whether or not the writer has a positive attitude towards
the issue, and what makes them think so. Repeat the process with other volunteers.

Explain that by taking a closer look at words an author uses, students will often be able to tell how the author
feels about the topic she or he is writing about.
Practice
Identify words and phrases that describe both the author’s feelings and opinions.
iii. Comprehension Check.
Apply 169
Have students list the author’s viewpoint with regards to the author's choice of words in the passage.
1. What is an example of natural resource?
2. Why is recycling important?
3. In a year how much can we recycle?
4. What do we use metals for?
5. How can you help our planet?
6. What does recycling reduce?
7. Why does the writer want us to save our natural resource?
8. What is the most important information given in paragraph two?
9. What do you think is the purpose of this text?

C. Word Knowledge: Acronyms

Acronyms are abbreviations made from the first letters of words. Acronyms are
usually pronounced as whole words. For Example: instead of saying ay-en-zed-
ay-cee we say ANZAC (Australia.)

Use a Dictionary where necessary to help you write these abbreviations in full.

1. gym : ___________________ 11. TLC : ________________________


2. exam : ____________________ 12. PC : ________________________
and
3. Dr New
: Zealand army corps.)
____________________ 13. PM : ________________________
4. Rep : ____________________ 14. ATM : ________________________
5. PTFA : ____________________ 15. SPCA : ________________________
6. Prof : ____________________ 16. FNPF : ________________________
7. capt : _____________________ 17. NSW : ________________________
8. Rd : _____________________ 18. Mt : ________________________
9. DOB : ______________________ 19. maths : ________________________
10. RIP : ______________________ 20. X-mas : _______________________

D. Sentences: Concord
Subject – Verb Agreement.
In any sentence the subject and verb must agree with each other. A singular subject
takes a singular verb.
Keleni runs a nursery school. A plural subject takes a plural verb. The sailors
are going ashore later.

170
Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct present tense verb.

1. Kelera and I (carries/carry) lunch to school.


2. The netball team (practice/practises) at Bidesi Park.
3. Peter and Raju (visit/visits) me regularly.
4. Bob, the bus driver (was/is) guilty of the offense.
5. Joshua and Jerry (is building/are building) that pig pen.
6. The naughty boys (are/is) sitting outside.
7. The teacher will (bought/buy) a new book for the class.
8. Nancy our art director (is holding/are holding) an art exhibition.
9. The boys (play/plays) rugby every Saturday.
10. Lisa (plant/plants) roses beside her house.

E. Usage and Punctuation: Semicolon

A semicolon is used to separate two clauses when the second is an alternative or


opposing statement to the first one. It can also be used when the second statement is
a conclusion drawn from the first. Note that certain words are used to link the two
clauses.

I must buy a ticket; otherwise I will miss the show. (alternative)


He is a poor player; still he might win. (opposing)
She worked hard; therefore she passed. (conclusion)

Put a semicolon where necessary.

1. I told Sofi not to go out on Monday however she has disobeyed me.
2. You will need a warm coat otherwise you will be frozen in Tasmania.
3. The weather in Suva was wet nevertheless we enjoyed ourselves.
4. Please hurry up otherwise you might miss seeing the Duchess of York’s baby on
television.
5. I shall be away in Labasa in February therefore I cannot meet captain Lino.
6.
F. Grammar: Simple Verbs

Verbs are words that tell us about actions or feelings in sentences.


‘A simple verb is usually one word that comes after the subject of the sentence.
For Example: The ball bounced. The children ran. Jone climbed the tree.
Verbs answer questions such as: What are you doing? What did they do? What will
he do?

171
Underline the simple verbs in these sentences.
8. They caught the ball.
1. The ball rolled down the steep slope. 9. It swam across.
2. It charged across the road. 10. It smelled bad.
3. The children screamed. 11. They watched from afar.
4. It came to a village. 12. The children sat down.
5. People leapt frantically out of its path. 13. The balloon burst.
6. They ran as fast as they could. 14. The baby cried frantically.
7. He drove the bus. 15. They danced wildly

G. Beginning with ‘tri’


Find a word that begins with ‘bio’ that goes with each clue. Use your dictionary
to help you.
1. To shorten 6. a group of people who believe they have
2. Group of three the same ancestor
3. One of three children born at the same 7. A three sided figure
time 8. A three legged stool
4. something done to amuse or tease 9. Unimportant
5. to multiply by three 10. A muscle having three points of origin

H. Word Meanings. 'material ' & 'transport'


Use each word in two separate sentences to show it has more than
one meaning. Write four sentences altogether.

I. Spelling. Spelling List


evident
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure inconvenient
obedient
See the word
innocent
Hear the word intelligent
Adopt the word tournament
Record the word superintendent
Proofread the word brilliant
abundant
ii. Make new words from the list above. The first one is done for you.
deodorant
1. evident - ten, tin, den, vent, net fragrant
2. inconvenient 7. superintendent 12. pleasant pleasant
3. obedient 8. brilliant 13. informant informant
4. innocent 9. abundant 14. restaurant restaurant
5. intelligent 10. deodorant
6. tournament 11. fragrant

172
iii. Word Search.

X T N A R O D O E D Q K V O M ABUNDANT
N H B X A I X X H X X E T A O BRILLIANT
F S U P E R I N T E N D E N T DEODORANT
F W N S K D H P V D R T H T W EVIDENT
T F T F T D Y I P E M N N E F FRAGRANT
O R E B A I D L S B G E R I G INCONVENIENT
U A R L P E E T R I I C O N Z INFORMANT
R G C Y N A A I T N T O Z F V INNOCENT
N R V T S U L M E Z B N Z O K INTELLIGENT
A A D A R L M V Z N Y N Y R W OBEDIENT
M N N A I L N P Z V H I L M E PLEASANT
E T N A G O B E D I E N T A O RESTAURANT
N T N U C A B U N D A N T N M
SUPERINTENDENT
T T Y N F Q X H O U C Z Z T I
TOURNAMENT
B S I N T E L L I G E N T J D

iv. Alphabetical Order.


Put the words in alphabetical order from A – Z.

1. _________________________ 8. _________________________
2. _________________________ 9. _________________________
3. _________________________ 10. _________________________
4. _________________________ 11. _________________________
5. _________________________ 12. _________________________
6. _________________________ 13. _________________________
7. _________________________ 14. _________________________

iii. One word is missed out in the following sentence. Fill in the blank with a word
from the spelling list.

1. The hockey ____________________ will be held in Levuka this year.


2. Ana will meet Fina for dinner at the _________________ on Friday.
3. The ___________________ child didn’t know what was going on.
4. Dad got a _____________________ surprise for his birthday.
5. The ______________________ supply of vegetables was evident in the market on Saturday.

173
6. The __________________________ from Nabua Police Post visited our class last week.
7. It was ________________ from the exam results that they didn’t study.
8. She had a ______________________ idea.
9. It’s always wise to put on ________________________ after a good bath.
10. It was _____________________ of her to be late.
11. The _________________________ was caught in Russia.
12. Rachael is an _________________ child.
13. Julie loves the ___________________ smell of Makosoi.
14. Samantha is a very ____________________ girl.

WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES


A persuasive text is used by a writer
to persuade others. It is also used to
criticize and review ideas and
What is a persuasive text?
actions.

USE

Reported Speech-Many
residents say..., a number of
Title A short statement about the topic. newspapers have reported...
Technical Terms -Fiji's
Overview A brief statement of the writer's view of the main ecosystem..., Multi story
topic building, Leisure Time
Evaluative Language - It is
The points supporting the writer's view. (The writers extremely important that
Reasons we..., It is not our
view can be for or against the topic)
responsibility...
Conjunction and
Conclusions Summing it up connectives (linking
words)- ...because...,
...therefore..., firstly , secondly
Thinking Verbs- Many
Persuasive text can be presented as:
people believe...
Modal Verbs - We must take
 essays
care...
 editorials
 letters to the editor
 speeches
advertisement

174
Study the letter to the editor.

Structure Language Features


Rubbish in the park
Title
It's sad to see the amount of rubbish left behind at
Thesis Albert Park after the week-long Hibiscus Festival. Emotive language

It simply shows that we still have some very lazy


people who are least bothered to put rubbish in the
rubbish bins provided.
Description
A series of
I'm sure CCTV cameras that were used to trace Timeless
paragraphs
missing children during the festival could be used to present tense
about topic.
take these people to task as it will act as a good e.g. still
source of evidence.

The money collected from fines could be given to the


Hibiscus charity chest.

On the other hand I hope come next year the


contestant chosen to represent Suva City Council Thinking Verb
advocates on the importance of using rubbish bins
at the festival and taking a positive stance on
environmentalism.

This way we will not need volunteers to clean others


trash.
Conclusion
Sums up the
Avineel Kumar
report
Nadi

175
Write a persuasive text.....

Choose an issue that you feel strongly about. It could be about the environment,
technology, littering, chores or a topic of your own choice.

Structure ____________________________________________________________
Title ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Thesis / ______________________________________________________________________________
Overview
Gives the ______________________________________________________________________________
author's
feeling's or ______________________________________________________________________________
point of
view ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Arguments/
Reasons ______________________________________________________________________________
points
______________________________________________________________________________
supporting
the writers ______________________________________________________________________________
view
______________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion
______________________________________________________________________________
Sums up the Revise and Edit
point of view R -Replace words,
______________________________________________________________________________
phrases and sentences
with more effective ones
______________________________________________________________________________
I -insert better words,
phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences
SPELLCHECK

176
Just for Fun

Recycling Word Search

R R E C Y C L E V B I L M O

E G P O U I R S L W I U F B

P P N E N V I R O N M E N T

A L U I Q E K L E E B W R W

P A I B G A S C R O T E K N

S S Z C S A U U T F P S D E

W T A W Y D K T E A W Q A E

E I S T E X L C P R B J E W

N C R R S E U V A E G H C C

K G F Y S O C G N P Z L N X

BOTTLES ENVIRONMENT NEWSPAPER


PACKAGING PAPER PLASTIC
RECYCLE REDUCE REUSE
WASTE

177
UNIT 11
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTIVITIES

Genre: Explanation
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on explanations, to be
conducted in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

As I listen, I sit up, pay I listen carefully and


attention and focus on respond accordingly.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses


1. This reminds me of ________________
2. I know the word ______ means ______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were ________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were _______
5. What I heard made me _____because
___________________________________

178
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple
is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t
isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t
could/n‟t
Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex

Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? ______________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?_____________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?___________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _____________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Pair-Share: Explain what you would do to entertain guests at school.


Brainstorm other things that can be researched and discussed.

179
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)


 What are some natural disaster we have experienced here in Fiji?
 How did you feel as you were experiencing it?
 Were you given a warning?
 Did you feel as if your life was in danger?
 Do you have any idea what causes these disasters and what might some signs be to
prepare ourselves.
Our reading today is based on Volcanoes. As we read through try to identify the
author’s message to us.
Why do you think the author chose this topic to write about?

The text for this unit is explanations. Study what an explanation is and try to
distinguish the features of an explanation in the passage "Volcanoes"?

How do rainbows
form? How does Explanations
a cat clean itself?
Explanations explain how something works or happens. It explains, in
scientific terms, the processes involved in an action, event or behaviour.

They are written to provide us with more information thus adding to our
store of knowledge.

ii. Key Vocabulary

appease, molten, vent, magma, lava, explosion, surface, dome, composite, shield

In pairs, read the story and try to decipher the meaning of the key vocabulary words. Write
a paragraph using at least 5 of the words.

Listen as your teacher now reads the story to you.

180
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

What are Volcanoes?

In the olden days volcanoes were thought to be where the God of Fire lived. People
believed this and when they heard rumbling deep in the earth they thought the Gods were
angry. They tried to appease the Gods by bringing gifts so that volcanoes would not cause
death and destruction in their village and towns. In the
Hawaiian Islands, Pele was believed to be the Goddess of
Fire while the Roman God of Fire was Vulcan. It is from
Vulcan that we get the word Volcanoes.

A volcano is formed when molten rock or magma


escapes to the earth’s surface. This usually occurs in
places where the earth’s tectonic plates meet. There are
some places where volcanoes are found in the middle of
the plate e.g. volcanoes found on the islands of Hawaii.
The hole where lava and gases escape is called a vent.
There are two types of vents: a hole in the ground or the
top of a hill or mountain that was formed by lava.

Magma slowly builds up under the surface of the earth. When the pressure becomes too
much it rises to the surface and causes an explosion of cinders, ash, gases and lava. When
molten rock is in a volcano it is called magma but when it leaves a volcano it is referred to
as lava. There are different types of magma therefore there are different types of
explosions.

There are 4 types of volcanoes: dome, cinder cones, shield volcanoes and strato or
composite volcanoes.

Dome shaped volcanoes are shaped like a dome. After its first eruption, the vent or
opening at the top of the volcano is sealed with hardened lava. This stops gases escaping
and over the years pressure builds up inside the volcano until one day it explodes. The gas

181
and ash can travel for many, many, many kilometres in the wind. The lava from dome
volcanoes is thick and slow moving. It forms steep sides like cliffs on a side of a mountain.

Cinder cone volcanoes are shaped like an upside down ice cream cone. They can occur
alone or in groups or fields. They are simple volcanoes made from piles of lava not ash.
They are created from eruptions from a single opening in the earth’s surface.

Strato or composite volcanoes are formed over many eruptions. The thick, slow moving
lava hardens then the next layer forms over it and hardens and it continues. These
volcanoes are formed from layer after layer of volcanic ash and lava. It slowly builds up.

Shield volcanoes look like an ancient warrior shield. They have gentle slopes and very
broad or wide sides. In most cases lava usually bubbles out gently from these types of
volcanoes. Some of the largest volcanoes in the world are shield volcanoes. On the island
of Hawaii, two well-known shield volcanoes are Kilauea and Mauna Loa. When volcanoes
explode the hole left behind is called a crater. The crater of extinct or dead volcanoes may
fill with water and turn into lakes. Exploding volcanoes at sea may also form new islands.
Fiji is a volcanic island.

While volcanoes usually bring death and destruction it also, after some time, brings new
growth and new life to an area.

i. Comprehension Skill – Categorize and Classify

Categorize – To group things together because they are alike in some way.
E.g. Shapes

Classify – To put things that have been categorized into groups based on a rule or
characteristic.
E.g squares, circles, triangles

Complete the table to help you classify and categorise the different types of volcanoes.

182
Volcanoes
What is a volcano?
_________________________________________________________________________
Where are they found?
__________________________________________________________________________
Name the 2 types of vents?
1. _______________________________________________________________________________
2. _______________________________________________________________________________
Types of volcanoes and a brief description
1. 2. 3. 4.

ii. Comprehension Check

1. How are volcanoes formed?


2. Where do we usually find volcanoes?
3. Explain the difference between magma and lava.
4. Describe the two types of vents.
5. Name the 4 types of volcanoes.
6. Define the following terms: crater and extinct volcano.
7. Quickly sketch the different types of volcanoes using the descriptions in the story as
your guide.
8. What was the author trying to do- persuade, inform or entertain you?
9. List down 5 new things you learnt from this article.

C. Word Knowledge: More about Land


Use a dictionary to match the words below.

plateau atoll delta summit hill geyser magma escarpment

1. flat plain at the mouth of a river 5. molten rock


2. coral islands 6. mount of earth
3. a hot spring sending jets of hot water 7. cliff like ridge of land
4. raised flat land. 8. the top of a mountain

183
D. Sentences : Beginning with Linking Words.
Linking words are also known as sentence connectors. The form links from one sentence
to the next making your writing coherent. They are placed at the beginning of sentences.

Reason Compare
The reason for... Similarity...

Result
Therefore... Linking Words
Sequence ideas
Firstly...

Contrast
Order of importance
On the other hand...
Most importantly....

Place the correct linking words or phrases in the space provided to complete the
sentences. Use the web above for sentence beginnings.

1. Lyn did not go to the party _____________ for this was that she sprained her ankle.

2. All this work must be done before the bell rings ______________ if you do not complete it I
will have to put you on detention.

3. We had to reach home quickly _____________ we caught the bus then we caught a taxi.

4. Mele will be going on the field trip. _______________ you will not be going.

5. ______________ you must not swim alone.

6. Terence helped build his parent’s home. ________________ you must help build your parent’s
home.

184
E. Usage and Punctuation: Review Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

Words spoken by a Reporting what


person someone said

“I am hungry,” said Tom Tom said that he was hungry.

Change the direct speech into reported speech.

1. “Did you see the masked man” asked Pele.


2. “We must hurry or we will be late,” exclaimed Mum.
3. “I will be having a party tomorrow,” said Janice.

Change the reported speech into direct speech.


1. Aladdin asked Jasmine if she had seen his monkey.
2. Dad shouted for help.
3. Una said that she would be going to the fames that night.

F. Grammar: Compound Verbs

A compound verb is when we use 2 verbs together – an auxiliary verb and the main verb.

An auxiliary verb is also known as the helping verb.

E.g. The dress Mela was looking for was in the wash

“was looking “is the compound verb

Complete the exercise below by identifying and underlining the compound verb.

1. Tom was sleeping under the table.


2. She will come to the party.
3. The dog and cat were running away from the snake.
4. The baby has been crying for over an hour.
5. She will meet Tom at the radio station.
6. They have been gone for so long.

185
G. Dictionary Skills : Classifications

Classify the words under the appropriate heading

food weapon dance

tree animal tool

1. rifle 5. crossbow 9. chisel 13. waltz

2. cha cha 6. leopard 10. shrimps 14.axe

3. oak 7. pastries 11.foxtrot 15. appetizer

4. palm 8. dagger 12. hedgehog 16. giraffe

H. Word Meaning: 'Layer and Build'

Write 2 sentences for each word to show that they have different meanings.

You should 4 sentences altogether.

I. Spelling Spelling
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure List

See the word university


Hear the word scarcity
Adopt the word sincerity
Record the word wealthy
Proofread the word psychology
panicky
ii. Visual Warm-up(word shapes) impossibility
humility
Draw word shapes for all the words on your spelling list. uniform
juvenile
iii. 4 Corners souvenir
Study the example below and do the exercise for all bulletin
words ending in -y. supervisor
boulevard

186
Word/Part of speech Meaning

wealthy Rich

adjective

Sentence Illustration

Old King Cole was a


wealthy old soul.

iv. Proofreading

Proofread the passage below and correct any errors you find. Use words from your
spelling list t fill in the blanks.

Raijieli was a ______________________ at the ________________.She was also studying


__________________________. Her youngest child was a still a ____________________ and they were
not _______________________ enough to hire a housekeeper. She decided that she would study
when her son finally finished school.

v. Base words

Write down the base word for as many words as you can from the spelling list.

Eg scarcity – scarce

vi. Flashcards

Work in pairs, make flashcards and then test each other out. You can have spelling flash
cards, spelling-definition flashcards or spelling-icon flashcards.

187
vii. Break the Code

You are a detective, use your skills and the table to break the code and unlock the words.

188
WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES

An explanation tells us how something


What is an explanation? happens or works. It usually uses
scientific language to explain the
process involved.

USE
Explanations have four parts in their structure.
Noun Groups- five, primary
Title This is a short statement (question) about the wind, belts
topic. Passive Voice – were, often
delayed
Adverbial Phrases - calm,
Introduction Gives a description
light, breezes
Action Verbs- forced,
Explanation Of the part or elements in the process. stranded
Sequence Conjunction and
connectives- or, and, by
How/ why the thing or process works. Can include the Simple Present Tense-
Process
causes a belt... is mostly hot
cause.
and humid
Technical Language –
Conclusion Concluding statement may have the effects of the whole circulate the planet, squall,
process. low pressure

Examples of Explanations:
 How do sound waves travel?
 Why do leaves change colour in autumn?
 How is wind created?
 How does the moon stay up?

189
Structure How is Honey Made? Language Features

Title I‟ve always wondered how honey was made. For


Question in many years I refused to eat honey because I thought Technical
the heading terms
it was a waste product of bees but then one day I
Introduction decided to have some with my bread and it was
Includes a delicious. So how is it made?
description
or definition. Bees go from flower to flower using their long
tongues to drink nectar. Their tongue is nearly twice as
Timeless present
long as their body. This helps them reach the nectar
tense
inside the flower. eg. helps, returns
Explanation
Sequence They store the nectar in a special sac called a
telling Honey Stomach. Inside the stomach the nectar is
where, broken down into two sugars.
how and why
The Honey Stomach has special enzymes to help
Cause and
convert the nectar into two sugars called FRUCTOSE
Effect
and GLUCOSE. relationship
When the bee returns to the hive, it spits the described

nectar from its Honey Stomach into one of the cells.


The heat in the hive helps water evaporate from
Cause
the nectar and there you have it, delicious honey. The
and
Effect bees then cover the cell with a wax cap.

The next time you enjoy your bread and honey


think of all the work that poor bee put into making it.

Conclusion
The explanation above uses technical terms. Use context clues to find the
meanings of the words.

Waste product, Nectar, Sac, Enzyme, Convert, Hive,

phenomenon ___________________
trade winds _____________________
humid _________________________ 190
pressure _______________________
Write an explanation...

How do our eyes work? Research and write. Draft your explanation using the template
below to guide your writing.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Title
Question in ______________________________________________________________________________
the heading
______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
Includes a ______________________________________________________________________________
description or
definition.
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Explanation
______________________________________________________________________________
Sequence
telling where, ______________________________________________________________________________
how and why
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Cause
and ______________________________________________________________________________
Effect
______________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion
Revise and Edit
______________________________________________________________________________

R_-Replace words,
phrases and sentences
with more effective ones

I -insert better words,


phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences

SPELLCHECK

191
Just for Fun

192
UNIT 12
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTIVITIES

Genre: Textual data

Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on textual data, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

As I listen, I sit up, pay I listen carefully and


attention and focus on respond accordingly.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses


1. This reminds me of ________________
2. I know the word ______ means ______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were ________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were _______
5. What I heard made me _____because
___________________________________

193
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t


isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t
could/n‟t
Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex

Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? ______________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?_____________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?___________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _____________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Pair-Share: Look around the classroom and discuss the charts on display. What
information do they give you

194
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Teacher-led discussion
 What is a chart?
 How do we go about reading a chart?
 Why is information put into chart form or even graphs?
Display a variety of charts and discuss ways of reading information off the charts.

Our lesson today is based on the average weather patterns for the first six months of the
year. Before studying it, go over the key vocabulary as a class.

Pie charts, bar


graphs, flow charts Data Visualization

Figures, tables and charts are used to present complicated ideas


in a way that is understandable and easy to read.

Simple results can be communicated through textual data and


be the basis for presenting arguments. The purpose of such data
is to persuade others to your point of view.

ii. Key Vocabulary

average pattern judgment conclusion

After discussing the words and their meanings, write them down in your books. Use the
information you have just learnt to help you complete the exercise below.

On ______________ we have 12 mm of rainfall each month. This has been the


______________________for a number of years. It is easy to make
_____________________about the weather when it is fairly similar every day.
Now when I read the weather forecast it becomes easy to make
________________ about the weather.

195
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow

Sangeeta and her friends visited Suva as part of their educational tour. Suva is well-known
for its wet weather. While in Suva they studied the weather pattern and recorded the
details in the chart below.

Weather Pattern for 23rd – 29th June

Day Temperature Sunrise Sunset Rainfall

Monday 290 6:00 am 6:55pm 28 mm

Tuesday 270 6: 15 am 6:05 pm 30 mm

Wednesday 250 6:30am 6:10 pm 36 mm

Thursday 270 6:00 am 6:30 pm 25 mm

Friday 270 6:25 am 6:30 pm 12 mm

Saturday 280 6:20 am 6:40 pm 0 mm

Saturday 270 6:18 am 6:40 pm 4 mm

i. Comprehension Skill: Making inferences to draw conclusions.

Teacher led –I Do
When we read we make judgements based on what we read, this is called drawing
conclusions.
e.g I will need a jacket on Wednesday because it is both cold and wet.

Practise -We Do
Study the example and the chart and draw conclusions about:

1. Going to the beach.

What kind of weather would we prefer if we are going to the beach?

196
Apply- You Do

2. Wearing warm clothes.


3. Not forgetting your umbrella at home.

Which day was chosen for the trip? Explain your answer.

ii. Comprehension Check

1. Which day had the highest temperatures?


2. The driest day was _________________ while the wettest was ____________________.
3. How many days had the same temperature? Name them.
4. Which day had the most hours of sunshine?
5. When would they have most likely needed an umbrella?
6. Which was the shortest day?
7. Which day was the best day to go for a picnic and why?
8. Why would people want to store information this way?
9. What do you think is the author’s purpose in producing a chart like this?
10. Can you see a relationship between the rainfall and sunrise and sunset? Explain
your answer.
11. Why do you think charts are helpful?

C. Word Knowledge: Confusing Pairs

As/like Among/between Bring/take

TIP: To help you identify the proper word to use and when to use it make sure you know what
part of speech it is.

i. As/Like
Use like as a preposition and not as a conjunction. The phrase after like should not have a
verb. If there is a verb, use “as if”. As, should be used to introduce an independent clause.
e.g.
Incorrect: He sounds like he is speaking Hindi.
Correct: He sounds as if he is speaking Hindi.

Incorrect: He looks as his father.


Correct: He looks like his father.

197
Complete the exercise below. You may need to add an extra word.
1. Beni is playing as/like a champ
2. She spoke like/as (if) she was the leader.
3. Raphael walks around like/as (if) he is going to hit someone.
4. Mere bakes like/as (if) her mother.

ii. Among/Between
Between is used when 2 things are being considered. When there is more than 2 things use
among.
e.g.

Incorrect: The food will be between Peter, Luke and John


Correct: The food will be shared among Peter, Luke, John.

Incorrect: The argument is among you and me.


Correct: The argument is between you and me.

Complete the exercises below


1. The money was shared among/between Meena, Arti and Suman.
2. The apple was divided among/between Jared and Seth.
3. There was a conflict among/between all three parties.
4. The cat ran among/between the birds causing them both to fly off.

iii. Bring/Take
Remember: You bring to the speaker. You take from the speaker.

Incorrect: Are you going to bring cookies to the party?


Correct: Are you going to take cookies to the party?

Incorrect: I am waiting so don’t forget to take my book.


Correct: I am waiting so don’t forget to bring my book.

Complete the exercises below


1. I will bring/take the boys to the pool.
2. Did she bring/take?
3. Tomorrow night I want to bring/take my boys home.
4. Semi will bring/take the books to my desk.

198
D. Sentences: Jumbled Sentences
The sentences below are jumbled. Rearrange them so that they make sense and are proper
sentences. Place capital letters and punctuation marks in the correct place.

1. ate all/ Epeli and Manoa/ in the cookie jar/ all the cookies.

2. Very intelligent/ are/ Darshana and Shimran

3. went snorkelling/ scared of sharks/ he was/ although

4. all your work/ unless you finish/ go to the party/ you cannot

5. your behaviour/ to go to the movies/ if you are expecting/ have to change/ you will

6. very angry/ dad was/ last night

7. celebrated/ Meli and Manu/ yesterday/ their birthday

8. too cold/ the juice/ to drink/ was

9. complete the task/ until/ she could not/ finished playing /her friends

10. John and Sam/ the riverbank/ walking along/ Brenda saw

E. Usage and Punctuations: Hyphens


DO NOT confuse
A hyphen is a punctuation mark. It is used to join words and a hyphen with
to separate a word into syllables. a dash.

e.g. Separate words: eye-opener


Separate syllables: yes-ter-day

Things to Remember

Compound nouns can be two words, one word or a hyphenated word.

If you are unsure check your dictionary. If you can’t find it in the dictionary, treat the
noun as separate words.

Compound verbs appear as one word or are hyphenated. If you cannot find it in the
dictionary then you hyphenate it.

i. Separate the following words into syllables using hyphens.


199
e.g. yes –ter-day

1. Wednesday 5. alienated
2. Saturday 6. prosperous
3. everybody 7. advantage
4. palace 8. behaviour

ii. Choose sentences that use hyphens correctly.


1.
a. Could you hold up the bottle for b. There was a hold up on the Kings
me? Road.
2.
a. She enjoys twelfth – century b. I love twelfth – century book.
books.
3.
a. Take my dress of- the- peg. b. I bought an off –the – pig dress
4.
a. Did the car breakdown? b. There was a breakdown in a
communication.

iii. Re-Write these sentences using the Hyphens correctly.


1. My sister in law is a nurse.
2. The astronauts make their re-entry tomorrow.
3. The cushions had petal like decorations.
4. The armchair was a blue green color.
5. We caught fifty five fish in three quarters of an hour.
6. The doorman is an ex boxer and pro communist.
7. Basically there are forty three children in my class.
8. The fire fighters had their pre enrolment ceremony at their Headquarters.
9. It was unlike of the ex-students to behave in that manner.
10. Mere was lost in the city for three quarters of a day.
11. The man boasted of his self promotion to the new job.
12. The librarian told us to stack the non-fiction books on the shelf.
13. The thief was caught red handed by the police.
14. Raymond re entered the army after twenty two years.

200
F. Grammar: Adverbs

Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. They add meaning to them. There are
different kinds of adverbs.

degree Adverbs of frequency

place time

manner

 Adverbs of manner

They answer the question ‘how’?

How did Iki run? He ran slowly.

How did she look at the dog? She looked at the dog angrily.

Activity: List other adverbs of manner.

 Adverbs of Time

They tell us when something takes place. He came home last night.

She went shopping yesterday.

Other adverbs of time – soon, after, before, now, early, today, tomorrow

Activity: List other adverbs of time

 Adverbs of Place

They tell us where something is or where it took place.

I have looked everywhere. She is hiding over there.

I can’t find her anywhere.

Other adverbs of place: above, below, underneath, upward, backward

Activity: List other adverbs of place.

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 Adverbs of Frequency

Tells us how often something happens. I get paid fortnightly.

We go to the pageant annually. They always clean up after an activity.

Activity: List other adverbs of frequency

 Adverbs of Degree

-answers the question “To what extent?”

This is rather easy. I am almost done.

These mangoes are very green.

Activity: List other adverbs of degree

i. Identify the adverbs in the sentences below.


1. He marched briskly around the room.
2. A quiet voice whispered from below.
3. We would often go to the market on Saturday.
4. The test was so difficult.
5. She went to the movies last night.

ii. Explain your answer for the activity above.

E.g. He ran slowly to the car.

slowly – adverb of manner. It tells us how he ran.

iii. Use each of these adverbs in a sentence.

here quietly ahead somewhere

there nosily regularly afterward

iv. Improve the story below by adding adverbs. Use an adverb only once.

My old brown cow, Daisy, chewed grass ____________ by the fence ________ she lay down to
sleep. Mary looked _________ for her but she could not find her ____________. Daisy was hidden
by the _____________ long grass making it ___________ difficult to see her. This has happened so
______________ that they need to cut the grass _______________.

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G. Dictionary: Beginning with auto

‘Auto’ is a Greek root word meaning self, same, one.

See if you can figure out what these words mean without using a dictionary.

automobile autograph

autopilot autocrat

autobiography autocade

Here are clues to help you.

 a piece of writing  to rule


 a procession  able to move
 to write  to guide
Once you have figured out the meaning of each word, check your dictionary to see if they
are correct.

H. Word Meanings : Chart and Weather

Write 2 sentences for each word showing that you understand the differences in meaning.

I. Spelling Spelling List


i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure
jealousy
See the word democracy
Hear the word authority
Adopt the word celery
Record the word economy
Proofread the word guarantee
graffiti
ii. Alphabetical order
puny
Place all the words in reverse alphabetical order. confetti
committee
eg z –y –x failure
miniature
iii. Dictionary Work procedure
maneuver
In groups search for the meaning of the words. Plot them on a table with icons
brochure
beside them. Display for all to see.
nurture

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iv. Synonyms
1. Power
2. Suspicion 6. Flyer
3. Encourage 7. Reduced
4. Movement 8. Weak
5. Tiny 9. security

v. Sentence Construction

Use all the synonyms in Activity 4 to write sentences.

vi. Visual warm-up

Choose any ten words and draw their shapes in your book. Get a partner to try and figure
out which word it is. Once they get it correct fill in the letters.

WRITING ACTIVITIES

Data visualization is looking at


What is data visualization? information in the form of numbers,
words or images that help construct and
support an argument.

USE
Data Visualizations (tables) have 3 parts in
their frameworks. Title

Column Title
Title A clear descriptive title above the body of the table – it tells the
reader what the table is about and how it is organised. Read Columns
from top down.
Descriptive
language
Column Should be brief and descriptive. Purpose – to simplify and
Titles clarify the table allowing readers tread and understand the Brief words or
parts quickly. numbers

Table Where data is located. Can be in numbers or words.


Body
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Examples of Data Visualization
 Charts
 Tables
 Graphs
 Map

Structure Language Features


Mr Singh wants to export vegetables to Samoa but needs to know the
Brief availability of the vegetables. Below is a table prepared for him by
Description the Ministry of Agriculture.
Descriptive

Title Availability of Seasonal Vegetables words

Column Titles/
Month Cabbage Tomatoes Beans
Headings Brief concise
January- 200 tonnes 200 tonnes 275 tonnes language
March

April-June 250 tonnes 400 tonnes 350 tonnes


Table Body
Numbers
July- 400 tonnes 800 tonnes 300 tonnes or words
September
October-
December 300 tonnes 300 tonnes 285 tonnes

Analyse the data above.

1. In which quarter should Mr Singh export Cabbage _______________, Tomatoes _____________, and
Beans ___________________.

2. Which vegetable is readily available all year around?____________________

3. In-season prices are Cabbage= $200/tonne, Tomatoes= $250/tonne, Beans=$300 /tonne.


Off-season prices are Cabbage= $300/tonne, Tomatoes= 350/ tonnes, Beans= $400/tonne.

Mr Singh wants to export 125 tonnes of a vegetable to Samoa. Which is the preferred
vegetable to export in-season and off-season? Prove your answer with calculations.

________________________________________________________________________

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Prepare your own data visualization table...

Your teacher wants to see if there is a relationship between the number of books read in
class to the English results. Conduct a research in groups and plot the data. From the
available data make some conclusions.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

Brief ______________________________________________________________________________
Description
______________________________________________________________________________
Title
______________________________________________________________________________
Column Titles/
Headings ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Table Body
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Drawing
______________________________________________________________________________
Conclusions

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion 206
Just for Fun

Weather Word Search

R A L E E J S D W X B D T Q L R

Z K I R N Z Q E S I U V E U L O

C M A U E K E N A F N W M E L Q

G B H S A W O E O S Z D P N M T

X O G S C W S R R Z O S E I N B

U V F E V L E N J F M N R F Y I

B O O R S C O C L O U D A T X O

O D L P A U Z U D L O C T T O H

T A T S S B N J D V A W U B P L

N N T T B P J N G Y S Q R Y Q B

Q R S T O R M H Y U Y X E L B R

D O C T R V E O N A F K L U A X

T T L C G A Y N B Z G G D I L I

A C Z Q T T U C X J X F N J U M

CLOUD CLOUDY COLD


FINE FOG FORECAST
FREEZE HAIL HEAT
HOT PRESSURE RAIN
SEASON SNOW STORM
SUN SUNNY TEMPERATURE
TORNADO WIND

207
208
UNIT 13
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES

Genre: Report

Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on report, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

6. This reminds me of __________________


7. I know the word ______ means _______
8. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
9. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
10. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

209
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and research on stars. Prepare a report on stars. Get
them to share to the class your report.

210
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Have you seen the sun, moon and stars?
 Have you ever wondered what is high up in the sky?
 Are there other planets in the universe?

The text for this unit is report. Study what a report is and try to distinguish the
features of a report in the passage "The Solar System”

Report Writing
Reports are written to describe or classify the way things are or seem to be.
They organise and record information.
Reports are organised by; classification, description and summarising comment.
The features of report writing are; generalised participants, impersonal objective
language, continuous present tense and subject specific vocabulary.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

Context Clues:

When you come across a word you don't know, don’t stop reading. You can often figure out
the meaning of an unfamiliar word by using the words around it. The surrounding sentence
or paragraph is known as the context.

Use the context to figure out the meaning of the key vocabulary.

massive comets atmosphere temperature meteoroid


shooting extremely orbits debris asteroids

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B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

The Solar System


The Sun is the star at
the centre of our solar
system. ln our solar
system, there are eight
planets and their
moons, as well as
asteroids and
comets, which travel,
or orbit, around the
sun.

Here are some am

The Sun:

 is a medium-sized star and is about 93 million miles from Earth.


 weighs 300,000 times more than Earth even though it is made up of gas.
 has a surface temperature of about 6000°C while its core is about 15 million °C.
 is about halfway through its life and will burn for another 5 billion years.
The Inner Planets.....

Mercury:

 is the closest planet to the sun.


 is very hot during the day (430°C) but very cold at night (-180°C).
 takes only 88 Earth days to orbit the sun.
Venus:

 is the hottest planet in our solar system.


 is surrounded by thick, orange clouds.
 shines so brightly in the evening that it is known as the Evening Star.

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Earth:

 is sometimes called the water planet because 70 percent of the


Earth’s surface is covered in water.
 is the only planet in our solar system known to have living
things?
 takes one year (365) to orbit the sun.
Mars:

 is often called the red planet because it is covered in red dust.


 Have ice caps at its poles.
 Have two moons which are shaped like potatoes.
The Outer Planets.....

Jupiter:

 is a giant planet, one thousand times bigger than Earth.


 is made of gas.

 has massive storms that can last for hundreds of years.


Saturn:
 is best known for its rings which are made of ice, dust and
rocks.
 is the second biggest planet.

 has more than 30 moons.

Uranus:
 is blue-green in color.
 has eleven narrow rings around it.
 is very cold and icy.
Neptune:
 is a stormy planet with strong winds.
 is blue in colour and has four rings.
 is extremely cold.

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Pluto: Dwarf Planet
 is no longer considered a planet.
 is about the size of our moon.
 takes 248 Earth years to orbit the sun.
Comets, Asteroids and Meteoroids.....

Comets are balls of dirt and ice that orbit the sun. When a comet passes close to
the sun, it begins to melt. This creates the comet's tail.

Asteroids are pieces of rock. Most of them orbit the sun between mars and Jupiter.

Meteoroids are pieces of stone debris that travel in space. lf a meteoroid falls
into the Earth's atmosphere, it burns up and glows. This is called a meteor .lf you
have ever seen a shooting star in the night sky, you have actually seen a meteor!

iii. Comprehension Skill: Topic, Main Idea, and Supporting Details

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
The topic is the subject the author is writing about. The main idea is the most
important idea that the writer wants readers to understand about the topic.
Supporting details are pieces of information that explain or tell more about the main
idea. Supporting details may include facts and examples.
In a longer piece of writing one paragraph may have a topic, a main idea and
supporting details that explain this main idea. main ideas are often stated in headings
or key sentences. However readers must infer the main idea by summing up details
and inferring the author's meaning.

Practice
Point out the topic of the passage .Discuss with students the main idea of the entire
selection. Have them infer the main idea by summing up details in these paragraphs.

Apply
Ask students to infer main ideas by summing up supporting details in the passage.

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What's the Big Idea?
Complete the chart below about the main idea, and supporting details based on "Blue
Whales".
Topic:_______________________________________

Main Idea Main Idea


___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

Supporting Details
Supporting Details ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________

Main Idea
___________________________________
___________________________________

Supporting Details
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

iv. Comprehension Check


Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
8. How many planets are in the solar system?
9. How long will the sun keep burning?
10. Which planet is the closest to the sun?
11. Which planet is known as the Evening Star? Why?
12. Which is the largest planet?
13. Which planet is about the same size as Pluto?
14. Why do meteors glow they shoot through our sky?
15. Which planet is no longer considered a planet?

215
C. Word Knowledge: Root Words

A root or root word is the very basic part of a word from which other words
grow.
Most roots have either Greek or Latin origins.
When standing alone, a root is still considered a word.
Word families consist of words that share the same root.

Commonly Used Roots Chart


Greek Root Definition Latin Root Definition
Root Definition
anthropo man; human; humanity Root Definition
ambi both
auto self aqua water
bio life aud to hear
chron time bene good
cent one hundred
dem people
circum around
dyna power
contra/counter against
geo earth dict to say
gram thing written
duc/duct to lead
graph writing fac to do; to make
hetero different form shape
homo same fort strength
hydr water fract to break
hypo below; beneath
ject throw
logy study of
jud judge
meter/metr measure
micro small mal bad
mis/miso hate manu by hand
mono one mater mother
morph form; shape missus send, throw
nym name mit to send
pan all mort death
phil love multi many
phobia fear pater father
phon sound pend to hang
photo/phos light port to carry
psycho soul; spirit rupt to break
scrib/scribe to write
scope viewing instrument
sect/sec to cut
techno art; science; skill
spect to look
tele far off / distant
struct to build
therm heat
trahere draw to pull
zoos living animal
vert to turn

216
i. Matching Words to base meaning

Base Meaning Words


1. not , opposite , negative A. biweekly , bimonthly, biannual, bilingual

2. before B. television, telephone, telescope

3. two or twice C. delete, deforestation, decentralize, decongestion

4. remove , relieve , opposite D. unpopular, unkind, unhappy, unlucky

5. again or back E. repeat resend ,restart, replay, reboot, remember

6. far or from a distance F. preview, predict, prehistoric, prefix, prepare,

preface

ii. Use the clues in the Greek Root box to fill in the blanks.
1. Astronomers look at stars using powerful ______________________________.
2. Children learn by recognising _____________________ sounds.
3. The custom of having one wife or one husband is known as __________________
4. In the hospital a nurse usually takes your temperature using a _______________________.
5. The study of __________________________ entails knowing much about the animal kingdom.
6. The study of living things is called __________________________.
7. A list of books used in writing a topic is called as___________________________.
8. The study of the Earth's surface is called ________________________________.

iii. Use the clues in the Latin Root box to fill in the blanks.

1. We have naval ships that are capable of launching _______________ at other ships.
2. I find the small ________________ television easy to carry when I go on picnic.
3. The tyres of the truck had poor _____________________ on the icy road.
4. Tomorrow our teacher is going give us a passage of ________________ to test our spelling.
5. Cars are made in _____________________ in Japan.

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v. Know Your Roots- Choose the correct word for the following

manuscript manual manufacture malpractice


malnutrition malfunction biology sociology
psychology thermal thermometer thermostat

1. operated by hand 7. an instrument that measures heat


2. the study of the mind 8. to make or create by hand
3. a device that controls the heat 9. the study of human organization
4. wrong or improper practice 10. failure to function properly
5. the study of life 11. lack of proper nutrition
6. a handwritten piece of work 12. caused by heat

D. Sentences: Adverbial Phrases

“Here, take it!” cried Nisha, passing the book to


Simon.

“Here, take it!” cried Nisha, hurling the book at Simon’s feet.

The words that Nisha says are the same, but adding an adverbial clause changes the
meaning of the sentence by telling the reader how she does it.

*counting up the points that she had lost. *throwing his book out of the window.

*staring at the flames. *picking up the stick.

Change the adverbial clause from the box above to change the meaning of the sentence.

1. “Let’s get out of here!” yelled Sarah, dragging the dog away from the gateway.
2. “You wouldn’t dare come any closer,” cried Timoci, throwing his arms across his face.
3. “This has been an awful day,” said Seini, her feet squelching in the mud.
4. “I’ve finished!” shouted Andrew, putting his book in the tray.

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Choose an adverbial clause from the box to add to these sentences.
…trying to pull free. …as he peered at the map. …wishing that she had been listening.

…jumping on her bike. …rummaging in her PE bag. …grabbing hold of his arm

5. “What was the question, Miss?” mumbled Lusi, …


6. “We are lost,” groaned Jone, …
7. “And where do you think you are going?” demanded Mum, …
8. “I’ve forgotten my ballet kit,” sighed Ani, …
9. “Let me go,” pleaded Tomu, …
10. “I’ll race you!” laughed Aradhana, …

E. Usage : Commas that Change Meanings

Look at this sentence:-

The policeman, who had been running for 5 minutes, had to take a rest.

In this sentence two commas have been used to add a clause. A clause is an extra piece of
information. The sentence could have said:-

The policeman had to take a rest.

But a clause makes the sentence more detailed.

Copy the sentences into your book and then work out where the commas need to go.

1. Slow children crossing.


2. Look at that huge hot dog!
3. The little girl who was wearing a red dress got up and left the room.
4. The cricketer wearing his new helmet was ready to go out to bat.
5. Everybody including the people wearing blue should leave through the red door.
6. My pizza which had tomato and cheese on it was the best I’ve ever tasted.
7. The oldest boy in school who happened to be the smartest won the monthly cup.

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8. That old grey chair which has been sitting here all the time had the winning ticket on.
9. Waking from a sound sleep I felt groggy.
10. Mr. Ramos will the jazz band meet after school today?
11. The treasure chest held emeralds diamonds and rubies.
12. In the aisle with the baked goods you will find the bread crumbs.

F. Grammar : Verb Tense


Tense refers to time. Simple tenses are present, past and future tense, The continuous tense
forms tells that action or process is , was or will be continuing .

Simple Form Continuous Form


1. the simple present ("I go") 1. the present continuous("I am going")
2. the simple past ("I went") 2. the past continuous ("I was going")
3. the simple future ("I will go") 3. the future continuous ("I will be going")

i. Simple Present Tense: Using the Verb "To be"


Write the correct form of "to be" in present tense.

My name (be) ________ Tomasi. I (be) ________ fifteen years old. I live on a farm. It (be) ________ in the
Seaqaqa. It is quiet in Seaqaqa. It (be, not) ____ ____ loud in the country. I wake up early. Sometimes, I
wake up before the sun rises. Sometimes, it (be) ________ still dark when I wake up. But I don’t mind. I
like waking up that early. I like the way the country looks in the morning.

The first thing I do after I wake up is milk the cow. After I (be) ________finished milking the cow, I
bring the milk to my mom. I think she uses it to make breakfast. She makes a delicious breakfast. My
mom (be) ________a really good cook.

Next, I feed the pigs. One time, I asked my mom how come my little sister doesn’t feed them. She
said it is because my sister (be, not) ____ ____ strong enough. But I still don’t understand. She is
almost as strong as me! I guess my mom doesn’t want my sister to get hurt. After all, the pigs can
(be) ________pretty rough, especially when they (be) ________hungry.

The last thing I do (be) ________(feed the chickens. That (be) ________ easy. I just throw some food down
on the ground and they run out and eat it. While the chickens ________eating, I go into their house to
collect their eggs. Chicken eggs (be) ________ really good to eat. They (be) ________ easy to cook too.
Thatii.is Simple Past
what I do Tense
in the mornings. I (be) ________ pretty busy

220
Fill in the spaces with the correct form of the verb in parentheses in simple past tense.

When Lealani (be) _______ seven years old, she (do, not, like) _______ _______ _______piano lessons.
She (do, not, like) _______ _______ ________ to practice, and sometimes she even (cry) _______ when
it (be) _______ time to practice. Finally, she (stop) _______ taking lessons. Some of Lealani's
friends (do, not, quit) _______ _______ _______ their lessons. They (continue) _______ to play. After
much practice, they (learn) _______ to play very well.

About ten years (pass) _______ before Lealani (become) _______ interested in music or the piano
again. After she (graduate) _______ (12) from high school, Abby (decide) _______ that she (want)
_______ to study music in college. She (call) _______ the lady who (teach) _______ her when she
(be) _______ a little girl. The lady (say) _______ she would teach Lealani again. The lady (need)
_______someone to help her daughter with homework. Abby (say) _______she would help with
homework in exchange for lessons. Because of this, the piano lessons (cost) _______ her
nothing! She (work) _______ very hard to catch up. Now she is making good progress.
Soon she will go to college, majoring in music.

iii. Simple Future Tense


Fill in the spaces with the correct form of the verb in parentheses in simple future tense.

Ritesh (graduate) _________from University of the South Pacific next month. He is trying to
study for final exams, but he is thinking a lot about his vacation plans. He (travel) _____
_______ _______ _________to England for a month during the holidays. His plane (leave) ________
on November 14th, and (fly) _______ from Nadi Airport to Gatwick International Airport in
London. Thomas decides that he (quickly, call) _____ ________ _______ his mother, Reshma.
Ritesh: Hi, Mom.
Reshma: Ritesh! Hi! I thought you would be busy with finals.
Ritesh: Well, I am, but I want to talk to you a little about England.
Reshma: Sure, okay.
Ritesh: Before I go sightseeing in London, I (visit) _______ _______ _____ _______the town of
Edenbridge, where my cousins live.

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Reshma: Great! That (be) _______ _____ fun. It (not, be) ______ _____ _____ hard to get to Edenbridge. It is
southeast of London. From the airport, you (ride) _______ _______a British Rail train to Victoria Station.
Another train (take) _______ ________you to Edenbridge.
Ritesh: That sounds easy. I looked at the town’s website. Edenbridge is called “The Garden of Kent.”
I (stay) _____ _______ _____ _______ in an old manor house which has been made into an inn. The gardens
there are beautiful, and there is a pool.
Reshma: Perfect. I bet that you (swim) _____ _______ in that pool! Have you contacted your cousin,
Will?
Ritesh: Yes, we plan to meet early on Saturday. Then, we (tour) _____ ______ _____ ______ Hever Castle,
the Great Stone Bridge, and the ancient Parish Church.
Reshma: What fun. This is a trip that you (never, forget) ______ ________ _______ !
Now, you had better go study so you (not, fail) ______ ______ ______ your exams.

iv. Present Continuous Tense

In the spaces with the correct form of the verb in present continuous tense.
Note: These sentences use verbs and adverbs. An adverb says something more about the
action of a verb.
Example: Violet (gracefully, dance) is gracefully dancing a ballet.
Example: Paul (wisely, check) is wisely checking the oil in his car.
1. The breeze (softly, blow) _______ _______ _______ on our faces.
2. The dog is very hungry. He is (quickly, eat) ________ ________ ________ all of his food.
3. The chestnut racehorse (already, cross) ________ ________ ________ the finish line. Its owner
is very happy.
4. Jonathan (rarely, exercise) ________ ________ ________, now that he is in college.
5. Mrs. Bale (angrily, yell) ________ ________ ________at the man who hit her car.
6. Be careful! You (almost, spill) ________ ________ ________ the paint.
7. The police (abruptly, stop) ________ ________ ________ traffic at the intersection.
8. Wasu (nervously, ask) ________ ________ ________ Tina for a date.

222
9. Dr. Wong (calmly, explain) ________ ________ ________ the operation to the patient's family.
10. The little girl (shyly, talk) ________ ________ ________ to Santa Claus. She wants him to bring
her a puppy!

v. Past Continuous Tense


Fill in the spaces with the correct form of the verb in past continuous tense.

Note: In this exercise, adverbs, like still, already, usually, frequently, slowly and
others—are used in past progressive verbs. An adverb tells us something more about
the action of the verb. It is said to "modify" the verb.

Example: Two turtles (slowly, cross) were slowly crossing the dusty road when we
passed by.
1. When I was young, Grandma (usually, bake) _______ _______ _______ bread on Monday
mornings.
2. When he attended football games, Satend (always, wear) _______ _______ ______ his team's
colours.
3. Although you bought a beautiful new car, you (still, drive) _______ _______ _______ your old one
when we saw you downtown.
4. When we arrived at the track meet, Juanita (already, run) _______ _______ _______ the100-meter
race.
5. Seagulls (frequently, steal) _______ _______ _______ from the fishermen's nets as they pulled
them in.
6. The Chand's (rarely, travel) _______ _______ _______ during the year they remodelled their
home.
7. Joyce (sometimes, make) _______ _______ _______pottery when the phone rang, so she could not
answer.
8. Manasa was resigned; his father (never, come) _______ _______ _______ back home again.
9. The two roommates (normally, clean) _______ _______ _______ their apartment on Saturday
afternoons last semester.
10. As he sat by the sunny window, the novelist (quickly, write) _______ _______ _______ the first
chapter of his new book.

vi. Future Continuous Tense

Fill in the spaces with the correct form of the verb in future continuous tense.
Note: The future continuous tense describes actions which will be ongoing in the future. It can
be formed using either “will be” + present participle (the -ing form of the verb) or “am/is/are”

223
+ “going to be” + present participle. Usually, in the future progressive tense, these two methods
are interchangeable. Remember, that is not true in the simple future tense.

Example: Sarah (run) will be running a marathon Saturday.


Example: Sarah (run) is going to be running a marathon Saturday.

1. Professor Ram (teach) _______ _____ ________ history next semester.


2. I (clean) _____ _______ _____ _____ ________ the house while you are doing the laundry.
3. The forecast says that it (rain) ______ _____ ________ all night.
4. Grandma (smile) _______ _____ ________ when she answers the door.
5. On Tuesday, the girls (take) _______ ________ _____ _____ ________ a taxi to the airport.
6. The plumber (connect) ______ _____ _________ the water pipes to the house tomorrow.
7. Brian (supervise) _______ _____ _________ the construction crew for a few days.
8. The Toro’s (fishing) _______ _____ _______ while they are on vacation.
9. Selai (play) _____ _______ _____ _____ _________ the solo for the concerto.
10. Joel and Rani (look) _____ _______ _____ _____ _______ for a new house while they are in Suva.
11. In order to earn a badge, the scouts (learn) _______ _____ _________ to tie knots this Thursday.
12. The pastry chef (bake)______ _______ _____ _____ _______pies early tomorrow morning.

G. Dictionary Skills: Misspelt Words


Correct each word that is misspelt.
1. reccomend 7. pronounciation
2. specemin 8. irresisstable
3. neccessary 9. rthym
4. regretible 10. parraffin
5. acommplish 11. embarassment
6. woolen 12. sintillate

H. Word Meanings: 'massive' and 'debris'


Use massive and debris in 4 different sentences to show that each word has more than one
meaning,

224
G. Spelling committed
mysterious
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure transmitted
qualified
misbehaved
See the word spacious
Hear the word benefitted
Adopt the word nervous
Record the word distinguished
Proofread the word resigned
delayed
ii. Visual Warm up: Fill the spelling words in the correct word shapes. travelled
accompanied
various
transferred
infamous

iii. Vowel Hunt: Fill in the missing vowels and write the spelling words.

1. tr_v_ll_d 9. tr_nsm_tt_d
2. r_s_gn_d 10. n_rv__s
3. _nf_m__s 11. m_st_r___s

225
4. d_l___d 12. m_sb_h_v_d
5. sp_c___s 13. d_st_ng__sh_d
6. v_r___s 14. b_n_f_tt_d
7. q__l_f__d 15. _cc_mp_n__d
8. c_mm_tt_d 16. tr_nsf_rr_d

iv. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

226
v. Generally Speaking: Write each spelling word for the group it best fits

1. faithful, dedicated 9. broadcasted, send out


2. assistance, advantage 10. submissive, acquiescent
3. deferred, postponed 11. toured, moved
4. go along with, attended 12. a variety of, a mixture of
5. distinguished, distinguished 13. roomy, drudgery
6. skilled, trained 14. worried, panicky
7. behaved badly, be naughty 15. unexplained, mystifying
8. transported, reassigned 16. renowned, legendary

vi. Cross Word Puzzle

Across Down
1. a variety of 2. gave up office
6. uneasy 3. experienced
8. go along with 4. received good
11. notorious 5. put of at a later time
12. strange event 7. roomy
14. relocated 9. performed a crime
16. go from one place to another 10. be naughty
13. passed from one person to
another
15. make out by hearing

227
vii. Scrambled Words
Write the word on the line.

1. imtmocdet ___________________ 9. mtetsrtandi ___________________

2. ftetibdeen ___________________ ___________________


10. insgeder

3. ylaedde ___________________ ___________________


11. evldraetl

4. ieancoapdcm ___________________ 12. aiousrv ___________________

5. diuniesghdtsi ___________________ 13. ssoapciu ___________________

6. duqifaeli ___________________ ___________________


14. snvoeru

7. hsdamiebev ___________________ ___________________


15. usmsetyiro

8. sradrtenfre ___________________ ___________________


16. nmsaiufo

viii. Word Search : Find the words from the spelling list

228
WRITING ACTIVITIES

A report tells about what a thing is,


What is an report? what a thing looks like, where it is
found and what it can do.

USE

Timeless Present Tense-


Title Names the thing
Vultures circle their prey,.... is
a popular holiday destination
Classification Tells what the thing is General Nouns -ski resort,
rock musician, mountain goat.
Technical Terms - Dolphins
Tells what the thing has. are mammals...,...is situated on
Description the Date Line
Tells what it looks like.
Rational Process ...Jupiter is
the largest planet in our solar
Locations Tells where the thing lives or system.; Unlike rabbits the
is found. young foxes are born fully
haired.
Dynamics Tells what the thing can do

Structure JUPITER Language Features


Jupiter is the largest of the nine planets in the solar system.
Title Technical language
Jupiter is bigger and heavier than all the other planets added
Classification together. More than 13000 Earths would fit inside it.
continuous
It is a huge ball of liquid wrapped in gas clouds, and is mostly present tense
made of hydrogen and helium , like a star.

Description Jupiter's most obvious feature is its Great Red Spot , which is a
A series of storm that has been raging for at least 300 years. Its striped Action Verbs
paragraphs appearance is due to its rapid rotation. This massive planet takes eg. 'wrapped'
about topic. less than 10 hours to rotate.
Jupiter has 16 moons . With its newly
discovered rings, it is certainly one of Diagrams
Conclusion
the most interesting and complex
Sums up the
planets to study.
report

229
Most reports contain a lot of special names of things and places. These are called proper nouns.
Proper nouns always begin with capital letter. Find and list the proper nouns in the report
above.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Write a report...

Planets ......Choose a planet , and write a report about it . Use the fact file to help
organise your information.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

Title ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Classification
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Description
Paragraph ______________________________________________________________________________
about the
topic ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion ______________________________________________________________________________
Sums up your
______________________________________________________________________________
report Fact File
______________________________________________________________________________
CLASSIFICATION DESCRIPTION EXPLORATION HISTORY
Name What is it? What group or system does it belong to?
______________________________________________________________________________
How big is it? What does it look like? What special features does it have?
Who discovered it What spacecraft has How was information gathered?
and when? explored it?

230
Revise and Edit More to
R -Replace words, Do
phrases and sentences Imagine that a 10th
with more effective ones planet has been
discovered in our solar
I -insert better words, system. Write a report
phrases and sentences
for display in the
D-Delete ineffective classroom that clearly
words, phrases and explains what the
sentences planet is like. Name it
SPELLCHECK and include a labelled
diagram.

Just for Fun

231
1 2 3 4

5 6 7

10

11

12

13 14

15 16

17 18

19

20

21

Across
1. The kind of planet that Earth and Mars are. 15. Planet between Saturn and Neptune.
6. Star at the centre of our solar system. 17. Planets like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
9. This planet is known as the red planet. Neptune.
10. A hole in the ground caused by a meteor 20. A rock that crashes into Earth's atmosphere.
hitting a planet. 21. The largest planet in the solar system.
13. An outer layer of gas on a terrestrial planet.

Down
2. Something that both Saturn and Uranus have. 14. The path that a planet takes around the sun.
3. Our planet. 16. One of many 'rocks' in a belt between Mars and
4. An instrument that scientists use to observe planets. Jupiter.
5. Our galaxy. 17. The force that holds planets in their orbits.
6. Our sun is this. 18. Planet famous for its rings.
7. The farthest planet from the sun. 19. An icy rock that has bright tail when it comes close
8. Planet closest to the sun. to the sun.
11. Planet named after the sea god. 20. Earth's companion.
12. Planet known as the evening star.

232
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 14
Genre: Explanation
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on explanations, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay
outcome response
attention and focus on
sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of ________________


2. I know the word ______ means ______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were ________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were _______
5. What I heard made me _____because
___________________________________

233
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple
is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t
isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t
could/n‟t
Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex

Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? ______________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?_____________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?___________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _____________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Pair-Share: Explain how the sun is important to plants. Brainstorm other things
that can be researched and discussed.

234
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)


 What is a storm?
 How many of you have been in a storm?
 Are they exciting or scary? Explain your answer.
 Have you ever wondered how a storm begins?

How do rainbows
form? How does a Explanations
cat clean itself? Explanations explain how something works or happens. It
explains, in scientific terms, the processes involved in an
action, event or behaviour.
They are written to provide us with more information thus
adding to our store of knowledge.

Today you will read an article titled “What is Lightning?”. Are you scared of lightening? Let
us see what all the fuss is about.
As part of our comprehension skill exercise we will complete a K-W-L chart.

K – What I know: List down all you know about lightning

W – What I want to know: List down what you want to know about lightning

L – What I learnt: After reading and discussing the story list down all the things you learnt
about lightning.

K – What I know W – What I want to know L – What I Learnt

235
Before reading the selection

 List down all you know about Lightning


 List down what you want to know about Lightning.

After reading the selection

 After reading and discussing the story list down all the things you learnt about
lightning.
Key
ii. Key Vocabulary Vocabulary
Match each icon with a key vocabulary word.
frightening,
Draw the icon in your book with the word beside it globe,
(use the dictionary for help). mystery,
Complete the cloze exercise using words from the key vocabulary list. bolts,
fortunately,
A _________ flashes through the night sky filling people with _________. The
spark,
air __________ and “boom!” the silence is broken. Around the ___________ it is
circuit,
a ____________ experience when it _____________. ____________ it is no longer a
dreaded,
big ____________, we now understand how lightening occurs.
occurs,
expands.
NOTE: Not all the words are used and one of the words is in
a different word form.

B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

What is Lightning?

Lightning is both exciting and frightening. It is also a


powerful force if not the most powerful in the world. Many
lives are lost each year from lightning. Every year
thousands of fires across the globe and hundreds of
buildings are damaged due to lightning strikes.

For thousands of years lightning and thunder remained a


mystery to many people. In fact it would terrify them. In different parts of the world
people had their own stories about thunderstorms. In China some believed there was a

236
Mother of Lightning who threw down electric bolts to earth. In Norway people thought the
God of Thunder, Thor, made thunder claps with his hammer. Fortunately scientists now
understand what is lightning and thunder.

Basically lightning is just a huge spark of electricity. These sparks can remain within the
cloud, jump from cloud to cloud or from the cloud to the ground. They are made up of
positive (+) and negative (-) electrical charges that move quickly through the cloud. The
positive charges are usually found at the top of the cloud while the negative charges are
found at the bottom. When positive charges are on the ground a huge spark can occur
between the cloud and the ground.

The positive charges and the negative charges join and the circuit is now complete.

Thunder, that dreaded sound after a lightning strike, occurs at the same time as lightning.
The flash of light or spark heats the air surrounding it to five times hotter than the surface
of the sun. The air expands at a super-fast speed and explodes. This is thunder.

Light waves are faster than sound waves therefore you see the light first and hear the
thunderclap later. It is just slower at arriving. If you hear thunder about 2 seconds after
the lightening flash then it is about half a mile from you.

That’s just way too close for comfort, isn’t it?

i. Comprehension Skill: KWL Chart and Compare and Contrast


a. Complete the KWL Chart with your teacher.
b. Compare and Contrast

You have now read 2 stories that deal with nature – “Volcanoes and Lightning.”

Use the Venn diagram below to compare and contrast the 2 stories.

Compare: Things that are similar

237
Contrast: Things that are different

In the centre list down things similar to both volcanoes and lightning strike.

Eg both of them can kill people

ii. Comprehension Check


1. Why is lightning considered dangerous?
2. Thunder dangerous or scary?
3. a) Where did the people of China think lightning came from?
b) Norway?
4. What is lightning?
5. How is it formed?
6. Why does it take thunder longer to reach us?
7. How far away is the lightning storm if the thunder arrives
1 minute later – 2 minutes later –
Straight away –

238
C. Word Knowledge: Analogies

A comparison made to show a relationship between something, usually a likeness.

i. Figure out the relationship between the first pair of words. Then fill in the blank
with a word that creates the same relationship between the second pair of words.

1. Happy is to joyful as sad is to ____________


2. Inflate is to deflate as strong is to ____________
3. Hot is to cold as sweet is to ____________
4. High is to low as quick is to ___________
5. Brother is to sister as Father is to mother ____________
6. Car is to drive as horse is to ____________
7. knife is to cut as spoon is to ____________
8. Cake is to bake as fish is to _____________
9. Broom is to sweep as brush is to ____________
10. Heart is to love as skull is to _____________
11. Elbow is to hand as knee is to _____________
12. Down is to up as small is to _____________
13. Tired is to sleep as hungry is to _____________
14. Day is to week as minute is to _____________
15. Sky is to blue as grass is to _____________
16. Fish is to aquarium as bird is to _____________
17. Milk is to refrigerator as ice cream is to _____________
18. Red is to pink as black is to _____________
19. Hair is to comb as teeth is to _____________
20. April is to March as Thursday is to _____________

ii. Circle the letter of the word that creates the same relationship between the second
pair of words as there is between the first pair.

1. HANDLE is to DRAWER as KNOB is to:

a. KNOCKER c. HINGE
b. DOOR d. HOUSE

239
2. RECTANGLE is to SQUARE as OVAL is to:

a. CURVE c. CUBE
b. TIRE d. CIRCLE

3. EYES are to SIGHT as EARS are to:

a. SOUND c. NOISE
b. HEAR d. GLASSES

4. CLASS is to TEACHER as TEAM is to:


a. PLAYERS c. COACH
b. GAME d. CAPTAIN

5. PEBBLE is to BOULDER as HILL is to:


a. MOUNTAIN c. HEIGHT
b. VALLEY d. ROCK

6. CLOSE is to NEAR as DISTANT is to:


a. LENGTH c. SMALL
b. BESIDE d. FAR

7. BARK is to TREE as SKIN is to:


a. KNEE c. FUR
b. PERSON d. SCALE

8. REVERSE is to FORWARD as DOWN is to:


a. GEAR c. LIFT
b. RAISE d. UP

9. BIRD is to NEST as PERSON is to:


a. JOB c. BED
b. SHOES d. LIVING ROOM

10. TADPOLE is to FROG as KITTEN is to:


a. CAT c. FISH
b. DOG d. TURTLE
D. Sentences: Euphemisms

240
We use euphemisms when we try and make something sound good. It is better to be more
direct or to the point.

E.g. My cat was struck by lightning and has finally departed from this world.

Direct sentence – My cat was struck by lightning and died.

i. Rewrite the sentences using more direct words. The euphemisms are
underlined.
1. As I lay reposing on my bed, the sound of thunder disturbed me.
1. The sanitary engineers vehicle woke me up when emptying our garbage cans.
2. The retired master is often under the influence of alcohol.
3. The little boys were so energetic and athletic they broke the toys.
4. My pay has been adjusted downward.
5. My friend, Jojo, is a creative thinker.

ii. Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the italicized euphemism with
more direct language.

1. Because of budget cuts at the company, my mother's job was terminated


without prejudice.

2. Sadly, the neighbourhood where we used to live is now said to be in


transition.

3. To her great embarrassment, Eileen's mother called her pleasingly


plump.

4. Moe's Pre-Owned Vehicles was the newest business in town, and


apparently it was extremely successful in these hard financial times.

5. Every Tuesday night we put out our recycling bins for the sanitation
engineers to pick up on Wednesday mornings.

6. The general explained that many civilian casualties resulted during the
platoon's efforts to neutralize the target.

E. Usage and Punctuation: Must, have, and ought to

When do we use must, have and ought to?

241
You must complete your work before the storm.

This is an order or a command.

You have to complete your work before the storm.

This is circumstantial meaning it depends on what’s happening around you.

You ought to complete your work before the storm.

This is the opinion of the speaker.

Opinion: personal view or belief

Use must, have (has) or ought to, to complete the following sentences. You many need to
add extra words.

1. I think that you __________ take time to take shelter from the storm.
2. You _________ stay inside during a lightning storm.
3. You ___________ block you ears during a thunder storm.
4. Thor _________ stop making all that noise, its giving me a headache.
5. For a complete circuit, positive charges and negative charges ___________ join.
6. If you are scared during a lightning strike, you ________ close the curtains.
7. Merewalesi is still weak and I _____________ help her when she walks across the room.
8. "Passengers ____________________ not smoke on the bus," warned the driver.
9. Jale looks so pale; he __________________ see the doctor.
10. You _______________ be more polite to your elders.
11. "You _________________ take your own pencil and ruler into the examination," said the
teacher.
12. The taxi has arrived, so I ______________________ to say goodbye.

F. Grammar: Its and it’s

Be careful not to confuse the possessive pronoun it’s with the contraction it’s

242
Possessive: The dog licked its paw.

Contraction: It’s time for the dog to eat.

Proof read the journal entry below. Jone has confused the possessive pronoun its with the
contraction it’s. Rewrite the journal entry correctly. Do not use contractions.

Its scary listening to an electrical storm. My friends and I hide under the blankets
when it’s around. They are leaving today. It’s been great knowing them. I will miss them
especially their dog, Mitzy. It loves playing with its tail. It usually spins round and round
and then falls over.

Oh well it’s been a long day and it’s now time to hit the sack. Night
everyone....WAIT! Is that thunder I hear? Oh no! It’s going to be a long night.

G. Dictionary Skills: Weather Words

Look up the meanings of the words below in the dictionary. Write it out. Choose any 4 and
use them to make sentences.

Precipitation condensation cyclone haze


front squall knots hail

H. Word meanings: 'charges' and 'waves'

Write 2 sentences for each word to show you understand the different ways they are used.

I. Spelling
Spelling List
Below are activities to help you become a better speller and to prepare
you for your spelling test. evident
inconvenient
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure
obedient
See the word innocent
Hear the word intelligent
Adopt the word
tournament
Record the word
superintendent
Proofread the word
ii. Visual Warm-up(word shapes) brilliant
abundant
Draw word shapes for all the words on your spelling list. deodorant
fragrant
pleasant
informant
restaurant
243
iii. 4 Corners
Study the example below and do the exercise for any 8
words on the list.

Word/Part of speech Meaning


Restaurant An establishment where meals
noun are served to customers
Sentence Illustration

Susan ate at the new restaurant.

iv. Word in a Series (Synonyms)


Choose a word from the spelling list to complete the series.
8. Cafeteria, bistro
1. Obvious, apparent 9. Difficult, untimely
2. Plenty, overflowing 10. Smart, gifted
3. Friendly, delightful 11. Manager, controller
4. Spy, tattletale 12. Scented, aromatic
5. Bright, vivid 13. Competition, contest
6. Blameless. Guiltless 14. Roll-on, Spray
7. Submissive, dutiful

v. Word Sorting
Sort all the words into alphabetical order.
vi. Proofreading exercise.
Correct the misspelt words in the paragraph below.

We went to the tornament and our boys were brillient. It was evdent that they had trained
very well together. They were obdient to all the coach had taught them and showed that
they were also inteligent in their game plan. Although practices were inconvinient they still
tried their best to be there and the abundunt skills they displayed.

WRITING ACTIVITIES

An explanation tells us how


What is an explanation?
something happens or works. It
usually uses scientific language
to explain the process involved.
244
USE
Explanations have four parts in their structure.
Noun Groups- five primary
Title This is a short statement (question) about wind belts
Passive Voice – were often
the topic.
delayed
Adverbial Phrases - calm
Introduction Gives a description light breezes
Action Verbs- forced,
Explanation Of the part or elements in the process. stranded
Sequence Conjunction and
connectives- or, and, by
Simple Present Tense-
Process How/ why the thing or process works. Can causes a belt... is mostly hot
include the cause. and humid
Technical Language –
Conclusion Concluding statement may have the effects of circulate the planet, squall,
the whole process. low pressure

Examples of Explanations:
 How do sound waves travel?
 Why do leaves change colour in autumn?

245
Structure Language Features
What causes the doldrums?
Title
Question in The doldrums are one of the five primary wind Technical terms
the heading
belts that circulate the planet. They consist of calm
Introduction light breezes or sudden squalls that usually occur over
Includes a
description or the ocean. They are considered a meteorological
definition.
phenomenon.
Timeless present
There are two areas of doldrums – one in the tense
Atlantic Ocean, between the west coast of Africa and eg. occur
Explanation
the north-east coast of South America and the other
Sequence
telling where, in the Pacific Ocean off the north-west coast of South
how and why America. Cause and
Masses of air are brought into the region by Effect
relationship
trade winds. After being heated in the tropics they
described
Cause are forced upwards. This causes a belt of low pressure
and
to form. Surface winds are practically non-existent in
Effect
these areas and weather is mostly hot and humid.
Sailing ships were often delayed in these areas,
the most famous of which belonged to Christopher
Conclusion
Columbus. In 1492, three of his ships were stranded
for weeks because of the doldrums.

The explanation above uses technical terms. Use a dictionary to


help you find the meaning of the words.

Doldrums
In the doldrums means you cannot
be bothered doing anything. You
squalls _______________________________ mope around lifeless. When ships
meteorological _________________ are in the doldrums they too cannot
phenomenon ___________________ do anything because there isn’t
trade winds _____________________ enough wind.
humid _________________________
pressure _______________________ 246
Write an explanation...

How do our eyes work? Research and write.Draft your explanation using the template
below to guide your writing.

Structure ____________________________________________________________
Title
______________________________________________________________________________
Question in
the heading
______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
Includes a ______________________________________________________________________________
description or
definition. ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Explanation ______________________________________________________________________________
Sequence
telling where, ______________________________________________________________________________
how and why
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Cause
______________________________________________________________________________
and
Effect ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion ______________________________________________________________________________

Revise and Edit


R -Replace words,
phrases and sentences
with more effective ones

I -insert better words,


phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences
SPELLCHECK
_
247
Just For Fun

Lightning & Electricity Word Search

D M J V G I S B D K J D Y W C

R E D N U H T U I L O C E L D

T D A M Z V K T O R T A K H T

B A N V K T E N G M T D R F L

F L N C E E E N G H A W U B I

S T O R M X I B E G M F T V G

K H S T Z N P R A P E B F J H

S B T B T A S E C H T S F E T

S A M H N R E C R O A Y M M N

I P G E L E C T R I C I T Y I

J I A Q C M X E I O M V G M N

L Z Z R Q E O Y E K L E Y I G

D X I J K Z W E T E L J N V H

C K U L Y E V K Z Q X A W T Z

G C R X O B E G F M D T R I A

ELECTRICITY EXPERIMENT FAMOUS


KEY KITE LIGHTNING
LIGHTNING ROD MEDAL SHOCK
SPARK STORM THUNDER
TURKEY WEATHER

248
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 15

Genre: Persuasive Text


Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on persuasive texts, to
be conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses


1. This reminds me of __________________
2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make

249
up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t


isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t
could/n‟t
Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex

Use the chart above to generate questions.


Listening and Speaking Worksheet
Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Class Activity

Pretend that you are a news reporter. Give a news report on a topic of your
own choose.

READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

250
A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)


 What’s something everyone seems to have nowadays?
 You see 3 or 4 in a family, the taxi driver, the rubbish picker, the supervisor and even
the manager all have them. It has become one of the most used of all communication
tools.
 Think of how much time you or a member of your family spends on their phone.
 In groups discuss and list some of the good and some of the bad things you notice
about mobile phones.
Key
Persuasive texts are written to argue or persuade. Vocabulary
debates,
They promote the writer’s point of view and try to
advertisements, fast paced
get the reader/ listener to agree with their view.
pamphlets, reviews norm
They are organised with: Proposition to be argued, communicate
arguments (in logical order), repeating of tense
arguments. blares
inappropriate
beforehand
retrieve
capture
mentioned
ii. Key Vocabulary etiquette,
Scan through the article and using the context clues, try to figure out what each word digital
means. Look at the title of the article - Are cell phones becoming a social problem? Canfocussing

you remember what social problems are? Think of your social studies lesson. What do
you think you will learn from this article? Write down your prediction before reading.
First your teacher will read the article to you. After you have discussed the article
together, get into groups and take turns reading.

251
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

Are Cell Phones Becoming a Social Problem?

In today’s fast paced world cell phones have become


the norm. Everyone has them. People feel lost if they
don’t have a phone on them. Yes, they are a great
way to communicate but have you noticed that they
are creating such a huge social problem. People are
forgetting their manners.

Think of the last time you watched a movie – you are on the edge of your seat
watching for something to happen or trying to hear what they are going to say
and into the tense silence someone’s ringtone blares? Don’t you just want to
scream?

What about the time your friend made you feel so unimportant by cutting you
off in the middle of your sentence just to answer a call? Even worse was when
she read your text messages that just came through.

Have you noticed how everyone is suddenly deaf while speaking on the
phone? People don’t feel comfortable when someone is shouting down a
phone and even worse saying inappropriate things. It should be remembered
that a phone does have a speaker so speaking in your normal voice will not be
a problem – they can hear you.

If you could spend as much time writing an essay as you did texting you’d soon
write a book. Lots of people have their eyes and fingers glued to their mobiles
even while people are speaking. Let someone know beforehand if you are
expecting a call and if you have forgotten to tell them, let the call go to
voicemail. You’ll soon be able to retrieve it

Horror of Horrors! You open your Facebook page and guess who’s looking right
at you with a silly expression – Yes, you! Without you realizing it, one of your
friends decided to capture that crazy moment you had together. Many
phones if not all, have cameras and photos should never be taken without
permission. So while it’s fun to take photos we must always ask before we start
clicking.

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Are cell phones a social problem? They will be if we continue with the
behaviour mentioned. Cell phone etiquette must now be the norm.

Firstly we need to respect the rules around us. For instance, lots of places have
rules about the use of cell phones and we must follow them. The silent or vibrate
option is there for a reason. In the new digital age a few simple rules, if followed,
will help us get along better. Instead of focusing all your attention on a piece of
plastic and metal, try and get along with others. After all, your phone cannot
do what a friend can. Let’s not make cell phones a social problem, remember
people are more important.

i. Comprehension Skill: Problem Solving

Problem – issues or questions that need a solution

Solution – answers that help solve the problem.

Teach – I DO

There are 5 steps to solving a problem.

Step 1 – Define the problem

Step 2 – Consider the possible solutions

Step 3 – Evaluate the possible solutions

Step 4 – Decide on the best solution.

Step 5 – Carry out the solution.

Problem: I am having a surprise birthday party for my mother tonight but I can’t get her to
visit my aunt so that I can prepare. What can I do?

Divide the class into groups and give them 5 minutes to come up with a solution.

Using the solutions provided by the students follow the 5 steps to problem solving. Model
each step. As a class decide on the best solution.

With the help of the class perform a short skit of the whole problem.

Practice: We do.

Together (choral reading) read paragraph 1 and 2 of the text.

253
Complete this chart on the board.

Problem Solution

Go through each step of Problem solving.

Discuss the best solution.

Apply: I do

Students will independently read the remaining paragraphs and complete the chart below.

Problem Solution

Paragraph 3

Paragraph 4

Paragraph 5

They will then decide as a class if cell phones are becoming a social problem and how they
can tackle it.

Reread the text before answering the questions.

254
ii. Comprehension Check
1. What is the purpose of this text?
2. Why do you think there are so many questions in the text?
3. Who is this text directed to?
4. What is the main issue?
5. List down at least 3 ways cell phones can be a problem.
6. How can this problem be solved?
7. “In today’s fast-paced world cell phones have become the norm”. – What does this
mean in your own words?
8. Explain cell phone etiquette?

C. Word Knowledge: Suffixes – able

Suffixes are added to base words. When the suffix is added it forms a different part of
speech. This is how many verbs are changed into adjectives.

This is also a way we can decode the word to find out what it means.

Decode – breakdown

E.g. changeable - change + able

The suffix –able means “having the ability to do something”.

Changeable = the ability to change

Teacher – I Do

Write the following sentences on the board

“People don’t feel comfortable”.

Comfortable is the adjective we need to find the meaning of.

Comfortable = _______________ (base word) + _____________ (suffix)

The suffix –able means the ability to do something

Comfortable means ________________________

Practice – We do

In pairs, explain what this sentence means by decoding the bold word.

255
They were agreeable with our plan to teach cell phone etiquette.

The new phones were fashionable.

Apply – I Do

Change the following words (verbs) into adjectives by adding the suffix –able

Decode the word and explain what it means.

Note: Check the spelling of the new word.

VERB NEW WORD MEANING

1. Communicate
2. Forget
3. Notice
4. Retrieve
5. Social
6. Mention
7. Respect
8. Place
9. Do

D. Sentences: Kinds of Adjectives

There are 3 kinds of adjectives.

 Adjectives of quality
 Adjectives of quantity
 Demonstrative or distinguishing adjectives

Adjectives of Quality tell us more about what a noun is like.

E.g. In today’s fast-paced world cell phones have become the norm.

i. Identify 2 phrases with adjectives of quality from the text.

Adjectives of Quantity express how much or how many of a thing.

ii. Identify 2 phrases with adjectives of quantity from the text

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Demonstrative adjectives point out, or distinguish, one thing from another.

e.g. …that crazy moment …

Demonstrative adjectives are this, that, these, the, those, such, same

iii. Identify 2 phrases with demonstrative adjectives from the text.

iv. More Practice

Improve the following sentences using adjectives of quality, quantity or demonstrative


adjectives

1. Jack and Jill went up the ______________ hill.


2. The creek flows under _____________ walkways.
3. That is _______________ a lie.
4. You have _______________ text messages left.
5. Did you have ______________ to eat?
6. Do you know ___________ girls?

E. Usage and Punctuation: Change of Speaker

When the speaker changes, the tense will also change.

Speaker 1: “Are cell phones a social problem?” asked the Teacher.

Speaker 2 reporting: The Teacher asked if cell phones were a social problem.

Speaker 1: “People are forgetting their manners,” said the Teacher.

Speaker 2 reporting: The Teacher said that people were forgetting their manners.

Complete the following activity by reporting what speaker 1 said.

1. Speaker 1: “Don’t you just want to scream?” asked the Teacher.

Speaker 2:

2. Speaker 1: “We must seek permissions before we take anyone's picture,” said Manu.

Speaker 2:

3. Speaker 1: “Have you noticed how everyone is suddenly deaf while speaking on the
phone?” asked Manu.

257
Speaker 2:

4. Speaker 1: “You don’t need to shout over the phone,” said Manu

Speaker 2:

5. Speaker 1: “You’ll soon be able to retrieve your voicemail,” said Manu

Speaker 2:

F. Grammar: Prepositional Phrase

A prepositional phrase is a group of words containing a preposition, a noun or


pronoun object of the preposition and any modifiers of the object.

e.g. We found the battery for the phone.

A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or an adverb

As an adjective the prepositional phrase will answer the question – Which one?

e.g. The cell phone on the floor belongs to me

which cell phone? The one on the floor.

As an adverb it answers the question How? When? or Where?

e.g. Manu lost his phone at the stadium.

Where did he lose his phone? At the Stadium.

Manu lost his phone on Wednesday afternoon.

e.g. When did he lose his phone? On Wednesday afternoon.

Manu’s phone fell out of the bag, and can’t be found.

How did he lose his phone? It fell out of the bag.

Identify the prepositional phrases in the sentences below.

1. Before class, Mary switched her phone off.


2. The phone in my bag belongs to Peter.
3. The message from Sanjay was sent to the wrong person.

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4. Seru, along with others had to switch his cell phone off.
5. During the movie Beni and Makolo played games on their phone.

G. Dictionary Skills: Cell phone Jargon


Text inbox outbox contacts call phonebook
messages Network ringtone keypad charger recharge
sim Screen emoticons menu

A. Place all the words in alphabetical order.


B. In groups, search for the meaning of the words. Write them down in your book.
C. Choose any 5 words and use them in sentences.

H. Word Meanings: 'Capture' and 'notice'

Write 2 sentences for each word to show you understand the different
ways they are used Spelling List
gradual
I. Spelling hospital
identical
Below are activities to help you become a better speller and to illegal
individual
prepare you for your spelling test.
fundamental
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure obstacle
artificial
See the word bicycle
commercial
Hear the word encircle
dismissal
Adopt the word vertical
diamond
Record the word diameter
Hygiene
Proofread the word

ii. Visual Warm-up(word shapes)

Draw word shapes for all the words on your spelling list.

259
iii. Phonics

List the words according to the first vowel sound.

Choral Reading: Read and spell all the words together as a class.

iv. Word in a Series (Synonyms)


Choose a word from the spelling list to complete the series.

1. Slow, steady, _____________________ 6. Span, thickness, ___________________


2. Distinct, specific, __________________ 7. Hindrance, complication, __________
3. Ring, enclose, _____________________ 8. Profitable, money-making, _________
4. Fake, mock, _______________________ 9. Essential, important, _______________
5. Sacking, removal, _________________ 10. Dishonest, unlawful, _______________

v. Word Sorting
Sort all the words into alphabetical order.

vi. Proofreading exercise: Correct the spelling of the following words

1. obstakle 6. individal
2. fandamentol 7. commershal
3. Higeen 8. encircle
4. artifishal 9. eyedentikle
5. vertikle 10. elegal

260
WRITING ACTIVITIES

A persuasive text is used by a


What is a persuasive text?
writer to persuade others. It
is also used to criticize and
review ideas and actions.

USE

Reported Speech-Many
residents say..., A number of
Title A short statement about the topic. newspapers have reported...
Technical Terms -Fiji's
ecosystem..., Multi story
Overview A brief statement of the writer's view of the building, Leisure Time
main topic Evaluative Language - It is
extremely important that
we..., It is not our
Reasons The points supporting the writer's view.
responsibility...
(The writers view can be for or against the
Conjunction and
topic) connectives (linking
Conclusions Summing it up words)- ...because...,
...therefore..., firstly , secondly
Thinking Verbs- Many
people believe...
Modal Verbs - We must take
care...
Persuasive text can be presented as:
 essays
 editorials
 letters to the editor
 speeches
 advertisement

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Structure Is TV bad for children? Language Features
Title
TV watching for children is a hot topic. While some people believe
TV is a bad influence encouraging bad habits, others believe TV Emotive words
Thesis /
Overview provides educational material and models good behaviour.
Gives the
author's Linking Words
On the one hand, TV can provide information that kids need.
feeling's or eg. 'but',
point of view Programs such as Fiji One News, Pacific Way provide up to date news 'because'
that helps children understand the world around them.
Arguments/
Reasons Additionally, TV promotes and demonstrates good habits such as
points participating in sports and eating healthily. Thinking Verbs
supporting the eg. Parents
writers view believe...
On the other hand, TV advertisements encourage children to be
greedy and thoughtless consumers.
Also supporting this view is the idea that children should learn
Conclusion
about sport and health issues by actively engaging in these pursuits
Sums up the
point of view
rather than simply watching them.

In conclusion, while TV can be educational and promote healthy


choices it can also encourage bad habits.

Persuasive text always gives arguments and evidence. Imagine you do not agree with the above
passage. Present an argument and supporting evidence for your point of view.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Write a persuasive text...

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Write a persuasive using persuasive language to defend your favourite radio
station.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Title
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Thesis / ______________________________________________________________________________
Overview
Gives the ______________________________________________________________________________
author's
feeling's or ______________________________________________________________________________
point of view
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Arguments/
Reasons ______________________________________________________________________________
points
supporting the ______________________________________________________________________________
writers view
______________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion
Sums up the ______________________________________________________________________________
point of view
Revise and Edit
______________________________________________________________________________
R -Replace words,
phrases and sentences Before writing a persuasive text you must:
with more effective ones
 First establish a topic and a point of view
I -insert better words, on that topic.
phrases and sentences  It is then important to research that topic
and find evidence and facts to help support
your point of view
D-Delete ineffective The structure of a persuasive is
words, phrases and important!!!!!
sentences
SPELLCHECK

263
Just for Fun

264
265
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES
UNIT 16

Genre: Persuasive
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on exposition, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

266
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and study an advertisement. Get them to share to the
class the advertisement.

267
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Have you ever taken part in sports?
 Do you enjoy playing?
 What game do you enjoy the most?
 Have you ever been part of a team?
 Have you ever played soccer?

The text for this unit is Persuasive text. Study what a persuasive is and try to
distinguish the features of a report in the passage "Playing Soccer?"

Persuasive Text
Persuasive texts are written to argue or persuade. They promote the writers point of view.
Persuasive texts are organized with: Proposition to be argued, arguments in logical order,
reiteration.
The features of persuasive writing are: generalised participants, passives to help text structure,
linking words associated with reasoning, nominalisation (actions become things) e.g. To pollute
becomes pollution.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

opportunity playing community club players registration


formed excitement teams interested competitions uniform

Word Map What is it like?

What is it?
(write the definition)

The Word

What are some examples?

268
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

Playing Soccer?

... Play for

Unique Soccer invites anyone interested in


playing soccer to join our club.

Unique Soccer was formed in 1976 to give everyone


in the community an opportunity to play sports
for fun and excitement.

Competitions will be held in these groups:


Boys' teams from Under 6 to Under 21.
Girls' teams from Under 6 to Under 21.
Men's and women's teams.

When: Registration Day is Saturday,


February 1
Time: 9.00a.m -1.00p.m
Where: Albert Park
FREE hotdogs New players should bring
FREE drink bottles 2 passport-size photos and
FREE uniform for all players their birth certificate.
who sign up this month For more information,
i. Comprehension Skills: Fact and Opinion Phone Chris at 788-8340
Come and kick a goal with US!269
FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
 A fact is a statement that can be proven.
 An opinion is a statement of belief , feeling , or preference.

Practice
Read the advertisement and identify each phrase as fact or opinion.

Apply
Have students list the facts and opinions in the chart below.

Facts Opinions
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

ii. Comprehension Check


Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. What do the initials US stand for on this flyer?
2. Who has been invited to join the soccer club?
3. What things are given free to everybody who attends the registration day?
4. What is given only to people who sign up in February?
5. Which groups have to bring photos and their birth certificate?
6. What types of teams does Unique Soccer club have?

270
7. Cloze Exercise:
Soccer
Soccer is a great team game. It is a _____________ that is played in most countries.
There are eleven ______________________ on each side. Players kick the ______________
and try to score goals. You score when you _____________________ or head the ball in
the goal. Only goalkeepers’ ______________ use their hands.

C. Word Knowledge: More about Sports

i. The clues below are names of sports . Match each object from the box to its sport
below.

rink rope mallet net goggles cape lifejacket

cue wicket board paddles parachute helmet posts

17. skating 6. diving


18. bull-fighting 7. pool
1. croquet 8. motor-cycling
2. rugby 9. skipping
3. sailing 10. spear-fishing
4. cricket 11. canoeing
5. volleyball 12. skydiving

ii. Underline the correct the word for each sentence

1 The person a tennis player serves the ball to is his or her (teammate/ opponent/ referee)

2 Golf is played on a golf (field/court/course).

3 Rugby players often have to (shoot/ tackle / whistle) their opponents.

4 The scores were tied at the end, so the game was a(draw/ victory/ defeat)

5 After winning the tournament, Anna held her (victory/trophy /coach) over her head.

6 Which of these words is the opposite of “professional”?(spectator/leisure/ amateur)

271
7 If a player breaks one of the (rules/ objects/ opponents, the referee should award a penalty.

8 The 400 metre race is one of the most exciting (medals/ games/ events) in athletics.

9 Which of these words has a similar meaning to “tactics”?(talent/ strategy/ fitness)

10 A swimming coach’s job is to(train/rescue/ cheer on) his or her athletes.

11 The players were working out in the gym in order to build up their
(sportsmanship/talents/physiques) .

12 Do you know how to keep(score/records/rules) during a badminton match?

D. Sentences: Inverted
Sentences can be turned around to make them more interesting.

Example:
The car raced past the shops.
Past the shops raced the car.

Invert the following sentences.

1. The football was kicked through the goals.


2. The dog raced after the cat.
3. Several cows were seen outside the fence.
4. The yacht gracefully turned into the wind.
5. The sun rose higher in the sky.
6. The bush was filled with dense smoke.

E. Usage : 'Neither ...nor, either...or'

These words are used in pairs, and cannot be interchanged.


Neither Jaanvi nor Lusi is going to the party.
Either green or brown paint is suitable.
(notice the singular verbs)

Choose the correct pair (either / or and neither / nor).


1. In this game, you _________ win _________ lose. It depends on you.
2. __________ Sue _________ Sara will help you with your homework. They are both busy at the
moment.
3. This is my offer. You ________ take it _________ leave it.

272
4. When I go to the restaurant, I eat ________ fish _________ roast chicken. These are my favorite
meals.
5. His father believed __________ his son ____________ his friend. He thought that both were lying.
6. I need _________ your help ________ your compassion. I can perfectly handle my problems all
alone.
7. __________ Semesa ____________Bill will write the report. Just ask one of them.
8. ____________ you return the money you had stolen __________ I'll call the police.
9. My mum can _____________ read _____________ write. She is illiterate.
10. You can use ____________ this computer _____________ the other one. Someone must fix them first.
11. A mathematical answer is __________________ right _____________ wrong.
12. Yes, I shall have ___________ ham ___________beef.
13. No, ____________Monday______________Tuesday suits me for tennis.
14. __________ Mum _________Dad likes dreadful weather.
15. An accused person is ________________ guilty ___________not guilty.
16. We _____________ are going to the park _______ are going home.
17. ______________ James _________ expressed their thoughts.
18. _____________ the cousins’ _______ Sharon told the truth.
19. At night ___________ the cats’ _______ the dogs wake us up.
20. John will ____________ start today ________ start tomorrow.

F. Grammar: Indirect Speech


We can write speech in two ways – as direct speech or as indirect speech.

DIRECT INDIRECT SPEECH

SPEECH

Mr Koroi screamed that


Mr Koroi screamed, “I am he was having a very bad
having a very bad day!” day!

For direct speech Mr Halls’ actual words are written in the sentence. They have
speech marks around them.

273
For indirect speech Mr Halls’ actual words are not written in the sentence. There are
no speech marks.

i. Finish each sentence, putting in the direct speech. You have to work it out from the
indirect speech sentences.

1. The old man remarked that he would be eighty next month.


“………………………………………….,” remarked the old man.
2. The criminal protested that he was not guilty!
The criminal protested, “…………………………………………..!”
3. The teacher told me that I needed to learn my spellings better.
“…………………………………………………….,” said the teacher.
4. Mark’s Mum told him to get some eggs from the shop.
Mark’s Mum said, “…………………………………………………”
5. The jockey said that his horse could gallop very fast.
“………………………………………………………,” said the jockey.
6. Dr Fisher told Jane the pills would make her feel much better.
Dr Fisher explained, “…………………………………………………………”
7. The man was shouting help, screaming that he couldn’t swim.
“…………!” shouted the man, “…………………………………………….”
8. The gentleman asked the lady if she needed help changing the tyre.
“……………………………………………………………?” asked the gentleman.

ii. Now try putting these direct speech sentences into indirect speech.

1. “I can’t afford those new trainers Sara!” explained dad.


…………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. “It’s raining heavily!” remarked Uncle John.


…………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. “I’m feeling terribly sick!” groaned Bob’s brother.


…………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. The mechanic explained, “The brakes need mending Mr Jones.”


…………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. “I’ll be leaving tomorrow!” shouted the disgruntled tenant.


…………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. “It’s a glorious day for a picnic!” exclaimed Grandma.


…………………………………………………………………………………………………

274
7. The mountaineer boasted, “I could easily climb that mountain!”
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. “Has anyone seen my crown?” asked the king.


……………………………...........................................................................................

G. Dictionary Skills: Word Meanings


Choose one or more words from the bracket that means the same as the first in each
exercise.

1. fraud(load, cheat, queer) 8. curtail(cut short, punish, whip)


2. repose (sleep, eat, ask) 9. authentic (stern, genuine, huge)
3. grimace(pull a face, boat, stone) 10. hassock (tool, grass, cushion)
4. cower(look down, cover, crouch in 11. weir(strange, join , dam)
fear) 12. thrift (saving , spending , insect)
5. shag (fish , bird, animals) 13. spume(feather, froth, kill)
6. meagre (unkind , lift, poor) 14. efface(clean, destroy, hide)
7. anonymous(huge, not signed, many) 15. petite(sweet, young, little)

H. Word Meanings: 'Teams' and 'Uniform'


Use teams and uniform in 4 different sentences to show that each word has more than one
meaning,

I. Spelling
Visualize
jealousy
immobilize
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure celery
economy
See the word
democracy
Hear the word
emphasize
Adopt the word
civilize
Record the word
authority
Proofread the word
guarantee

ii. Visual Warm up: Fill the spelling words in the correct word shapes

iii. Vowel Hunt: Fill in the missing vowels and write the spelling words.
275
1. c_v_l_z_ 6. g__r_nt__
2. _c_n_m_ 7. __th_r_t_
3. _mph_s_z_ 8. c_l_r_
4. j__l__s_ 9. _mm_b_l_z_
5. V_s__l_z_ 10. d_m_cr_c_

iv. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

276
v. Generally Speaking: Write each spelling word for the group it best fits

1. covetousness, resentment 6. halt, put out of action


2. egalitarianism, equality 7. accentuate, highlight
3. influence, power 8. advance, develop
4. wealth, saving 9. envisage, imagine
5. pledge, assurance

vi. Scrambled Words


Write the word on the line.

1. yljauose ________________________ ________________________


6. aungeeart
________________________
2. roedmycca
7. mbizliimeo ________________________
________________________
3. htoatiury ________________________
8. ipeesmahz
________________________
4. eyerlc ________________________
9. icelizvi
________________________
5. onmeoyc ________________________
10. ezlsaiuVi

vii. Word Search : Find the words from the spelling list

277
WRITING ACTIVITIES

A persuasive text is used by a


writer to persuade others. It is also
What is a persuasive used to criticize and review ideas
text? and actions.

USE Reported Speech-Many residents


say..., A number of newspapers
have reported...
Technical Terms -Fiji's
ecosystem..., Multi story building,
Leisure Time
Title A short statement about the topic. Evaluative Language - It is
extremely important that we..., It
is not our responsibility...
Overview A brief statement of the writer's view of the Conjunction and connectives
main topic (linking words)- ...because...,
...therefore..., firstly , secondly
Thinking Verbs- Many people 278
believe...
Modal Verbs - We must take
care...
Reasons The points supporting the writer's view. (The
writers view can be for or against the topic)

Conclusions Summing it up

Persuasive texts can be presented as:


 essays  speeches
 editorials  advertisement
 letters to the editor

Large letter to catch


the reader's attention

The Skate – o – Matic

“The brand new way to travel! Everyone’s doing it!”


Justin Bieber

279
Do you get fed up of walking in Comes in 15 the rain?
Persuasive language
Had enough of standing in the skate - tastic bus queue?
colours!
Advertisements are designed to persuade people to buy a product or service. Look through the
newspapersWell look no further,
and magazines the
to find examples outstanding
of persuasive words in advertising .Write eight of
them below.
Skate – o – Matic is finally here! Exclamation marks,
varied print style
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
It’s skate – tastic! help sell the products
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Get to your friend‟s house or to school in double quick time with the
sensational Skate – o- Matic. I’ve got one –
they’re great!
 It has 4 different speeds!
 An amazing anti-slip foot board! Bob of Balby
 4 remarkable rumble wheels! A slogan or catch
phrase is used to get
 Comes with a life time guarantee! the buyer interested
 Bargain price of $25.99

Only a few left! Be quick!

280
Design a persuasive poster
Write an advertisement...

Create a new product and write an advertisement for it . Choose from the words around the border to
help create a persuasive advertisement.
Introductory

Product name Offer Draw an


in large attractive
letters picture of
your
product

Special Save
Outline
the
special
Use Value
features
persuasive
language
Bonus
Reduced
Create a
slogan for
Highlight
your product Barg the great
value
% off ain price

281
Just for Fun

Sports Word Jumble

Unscramble each word to make a sports word.

1. yebolvlall ____________________ 5. sinnet ____________________


2. ootbflal ____________________ 6. khyeco ____________________
3. cercos ____________________ 7. gbwonil ____________________
4. lelsabab ____________________ 8. klbaatebsl __________________

282
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES
UNIT 17
Genre: Report
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on report, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

283
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and share about your favourite sport. Get them to share
to the class your report.

284
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 How many types of sporting activities do we have in Fiji?
 Do you enjoy playing sports? Why?
 What sport do you like the best?
 What types of sports are popular in your school?
 Do you know what Olympic Games are?
 Do you know someone who has participated in Olympic Games? If yes , who and
what event?

The text for this unit is report. Study what a report is and try to distinguish the features
of a report in the passage "Olympic Games "

Report Writing
Reports are written to describe or classify the way things are or seem to be.
They organise and record information.
Reports are organised by; classification, description and summarising comment.
The features of report writing are; generalised participants, impersonal objective
language, continuous present tense and subject specific vocabulary.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

Context Clues:
When you come across a word you don't know, don’t stop reading. You can often figure out
the meaning of an unfamiliar word by using the words around it. The surrounding sentence
or paragraph is known as the context.

Use the context to figure out the meaning of the key vocabulary

competitions strengthened modern statue festivals


gracefully appointed member festivals quarrelled

285
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

The Olympic Games

The first Olympic Games were held many hundreds of years ago in Greece.
The Ancient Greeks loved things that were beautiful and good. They
believed that people should try to make their bodies fit and healthy
because this would help them to be good and wise and brave. At school,
Greek boys did exercises and dances which strengthened their bodies
and taught them to move gracefully, in a way that was pleasing.

The people who lived in the Greek cities arranged festivals. They believed
that their gods enjoyed the festivals and were pleased with the people
who took part in them. At the festivals people took part in competitions. Some of the
competitions were in running, jumping, throwing, javelins (spears),wrestling and other
sports.

The most important festivals was held every four years in a place called Olympia. The
competitions and sports that were held during the festivals at Olympia were called the
Olympic Games.

In Ancient Greece, each Greek city had its own government and its own soldiers. The cities
often quarrelled with each other and sent their soldiers to fight each other. However,
when the Olympic Games because very important , all the cities agreed that they would not
quarrel or fight for six months before the games started. They agreed that their soldiers
would not fight from that time until after the games were over. This gave the young men,
who were also the soldiers, time to train and practise for the games. In those days, women
did not take part in the Olympic Games.

Some men were appointed judges. Their job was to choose the winners
in the competitions. These judges watched the competitors very
carefully during a race because the runner they chose as the winner was
not always the one who finished first. Sometimes they chose the person
who finished second as the winner because he ran more gracefully than
the one who finished first. So the young men had to run fast but they
also had to move in a way that pleased the people who were watching.

A man who won a competition in the Olympic Games was a crown made
of leaves. He was not given a prize but he became famous everywhere in Greece. All the
286
people who lived in his city were proud of him. People wrote poems about him which
described how he had won the competition. Sometimes people made a statue out of stone
to show what he looked like so that everyone would remember him for a long time. We can
still see some of these statues today.

The Olympic Games were held every four years for more than a thousand years. But then
the Roman soldiers defeated the Greeks and Greece became part of the Roman Empire. In
393 A.D the Roman Emperor stopped the Olympic Games.

The Olympic Games were not held again until 1896. A Frenchman called Pierre de
Coubertin thought that it would be a good idea to start the games again. He wanted people
from many different countries to take part in modern Olympic Games. He believed that
this would help people from different countries to make friends with each other. He also
thought it would help to stop wars.

The first Olympic Games were held in 1896 in Athens, the capital of Greece. Twelve
countries took part in the Games.

The modern Olympic Games are not quite the same as the Greeks used to hold. Now they
are held in a different place each time and countries all over the world send teams. The
teams include women because now there are competitions for woman, too. There are
competitions in many more sports in the modern Olympic Games. There are now
competitions in sports such as soccer, rugby, cycling, swimming and horse-riding, as well as
running, jumping, wrestling and throwing javelins. At the Olympic Games in Barcelona in
1992, there were competitions in 27 different sports and competitors from 172 countries.

The Commonwealth Games in the South Pacific Games are very like the Olympic Games but
fewer countries send teams to them. The Commonwealth Games are also held every four
years but they are never held in the same year as the Olympic Games. Any country which is
a member of the British Commonwealth can send a team to the Commonwealth Games.
They were first held in Canada in 1930.

The South Pacific Games are for countries in the South Pacific. They are
now held every four years. The first South Pacific Games were held in
Fiji in 1963. Since then they have been held in New Caledonia, Papua
New Guinea, Tahiti, Guam and Western Samoa.

287
i. Comprehension Skills: Topic, Main Idea, and Supporting Details

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
The topic is the subject the author is writing about. The main idea is the most important idea
that the writer wants readers to understand about the topic. Supporting details are pieces of
information that explain or tell more about the main idea. Supporting details may include facts
and examples.
In a longer piece of writing one paragraph may have a topic, a main idea and supporting details
that explain this main idea. Main ideas are often stated in headings or key sentences. However
readers must infer the main idea by summing up details and inferring the author's meaning.
Practice
Point out the topic of the passage .Discuss with students the main idea of the entire selection.
Have them infer the main idea by summing up details in these paragraphs.
Apply
Ask students to infer main ideas by summing up supporting details in the passage.

What's the Big Idea?


Complete the chart below about the main idea, and supporting details based on
"Olympic Games".
Topic:_______________________________________

Main Idea Main Idea


___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________

Supporting Details Supporting Details


___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________
___________________________________ ___________________________________

Main Idea
___________________________________
___________________________________

Supporting Details
___________________________________
___________________________________ 288
___________________________________
___________________________________
ii. Comprehension Check

1. Why did the Greeks think people should strengthen their bodies?
2. Why did the Greeks arrange festivals?
3. Why did the Greek cities stop fighting for six months before the Olympic Games?
4. How often was the second place-getter chosen as the winner?
5. How is the modern Olympic games different from the Ancient Olympics?
6. Why did the Greek boys do exercises and dances at school?
7. Why were the games called Olympic Games?
8. Why did people write poems about men who won competitions at the Olympic
Games?
9. How are Commonwealth Games different from Olympic Games?
10. How are the South Pacific Games different from Common Wealth Games?

C. Word Knowledge: Idioms


An idiom is an expression that can not be understood from the ordinary meanings of
the words in it.
i. Complete each sentence by using the correct words from the box.

yellow nerves heads popped hand


green sardines flesh sparrow pod

1. That noise gets to my ______________.


2. Ben's eyes __________ at all the presents.
3. Our team had the upper _____________ and won.
4. They are alike as peas in a _________________.
5. Put your __________________ together to solve the problem.
6. He was very __________ and had much to learn.
7. Snakes make my _________________ creep.
8. Suresh is so thin because he eats like a ___________________.
9. A person who is __________________ is a coward.
10. We were packed in the bus like ____________________.

289
ii. Match the idioms to their correct meanings and write out the matching pairs.

Idioms Meanings
1. She’s burning the candle at both ends. A. I want a word with you (about a problem)
2. He’s pulling the wool over her eyes. B. It’s pouring with rain.
3. He’s leading you up the garden path. C. I suspect something is wrong.
4. It’s raining cats and dogs. D. He has made a fresh start.
5. I’ve got a bone to pick with you! E. He’s trying to fool you.
6. I can smell a rat. F. They paid too much money for it.
7. They paid through the nose for it. G. She’s working day and night.
8. He has turned over a new leaf. H. He’s keeping a secret from her.

D. Sentences: Using Better Words instead of 'went'


Write the sentences using words from the box in place of went.

travelled drifted scampered crawled toddled

plunged wriggled curled glided limped

1. The lizard went between the rocks. 6. The swan went across the lake.
2. A caterpillar went up my arm. 7. White clouds went across the blue sky.
3. Dense smoke went out of the chimney. 8. The mouse went into its hole.
4. The infant went across the floor. 9. The cripple went across the road.
5. Dad went into the pool. 10. My aunt went overseas.

E. Usage : 'lie' and 'lay'


To lie means to rest.
To lay means to put to put something down.
I lie or am lying on the bed. I was lying , I lay or I have lain on the bed.
I lay or am laying the cup on the saucer . I was laying , I laid or I have laid the cup on
the saucer.

Write each sentence using the correct word from the brackets.
1. I (laid/ lay) on the sofa yesterday.
2. I (lay/ laid) the vase on the table .
3. The treasure was (lain/ laid) under a rock.
4. I would like to (lie/lay) on the beach.
5. I have (lain/ laid ) the fork on the plate.

290
6. I have often (laid/ lain) on that couch.
7. Please (lie/ lay) the cloth on the table.
8. Ms. Ram told us to (lie/ lay) our work aside.
9. Will you (lie/ lay) down for a rest this afternoon?
10. (Lie/ Lay) your books beside mine.
11. The doctor (lay/ laid) all my fears to rest when she talked to me yesterday.
12. The button from my jacket was (lying/ laying) on the sidewalk.
13. I’m afraid that Tim has been (lying/ laying) down on the job.
14. Every evening Sue (lies/ lays) her clothes out for the next day.
15. The chickens (lay/ laid) more eggs than usual yesterday.
16. Can you help me (lie/ lay) the floor in the bathroom?
17. I have (lain, laid) the key somewhere, and now I can’t find it.
18. When Mr. Jones (lay, laid) down for a nap, he was unable to sleep.
19. My pen was (lying, laying) on the table.
20. Mr. Ratu (lay/ laid) his briefcase on the table when he entered.
21. . Miss Ali is so tired that she’s been (lying/ laying) down all afternoon.
22. I (lay/ laid) the book aside and answered the doorbell.
23. Our dog never (lies/ lays) down when told to do so.
24. The blame for the mistakes has been (lain/ laid) on my shoulders.
25. Your jacket has been (lying/ laying) on the floor all morning.

F. Grammar: Apostrophe of Contraction

To show the omission of letters and to form contractions

• Apostrophes are used to show any omission of letters in a word.


• Apostrophes are also used to form contractions. A contraction is
a combination of two words which results in a single word. The
apostrophe is used where letters have been omitted. Contractions
are common in speaking and in informal writing.

 Here are some examples of contractions:

291
i. Use apostrophes in the following sentences to make contractions.
Example: I am your friend. I’m your friend.
1. I do not like vanilla ice cream. 6. She will be the class president.
2. I am going to the mall. 7. He should not worry so much.
3. Who is the new student? 8. They will be here in fifteen minutes.
4. They are my best friends 9. Where is my blue book?
5. We are not waiting in the line. 10. She does not eat spinach.

ii. Use what you have learned to punctuate the following sentences with
apostrophes.
Example: Where is the book of John? Where’s John’s book?

1. This is not the key I was looking for. 6. This wallet belongs to Tito.
2. I want to pet the head of the dog. 7. This one is nicer than the one that Dan has.
3. That is the hat of Jones. 8. It is funny when the dog chases its tail.
4. I need to go to the market of the town to 9. We should not take the car of my father to
buy milk. the beach.
5. Did you not wash the car of Bill? 10. She is the best student in the college.

G. Dictionary Skills: Beginning with 'micro'


The prefix 'micro-' comes from Greek words meaning 'small'.
A microlight is a small aeroplane that usually has no more than two seats.
i. Match Column A to Column B
Column A Column B

1. microphone A. an electromagnetic wave that can be used for cooking food


2. microwave B. an instrument that converts sound waves into electric current so they can
be amplified
3. microscope C. the design and production of very small parts for computers
4. microform D. measuring instrument
5. microelectro E. an instrument that magnifies very small objects to make them easier to see
nics
6. micrometer F. transmitting device
7. microbe G. miniature representation of something
8. microsystem H. one millionth of a metre
9. microcosm I. minute organism
10. micron J. small picture of document or paper

292
H. Word Meanings: 'members' and 'appointed'
Use members and appointed in 4 different sentences to show that each word has more than
one meaning,

I. Spelling

i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure recipe


economics
See the word penicillin
Hear the word episode
Adopt the word embarrass
Record the word reddest
Proofread the word sceptical
weapon
ii. Visual Warm up: Fill the spelling words in the correct word shapes wealthy
dreadful
ghetto
reprimand
recommend
specific
engineer
kettle

293
iii. Vowel Hunt: Fill in the missing vowels and write the spelling words.

1. p_n_c_ll_n 9. dr__df_l

2. _ng_n__r 10. r_c_mm_nd

3. k_ttl_ 11. r_c_p_

4. w__lth_ 12. _p_s_d_

5. _mb_rr_ss 13. r_dd_st

6. r_pr_m_nd 14. sk_pt_c_l

7. sp_c_f_c 15. w__p_n

8. _c_n_m_cs 16. gh_tt_

iv. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

294
v. Generally Speaking: Write each spelling word for the group it best fits

1. instructions, method 9. persuade, wheedle

2. most red, in the red 10. finances, money matters

3. prosperous, rich 11. incident, occurrence

4. lecture, chastise 12. humiliate, make ashamed

5. explicit, detailed 13. horrible , outrageous

6. bludgeon, stick 14. teakettle, kettledrum

7. propose , commend 15. produced by blue molds, antiseptic

8. doubtful, dubious 16. slum area, put in

vi. Scrambled Words


Write the word on the line.

1. pierce _________________ _________________


9. regenein
_________________
2. strdede _________________
10. ooecimnsc
_________________
3. hleywat _________________
11. esioedp
_________________
4. nedpirmar _________________
12. arrsebmas
_________________
5. ecpsiicf _________________
13. uflaedrd
_________________
6. aewonp _________________
14. letkte
_________________
7. econmmred _________________
15. llienniipc
_________________
8. ctleakisp _________________
16. ttegoh

295
vii. Word Search : Find the words from the spelling list

WRITING ACTIVITIES
A report tells about what a thing is,
What is a report? what a thing looks like, where it is
found and what it can do.

USE

Timeless Present Tense-


Title Names the thing
Vultures circle their prey, is a
popular holiday destination
Classification Tells what the thing is General Nouns -ski resort,
rock musician, mountain goat.
Technical Terms - Dolphins
Tells what the thing has. are mammals...,is situated on
Description the Date Line
Tells what it looks like.
Rational Process ...Jupiter is
the largest planet in our solar
Locations Tells where the thing lives or system. Unlike rabbits the
is found. young foxes are born fully
haired.
Dynamics Tells what the thing can do

296
Structure Soccer Language Features

Title Soccer is a game played by two teams of eleven. They try to Technical language
score by kicking or heading the ball into the other team’s
Classification
goal. Ten of the players cannot use their hands. The goal
continuous
keeper can handle the ball to stop it going into the goal. present tense

Games similar to soccer have been played for many


Description centuries. The rules of the games were written down in
A series of 1863. In England, the FA ( Football Association ) cup was Action Verbs
paragraphs first played for in 1872. In the same year, England played eg. 'played'
about topic.
Scotland in the first game.

Today the most important International Competition is the Diagrams


Conclusion
World Cup which takes place in every four years. Brazil and
Sums up the
Italy have each won the world cup three times.
report

Most reports contain action verbs. Find and list the verbs in the report above.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_

297
Write a report...
Sports......Choose a sport , and write a report about it . Use the fact file to help organise your
information.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

Title ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Classification
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Description
______________________________________________________________________________
Paragraph
about the
______________________________________________________________________________
topic
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion
Sums up your ______________________________________________________________________________
report
Fact File

CLASSIFICATION DESCRIPTION EXPLORATION HISTORY


Name What is it? What group or system does it
belong to?
How big is it? What does it look like? What special features does it
have?
Who discovered it What spacecraft has How was information
gathered?
and when? explored it?
______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

298
Just for Fun

Sports Word Search

BALL BASEBALL BASKETBALL


BAT CATCH COMPETITION
GOLF JOGGING JUMP
KARATE LOSE OLYMPICS
RACE RUGBY RUN
SPRINT SWIMMING TEAM
THROW WIN

299
300
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 18

Genre: Biography
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on exposition, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

11. This reminds me of __________________


12. I know the word ______ means _______
13. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
14. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
15. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

301
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Research in the library, internet or newspaper about any historical famous


people . Share your findings with the class.

302
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Have you been treated unfairly?
 What do you understand by the term ‘caste system’?
 Do you know of any famous people?
 What do you know of the famous person?
 What work did he/she do to place an impact on your life?

The text for this unit is biography. Study what a biography is and try to distinguish the
features in the passage "Gandhi. "

Biography

A biography provides life details of a person, usually presented in chronological order. A


biography includes precise details about birth place, and birth and death dates.

ii. Key Vocabulary

Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class. Write down all the
words and their meanings into your book. Beside each word draw a little picture or icon
to help you remember the word.

foreigners turban unjust


passive resistance poverty untouchables
taxes imprisoned bullets

303
B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow

GANDHI

Mohandas Gandhi was born in India in 1869. After Secondary School, Gandhi went to
England to study law. At first his mother did not want him to go overseas. She was afraid
he would learn evil ways from foreigners. However, after Gandhi promised to behave
properly, she gave him permission to go.
Gandhi passed his exams and returned to India. He did not earn much money so, when he
had a chance to work in South Africa, he was glad to go.

When he arrived in Durban in 1893, Gandhi visited the law court there. He was told to take
off the turban he wore on his head. Later, at Pietermaritzburg, he bought a first class
railway ticket and entered a carriage. A man scolded him. “You can’t come in here! It’s for
Europeans only!” And he pushed Gandhi out. Gandhi was shocked by this treatment. It
was so unfair. He was filled with shame and wanted to return to India immediately.
However, he decided to stay and fight against the unjust way that Indians were treated in
South Africa.

Gandhi did not want to use any weapons in his fight against injustice. He said it was better
to resist without using force. This method became known as passive resistance. When
the government in Transvaal made a law that all Indians must register their fingerprints,
Gandhi told the Indians not to obey this law. Under Gandhi’s leadership, 2000 Indians went
on a march protesting against the unfair law. This was risky because Gandhi’s followers
could have been arrested by the police and locked up in prison. However, their passive
resistance was successful. The government of Transvaal had to change the law.
Gandhi believed that wealth is not as important as happiness. Gandhi decided to live a life
of poverty and stopped working as a lawyer. Instead he did ordinary jobs, such as
mending shoes, collecting rubbish and farming.

Gandhi returned to India in 1915 and worked hard to provide education for poor village
people. He also tried to help the people who were called ‘untouchables’. Indians divide
themselves into groups called castes. Important people such as priests belong to the
highest caste. The ‘untouchables’ are so low that they have no caste at all. In those days,
the ‘untouchables’ were not allowed to live with other people because it was believed that
they were too low and unclean. Gandhi felt very sorry for them and tried to improve their
living conditions.
Now, partly because of Gandhi’s work, and partly because more people are educated, many
Indians think it does not matter what caste a person belongs to. They think everyone
should be equal.

After the First World War, many Indians did not want the British Government to rule India
any longer. Gandhi was a leader in the fight against the British Government. He told the
people not to obey British laws and not to pay taxes to the Government. For this he was

304
arrested in 1922 and sent to prison but two years later he was set free and allowed to
return home.
Gandhi was imprisoned again in 1930 when he told the people not to pay tax on salt.
Thousands were arrested but the Government had to give way in the end. Gandhi was
released from prison and sent home, and the people were allowed to make salt without
having to pay tax on it. Gandhi had shown that passive resistance can be very effective.

After World War II, the British decided to leave India. Some Hindus and Muslims wanted
India to be divided into two parts – one part for the Muslims, the other for Hindus fought
each other and many more were killed. Gandhi was sad to see this. He walked from village
to village, telling people that Hindus and Muslims must live like brothers. He even refused
to eat food unless the people stopped fighting but it was useless. When the British left
India in 1947 the country was divided into India and Pakistan.
Some people did not like Gandhi because he said Muslims and Hindus should live together.
They said Gandhi was an enemy of the Hindus. On the afternoon of 30th January, 1948,
when Gandhi was going to a prayer meeting, a Hindu fired three bullets and killed him.
Gandhi, who people had named ‘Mahatma’ (‘Great Soul’), was dead.

i. Comprehension Skills: Noting Details

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
Discuss how important details help readers picture characters, setting, and actions in
their minds. Help students write a set of tips for noting details such as:
To find important details I could ask myself these questions:
 What do I think this (person, place, thing) is like?
 What details gave me this idea?
 Do these details 'add up'?
Practice
Have students work in groups to locate important story details..
Apply
Have students keep track of details as they read the passage.
ii. Comprehension Check.

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1. Why did Gandhi stop working as a lawyer?
2. Gandhi used passive resistance several times to force the government to change its
mind. Mention two examples.
3. Why did Gandhi refuse to eat food on one occasion?
4. Why was India divided into 2 countries in 1947 when the British left?
5. Where was Gandhi shot?
6. Why was Gandhi shot dead?
7. What do you think is the purpose of this story?

C. Word Knowledge: More on Occupations


Complete each sentence using the correct occupation from the box.

mason surgeon joiner draper

milliner reporter masseur magistrate

drover cobbler confectioner farrier archaeologist

1. A _________________ operates on people. 8. A ____________________ shoes horses.


2. An _____________________ studies the past. 9. A ____________________ works in court.
3. A _____________________ sells or makes 10. A _________________ builds in stone.
toffee. 11. A ___________________ sells or makes hats.
4. A _____________________ drives cattle. 12. A ___________________ writes for a paper.
5. A ____________________ mends shoes. 13. A ____________________ does woodwork.
6. A ______________________ looks after money. 14. A _______________________ massages people.
7. A ____________________ sells cloth.

D. Sentences: Homophones

Homophones are words that sound the same but have different spelling and meanings.
e.g.- Be and Bee

i. Write each sentence using the correct word from the brackets.

1. The doctor told me to (gurgle/gargle) my throat.


2. Her paintings hang in the art (galley/gallery).
3. We went fishing on the lake in a (dinghy/ dingy)
4. The queen booked a (suit/suite) of rooms.
5. My old parrot is beginning to (mould/moult)

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6. A (corps/corpse) lay on the railway track.
7. The queen wore a diamond (broach/brooch)
8. (Morale/Moral) was high after
the team won.
9. For (desert/dessert) we ate custard pudding.
10. An (urban/urbane) person is refined and polite.
11. We stopped in a (bizarre/bazaar) in Nadera.
12. The truck was (stationery/stationary) when it was hit by the bus.

ii. Write the correct word for each clue.


1.
a. ________________couple b. ________________ fruit that grows
on a tree
2.
a. _________________ beef, pork, ribs, b. __________________talk to someone
poultry for the first time

3.
a. ___________________bucket b. __________________ light-coloured

4.
a. ___________________shirts, pants, b. ___________________ shut or seal
hats, shorts
5.
a. ____________________colourful part b. _____________________white powder
of a plant used for cooking

6.
a. ______________________ lines; b. ______________________ red flower
opposite of columns with a thorny stem
7.
a. ______________________ six-legged b. ______________________your father's
creature that digs tunnels
8.
a. _____________________dog's feet b. _____________________to stop, halt,
or freeze
9.
a. _______________________ detect b. ______________________ place where
things with your eyes dolphins, sharks, and whales
live

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10.
a. _______________________not warm b. _____________________ spicy bean
and beef meal served in a
bowl
11.
a. _____________________ time when b. ____________________ someone that
you're sleeping protects a king
12.
a. ______________________ mother's boy b. _______________________ hot ball of
burning gas in space
13.
a. _______________________ opposite of b. ______________________ greeting
low
14.
a. _______________________to put in the b. _______________________ small,
ground and cover with dirt round fruit; straw, black, or
blue
15.
a. ______________________________ 60 b. ______________________________
minutes belonging to us

E. Usage and Punctuation: Unnecessary Words


Re-Write each sentence leaving out the word that is unnecessary.

1. We had three different kinds of drinks.


2. Each individual person was given a towel.
3. The widow woman was wearing black.
4. I can’t help but thinking of my grandmother.
5. Please refer back to page eight.
6. The water was too cold for people swimming.
7. Neelam ate pie, cake and also ice-cream.
8. She is seldom ever late for school.
9. We will go and meet at the zoo.
10. The boys lay down quietly.

F. Grammar: Apostrophe of Possession

You can use an apostrophe to show that someone or something owns something.
Add 's to make a word possessive: John's spelling book is missing.
If a word already ends in s, you only need to add ': James' spelling book is missing.

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Rewrite each sentence. Add apostrophes where necessary to show a possessive
word.
1. Has Rachael’s height really increased 4centimetres since last January?
2. Joleens daughter is going to start college this year.
3. The Navy’s mission was to capture the beach for our allies.
4. My sister’s hat blew away when the wind began to blow.
5. No, black cow’s milk is not black!
6. The turkeys gobble sounded very far away.
7. Tomorrows schedule is going to be very busy.
8. Floras kittens are named Huey, Dewey and Louie.
9. Dawsons plan is to hire more employees to get the job done.
10. Is that wonderful voice really Romulos?

G. Dictionary: Correct Endings


Write the correct endings ary, ery or ory to these words. Check with your dictionary
to see if you are correct.
9. colli
1. secret 10. summ
2. compuls 11. curs
3. mis 12. Transit
4. solit 13. advers
5. dignit 14. Legend
6. forg 15. contr
7. preparat 16. Honor
8. promiss

H. Meanings of words: ‘foreigners’, ‘passive’


Use the words in two separate sentences to show it has more than one meaning.
Write four sentences altogether.

I. Spelling.

i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure

See the word


Hear the word
Adopt the word
Record the word
Proofread the word

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ii. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

1. 1 3 3 21 18 1 20 5 - _________________ raspberry
2. 3 8 1 16 5 18 15 14 5 - _________________ athlete
3. 16 1 18 1 12 12 5 12 - _________________ atmosphere
4. 1 2 19 15 18 2 - _________________ absorb
harass
5. 16 8 1 14 20 15 13 - _________________
havoc
6. 19 20 1 20 9 19 20 9 3 19 - _________________
pamphlet
7. 18 1 20 16 2 5 18 18 25 - _________________ parallel
8. 8 1 22 15 3 - _________________ fatigue
9. 6 1 20 9 7 21 5 - _________________ statistics
10. 1 20 13 15 19 16 8 5 18 5 - _________________ sandwich
11. 16 1 13 16 8 12 5 20 - _________________ phantom
12. 1 20 8 12 5 20 5 - _________________ bacteria
13. 8 1 18 1 19 19 - _________________ adequate
14. 2 1 3 20 5 18 9 1 - _________________ accurate
chaperone
15. 19 1 14 4 23 9 3 8 - _________________
16. 1 4 5 17 21 1 20 5 - _________________

iii. Put the above words in alphabetical order. (A-Z).


1. _______________________ 9. _______________________
2. _______________________ 10. _______________________
3. _______________________ 11. _______________________
4. _______________________ 12. _______________________
5. _______________________ 13. _______________________
6. _______________________ 14. _______________________
7. _______________________ 15. _______________________
8. _______________________ 16. _______________________

iv. Use your dictionary to find the meaning for the spelling words.
1. raspberry - _____________________________________________________
2. athlete - _____________________________________________________
3. atmosphere - _____________________________________________________
4. absorb - _____________________________________________________
5. harass - _____________________________________________________
6. havoc - _____________________________________________________
7. pamphlet - _____________________________________________________
8. parallel - _____________________________________________________
9. fatigue - _____________________________________________________
10. statistics - _____________________________________________________

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11. sandwich - _____________________________________________________
12. phantom - _____________________________________________________
13. bacteria - _____________________________________________________
14. adequate - _____________________________________________________
15. accurate - _____________________________________________________
16. chaperone - ______________________________________________________

v. Make new words from the words in the list. The first one is done for you.

1. Raspberry - yes, berry, are, pear, rear, bear


2. athlete - _____________________________________________________
3. atmosphere - _____________________________________________________
4. absorb - _____________________________________________________
5. harass - _____________________________________________________
6. havoc - _____________________________________________________
7. pamphlet - _____________________________________________________
8. parallel - _____________________________________________________
9. fatigue - _____________________________________________________
10. statistics - _____________________________________________________
11. sandwich - _____________________________________________________
12. phantom - _____________________________________________________
13. bacteria - _____________________________________________________
14. adequate - _____________________________________________________
15. accurate - _____________________________________________________
16. chaperone - ______________________________________________________

vi. Word Puzzle.

ABSORB
ATHLETE
ATMOSPHERE
CHAPERONE
FATIGUE
PARALLEL
PHANTOM
RASPBERRY
SANDWICH
STATISTICS

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WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES
A Biography provides life details of a
What is a Biography
person usually presented in
chronological order. A biography
includes precise details about birth
place and birth and death dates.

USE

A brief introduction of the person and a


Introduction
little bit of background information.
Refers to named
individuals
Life Details Divided into early life and later life, in
Contains dates linked to
chronological order.
specific event
Conclusion Sum up and a message left by the person Past tense-grew,
under study. graduated
Direct and indirect
speech and quotes from
other sources.
3rd person
times connectives
chronological order of
facts

Good biographers use many research tools to gather and synthesize information about
their subject, including the person’s words, actions, journals, reactions, related books,
interviews with friends, relatives, associates and enemies, historical context, psychology,
primary source documents.

Purpose
Often to understand the person and the events and history affected by that person.

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Structure Mae Jemison: Space Star Language Features
Title
Have you ever dreamed of flying freely through outer space,
Introduction surrounded by a sea of stars? Mae Jemison fulfilled that dream. On
September 12, 1992, aboard the spaceship Endeavour, she became
Life Details
the first African-American woman to blast into outer space. This Name of person

Early Life wasn’t the only time; however, that Jemison had reached for the stars
and realized her dreams.

Jemison was born on October 17, 1956, in Decatur, Alabama, but she
grew up in Chicago, Illinois. There weren’t many well known African-
American female role models while Jemison was growing up, but she Whom and
what the person
didn’t let that stop her from achieving her goals. She was especially
is known for.
interested in anthropology, archaeology and astronomy. Luckily, her
parents encouraged those interests. That encouragement drove her
to excel. She graduated from high school at 16! Then she earned
Later life degrees in chemical engineering and African-American studies at
accomplishments
Stanford University. Later, she graduated from Cornell University’s
medical school. No challenge was too great for Jemison to take on.

Jemison’s accomplishments did not end there. In 1981, she joined


NASA’s space program in Houston, Texas. And in 1988, Jemison
realized her biggest dream: She finally became an astronaut! Just four
years later, she was named science mission specialist (another NASA
first) on an Endeavour flight.

Today, Jamison encourages young


people—especially women and
girls—to study the sciences. Her life example
teaches us to follow our dreams, no matter how
Conclusion great.
why is the
person an
important to
know about
This biography provides many details about Mae Jamison. Imagine that you are a reporter. You
have been asked to summarise Mae's life in 4 lines. What details will you include? Write your
summary below.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__
Write a biography ...
Choose a local person who has done a lot to help your community. Conduct interviews with the
person and with friends and neighbours. Take photos. What was he/she like as a child? What
did he/she do for the community?

Structure ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Title
______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Life Details
Early Life
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Later
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Revise and Edit


R -Replace words,
phrases and sentences
with more effective ones

I -insert better words,


phrases and sentences

D-Delete ineffective
words, phrases and
sentences

SPELLCHECK

314
Just for Fun

AGE OF EXPLORATION- BIOGRAPHY CROSS WORD PUZZLE

315
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 19
Genre: Narrative
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on narrative, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

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Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.

Listening and Speaking Worksheet


Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and tell them a scary story. Get them to share to the
class your story.

317
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 Recently there have been movies about race cars and planes. Have you ever seen a
race car?
 How does it look?
 Have you been to a race?
 Did you know that there is a car race track in Fiji?

The passage given below is about a car race. The text for this unit is narrative. Study
what a narrative is and try to distinguish the features of a narrative in the passage
"Crash and Bash."

NARRATIVE
Narratives entertain and engage the reader in an imaginative experience.
Narrative texts are organised according to setting, event leading to a problem and solution.
The main features of narrative writing are: defined characters, descriptive language, past tense.

ii. Key Vocabulary


Your teacher will go over the key vocabulary list with the class.

echoed scattered aerofoil thunderous declared explosion


exhausted demolition swarmed interested

4-Fold Vocabulary

In this activity, students fold their papers into rows of 4 sections each. The number of
row can relate to the number of words to be studied. In the first section, the student
writes the word. In the 2nd section, the student writes a definition of the word in their
own words. In the 3rd section, the student draws a picture or symbol to represent the
word. In the 4th section, the student writes a sentence with the word based on their
definition.

318
After completing the page, the students cut apart the sections and put them in an
envelope. The words are review by having student reassemble the word rows.
Students can trade rows/envelopes with others.

Word Definition Picture Sentence

kitchen appliance We baked


Oven used for baking or cookies in the
roasting oven.

B. Comprehension
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

CRASH AND BASH


Last Friday night my family and I took a trip out
to the drag race at the Taunovo Airstrip in
Deuba for Dad's birthday. Even my little brother,
Peni, and my little sister, Sera came along. I
couldn't wait to see what it would be like. Dad
and I really love our cars, but had never had a
chance to see them race.

That day the Airstrip (which is the race track venue) was packed with crowds of
people. Loud rock music blared from the speakers, drawing out our voices. A
thunderous roar echoed around the airstrip as the first race began. Twenty cars
of different shapes and size sped onto the track, each with a small trailer attached
to the back.

"Welcome, ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, to the Taunovo Race Track. First
up, we have the five-lap trailer race. The first car to cross the finish line with its
trailer attached will be the winner!"

I cheered as the cars shot into action, their trailers skidding and shaking at every
corner. Bright sparks flew up into the air whenever a trailer lost control and tipped

319
over. At the end of the fifth lap, there were only seven cars left. All the others were
scattered around the track with their crashed trailers.

Dad, Mum and I were having so much fun, but Peni and Sera were more
interested in playing on the bouncy castle with all the other little kids.

The next race began. The track filled up with cars that had once been normal,
everyday cars. Now they looked like warriors - spray-painted and covered in metal
roll cages to protect the drivers inside. "It's a demolition derby!" Dad shouted.

We all cheered at the cars smashing into each other. Even Peni and Sera stopped
jumping so that they could have a look. A bright red and blue sedan was finally
declared the winner because it was the last car standing.

When the time came for the last race of the night, fourteen, small racing cars lined
up in a started position at the opposite end of the airstrip from us. Each of them
had large pair of wings on the back, which Dad called the aerofoil. He told me that
aerofoils stop the cars from taking off into the sky.

With a loud bang the races zoomed off, spreading thick, blue-black smoke into the
air.

It sounded like a million mosquitoes were flying


around the track.

During the third lap, there was a large explosion


and fire shot up right in front of us. Two of the
racers flipped up into the air and smashed into the ground beside the track. At first
I thought that this was just another demolition derby, but then the music stopped
and a small fire truck sped into the stadium and over to where the crashed cars
were burning.

The entire crowd watched in shock. Emergency crew swarmed around the wrecks,
pulling the drivers away from the ugly black smoke. All was silent for a second until
both drivers waved. Everyone breathed a sigh of relief; they were safe.

We were all exhausted by the time we got home that night. As Mum tucked me
into bed, I told her that I wanted to become a drag racer. She smiled and said, "We'll
see."

Comprehension Skills: Story Structure


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FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
Explain that the main elements of story structure are characters, setting, and plot.
Characters- main people or animals in the story.
Setting - the time and place
Plot- the story events, which usually include a problem and a solution.
Practice
As a class, identify the main characters, the setting, and the plot events of Crash and
Bash.
Apply
Divide the class into small groups. Have some groups list the main features of the
setting. Have others list the qualities of the main characters.
Reconvene the class and discuss students' lists. Then summarise how the characters
and setting make the plot interesting.
Have students fill the chart below.

Complete the chart for the story “Bash and Crash"

Main Character

_______________________________________
_____
Setting
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Problem
__________________________________________________________________

Beginning
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Middle
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
End
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Solution
vi. Comprehension Check
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
16. Why did the family go to the Taunovo Race Track?
17. What was the first race?
18. What kind of cars were in the demolition derby?
19. What is the purpose of an aerofoil?
20. Who rescued the two drivers involved in the crash?
21. What do you think Mum meant when she said " we'll see,''
22. Why do you think the race was at the airstrip and not at a stadium?
23. Fill in the missing words to complete the sentences.

trailer cheered drivers airstrip exhausted

a. That day the ______________________ was packed with crowds of people.


b. First up, we have the five-lap _________________ race.
c. We all _________________________ at the cars smashing into each other.
d. All was silent for a second until both ____________________ waved.
e. We were all _______________________ by the time we got home that night.

C. Word Knowledge: Motoring Words


i. Match each word in the box to the clues below.

bonnet chassis distributor automatic intersection


brakes carburettor ignition generator radiator
battery puncture

13. hole in the tyre 19. they stop or slow the car
14. where streets cross 20. stores water for cooling the engine
15. provides power for lights 21. hood covering the engine
16. changes gear by itself 22. supports the body of the car
17. keeps the battery charged 23. a key sets this system alive
18. sends sparks to plugs 24. petrol and air are mixed in it before
being burnt in the cylinders

A Few Words About Cars


ii. Fill in the blanks in the sentences below using the words in the box .
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wheels parts drive engine electricity tires
Automobile air gasoline explosion energy vehicles cars
speedometer transportation headlights spark brakes seat belts

1. If you want to get from place to place without walking, you can use a car as
___________________.
2. ___________________________ is another word for car. The first part of this word means “self”
and the second half of the word means “move.”
3. Every car has an ____________________ that is made up of many ___________ that work
together to make the car move.
4. When gas and _________ are mixed together with a spark of fire it will get the engine
going.
5. Cars and other vehicles couldn’t roll along the road without __________.
6. Every vehicle has _____________ to slow it down or make it stop.
7. The battery gives the car’s engine the___________________ that it needs to get it started.
8. With the help of a small electric spark, the mixed gas and air make a small
__________________ that gets the engine going.
9. The spark comes from an engine part called a __________________ plug.
10. Burning gas in a car’s engine will give it the __________________ it needs to run.
11. Most car engines get the energy they need to run by burning _________________ (gas for
short!).
12. Unlike the wooden or metal wheels of the past, the rubber____________ on wheels help to
give us a smooth ride.
13. People _______________ cars to get to work, to get to school, to go to the grocery store or
even to go on vacation.
14. Bright _________________________ help drivers see where they are going at night.
15. The ______________________ lets the driver know how fast he or she is going.
16. We buckle up our ______________ to help keep us safe in case of a car accident.
17. Buses, trains, motorcycles and airplanes are examples of other _______________ with
engines that we use for transportation.
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18. Before we had ___________, people used transportation without engines, such as wagons
and carriages pulled by horses.

D. Sentences: Principal Clause


Loud rock music blared from the speakers, drawing out our voices.
Loud rock music blared from the speakers. (principal)
drawing out our voices (subordinate- adjectival, describing the girl)

Write the principal clause from these complex sentences


1. Peni and Sera stopped jumping so that they could have a look.
2. She moved closer to the set so she could hear the dialogue.
3. If the pigs fetch a good price, we can afford a new car.
4. We bought most of the books that the teacher recommended.
5. Before the siren ceased wailing, a large crowd had gathered.
6. If everyone will help, we shall finish the job.
7. The player whose arm was broken has now fully recovered.
8. Since we sold the caravan, we have stayed in motels.
9. The girl who won the cup was coached by my mother.
10. The new refrigerator, which was delivered yesterday, is scratched.

E. Usage : 'affect' and 'effect'

Affect is a verb and effect is a noun, but effect can also be used as a verb.

Drinking will affect your driving. (verb) The effect of the drinking caused an accident. (noun)
We shall effect a change soon.(verb)

Complete the following sentences, using either affect or effect.


1. The _________________ of the strike was appalling.
2. Will the rain _______________ the match?
3. We shall not know the full __________ for a while.
4. He was __________ed by the fumes.
5. One __________ will be the loss of jobs.
6. The volcanic eruption _________ed the entire country.
7. Your answers will not ____________ your grade on the test.
8. Your answer will have no ____________ on your grade on the test.
9. What he said to her _____________her deeply.
10. The patient asked how the medication would _____________ her energy level.

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11. The speaker said that her organization wanted to ___________ a major change in the
party's platform.
12. Joe talked with Janis, but his words had almost no ___________ on his friend's actions.
13. One ____________of the new lenses is my ability to read more easily.
14. Adding salt to the batter ____________ the taste of the cake.
15. The ________________ of the storm will not be clear for years.

F. Grammar: Simile
Similes are a way to compare two things using ‘like’ or ‘as’. For example, if I
want to say that somebody swims well, I can say they swim like a fish
because fish swim well. There are two basic patterns that you can use.
like verb + like + nouns as as + adjective + as + noun

Example:  She swims like a fish. Example:  He is as tall as a giant.


 He looks like an ogre.  She is as fast as a rocket.
 She plays like a pro.  He is as graceful as a swan.
 He walks like a duck.  He is as quiet as a mouse.
 She acts like a fool.

i. Circle the simile in each sentence. On the line, explain what is being compared
to what.
1. Andrew is as sly as a fox.
__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.
2. He was as nervous as a cat around a room full of rocking chairs.
__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.
3. Farheen had a smile as sweet as sugar.
__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.
4. After he finished playing the basketball game, his hair was oily like fried chicken.
__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.

5. Sylvia’s new lotion made her face as smooth as a baby’s skin.


__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.
6. My two-year-old cousin was as bouncy as a bunny when she got outside.

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__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.
7. The new science book is as heavy as an elephant!
__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.
8. The extra glue was as sticky as syrup on their fingers.
__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.
9. Mr. Sidal, the P.E. teacher, is as strong as an Olympic athlete.
__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.
10. My mom’s tea is as hot as the sun!
__________________________ is being compared to _______________________.

vii. Now write some sentences comparing a monster with things.

1. The boy had hair as curly as…………………….. (spaghetti / a tube).


2. She had ears like…………………… (bent trees / snow).
3. The fireman had a nose as long as………….. (an egg / a pole).
4. The policeman was as tall as………………………. (an ant / a house).
5. The race driver's had eyes as blue as………………………… (the sea / the grass).
6. The man's legs were as thick as…………. (match sticks / tree trunks).
7. The boy had muscles as big as…………….. (a weight lifter / a rabbit).
8. The monsters mouth was as wide as……………… (a pencil / a tunnel).
9. The dog had teeth like………………….(knives / pearls).
10. The thief was as scary as………………… (a nightmare / a dream).

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G. Dictionary Skills: Beginning with 'sub'
i. In the dictionary find a word beginning with sub (meaning 'under') to match
each clue.
A submarine is a boat that can travel under the surface of the water.

1. subway A. a person or object that takes the place of another


2. subdue B. a tunnel underneath a road
3. submerge C. to sink to a lower level
4. substitute D. to go or place something under water
5. subscribe E. to support someone by giving money
6. submit F. to give in to someone else's authority
7. subside G. to sign up for something, particularly a magazine or other publication
8. subsidise H. to bring under control

ii. Write the missing word to complete the sentence. Think carefully about the spellings!

1. I __________ to a football magazine to keep up to date with all the transfer news.
2. When our goalkeeper was injured we were down to ten men because we had already used all
our __________.
3. The rebels finally __________ to the government and were put in prison.
4. The castle hadn't been built on good foundations so after a few years it began to __________.
5. After several hours the police managed to __________ the riot.
6. It's a very busy road so you should always cross using the pedestrian __________ under the
roundabout.
7. The causeway is completely __________ at high tide, so make sure you don't get marooned on
the island.
8. The students were __________ by the school, otherwise they wouldn't have been able to afford
the trip.

H. Word Meanings: 'Thunderous' and 'echoed'


Use thunderous and echoed in 4 different sentences to show that each word has more than
one meaning,

327
I. Spelling

victim
i. S-H-A-R-P Word Study Procedure
simile
wilderness
See the word
Hear the word cringe
Adopt the word disgraceful
Record the word bizarre
Proofread the word biscuit
privilege
ii. Visual Warm up: Fill the spelling words in the correct word shapes cinnamon
heroic
exhibit
forfeit
inhabit
culprit
admit
panic

iii. Vowel Hunt: Fill in the missing vowels and write the spelling words.

1. h_r__c 9. c_lpr_t

2. _xh_b_t 10. c_nn_m_n

3. cr_ng_ 11. b_sc__t

4. w_ld_rn_ss 12. pr_v_l_g_

5. _nh_b_t 13. f_rf__t

6. d_sgr_c_f_l 14. p_n_c

328
7. v_ct_m 15. b_z_rr_

8. _dm_t 16. s_m_l_

iv. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words

v. Generally Speaking: Write each spelling word for the group it best fits
1. fatality, sufferer 5. dishonorable, scandalous
2. figure of speech, image 6. wacky , peculiar
3. wasteland, backwoods 7. opportunity, concession
4. cower, wince
329
8. daring, valiant 12. perpetrator, criminal
9. display, demonstrate 13. divulge, confess
10. surrender, sacrifice 14. dread, fear
11. occupy, populate
15. aromatic spice, dried and rolled bark
used in cooking

vi. Scrambled Words


Write the word on the line.

_____________________ 9. nmoinacn _____________________


ciivmt
1.
10. hocire _____________________
2. esilmi _____________________
11. ihtixeb _____________________
3. newelisdrs _____________________
12. terioff _____________________
4. encgri _____________________
13. tbhaini _____________________
5. ilrefuacsdg _____________________
14. cpltiur _____________________
6. eibazrr _____________________
15. amtdi _____________________
7. uitcsib _____________________
16. icanp _____________________
8. iegpvrlei _____________________

330
WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES

A narrative is a story text. The stories


are fiction ; that means they are not
true. There are many kinds of narratives
What is a narrative? but all narratives have the same parts.
Each part or event in a separate
paragraph.

USE

Action Verbs - found,


Title It is usually something that gets attention
wondered, threw, trembled
of the
reader Saying Verbs -said,

Orientation The starting point of a story. It tells who whispered, yelled


(Setting) begins the action and when and where it Past tense - came across,
begins.
stumbled, thought
The event that starts the action and involves
Series of the
Quoted Speech: I
events characters in some problem. The events that whispered," It will be
happens
as the characters tries to solve the problem. alright".
Reported Speech: I
whispered that it will be
Resolution Tells how the problem is solved. alright.
Conjunctions and
Conclusion Tells what has come from the experience.
Connectives-when, then,
first , next

331
Structure Anyone Else Want a Turn? Language Features
Title
There was one good trick we used to do when we were flying
Orientation up on that Gulf run, especially if we had a crowd of tourists
who didn't know I was a pilot. We didn't use to wear any sort
of uniform , so when it came time to board I would just walk
out with the crowd and sit down in one of the seats with the
Dialogues
rest of them.
Complication
Of course after a while the customers would start to get
restive and be looking around for the pilot and I would stir Descriptive
them a bit. 'Where's the pilot? What sort of an airline is this language
Sequence of any way!'
events
I'd give them a few minutes to get worked up and then I'd
say, 'Can any of people fly a plane?' Of course no one would
answer so I'd look at my watch and I'd say, ‘Well , I've got
business to do, I can't sit here waiting all day.' Then I'd walk Action Words.
eg.look, sit,
up to the pilot's seat and sit down and start pulling and
pushing
pushing a few knobs.

'It can't be all that difficult; I should be able to learn to fly it


in a minute or two.'

By the time I got started, getting a few things wrong of


course as I went, and rolled out to the runaway, their eyes
Resolution were as saucers and everyone was white. The only thing that
worried me was if we ever got anyone with a crook heart. It
might have taken some explaining. Note: This is a tall
tale! Pilots have
uniforms .....

The most important part of story-writing is getting an idea. Brainstorm to for some ideas that can be
used for writing narratives.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
332
________________________________________________________________
__
Write a narrative...
The example given is a tall tale - an exaggerated story. Choose one of your ideas from the

Writer Challenge task and make it into an entertaining TALL tale.

Structure ____________________________________________________________

Title ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Orientation ______________________________________________________________________________
What? Where?
Who? When?
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
Complication
______________________________________________________________________________

Sequence of ______________________________________________________________________________
events
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
More to
Do
______________________________________________________________________________
Resolution
____________________________________
Rewrite a fairy tale . What if Jack from Jack and the
bean stalk leapt tight into the middle of the story of
Cinderella? Would he take her to the top of the bean
stalk and introduce her to the goose who laid the golden
egg? What if the wolf in the Little Red Riding Hood
turned out to be a generous , sensitive fellow? Begin your
fairy tale in the normal way , but then introduce a
complication when something entirely out of the ordinary
happens. How will it end?
333
Just for Fun

334
Jobs Crossword: 1 2 3 4

Across
5 6 7
1. Somebody who plays
an instrument.
3. Someone who grows 8 9 10 11 12
crops.
7. Somebody who fixes
teeth.
8. A person who serves 13
food.
9. Someone who fixes
14 15 16
cars.
13. Somebody who
catches criminals. 17 18
16. A person who plays
19
sports.
20
17. Someone who stars in
a movie. 21

19. A person who sings


songs.
20. Somebody who helps
sick people. 22 23

21. Somebody who flies


airplanes.
22. A person who does
experiments.
23. Somebody who teaches. Down
2. A person who helps a doctor. 12. A person who protects a
country.
4. Someone who delivers mail.
14. Someone who cleans
5. Somebody who helps sick
buildings.
animals.
15. A person who makes
6. Somebody who puts out fires.
computer games.
9. Someone who digs for metal
16. A person who goes to outer
ore in the ground.
space.
10. Someone who cooks food.
18. A person who tells us the
11. A person who paints pictures. news.

335
LISTENING AND SPEAKING ACTVITIES UNIT 20
Genre: Transaction
Your teacher will provide opportunities for listening exercises, based on exposition, to be
conducted each day in class. Each of you is required to listen and respond appropriately.

Everyday Activities

Lesson Outcome Responses


Question Generation
Note taking Worksheet

I listen carefully and


respond using an
As I listen, I sit up, pay outcome response
attention and focus on sentence.
the speaker

I mind my manners and


not speak

Listening Outcome Responses

1. This reminds me of __________________


2. I know the word ______ means _______
3. The verb/s I heard was/were _________
4. The noun/s I heard was/were ________
5. What I heard made me ______ because
_____________________________________

336
Question Generation Chart: Use this chart to make up questions
to ask each other.

Simple

is/ did/ can/ will/ might/ should/n‟t

isn‟t didn‟t can‟t won‟t might not would/n‟t

could/n‟t

Who

What

When

Where

Why

How

Complex
Use the chart above to generate questions.
Listening and Speaking Worksheet
Pay attention and listen carefully to the speaker.

1. Who is speaking? _________________________________________________________

2. What is the message about?________________________________________________

3. What is the purpose of the message?_______________________________________

4. Identify a sentence type in the message and write it down. (Statement,


Question, Exclamation or Command) _________________________________________

5. Is the message in present tense or past tense? ______________________________

6. List down any verbs or nouns you heard. __________________________________

Extra Activities: Pair-Share

Pair up with a friend and study a letter to the editor on an issue of your
choice. Share it to the class.

337
READING AND VIEWING ACTIVITIES

A. Pre-reading Activity

i. Building Background ( Class Discussion)

Your teacher will assist in discussing the following:


 What work would you like to do when you grow up?
 In order to get the job you want what subjects would you take?
 How would you go about applying for a job?
 Who would you best consult for the job you want to do?

Our text is a transactional text in the form of an Application letter.

A transactional text is used to sustain relationships and


involves simple interactions and negotiations.

ii. Key Vocabulary

Context Clues:
When you come across a word you don't know, don’t stop reading. You can often figure
out the meaning of an unfamiliar word by using the words around it. The surrounding
sentence or paragraph is known as the context.
For example: Mela’s boss was a callous man. He did not react to her tears and
apologies.
From the context you know that a callous man does not react to tears and
apologies. Callous means “hard-hearted” or "insensitive to emotion."

Use the context to figure out the meaning of the key vocabulary.

telemarketing outgoing volunteer unfortunate perusal


curriculum vitae references sales manager

338
B. Comprehension

The National Sales Manager,


Telecom Fiji Limited,
Ganilau House,
Suva.
11th May, 2013.

Dear Sir,

I wish to apply for the position of Telemarketing Representative with your firm.
My name is Maggie Frances Wong, I am 20 years of age and I am currently a private student
at Corpus Christi Teacher’s College doing my first year.

I would be very suitable for this job because of my outgoing personality and also the
number of people I have come to know through my involvement in volunteer work for the
unfortunate of our country.
With my timetable at school, I can easily fit into the required hours.

For your perusal, I have attached my Curriculum Vitae, references and exam results.
I hope you will consider my application and I look forward to a favorable reply.
I can be contacted at home on phone number 3395-489 or email
maggie_frwong@gmail.com and would be available at any time convenient to you to
further discuss my suitability for the above position.

Yours Faithfully,

Maggie Wong
Maggie Wong (Miss)

i. Comprehension Skills: Predicting Outcomes.

FOR THE TEACHER:

Teach
Ask students to guess or predict what will happen when you stand up and go to the board.
Point out to the students that they used the details they saw and their own knowledge to
predict what you would do.
Think about your knowledge and life experiences.
Practice
Predict what will happen when the letter reaches the manager..
Apply
Have students keep track of predicting outcomes, with an eye to using details of their own339
experience.
ii. Comprehension Check.
Answer the following questions.

1. Who do you think the writer is writing to?


2. What is the purpose of this letter?
3. How old is the writer and what does she do?
4. How would she be suitable for the job?
5. How can the applicant be contacted?

C. Word Knowledge: Proverbs

A Proverb is a short well-known saying that expresses an obvious truth and


often offers advice.

Match the following proverbs in Box A to its correct meaning in Box B.

Box A Box B

1. The pen is mightier than A. When someone has done something bad to you, trying to
the sword. get revenge will only make things worse.
2. The squeaky wheel gets B. Strong people don't give up when they come across
the grease challenges. They just work harder.
3. People who live in glass C. People like to spend time with others who are similar to
houses should not throw them.
stones D. Trying to convince people with ideas and words is more
4. The early bird catches the effective than trying to force people to do what you want.
worm E. Your plans might not work out, so don't start thinking about
5. God helps those who help what you'll do after you succeed. Wait until you've already
themselves succeeded, and then you can think about what to do next.
6. When the going gets tough F. If you try to help someone, but they don't take your advice
the tough gets going or offers, give up. You can't force someone to accept your
7. Birds of a feather flock help.
together G. Don't lie.
8. Two wrongs don’t make a H. Don't do mean things to people
right. I. If you need to do something, don't wait until later. Do it
9. Don’t count your chicken now
before it hatches. J. You can get better service if you complain about something.
10. Honesty is the best Policy. If you wait patiently, no one's going to help you
11. You can lead a horse to K. Don't criticize other people if you're not perfect yourself.
water, but you can’t make L. You should wake up and start work early if you want to
him drink succeed
12. Do unto others as you M. Don't just wait for good things to happen to you. Work
would have them do to hard to achieve your goals
you. 340
D. Sentences: Subordinate Clause

- A Clause is a group of words that contains a verb.


- A Complex Sentence is one that contains a principal clause and one or more
subordinate clause.
- A Subordinate Clause cannot make a sentence by itself. It must be attached to the
independent clause.
- For Example: This is the house that Peni built.
This is the house (principal)
that Peni built (subordinate)

i. Underline the Subordinate Clauses in these Sentences.


1. The crowd cheered when Adam kicked the goal.
2. This is the building where Camari lived.
3. We decided to make camp because a cyclone was approaching.
4. I asked my teacher if she would be teaching me next year.
5. The picture which was hanging in her office had been painted by Ken Edwards.
6. When Litiana finished singing, the audience applauded.
7. Victoria is the mountain that Mabel climbed, years ago.
8. Before the actor arrived, a large crowd had gathered.
9. We can repair the door if the timber arrives on time.
10. The visitor who addressed the class used to be an oceanographer.

ii. Use the subordinate clauses from the box to write sentences on your own.

after it rained which had just arrived


who blamed us before school had started
because we were poorly equipped

1. ________________________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________________
3. ________________________________________________________________________
4. ________________________________________________________________________
5. ________________________________________________________________________

341
E. Usage and Punctuation: Revising Punctuation
i. Re-Write the following sentences using the correct punctuation where
necessary.

1. who is the current record holder


2. what an extraordinary hat
3. when we had finished lunch we decided to all walk to the shops
4. have you read Nancy drews latest book
5. come on jamie hurry up or well be late
6. we travelled from nadi to suva via kings highway

ii. Add Commas where necessary.


1. Dad could you please give me a lift to school today?
2. The colours of the rainbow are violet indigo blue green yellow orange and red.
3. “Going to the zoo is much more expensive than swimming classes” the teacher
informed us.
4. Mr Druavesi who had been the head teacher for twenty years is retiring on Friday.

iii. Re-Write the following phrases using hyphens where necessary.

1. a well written story


2. seventy two players altogether
3. her son in law
4. cooperate with each other
5. a five year program

F. Grammar : Metaphor
What is a Metaphor?
A metaphor is a word picture. It compares something or someone as if it is that
thing. We use metaphors to make our writing more colourful.
For Example: the moon was a grapefruit; night was cloak; she played second fiddle

i. Underline and then write your own explanations for, the metaphors used in the
sentences below.

1. During the search for the missing children he was a tower of strength to the family.
______________________________________________________________________________________________.
2. When it comes to the garden, Aunty Bella certainly has green fingers.
_______________________________________________________________________.
3. A way to recycle pieces of cloth? Now there’s food for thought.
___________________________________________________________________.

342
4. The guilty children were lashed mercilessly with the Principal’s poison tongue.
______________________________________________________________________________
5. Poor Greg has a broken heart. _______________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. During the closing stages of the game Simon was a tiger in the packs.
_______________________________________________________.
7. “We will leave no stone unturned in our search for the culprits,” said Sergeant
Alfred.
______________________________________________________________________________
ii. Match the metaphors in Box A to their meanings in Box B.

Box A Box B.
1. Mika was forced to eat his A. Very happy and excited.
words. B. Lots of energy.
2. Larry is full of beans C. Regret what has been
today. said.
3. Jane Brown was over the D. Something or someone
moon with her test to be adored or
results. cherished.
4. Bianca is the apple of her E. Coming down very
granny’s eye. heavily.
5. Mia’s legs were jelly at F. In a very nervous state.
the sight of the huge
audience.
6. It was raining cats and
dogs.

G. Dictionary: Journalism and Publishing

Match the words from the box with the clues.

tabloid jacket galley obituary deadline editorial


caption edition preface etching

1. article expressing opinion of newspaper ______________________


2. the cover of a book ______________________
3. notice of someone’s death in a newspaper ______________________
4. notes that explain the beginning of the book _____________________
5. proof printed from type, ready for correction ____________________
6. small newspaper with pictures and popular ideas ____________________
7. picture engraved on a metal plate _______________________
343
8. time by which something must be done _______________________
9. copies of a book or paper printed on time _______________________
10. heading under a photograph or cartoon _______________________

H. Meanings of words: ‘outgoing’, ‘reference’


Use the words in two separate sentences to show it has more than one meaning.
Write four sentences altogether.

I. Spelling.

i. Break the code: Use the code to write the spelling words
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
j m o n l k z w y x a c d f e v u b i h g t s r q p

1. igmihyhghl - ______________________
2. tecojfe - ______________________ baggage
3. dycljzl - ______________________ discourage
4. mjzzjzl - ______________________ mortgage
5. hefzgl - ______________________ mileage
6. cjfzgjzl - ______________________ language
7. icgdmlb - ______________________ voyage
8. nyioegbjzl - ______________________ rotten
9. teqjzl - ______________________ solemn
10. oedvclr - ______________________ volcano
11. debhzjzl - ______________________ complex
12. behhlf - ______________________ morale
13. debjcl - ______________________ slumber
14. iecldf - ______________________ smudge
15. idgnzl - ______________________ substitute
tongue
ii. Make new words from the words given. The first one is done for you
baggage -bag, gage, age, gab 8. volcano - __________
1. discourage - _____________ 9. complex - _____________
2. mortgage - _____________ 10. morale - _____________
3. mileage - _____________ 11. slumber - _____________
4. language - _____________ 12. smudge - _____________
5. voyage - _____________ 13. substitute - _____________
6. rotten - _____________ 14. tongue - _____________
7. solemn - _____________

344
iii. Alphabetical Order.
Write the words in Alphabetical order. (Z-A)
1. _____________________________ 9. _____________________________
2. _____________________________ 10. _____________________________
3. _____________________________ 11. _____________________________
4. _____________________________ 12. _____________________________
5. _____________________________ 13. _____________________________
6. _____________________________ 14. _____________________________
7. _____________________________ 15. _____________________________
8. _____________________________

iv. Un- jumble the Following Words.

1. tentor - ___________ 9. gnalaeug - ___________


2. medugs - ___________ 10. pomclex - ___________
3. cousidgera- ___________ 11. canoolv - ___________
4. losemn - ___________ 12. ggetarom - ___________
5. stibusteut - ___________ 13. meroal - ___________
6. ageliem - ___________ 14. vageyo - ___________
7. gonetu - ___________ 15. bumersl - ___________
8. agggeab - ___________

v. Word Search.
K L S S I A
L V E WB K Q JHP Q K BAGGAGE
M S M U DGE LV K V U HY C X U F COMPLEX
D P S R U XP FO C N E GA Y O V M DISCOURAGE
F I X U G FMV LN U F G SHJ T L D K
LANGUAGE
H G S A B BKHCN NM E L OS Q A T G
W Y Z C F S N I AMW S Y R E O N S P B U L MILEAGE
W G B O G T MN L M N M I L E A G E I Z O R MORALE
J L G UR I OX Z AG C OMP LE X J Z MORTGAGE
X MR AT S S KMO R A L EY
ROTTEN
A E U P MN C C Q
N I UG J T HK S R C OH SLUMBER
R L GABE B E G A U G NAL SMUDGE
K L O N H F D X G O K Q C I I HB Q M SOLEMN
L L O O G C N K A S T R MW I Q N O M T Y SUBSTITUTE
S N T O J L D G R I N O I O G WBB P A K
TONGUE
V L Q C C X P GN L U J T P R R C UP P E P V
E U S W B N A Z Q H K T H B T QHW Y C P VOLCANO
H M Y R J B A S H A B E Q J V GU R L A H VOYAGE
N B H E J CKA WX N Y O EA I K X V
I E W E WT V V CM D TN G J M I
R O M F L TMC RJ J E U

345
G I U A ER YX S
QHA
P F Y

WRITING AND SHAPING ACTIVITIES

A transaction sustains
What is a transaction?
relationships and involves
simple interactions and
negotiations. Personal
language is used.

Examples of
Transactions

Our transaction is a formal letter to a someone of importance.  Letters


There are 8 parts to a formal letter.  Cards
 Invitations
This contains your address and the date of the  Posters
Inside Address letter

Address of This contains the address of the person you are


Recipient writing to.

Usually begins with the word ‘Dear Sir or Madam’


Salutation Ends with a comma.

This is the opening of the letter. It states the


Introduction purpose of your writing
Formal
Salutation...Dear Sir/
Main part of the letter. It includes the message Madam
Body that the writer wants to tell the recipient. It is
divided into paragraphs.
Formal language...

Indicates the letter is going to end. The writer Consistent voice


Closure may ask the recipient to reply and style

346
Complimentary A short expression that includes only a few words
y Close on one line. It ends with a comma.

The signature or name of the writer.


Signature

Your
123 Ragg Ave., address
Namadi Heights, In
Recipients Suva.
Address 26th August, 2013

Mr. M. Leaf,
Chief of Syrup Production,
Old Sticky Pancake Company,
456 Maple Lane,
Colo – I – Suva.
Salutation
Dear Sir,

Thank you for your past contributions to our Little League baseball
team. Your sponsorship aided in the purchase of ten full uniforms
Introduction and several pieces of baseball equipment for last year's season.

Next month, our company is planning an employee appreciation


Body of pancake breakfast honouring retired employees for their past
letter years of service and present employees for their loyalty and
dedication in spite of the current difficult economic conditions.

We would like to place an order with your company for 25


kilograms of pancake mix and fifty litres of maple syrup. We hope
Closure you will be able to provide these products in the bulk quantities we
require.

As you are a committed corporate sponsor and a long-time


Complimentary Close associate, we hope that you will be able to join us for breakfast on
December 22, 2016.

Yours Faithfully,
Signature Sainiana Blakelock

Saiana Blakelock

347
Write a letter...

Write a letter to a Prominent company in your area asking them to donate sausages and buns for
your school fun day which will be held in school on Saturday the 10th of November. Remember to
include your inside address and your recipient’s address. Also remember to sign your letter.

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

348
Just for Fun

Jobs
1 2 3

Crossword:
4

Across 6 7

2. A person who
does experiments.
8
4. Someone who
stars in a movie.
5. Somebody who 9 10 11 12 13
flies airplanes.
6. Someone who
14
cleans buildings.
15
8. Someone who
digs for metal ore 16
in the ground.
17
9. Someone who
18
cooks food.
12. Somebody who
helps sick animals. 19

15. Someone who


delivers mail.
20 21
18. Somebody who
helps sick people.
19. Someone who 22 23
serves people on
airplanes.
20. A person who tells Down
us the news.
1. Someone who builds houses. 13. Somebody who teaches.
21. Somebody who
3. A person who protects a 14. Somebody who puts out fires.
plays an instrument.
country.
16. Someone who fixes cars.
22. A person who sings
4. A person who plays sports.
songs. 17. A person who serves food.
5. A person who makes computer
23. A person who paints 18. Somebody who fixes teeth.
games.
pictures.
7. A person who helps a doctor.

349
10. Someone who grows crops.
11. A person who goes to outer
space.

Bibliography
Durkin, P., Ferguson, V., & Sperring, G. (2000). Text Types 6. Sydney: Oxford University Press.

Archived. (n.d.). Retrieved from Houghton Mifflin Santa Bonita School District:
http://www.smbsd.org:smbsd.org\page.cfm?p=2442

Durkin, P., Ferguson, V., & Sperring, G. (2000). Text Types 6. Sydney: Oxford University Press.

Durkin, P., Ferguson, V., & Sperring, G. (2000). Text Types Book 5. Sydney: Oxford University Press.

Education, C. D.-F. (1996). Link 1. Suva: Ministry of Education.

Gosine, V. R. (1999). Key English Grammar 2. Surrey: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.

Howard, P. (2007). Practise Your English Skills Book 5. Melborne : Pearson Education Australia.

Woods, A. (2006). Everyday Grammar Book 6. New York: Oxford University Press.

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351