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# Eco. Env. & Cons. 24 (1) : 2018; pp.

(270-276)
ISSN 0971–765X

## Modelling on plant biomass with time lag under the

effect of toxic metal
Preety Kalra and Pankaj Kumar

Department of Mathematics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 401, Punjab, India

## (Received 9 June, 2017; accepted 12 August, 2017)

ABSTRACT
In this paper, A mathematical model is developed to study the role of delay on plant biomass due to toxic
metals and three state variables considered are: concentrations of toxic metal in soil, concentrations of toxic
metal in plant and the tree biomass. Hope bifurcation occurred at a critical value of time parameter. Numerical
simulation is done using MATLAB.

Key words: Mathematical model, Toxic metal, Tree biomass, Hopf bifurcation.

## Introduction effect of toxic metal on biomass of trees (Leo et al.,

1993). The parameters of the model given by Leo are
The excess of toxic metals adversely affect the soil further modified and it is shown that the model is
quality and hence the plant growth gets slowed applicable to not only trees, but all plants in general
down considerably. Thornleyis the first to apply (Guala et al., 2010, 2013). The effect of toxic metal on
mathematical modelling to variety of topics in plant growth of individual using a two-compartment
physiology (Thornley, 1976). It isconcluded that mathematical model is studied (Mishra and Kalra,
models suggested by Thornley are designed for a 2012, 2013). Rouches theorem is used for the discus-
particular plant species and under particular condi- sion of distribution of roots of exponential polyno-
tions and so they cannot be applicable over a broad mials (Ruan and Wei, 2001, 2003). The effect of time
range of conditions (Lacointe, 2000). A simple math- delay on the dynamics of a multi team prey predator
ematical model is given that coupled the effect of system is studied (Sikarwar and Mishra, 2012).
toxic metal and soil chemistry to study the adverse

## *Corresponding author’s email : preety.19058@lpu.co.in; pankaj.kumar1@lpu.co.in

KALRA AND KUMAR 271
272 Eco. Env. & Cons. 24 (1) : 2018
KALRA AND KUMAR 273
274 Eco. Env. & Cons. 24 (1) : 2018
KALRA AND KUMAR 275

Fig. 1. The interior equilibrium point Interior is asymp- Fig. 3. The interior equilibrium point losses its stability
totically stable with delay and Hopf- bifurcation occurred with delay

Fig. 2. Phase plane with delay Fig. 4. Phase plane with delay
276 Eco. Env. & Cons. 24 (1) : 2018

## Conclusion between soil acidity and forest dynamics. Theoreti-

cal Population Biology. 43 : 31-51.
The system represented by equations (1) -(3) under- Misra, O.P. and Kalra, P. 2012. Modelling Effect of Toxic
Metal on the Individual Plant Growth: A Model.
goes a Hopfbifurcation at the critical value When
American Journal of Computational and Applied Math-
delay is less than 3.17, i.e. the equilibrium is asymp- ematics. 6 : 276-289.
totically stable as shown by Figure 1 and 2. The mo- Misra, O.P. and Kalra, P. 2013. Effect of Toxic Metal on the
ment delay crosses critical value 3.17.1 i.e. the sys- Structural Dry Weight of a Plant: A Model. Interna-
tem undergoes bifurcation and periodic solution re- tional Journal of Biomathematics. 6 (5) : 1350028-
sults as shown by Figure 2 and 3. 1350054.
Ruan, S. and Wei, J. 2001. On the Zeros of a Third-Degree
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