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Review Related Literature

Facebook was created in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz

and Chris Hughes as a site for Harvard students only. But times have past it becomes
most popular and visited with 34 million unique visitors by January 2008, and as the
13th most popular website worldwide according to (comScore, 2008), with 98 million
unique visitors by December 2007. In the survey of (Facebook, 2008) As of March
2008, Facebook reported having 67 million active users (those who have returned to the
site in the last 30 days), with more than half of them returning daily and spending an
average of 20 minutes per day on the site. Like most social network sites, Facebook
provides a formatted web page into which each user can enter personal information,
including gender, birthday, hometown, political and religious views, e-mail and physical
addresses, relationship status, activities, interests, favorite music and movies,
educational background and a main personal picture.

In the statement of (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007; Whitty&

McLaughlin, 2007).People around the world can now quickly communicate with each
other through the Facebook using a range of applications: chatting, Wall post, and helps
to download some books. The Facebook also provides different types of entertainment.
For instance, users can play games with other people in any part of the world, watch
movies and listen to music. Above all it helps users to form new relationships on this

According to Walther et al (2008), as like of other social networking sites,

Facebook is a single-page application that offers a well-organized webpage where
users can store their personal info and make connections with same type of users. The
disclosure of friends, not only each user view other’s personal profile but also their
whole networks. This functionality allows users’ to traverse from friends profile to
anywhere, so that individual’s social network grows rapidly across the world. This ability
or capability is the backbone of Facebook and became the only reason of its rapid
growth with comparing other social networking sites. Apart from this the simplicity of
Facebook is one significant reason for attracts millions of users around the world.

In the statement of (Chen, et al., 2010) Facebook usages include both the simple
use of the platform and the extent of cognitive immersion into the site. Its use implies
the presence of individual users on the social website, time spent on this platform,
frequent visits, and the nature of the activities performed. People from different age
status interact and exchange contents, they share videos and pictures, discuss
subjects, chat, publish advertisements for group events, or play available applications.
Younger generations like students spend many hours up to 8 per day socializing with
this kind of website.
In the study of LaRose et al. (2001) the popularity of the social networking sites
like Facebook expands largely. People who are actively engaged to this social media
site has their own goals, their goals was to have a great worldwide access. Students are
paying more attention to these social networking activities rather than using their time
for their studies and this will surely affects to their academic performance. Facebook
site have caused some quite harm to society. The students choose to have time on
Facebook rather than to study in their lessons, they get attracted to this site to defeat
against boredom in their study time. Student users are affected by the impact of the
sites that they’ve been used like Facebook. The misused of these sites on a daily life
has many destructive effects like on the physical and mental health of students making
them sluggish and unenthusiastic to build interaction with the people in real life.

Based on the study of (Abramson, 2011).Facebook is completely a

communication tool for users. Facebook is used by different people and most of the
students are actively engaged to Facebook. There is huge amount of different and
common interest in the effects of social networking on different student’s development
and achievement. Students use Facebook in different ways to accomplish their social
responsibilities and also in educational purposes and also they wanted to have fun.

In the statement of (Bugeja, 2006) Facebook has been shown to have an impact
on motivation among students in higher education. Most notably, Mazer et al. (2007)
suggest that student motivation and participation are greatly enhanced when engaging
course material is presented through more personalized platforms, something Facebook
and other SNS provide. In a similar study, Shih (2011) supported Yunus and Salehi’s
findings by claiming that the use of Facebook for peer-to-peer assessment, a process
where learn-ers evaluate their peers’ work based on teacher-developed benchmarks,
resulted in increased student interest and engagement during study.

In the study of (Bart, 2009; Ingram, 2011; Ojalvo, 2011; Schulten, 2009). The
most prominent concern among scholars, educators, and the public however is related
to the effects of social networking sites such as Facebook on the time studying and
offline activities. On the other hand , Facebook usage has been associated with both
positive and negative impacts to different aspects of people’s lives, including positive
impacts, such as improving relationships between friends and family and negative
impacts such as low academic performance; health, personal relationships problems,
and social problems.
There are negative effects of using Facebook including: impaired academic
performance, health problems, personal relationship problems and social dysfunction.
Nalwa and Anand (2003) found that Facebook addictive users used for long sessions,
resulting in personal behavioral problems and disregard of important works and
responsibilities. This conclusion parallels a study by Young (1996), who found that
misused of Internet sites like Facebook experienced personal, family, occupational
problems, and academic difficulties, causing poor grades and eventually expulsion from

In the study of (Rice, 2006). Facebook provides its users with the latest news of
the world and most of the newspapers are available on the Internet, which are
periodically or immediately updated with the latest news Thus, Facebook users can
almost immediately learn about news events, read news articles or opinions about world
events, and share this information and their own thoughts with others like themselves.
The Social Networking in general and Facebook in particularly offer expressive
advantages for its users, for example, sharing and collecting information, searching for
jobs, communication, and other entertainment usage. Great quantities of information of
different types are stored on the Internet. Usually, the information on the Internet like
Facebook is free 24 hours daily.