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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

In 2011, the Department of Education has made the historic implementation

of shifting from the 10-year basic education curriculum to the Kinder to 12 Program

(K-12) in phases. The added two-year Senior High Track aims to equip you with

knowledge and skills that will help you prepare better for your chosen path -- be it

higher education, employment, or entrepreneurship.

Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education;

students may choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school

capacity. The choice of career track will define the content of the subjects a student

will take in Grades 11 and 12. SHS subjects fall under either the Core Curriculum or

specific Tracks. Each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks:

Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic

track includes three strands: Accountancy, Business, and Management (ABM);

Humanities, and Social Sciences (HUMSS); and Science, Technology, Engineering,

Mathematics (STEM).

In order to keep up with other countries in terms of knowledge and

competence in different fields, the Philippines has adopted the K to 12 learning

program, which has been the standard education system in other countries for quite

some time now. The said program aims to enhance the quality of learning of students

by adding 2 years on secondary education level. The additional 2 years is

called Senior High School (SHS), in which students will be allowed to choose a

particular track that is related to the field or profession that they wish to pursue in the

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future. Choosing a track is critical for making a student highly proficient in the field

where his or her chosen track is related to, especially if the student wishes to work

immediately after graduating from SHS. As most educators say, a mismatch in the

track and the student’s interests, personality and passion may lead to a poorly

knowledgeable graduate who will find it hard to compete in the job market or keep up

with other students when he or she goes to college.

For students who have aspirations and expectations for their future, they have

perseverance in pursuing their studies. With the curricular offerings of private

colleges and universities which are almost identical programs makes diversification

very difficult. Therefore, the competitive edge, uniqueness and quality must be

established in educational marketing through image building while helping and

guiding the parents towards the achievement of their desire for the success of their

children.

Strand is a consistent thread running through a course offer irrespective of its

subject content. STEM is an educational program developed to prepare primary and

secondary students for college and graduate study in the fields of science,

technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). ABM strand would focus on the

basic concepts of financial management, business management, corporate

operations, and all things that are accounted for. HUMMS strand is designed for

those who wonder what is on the other side of the wall. TVL also invests primarily on

skills that can gain you requisite COCs (Certificates of Competency) and NCs

(National Certifications) which would be essential when looking for better career

opportunities in agriculture, electronics, and trade.

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Conceptual Framework

This part presented the discussion of the conceptual framework used in the study.

Input Process
Output
1. What is the profile of the
respondents in terms of:
Gather data
1.1Gender; through survey Proposed action
questionnaire’s, plan in correctly
1.2 Strand? choosing strand in
analysis and
validation of data Senior High School

2. What are the factors


that affect the students in
choosing their strand?

2.1 Personality;

2.2Family or Relatives and

2.3 Job Opportunities?

Feedback

The paradigm of the study, the input consist of the profile of the respondents,

and factors that affect the grade 11 students in choosing their strand. The processes

used by the researchers are gathering data through survey questionnaire’s analysis

and validation of data. The output of this study is the propose action plan incorrectly

choosing a strand in Senior High School.

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Statement of the Problem

The main objective of this study is to determine the different factors that affect

the student decision in choosing their strand. This study is assess by the Grade 11

students of Taal Senior High School. To clearly arrive with the purpose of the study,

the following objectives are taken into considerations:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Gender;

1.2 Strand?

2. What are the factors that affect the students in choosing their strand?

2.1 Personality;

2.2 Family or Relatives and

2.3 Job Opportunities?

3. What action plan may be proposed to guide students incorrectly choosing a strand

in Senior High School?

Significance of the study

This study is mainly conducted to know the factors that affect the grade 11

students of TSHS in choosing their strand. The result of the study will be of great

significance to the following: students, parents, and future researchers.

To the students. The study will enable the students to know that factors that

affect them in choosing their strand in Senior High School. To have an enough

knowledge about the strand they want to choose. And the result of the study will

make every student more prepared in their future study.


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To parents. This study will enable the parents to know the factors that affect

their children in choosing a strand. And the result of the study will make every parent

more caring a close to their children in the school matters.The study will provide them

information that would serve as a guide in supporting their children in making some

decision in their life courses.

To future researchers. This study will use as a reference material and a

guide to the future researcher who wish to conduct the same study or any study that

is related to the factors that affect the students in choosing a strand.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study focused on the analysis of the factors that affect the grade 11

students of TSHS in choosing their strand. The main scope of this study focused on

the grade 11 students only of Taal Senior High School. This study is conducted

during school year 2018-2019. The limited time given to the researchers will give

coverage to the outcome of this study. The study is delimited to Grade 11 students

and Grade 12 is excluded, other Grade 11 from certain schools is not excluded.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined according to how the researchers used the

following in the conduct of the study.++

ABM. This term refers to a strand that would focus on the basic concepts of

financial management, business management, corporate operations, and all things

that are accounted for.ABM can also lead you to careers on management and

accounting which could be sales manager, human resources, marketing director,

project officer, bookkeeper, accounting clerk, internal auditor, and a lot more.
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Ambition. This term refers to the desire to achieve something, or to succeed,

accompanied with motivation determination and an internal drive. It isa strong desire

to do or to achieve something, typically requiring determination and hard work.

Family.This term refers to a group that is blood related consisting of parents

and children living together in a household.A study was conducted to investigate the

influence of family background on the academic performance of secondary school

students in Nigeria. It was found that supportive parents are important for their

children’s career decision making and for the success of their careers (Barker &

Clutter, 2010).

HUMSS. This term refers to a strand that is designed for those who wonder

what is on the other side of the wall. The HUMMS strand is designed for those who

wonder what is on the other side of the wall. In other words, you are ready to take on

the world and talk to a lot of people. This is for those who are considering taking up

journalism, communication arts, liberal arts, education, and other social science-

related courses in college.

Opportunities. This term refers to favorable juncture of circumstances. In

thisstudy, opportunities would refer to the circumstances favorableemployment or

pursuing a career, e.g. location, trends, high pay, etc. As supported by the study of

Mcquerry (2012), opportunity may influence how students have perceived their future

in terms of the reasonable probability of a future in particular career fields.

Personality. This term refers to the desired careers that the children want

tobe upon becoming adults. A study of Adecco (2015) shows that understanding the

personality the individual’s own traits and characteristics, rather than passion, are a

key to career fulfillment and success.

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Senior High School. This term refers to the second part of secondary

educationunder the K-12 program, wherein the students would take up thesubjects

under their career pathway specialization.

Skills. This term refers to the learned ability to carry out pre-determined

results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both. In other words the

abilities that one possesses.

STEM. This term refers to an educational program developed to prepare

primary and secondary students for college and graduate study in the fields of

science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Science, Technology,

Engineering, and Mathematics are intertwining disciplines when applied in the real

world. The difference of the STEM curriculum with the other strands and tracks is the

focus on advanced concepts and topics.

Strand. This term refers to a consistent thread running through a course offer

irrespective of its subject content.

TVL. This term also invests primarily on skills that can gain you requisite

COCs (Certificates of Competency) and NCs (National Certifications) which would be

essential when looking for better career opportunities in agriculture, electronics, and

trade. TVL is designed to develop students’ skills useful for livelihood projects at

home. It provides a curriculum that is a combination of core courses required for all

SHS strands and specialized hands-on courses that meet the standard hour

requirement and competency-based assessment of TESDA. Students in this strand

undergo TESDA assessment for National Certifications (NCs) that increase their

employability after graduation from SHS.

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Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies that are

relevant to the present study. These materials provided the researchers with

sufficient ideas and insights with led to the conceptualization of research problems.

Related Literature

Implementation of K-12 Program

Republic Act 10533 otherwise known as the Enhanced Basic Education Act of

2013 mandates the Department of Education to create another level of the basic

education composed of two years. These two additional years in the secondary level

shall comprise the senior high school program as set by the aforementioned law. The

primary goal of the program is to prepare secondary students to master the

prerequisite skills needed in professional courses for those who will prefer academic

tracks and to equip with employment and industrial skills needed for those who will

prefer technical-vocational and other tracks.

Tips on choosing the right track and strand for SHS

Providing the support that children need to build these skills at home, in early

care and education programs, and in other settings they experience regularly is one

of society’s most important responsibilities. Growth-promoting environments provide

children with “scaffolding” that helps them practice necessary skills before they must

perform them alone. Adults can facilitate the development of a child’s executive

function skills by establishing routines, modeling social behavior, and creating and

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maintaining supportive, reliable relationships. It is also important for children to

exercise their developing skills through activities that foster creative play and social

connection, teach them how to cope with stress, involve vigorous exercise, and over

time, provide opportunities for directing their own actions with decreasing adult

supervision (harvard.edu, 2017).

Research on family influence has increased rapidly during the last couple of

years, yet an understanding of family influences on career choices still remains

sparse. Most of the research on family influence focused on individual parents’

careers, for instance, mothers or fathers influencing children to take up a certain

career. This research considers family members’ influence on career choices which

includes parents, siblings and extended family members. The first interactions of a

child with people takes place within its home among members of its family who

include parents, siblings and relatives (Bollu-steve&Sanni, 2013). A child is affected

by a number of family-related factors such as the marital relationship of the parents,

the socio-economic status of the family, the atmosphere of the home (whether

parents are warm or hostile), the environmental condition, occupational status of the

parents and the number of siblings in the family (Bollu-steve&Sanni, 2013). The

family dynamics therefore play a pivotal role in the career readiness of the students.

Personality

There has been a lot of talk whether or not passion is the sole way for

choosing an individual’s career path. But there are other significant factors that can

influence the career path, not just passion. Several recent studies shows that

understanding the personality of the individual’s own traits and characteristics, rather

than passion, are a key to career fulfillment and success.

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An article posted by Adecco UK (Adecco UK, 2015), a part of a Swiss

multinational human resource consulting company of the same name, states that it is

worth finding out what type of worker an individual is with the increasing of employers

utilizing personality and psychometric testing procedures to analyze the employee’s

attributes beyond qualifications. It is also stated in the article that “choosing a job to

which an individual is inherently suited –rather than just able to convince the

interviewer that he/she is interested in the position –will make him/her a happier,

more productive employee.”

Family and Relatives

Respect for family is one of the most influential factors that impact Filipino

students’ career decision. It is concurred that “Out of respect and loyalty, it may not

be appropriate to express personal desires; rather, one may alter one’s interests to

maintain harmony.” As a sign of respect, Filipino children want to do well for the sake

of the family, follow parents’ advice about choosing a job or major in college and

lastly, make sacrifices for the family(Finlayson, 2009). For practicality reasons, it is

also reported that parents usually encourage careers that will not cost much money,

but at the same time, are stable sources of income. Careers in nursing, accounting,

and engineering are highly popular for Filipino families (Saysay, 2011).

In an online blog article by Angerman, family background is one of the major

factors to examine for those who seek career guidance. When talking about “family

background” issues, the extent of influence of the parents and the extended family

has on the person is at focus – both at positive and negative ways. This includes the

place where he grew up, the economic realities facing the family, illness, the

countries of origin, among others (Angerman, 2009).

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Job Opportunities

There are many opportunities that wait for every career that one wants to

pursue. Some people may stumble upon better occupation opportunities, thanks to

the strategies and steps that they follow. Investigating for career opportunities is well

worth taking time (Mind Tools, 2014). By doing this, one can discover opportunities

that are perfectly matched to his/her interests or skills, find out about promotions and

job openings before anyone else, and identify ways of expanding the knowledge and

skills needed for that career.

Opportunities exist for schools to take greater advantage of the fact that their

students are working by integrating employment and school experiences to the

benefit of adolescents’ vocational development. Guidance counselors can play a key

role in spearheading such efforts. Many youth do not see their jobs as connected

with their future work lives or as having any influence on their occupational

preferences. More can be done to develop internships and work-school cooperative

programs that might involve workplace visits or job shadowing, for example. Through

such programs, youth are exposed to the possibilities of working in particular kinds of

settings; they can learn about the requirements to fill certain kinds of jobs and do

particular types of tasks (Hamilton & Hamilton, 2000).

Opportunities in career choice would include academic settings, technical

schools, entry-level job openings, job shadowing, vocational guidance, job

placement, and industry contacts. Super (Super, 1957) stated, surprisingly enough,

that intelligence has little to do with getting entry-level positions; rather, maturity, as

in physical size and manner, is valued more by the employer than intelligence. An

academic background that closely meets the desired qualifications for a job is a

critical factor. Likewise shop skills are essential for some jobs in that they would

benefit someone pursuing a machine trades career.

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Extracurricular activities are beneficial to a job hunt. A record of clubs and

activities provides evidence of leadership and the ability to work in groups. The

careers most suited for someone with many extracurricular activities on her/his

resumé are sales, junior executive positions, and an educational career. Work

experience has been seen as the way a student demonstrates responsibility and

dependability. Those that are in the position to have the best contacts are students

with parents who hold supervisory or executive positions. Schools and employment

services have played a huge role, therefore, in the social mobility of students entering

the workforce. Schools and employment agencies have matched the qualifications of

the job to the education level of the career seeker, using computers, and eliminating

barriers of distance quite easily.

Related Studies

Factors Influencing Career Choices

In like manner with the study of La (2009) on factors influencing the

educational and career choices of senior high school students revealed that parent’

supports, school structure, gender and grade point average has considerable

influence on the Vietnamese Senior high school students’ educational and career

choice. In same year, Leonard (2009) study on high school students' course

selection decisions in South Carolina found out that parents and teachers are highly

influential in the course selection decision. In addition, Heilbronner (2011) claimed

that the greater number of the students manifested to proceed to STEM courses in

college. This is brought about with the quality, adequacy of preparations and

scholastic experiences of the students.

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Eremie, (2014), study on the comparative analysis of factors influencing

career choices among senior secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria. The

result showed that there were significant differences in the career preferences when

grouped according to their sex, parity, and parental influence. In addition,socio-

economic backgrounds were influential in participants' decisions to pursue a post-

secondary degree. Cultural factors, especially English fluency, were also relevant.

Several factors may be considered in selecting school and degree program

like quality education, the people from the environment, personal choice; and

accessibility of the school from students' residences. This study utilized a descriptive

type of research method with Freshman Maritime students as respondents. Findings

revealed that it is the personal choice of the students to enrol in maritime program in

Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas (LPU-B) with the support primarily

from their parents wherein quality education through being known as home of board

top-notches and its standards are considered big factor for their decision. They also

believed that finishing maritime education would bring them in employment abroad

which is basically the nature of duties and responsibilities of seafarers. High interest

towards the degree program is also manifested among the maritime students.

Maritime students graduated from public schools have significantly higher chance of

being influenced by people in choosing the school and degree program and they also

have significantly higher degree of interest towards the maritime program compared

to those graduated from private schools.

Problems Encountered in Implementing K-12 Program

This study provide possible options and the opportunities to be well oriented

and informed of the program offerings that would make them excel and successful.

This time, they will be orienting junior high school students to enter in the senior high

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school with properly selected academic track: Accountancy, Business and

Management (ABM) Strand; Humanities and Social Sciences Strand (HUMSS);

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) `Strand while other

colleges and universities will be offering other tracks based on the approval of the

Department of Education. The choice of career of the students is being influenced by

some factors from the social environment, mainly the parents as immediate family

who plays an active role in choosing the right education for their children

(Pafili&Mylonakis, 2011). As a sign of respect for the parents and culture of the

Filipinos, parents or the elderly are being consulted first by their children because

primarily they will be the one to provide the financial support to enter in college

(Laguador, 2013).

Career Decision-Making Process Model

This present study explores the last phase of the Career Decision-Making

Process Model of Hirschi and Läge (2007) which is the after actual decision-making

which aims to determine, whether It is important for the institution to identify the

willingness of the students to pursue the program where interest can be used as

good indicator of career choice (Hirschi&Läge, 2008), so that if problems might occur

in their academic performance related to negative attitude, the result of this study

might be useful to explain the situation. Part of the study is the issue of the type of

high school where the Maritime students graduated either from public or private

secondary schools. Estevan (2014) emphasized that in Brazil, although there is an

improvement in the quality of public school which may also increase enrollment;

there are some students who prefer private education now choose public schools. In

the Philippines, based on personal observation that most parents transferred their

children from private to public schools due to the global economic recession which

parents working abroad become unemployed or they are receiving lesser amount of
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salary compared to their normal compensation. Some political challenges that the

country faced for the past and present administrations make the parents financially

affected.

Factors Influencing Students in Choosing Their Strands

This study also explores the differences on how these students from private

and public schools really value their college degree to become future seafarers to

seek greener pastures from other countries. Majority of the parents who can afford to

educate their children in private schools are those capable to sustain in paying high

tuition and other miscellaneous fees, projects, assignments and co-curricular

activities. The nature of student life in public school is different from private due to the

different levels of economic status which may somehow influence the attitude and

behavior of the students towards on how they look at the environment based on their

social orientation within their sphere. Student development can be equated from the

kind of activities and quality of life that a school can provide wherein the success of

every outcome still depends on how the students appreciate and apply the learning

from various experiences. It is a good insight for the academic institution to

determine the reasons of the students for choosing them as a training ground for

their college degree. if the maritime program is definitely the college degree that the

students under study really aspire to pursue, either personal choice or with consent

and approval from other people.

This serves as initial information to strengthen the services of the

respondents for the selection of school based on quality education, influence of

people, personal preference; and accessibility and proximity; to determine the level of

their interest towards maritime program; and test the difference between students’

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perception from private and public high school on the factors affecting their choice of

school and level of interest towards the maritime program.

Career Development

The present study is highly relevant to the one conducted by Garcez since

both studies concentrate on the students’ desire to succeed in the field of education

to be able to pursue their goals in the near future. These studies also give emphasis

on the career development that learners need to attain through self-esteem which is

part of the Senior High school Education Program. The difference lies on the

broadness of the topic. His study is more focused on setting career goals through

education while the present study stresses the course preferences in Senior High

School.

Career Needs

Moreover, the study conducted by Lethbridge has high relevance to the

present study since it also concentrates on assessing the career needs of senior high

school students. The present study also aims to evaluate these career needs of

Senior HS students through identifying their desired tracks according to their

perceptions. Factors such as school and home are discussed on both studies.

However, they differ in terms of the nature of respondents because her study

includes teachers, parents, counselors and administrators.

Influence of Personality on Career Choice

There are many methods for assessing personality type, and the most

common is the RIASEC model of the psychologist John L. Holland (Holland,1973),

which is developed from his study which postulates that people project self- and

world-of-work views onto occupational titles and make career decisions that satisfy

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their preferred personal orientations based on the premise that personality factors.

Holland’s model constitute of six basic personality types, namely: Realistic,

Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. From the 6, the model

provides the possibility of a 720 different personality patterns. The results will show

the tendencies of a person to lean towards a certain type of personality, which would

provide a list of careers that might suit the person best.

Another study that establishes the influence of personality on career choice is

of Dr. Claudia Harzer and companions of University of Zurich (Harzer, et.al, 2012),

which focuses on the character strengths of an individual and how it affects their

career. From interviews of over 1,000 working people, their study shows that the

degree of positive experiences increases with the number of personal character

strengths, or so-called “signature strengths”, applied at work. This would imply that

understanding what roles a person are best suited to based on his/her personality is

what will make him/her the most happy at work.

In the study of Adecco(2015) ,there has been a lot of talk whether or not

passion is the sole way for choosing an individual’s career path. But there are other

significant factors that can influence the career path, not just passion. Several recent

studies shows that understanding the personality the individual’s own traits and

characteristics, rather than passion, are a key to career fulfillment and success. An

article posted by Adecco UK, a part of a Swiss multinational human resource

consulting company of the same name, states that it is worth finding out what type of

worker an individual is with the increasing of employers utilizing personality and

psychometric testing procedures to analyze the employee’s attributes beyond

qualifications. It is also stated in the article that choosing a job to which an individual

is inherently suited rather than just able to convince the interviewer that he/she is

interested in the position will make him/her a happier, more productive employee”.

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Another study that establishes the influence of personality on career choice is of Dr.

Claudia Harzer and companions of University of Zurich (Harzer, et.al, 2012), which

focuses on the character strengths of an individual and how it affects their career.

From interviews of over 1,000 working people, their study shows that the degree of

positive experiences increases with the number of personal character strengths, or

so called “signature strengths”, applied at work. This would imply that understanding

what roles a person are best suited to based on his/her personality is what will make

him/her the most happy at work. As supported by the study of Mcquerry (2012), the

earning potential of your chosen profession is likely to be a factor that influences your

career path. You may find one aspect of your career that is more financiallyrewarding

than another, or that working your way through the ranks holds greater financial

incentive than staying in the same job.

Influence of Family on Career Choices

Parents influence career choices in a number of ways, for example, parental

support and encouragement. A study carried in Kenya reflects that when adolescents

require information on topics such as career planning, they consult their parents

(Edwards & Quinter, 2011). Although the study was similar to the current study in

terms of focus and objectives, the study used a qualitative approach which limits the

objectivity and generalisability of results. Another 19 study in Kenya also examined

the influence of parental support in their children’s careers (Korrir&Wafula, 2012)

however, the study was carried out to examine the factors that influence the choice of

careers in the hospitality industry in Kenya. The current study did not focus on a

particular career but careers in general and is carried out in Zimbabwe.

A study was conducted to investigate the influence of family background on

the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. It was found that

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supportive parents are important for their children’s career decision making and for

the success of their careers (Barker & Clutter, 2010). (Bollu-steve&Sanni ,2013)

established that Nigerian parents influenced students’ performance and eventual

career choices. Despite the differences in the aims of these studies, they

acknowledged the importance of parental support of their children’s education and

career choices. The current study particularly focused on family influences on career

choices.

In a study conducted by Bregman and Killen (2008) it was documented that

adolescents valued parental influence and guidance in the area of career choice and

vocation development. It is important for parents to give students support and

encouragement to explore the many options available to find the best career fit.

According to Oladele (2009),some parents do not like to force their children,they

allow their children to make up their minds while they support them. This seems to be

an ideal approach while some other rely on theschool but give advice where

necessary. Stressesthat parents consciously set-up standards worthy of education

fortheir children and motivate them achievement oriented.

According to Hairston (2010) in “family role in career development”, says that

parent’s career aspirations and occupation aid children in selecting their career and

occupational goals and this influence their knowledge of occupations and familiarize

them with occupational roles and requirements. Parents want their children to

continue their occupation or to learn how to manage their business in the near future.

Influence of Job Opportunities on Career Choice

In the study conducted by Mind Tools (2014), there are many opportunities

that wait for every career that one wants to pursue. Some people may stumble upon

better occupation opportunities, thanks to the strategies and steps that they follow.

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Investigating for career opportunities is well worth taking time. By doing this, one can

discover opportunities that are perfectly matched to his/her interests or skills, find out

about promotions and job openings before anyone else, and identify ways of

expanding the knowledge and skills needed for that career. As supported by the

study of Mcquerry (2012), opportunity may influence how students have perceived

their future in terms of the reasonable probability of a future in particular career fields.

The issue of poverty has played an important determining role in the opportunities

available to all. They want to take a strand that can help them easily to earn high

salary because they want a better future someday. Last in rankwas the respondents

would pursue a career that is timely in demand with a weighted mean of 3.88 and a

verbal interpretation of much influenced. According to respondents they prefer to

choose in demand courses for them to be able to find a job easily in the future. In

relation to the study of Mathay (2016), there are jobs offered after graduating senior

high school that is related to the field of your chosen career path.

Importance of Career Selection

Choosing a course track should consider different factors in order to have

virtuous decision. As observed most of the senior high school student has a course

that been chosen by parents they should take up. Most of them have the tendency

to lower grades because they found the course is not interested. There are different

effects on students if the course that they take is not relevant to the development that

they want. Some students who have the course that they don't want to tend to take

the course seriously and their goal will only to graduate.

There are several factors that impact the students from high school seniors'

decide in what course they should take. From the phases that have proposed by

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Jackson, which could affect students' decision in finding a decent course, there is still

a relevant factor in it. According to investigation, Career selection is one of many

important choices students will make in determining future plans. This decision will

impart them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is will revolve

around what the student want to do with their life-longer work. The choice of career

has been a serious problem among the secondary school students in Negeria. No

matter what one's age is, the choice of career or desire is an important question for

everybody. A lot of students in secondary schools believe that their future is glorious

adventures in which they are bound to succeed. Many of them have the idea that

they would be able to work in the public or private establishment as soon as they

complete secondary school education.

A career choice is important because it determines their success in the next

stages of their life (PAMS, n.d). One of the tasks of high school students is to explore

and plan for their post-secondary career options. High school students are at the

exploration stage of career development. Many factors affect career choices of high

school students. Identifying these factors would give parents, educators, and industry

an idea as to where students place most of their trust in career selection process.

Some Specialized Strands offered in Senior High School

Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education;

students may choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school

capacity. Each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks:

Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic

track includes three strands: Accountancy, Business Management (ABM);

Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS); and Science, Technology, Engineering,

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and Mathematics (STEM). The choice of career track will define the content of the

subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12 (Official Gazette, 2012).

On the first semester SHS students were divided by their chosen strand.

However, for this second semester there are SHS students who opt to transfer to the

other strand. It is in this context that the proponents of the study would like to

determine the factors that influence SHS student of SCC in the choice of strand.

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Synthesis of the Review Literature and Studies

The Studies and literature’s that are researchers provide are helpful tool to

accomplish the study. The literature and study both foreign and local that

researchers, gathered is somehow connected to each other and is very helpful in

solving the problem of this researcher, that is to determine the factors that affect the

Taal Senior High School grade 11 students in choosing their strand.

The present study is highly relevant to the one conducted by Garcez because

the study of Garcez concentrate on increasing career development activities, which

includes setting career goals, students had a higher self-esteem while the present

study focused on the factors that affect the grade 11 students in choosing their strand

in Senior High School

It is also noted that there are similarities between the present study and the

one conducted by SiguanJr.,Almerino and Pabiton are highly related to the present

study because these are all centered on developing course preferences for better

occupation. The factors that may also influence their chosen specialization are also

discussed in these studies. However, the difference lies on some factors since one

ofthese studies is focused more on personal interests, abilities, skills and values. The

present study concentrates on the interests, skills, ambition, influence of others, age,

gender, economic status and strand choose. Generally, the studies conducted by

both foreign and local researchers are related to the present study.

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Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES

This chapter presents the research design, respondents of the study, the

research instrument used, the data gathering procedures, the scoring, and statistical

treatment of data.

Research Design

The research design used by the researcher is the descriptive method of

research. Descriptive method of research is the most widely used method for

researches that determine the current conditions and relations, viewed opinions and

beliefs, the process to be used and the possible effects, and developing trends.

According to Calderon (2008), as cited by Alberto et al (2011), descriptive

method is also known as statistical research, it describes data and characteristics

about the population or phenomenon being studied. This research method is used for

frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach

prior to writing descriptive research, is conducting a survey investigation.

According to Manuel and Medeldescriptive research describes what is. It

involves the description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of the present nature,

composition or processes of phenomena. The focus is on prevailing conditions, or

how a person, group, or thing behaves or functions in the present. It often involves

some type of comparison or contrast.

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Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study were randomly chosen from the different sections

of STEM, ABM, HUMSS, and TVL strands of Taal Senior High School. There were a

total of 222 grade 11 students which we used to be the respondents of this study..

The researchers used the proportional stratified random sampling technique were

thesample size of each stratum in this technique is proportionate to the population

size of the stratum when viewed against the entire population. This means that each

stratum has the same sampling fraction.

Data Gathering Instrument

The researchers used questionnaire as the main gathering instrument in

collecting significant data that related to the presented study. It is divided in to two (2)

parts. The first parts deals with the profile of the respondents and the second one is

the factors that affect Taal Senior High School Grade 11 students in choosing their

strand.

Preparation of the Questionnaire

The researchers read book, magazines, and thesis to formulate the

questionnaire. The questionnaire was conducted based on the statement of the

problem made. The researchers organized the ideas and came up with the first draft

of the questionnaire. It was presented to the research paper adviser for comments,

suggestions and recommendations. All corrections and suggestion were considered

in the final draft of the questionnaire. It was multiple equal to the number of

respondents.

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Data Gathering Procedure

After the questionnaire was multiple, the researchers provide a letter seeking

permission from the Office-in-charge of Taal Senior High School.

After the permission was granted, the questionnaire were personally

administered to the randomly chosen two hundred twenty two (222) Students of

STEM, ABM, HUMSS and TVL strand in Taal Senior High School.

Scoring and Interpretation

The responses were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted using the following

code:

OPTION SCALE-RANGE VERBAL INTERPRETATION

5 4.5-5.0 Very Much Felt

4 3.5-4.49 Much felt

3 2.5-3.49 Moderately felt

2 1.5-2.49 Less felt

1 1.0-1.49 Not felt

Statistical Treatment of Data

The researcher applied the following statistical tools to treat and give clearer

meaning to the data gathered.

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Ranking. This was used to determine the factors that affect the Taal Senior High

School grade 11 students in choosing their strand.

Percentage. This was used to find out the part of the whole in the profile of the

respondents.

(P)= F/N x 100

Where:

F= Frequency

N= Total number of respondents

P= Percentage

Weighted Mean.This used to quality the responses of each individual item and

the general responses for each part.

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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter includes the data analysis and findings of research study.

Researchers used table in presenting the data gathered from the respondents. In

addition, it includes the interpretation of all necessary information.

1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents

1.1 Gender

Table 1.1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents by Gender

GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE RANKING

Male 78 35% 2

Female 144 65% 1

Table 1.1 clearly shows that out of 222 respondents, 144 or 65% of them are

female and 78 respondents or 35% of them are male.

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1.2 Strand

Table 1.2

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents by Strand

STRAND FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE RANKING

STEM 8 4% 4

ABM 44 20% 3

HUMSS 80 36% 2

TVL 90 40% 1

Table 2 presents the distribution of respondents in terms of their chosen

strand. This shows that first in rank was from TVL with the highest percentage of

40% which means most of the respondents are from TVL students. It can be

concluded from the result above that most of the students of TSHS prefer TVL as

their chosen strand. It can also be noted that 36% of the respondents are from

HUMMS with the frequency of 80 out of 222 and 20% of the respondents are from

ABM students and the remaining 4% are from STEM students

2. Factors Affecting the Students in Choosing Their Strand

Career choice requires self –assessment. Students have to be well informed

to make wise decision about careers as information is crucial on making satisfying

career choice. There is a need to update information in order to reflect any changes

in the self-analysis or in goals. This study explores factors that influenced students in

choosing their strand for senior high school.

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2.1 Personality

Personality helps a person in finding the career that he is inherently suited in

(Adecco UK, 2015). As his characteristics define his behavior at work, this may affect

his productivity.

The table below shows that personality is being put to consideration in choosing a

career that they will specialize on the strand that they preferred.

Table 2.1

Personality as Factor Affecting Studentsin Choosing their Strand

STATEMENT WEIGHTED VERBAL RANKING


MEAN INTERPRETATION

1. My personality fits best 4.03 2.5


in my chosen career that I
would take from this strand. Much Influenced

2. My traits and 4.03 2.5


understanding of them will
give me an advantage on Much Influenced
landing to my pursued
career.

3. I am more productive in 3.86 5


the career that I practice
due my traits. Much Influenced

4. My attributes are ideal 4.05 1


for the career that I will
focus on. Very Much Influenced

5. I discover where I am 3.94 4


passionate about.
Much Influenced

Average Weighted Mean 3.99 Much Influenced

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The table shows that the students are much influenced by personality factors

in choosing a strand as supported by the average weighted mean of 3.99.

As gleaned on the table, students are very much influenced by their personal

attributes with the weighted mean of 4.05. It was supported by the study of Adecco

(2015) there has been a lot of talk whether or not passion is the sole way for

choosing an individual’s career path. But there are other significant factors that can

influence the career path, not just passion. Several recent studies shows that

understanding the personality the individual’s own traits and characteristics, rather

than passion, are a key to career fulfillment and success. An article posted by

Adecco UK, a part of a Swiss multinational human resource consulting company of

the same name, states that it is worth finding out what type of worker an individual is

with the increasing of employers utilizing personality and psychometric testing

procedures to analyze the employee’s attributes beyond qualifications. It is also

stated in the article that choosing a job to which an individual is inherently suited

rather than just able to convince the interviewer that he/she is interested in the

position will make him/her a happier, more productive employee”. Another study that

establishes the influence of personality on career choice is of Dr. Claudia Harzer and

companions of University of Zurich (Harzer, et.al, 2012), which focuses on the

character strengths of an individual and how it affects their career. From interviews of

over 1,000 working people, their study shows that the degree of positive experiences

increases with the number of personal character strengths, or so called “signature

strengths”, applied at work. This would imply that understanding what roles a person

are best suited to based on his/her personality is what will make him/her the most

happy at work. As supported by the study of Mcquerry (2012), the earning potential

of your chosen profession is likely to be a factor that influences your career path. You

may find one aspect of your career that is more financially rewarding than another, or

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that working your way through the ranks holds greater financial incentive than staying

in the same job.

2.2 Family or Relatives

Many Filipinos do take upon the parents or relatives suggestion on what they

should specialize when they grow up. Some parents suggest careers that wouldn’t

cost that much and the same time, are stable sources of income.

Table 2.2

Family or Relatives as Factor Affecting Students in Choosing Strand

STATEMENT WEIGHTED VERBAL RANKING


MEAN INTERPRETATION

1. My parents and/or relatives


Somewhat
took the same career that I 3.19 4
Influenced
would pursue.

2. Preferences are made by a


Somewhat
relative since they will provide 3.29 3
Influenced
for the expenses.

3. My family will give me


support on the chosen career 4.23 Much Influenced 1
for me.

4. I believe that they are the


one who are responsible to
3.50 Much Influenced 2
choose a career since they
may know what is best for me.

5. My parents occupation
Somewhat
determine my choice of 3.06 5
Influenced
career.

Somewhat
Average Weighted Mean 3.45
Influenced

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Table 2.2 presents the family and relatives as factor affecting students in

choosing a strand with a composite mean of 3.45 and a verbal interpretation of

somewhat influenced. This means that first in rank was the family of the students will

give them support on their chosen career with a weighted mean of 4.23 and a verbal

interpretation of much influenced. In a study conducted by Bregman and Killen

(2008) it was documented that adolescents valued parental influence and guidance

in the area of career choice and vocation development. It is important for parents to

give students support and encouragement to explore the many options available to

find the best career fit. According to Oladele (2009),some parents do not like to force

their children,they allow their children to make up their minds while they support

them. This seems to be an ideal approach while some other rely on theschool but

give advice where necessary. Stressesthat parents consciously set-up standards

worthy of education fortheir children and motivate them achievement oriented.

Last in rank was the parents occupation that determine the student choice of

career with a weighted mean of 3.06 and a verbal interpretation of somewhat

influenced. As a result, according to Hairston (2010) in “family role in career

development”, says that parent’s career aspirations and occupation aid children in

selecting their career and occupational goals and this influence their knowledge of

occupations and familiarize them with occupational roles and requirements. Parents

want their children to continue their occupation or to learn how to manage their

business in the near future.

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2.3 Job Opportunities

There are many opportunities that surround the career as a person wants to

pursue. Being investigative with opportunities makes them discover more and those

opportunities would make career life better.

Table 2.3

Job Opportunities as aFactorAffecting Students in Choosing their Strand

STATEMENT WEIGHTED VERBAL RANKING


MEAN INTERPRETATION

1. There are abudant 3.99 3.5


opportunities I can avail from
the career I would pursue. Much Influenced

2. The strand that I chose will 4.17 2


help me to find a suitbale career
easily. Much Influenced

3.The career that I would 3.88 5


pursue is timely in-demand.
Much Influenced

4. I am fully aware of the 3.99 3.5


oppotunities that surround the
career that I seek. Much Influenced

5. The career that I chose will 4.18 1


help me to have a stable job
and high salary. Much Influenced

Average Weighted Mean 4.04 Much Influenced

Table 2.3 shows the job opportunities as factor affecting students in choosing

a strand with a composite mean of 4.04 and a verbal interpretation of much

influenced.

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First in rank was that the career that they chose will help them to have a

stable job and high salary with a weighted mean of 4.18 and a verbal interpretation of

much influenced. As a result, this was followed by the strand that they chose will also

help them to find a suitable career easily with a weighted mean of 4.17 and a verbal

interpretation of much influenced.In relation to the study conducted by Mind Tools

(2014), there are many opportunities that wait for every career that one wants to

pursue. Some people may stumble upon better occupation opportunities, thanks to

the strategies and steps that they follow. Investigating for career opportunities is well

worth taking time. By doing this, one can discover opportunities that are perfectly

matched to his/her interests or skills, find out about promotions and job openings

before anyone else, and identify ways of expanding the knowledge and skills needed

for that career. As supported by the study of Mcquerry (2012), opportunity may

influence how students have perceived their future in terms of the reasonable

probability of a future in particular career fields. The issue of poverty has played an

important determining role in the opportunities available to all. They want to take a

strand that can help them easily to earn high salary because they want a better future

someday. Last in rankwas the respondents would pursue a career that is timely in

demand with a weighted mean of 3.88 and a verbal interpretation of much

influenced. According to respondents they prefer to choose in demand courses for

them to be able to find a job easily in the future. In relation to the study of Mathay

(2016), there are jobs offered after graduating senior high school that is related to the

field of your chosen career path.

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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the summary of the study, the findings based on

the results, the conclusions from the findings and the recommendations drawn by the

researchers.

SUMMARY

The main instrument in collecting primary data is questionnaire. It was

employed to come up with the factors concerning in choosing strand of the student.

The researchers also employed the use of books, unpublished, journals, internet and

the past studies that conducted by the previous researchers. The obtained data were

treated statistically using simple ranking and weighted mean.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Gender;

1.2 Strand?

2. What are the factors that affect the students in choosing their strand?

2.1Personality;

2.2 Family or Relatives and

2.3 Job Opportunities?

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3. What action plan may be proposed in correctly choosing a strand in Senior High

School?

Descriptive method was used in this study, descriptive method of research is

a fact finding study with the adequate and accurate interpretation of findings. It

supports the present fact concerning the nature and states of any kind of

phenomena. The study attempted to determine the factors affecting the Taal Senior

High School Grade 11 students in choosing their strand. The respondents of the

study were 222 Grade 11 students of Taal Senior High School in the school year

2018-2019. The proposed action plan that we have are the activities and programs

like career guidance program, information seminar and career week that can help the

students to be informed and guided in choosing a strand or career.

FINDINGS

1.The Demographic Profile of the Respondents

1.1 Gender

The demographic profile of the respondents in terms of gender found out that

female have the highest percentage, out of 222 respondents 65% of them are female

with the frequency of 144 students and 78 of the respondents or 35% of them are

male.

1.2 Strand

The data showed thatfirst in rank was from TVL strand with the highest

percentage of 40% which means that most of the respondents are from TVL

students. It can be concluded from the data gathered that most of the students of

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TSHS prefer TVL as their chosen strand. It can also be noted that 36% of the

respondents are from HUMMS with the frequency of 80 out of 222 and 20% of the

respondents are from ABM students and the remaining 4% are from STEM students.

2.The Factors that Affects the Student in Choosing their Strand

2.1 Personality

Personality considered as one of the factors that affects the student in

choosing their strand, students are very much influenced by their personal attributes

with the weighted mean of 4.05. There has been a lot of talk whether or not passion

is the sole way for choosing an individual’s career path. Personality focuses on the

character strengths of an individual and how it affects their career. From interviews of

over 1,000 working people, their study shows that the degree of positive experiences

increases with the number of personal character strengths, or so called “signature

strengths”,applied at work. This would imply that understanding what roles a person

are best suited to based on his/her personality is what will make him/her the most

happy at work.

2.2 Family and Relatives

Family and relatives is also factor that affects the student. Family of the

students will give the students support on their chosen career with a weighted mean

of 4.23 and a verbal interpretation of much influenced. Adolescents valued parental

influence and guidance in the area of career choice and vocation development. Last

in rank with verbal interpretation of somewhat influenced, the parents’ occupation

determines the choice of career of the student.

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2.3Job Opportunities

Job Opportunities is one of the factors in choosing strand. First in rank was

that the career that they chose will help them to have a stable job and high salary

with a weighted mean of 4.18 and a verbal interpretation of much influenced. Last in

rank was the career that they would pursue is timely and in demand with a weighted

mean of 3.88 and a verbal interpretation of much influenced. The earning potential of

your chosen profession is likely to be a factor that influences your career path. You

may find one aspect of your career is more financially rewarding than another, or that

working your way through the ranks holds greater financial incentive than staying in

the same job. Your personal financial needs are also likely to influence the career

choices you make. Opportunity is the third factor that has shaped career choices for

students. Opportunity may influence how students have perceived their future in

terms of the reasonable probability of a future in particular career fields. The issue of

poverty has played an important determining role in the opportunities available to all.

CONCLUSION

Based on the findings of the study the following conclusions are drawn.

1. Most of the respondents are female and are from TVL strand.

2. The students are much influenced by personality and existing job

opportunities in choosing a career or strand.

3. There are suggested activities and programs to help students be informed

and guided about choosing a strand.

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RECOMMENDATION

Based on the findings and conclusion presented the following recommendation are

suggest.

1. Students must choose their strand according to their interest talents and

skills.

2. Students should take advice from knowledgeable person that can be decent

or relevant to their situation.

3. The proposed action plan must be tried and implemented to help and guide

the students in choosing a strand or career.

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Factors Affecting Taal Senior
High School Grade 11
Students in Choosing
their Strand

Name (optional):__________________________
Address: ________________________________
Part 1: Demographic Profile of the Respondents
Direction: Please answer the following questions by putting a check mark on
corresponding answer.

1.1 Gender 1.2 Strand


___Male ___STEM
___Female ___ABM
___HUMSS
___TVL

Directions: Based on the given categories, rate the following factors that affecting
Taal Senior High School Grade 11 students in choosing their strand. Please check
the box that corresponds to your answer.
5 – Very Much Influenced
4 – Much Influenced
3 – Somewhat Influenced
2 – Less Influenced
1 – Not Influenced

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2.1 Personality
Indicators 5 4 3 2 1
1.My personality fits best in my chosen
career that I would take from this strand.
2. My traits and understanding of them will
give me an advantage on landing to my
pursued career.
3. I am more productive in the career that
I’ll practice due to my traits.
4. My attributes should be ideal for the
career that I would focus on.
5. I discovered where I am passionate
about

2.2 Family/Relatives
Indicators 5 4 3 2 1

1. My parents and/or relatives took the


same career that I would pursue.

2. Preferences are made by a relative since


they will provide for the expenses.

3. My family will give me support on the


chosen career for me.

4. I believe that they are the one who are


responsible to choose a career since they
may know what is best for me.

5. My parent’s occupation determinemy


choice of career.

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2.3 Job Opportunities
Indicators 5 4 3 2 1
1.There are abundant opportunities I can
avail from the career I would pursue.
2. The strand that I chose will help me to
find a suitable career easily.
3. The career that I would pursue is timely
in-demand.
4. I am fully aware of the opportunities that
surround the career that I seek.
5.The career that I chose will help me to
have a stable job and high salary.

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Dr. Babylyn C. Gonzalvo

OIC Principal of Taal Senior High School

Taal, Batangas

Dear Ma’am,

Greeting of Peace!
We are ABM students of Taal Senior High school currently conducting a
research entitled “Factors That Affect the Taal Senior High School Grade 11
Students in Choosing their Strand” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
Practical Research II.
Corollary to this, we are asking for your assistance and approval in allowing
us to distribute our questionnaires to the selected students of Taal Senior High
School.
Rest assured that any information given will be used exclusively in this
research and will be treated with outmost confidentiality. Any help that you will extend
to us will be highly appreciated.

It is hope that this request will merit your utmost consideration and approval.
Thank you very much!
Very truly yours,
WincelleAlmazan
Arvin Luistro
Josephine Arcibal
LorbenAbijay
Wendell Reyes
Researchers
Noted by:
Ms. Diana Lyn Habungan
Teacher – Practical Research II Approved by:
Dr. Babylyn C. Gonzalvo
OIC Principal of Taal Senior High School

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Dear Respondents,

Good day!

Congratulations for being the one of the respondents to answer the

questionnaire for Practical Research II of the undersigned students of Taal senior

High school with the title “Factors That Affect the Taal Senior High School Grade

11 Students in Choosing their Strand”.

Corollary to this, we would like to request your cooperation by accomplishing

the attached questionnaire to gather the data needed for this study.

Rest assured that your response will be treated with utmost confidentiality

and will be used for this research only.

Thank you and God bless!

Very truly yours,

WincelleAlmazan

Arvin Luistro

Josephine Arcibal

LorbenAbijay

Wendell Reyes

Researchers

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