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CARBON CYCLE

n carbon cycle, flow of energy is

A. linear
B. cyclical
C. reversible
D. irreversibleAnswer

MCQ. Coal, natural gas and oil are forms of

A. fossil fuels
B. carbon compounds
C. nitrogen compounds
D. both A and B

Answer
MCQ. During respiration, carbon dioxide (CO2) is

A. produced
B. released in environment
C. absorbed
D. depleted
. Human extraction of fossil fuels brings carbon to Earth's surface where it can be
_____?

extracted
combusted

Erupted
Breakdown

Q. What elements does the carbon cycle contain?


Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulfur

Nitrogen, Sulfur, Hydrogen and Oxygen


Carbon, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, phosphorus and magnesium

Phophorus, calcium, Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen

Q. A large amount of carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere and the _____?

Ocean

Tress
Decomposed Bodies

sediment

Q. Respiration, decomposition and combustion cause organic molecules to be broken


down to produce what?

hydrogen, oxygen and glucose


Oxygen, water and energy
CO2, water and energy

Hydrogen, water and energy

Q. What happens during a photosynthesis?

Decomposers break down the dead material returning CO2 to the atmosphere via respiration and
continuing the cycle.
Producers takes in CO2 and incorporate the carbon into their tissues.

Some of this carbon is returned to the atmosphere after organisms die.

all of the above

Q. Some of the CO2 that dissolved in the ocean enters the food web via photosynthesis
is by ____?

algae
plankton
small fish

plant particles

Q. Some in organic carbon sediments out of the water to form sedimentary rock while
some organic carbon may be buried and become _____?
Sugars

fossil fuels
sedimentary rock

aquifer of CO2

Q. How does the destruction of forests affect the atmosphere?

increase the amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere


increase the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere

increase the amount of hydrogen in the atmosphere


increase the amount of phosphorus in the atmosphere

Q. Carbon make up about how much percent of the total body weight?
answer choices

50%
25%

20%
70%

Q. What is the best known and most significant human alteration of the carbon cycle?
Cutting down forests

combustion of fossil fuels


human extraction of fossil fuels

Natural/human caused fires

he carbon cycle is the movement of carbon on Earth by the processes of --- and ---.

Your answer: breathing in and breathing out


Correct answer: respiration and photosynthesis
Question 2 of 10
Oxygen is a gas produced by --- and used by ---.

Your answer: plants...animals


Question 3 of 10
Carbon dioxide is a gas produced by --- and used by ---.

Your answer: animals...plants


Question 4 of 10
Respiration is the process by which animals use --- and make ---.

Correct answer: oxygen...carbon dioxide


Question 5 of 10
Photosynthesis is the process by which --- make ---.

Correct answer: plants...oxygen


Question 6 of 10
Plants require ---, ---, and --- for photosynthesis.

Correct answer: sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide


Question 7 of 10
People and animals exhale --- during ---.

Correct answer: carbon dioxide...respiration


Question 8 of 10
Planting large numbers of trees results in ---.

Correct answer: an increase in oxygen production


Question 9 of 10
If there is a fire in the forest, there will be less --- in the environment.

Correct answer: oxygen


Question 10 of 10
What waste product released during the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle is necessary for the
survival of animals?

Your answer: oxygen


NITROGEN CYCLE

1. The conversion of nitrogen to ammonia or nitrogenous

compounds is called as

a) Nitrogen assimilation

b) Nitrogen fixation

c) Denitrification

d) Nitrification

2. Plants absorbs N2 in the form of

a) nitrites (NO )

b) nitrates (NO )

c) ammonium (NH )

d) all of the above

3. Plants cannot absorb molecular N2 in the atmosphere because

a) N2 has double bonds making it highly stable

b) Abundance in the atmosphere inhibits absorption

c) N2 has triple bonds making it highly stable

d) None of these

4. Symbiotic N fixing cyanobacteria are present in all except

a) Anthoceros

b) Azolla
c) Cycas

d) Gnetum

5. All the following are free living N fixers except

a) Rhizobium

b) Azotobacter

c) Rhodospirillum

d) Clostridium

6. Which of the following N fixer is involved in symbiotic

association with legumes forming root nodules?

a) Rhizobium

b) Azotobacter

c) Rhodospirillum

d) Clostridium

7. Anabaena, a N fixer is present in the root pockets ofa) Marselia

b) Salvinia

c) Pistia

d) Azolla

8. Splitting of dinitrogen molecule into free nitrogen atom in biological


N2 fixation is carried out by

a) hydrogenase

b) nitrogenase
c) dinitrogenase

d) nitrate reductase

9. The conversion of amino acids to ammonium by soil decomposers is


called

a) ammonification

b) mineralization

c) deamination

d) Both a and b

10. Industrial fixation is accomplished by

a) Helmonts process

b) Haber process

c) Friedel- Crafts reaction

d)Reimer Tiemann Reaction

11. To fix one molecule of nitrogen

a) 6 ATP molecules are required

b) 12 ATP molecules are required

c) 16ATP molecules are required

d) 20 ATP molecules are required

12. The root nodules of legumes contain a pink pigment

which has high affinity for oxygen is

a) nod haemoglobin
b) leghaemoglobin

c) haemoglobin

d) bacterial haemoglobin

13. Conversion of NO2 to NO3 is carried out by

a) Nitrosomonas

b) Nitrososcoccus

c) Nitrobacter

Root Nodules

d) Clostridium

14. The process of conversion of soil NO3 to N2 is called

a) nitrification

b) denitrification

c) ammonification

d) nitrogen fixation

15. Leghaemoglobin creates

a) Anaerobic condition for optimum activity of nitrogenase

b) Aerobic condition for optimum activity of nitrogenase

c) Required oxygen concentration for optimum activity of nitrogenase

d) Suitable environment for nodule formation


Nitrate reductase enzyme forms

- No2-

The existence of N2 fixing bacteria in soil was discovered by

- winogradsky

Nitrosomas convert

-Ammonia to nitrites

Denitrification is also called

-Dissmilatory nitrate reduction

Non legume plants nodule contain nitrogen fixing

- actinomycetes

Due to the lighting nitrogen is converted in to

- nitric oxide

Nitrosomonas and nitro bacter are

- nitrifying bacteria

Nitrites in to nitrate conversion is done by

- Nitrobacter

In nitrogen cycle nitrite is converted in to nitrate by

- Nitrobacter

Arrange the following process of nitrogen cycle in proper sequence

-Nitrogen > ammonification >Nitrification>Denitrification


. The conversion of nitrogen to ammonia or nitrogenous compounds is called as
a) Nitrogen assimilation
b) Nitrogen fixation
c) Denitrification
d) Nitrification

2. Plants absorbs N2 in the form of


a) nitrites (NO2-)
b) nitrates (NO3-)
c) ammonium (NH4+)
d) all of the above

3. Plants cannot absorb molecular N2 in the atmosphere because


a) N2 has double bonds making it highly stable
b) Abundance in the atmosphere inhibits absorption
c) N2 has triple bonds making it highly stable
d) None of these

4. Symbiotic N2 fixing cyanobacteria are present in all except


a) Anthoceros
b) Azolla
c) Cycas
d) Gnetum

5. All the following are free living N2 fixers except


a) Rhizobium
b) Azotobacter
c) Rhodospirillum
d) Clostridium

6. Which of the following N2 fixer is involved in symbiotic association with legumes forming root nodules?
a) Rhizobium
b) Azotobacter
c) Rhodospirillum
d) Clostridium

7. Anabaena, a N2 fixer is present in the root pockets of


a) Marselia
b) Salvinia
c) Pistia
d) Azolla

8. Splitting of dinitrogen molecule into free nitrogen atom in biological N2 fixation is carried out by
a) hydrogenase
b) nitrogenase
c) dinitrogenase
d) nitrate reductase

9. The conversion of amino acids to ammonium by soil decomposers is called


a) ammonification
b) mineralization
c) deamination
d) Both a and b

10. Industrial fixation is accomplished by


a) Helmonts process
b) Haber process
c) Friedel- Crafts reaction
d)Reimer Tiemann Reaction

11. To fix one molecule of nitrogen


a) 6 ATP molecules are required
b) 12 ATP molecules are required
c) 16ATP molecules are required
d) 20 ATP molecules are required

12. The root nodules of legumes contain a pink pigment which has high affinity for oxygen is
a) nod haemoglobin
b) leghaemoglobin
c) haemoglobin
d) bacterial haemoglobin

13. Conversion of NO2- to NO3- is carried out by


a) Nitrosomonas
b) Nitrososcoccus
c) Nitrobacter
d) Clostridium

14. The process of conversion of soil NO3- to N2 is called


a) nitrification
b) denitrification
c) ammonification
d) nitrogen fixation

15. Leghaemoglobin creates


a) Anaerobic condition for optimum activity of nitrogenase
b) Aerobic condition for optimum activity of nitrogenase
c) Required oxygen concentration for optimum activity of nitrogenase
d) Suitable environment for nodule formation

1. Which of the followings is an anaerobic bacterium?


(a) Azotobacter (b) Nitrobactor (c) Clostridium (d) None

2. Which of the followings is non-aerobic bacterium?


(a) Azotobacter (b) Nitrobactor (c) Clostridium (d) None

3. Which of the followings fixed nitrogen in waterlogged soil?


(a) Nostoc (b) Nitrobactor (c) Clostridium (d) None

4. Which of the followings is a group of biological nitrogen


fixing group of fungi?
(a) Nostacles (b) Actinomycetes (c) Casurina (d) None

5. The nodule forming bacteria are:


(a) Azotobacter (b) Nitrobactor (c) Clostridium (d) Rhizobium

biological nitrogen fixation are:


(a) 10 (b) 30 (c) 50 (d) All
Answers
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (a)
PHOSPHOROUS CYCLE

What is phosphorus?
o A. Phosphorus is a metallic element
o B. Phosphorus is an element
o C. Phosphorus is a highly reactive and highly toxic element

 2.
Phosphorus is found everywhere EXCEPT...
 - gas state
 -atmosphere

3. The phosphorus cycle includes erosion and weathering.

o A. False
o B. True

 4.
Why can't Phosphorus be found in the atmosphere?

o A. It doesn't combind well with the other elements


o B. It just can't be found
o C. The sun evaporates it
o D. At normal temperatures and pressure, phosphorus is at a liquid state

 5. Where does the Phosphorus Cycle start?


o A. Rocks
o B. Water
o C. Atmosphere
 6. How does the Phosphorus enter plants in the soil?
o A. Photosynthesis
o B. Water in the soil
 7. How do humans impact the Phosphorus Cycle?
o A. Pollution
o B. We do not have any impact
o C. Killing plants
o D. Use fertilizers that are not natural
Bioge ochemical cycles are also known as

a) Material cycling

b)gaseous cycle

c) sedimentary cycling

d) none of the above

Which one is sedimentary cycle?

a)oxygen cycle

b) hydrogen cycle

c) nitrogen cycle

d) phosphorus cycle

The phosphorus cycle lacks ---- component

a)a mineral

b)an aquatic

c)an organic

d)an atmospheric

The global hydrologic cycle supports a net flow of

atmospheric water vapour from

a)land to the oceans

b)the oceans to land

c)polar to tropical regions

d)tropical to polar regions

Which of the following is not gaseous type cycle?

a)carbon cycle
b)nitrogen cycle

c)phosphorus cycle

d)oxygen cycle

In the phosphorus cycle, phosphorus becomes available by weathering of rock first


to

a) consumers

b)decomposers

c)producers

d)all of these

The main nitrogen reservoir in the biosphere is the

a)ocean

b)rocks

c)atmosphere

d)organism

Which of the following atoms most often limits the primary productivity of an
ecosystem?

a)sulphur

b)phosphorus

c)nitrogen

d) Carbon

Phosphorus cycle absorbs phosphates in the form of

a)HPO

b)P32

8 Differences between Prokaryotic an…

c)PO
d)AIPO

Among the following biogeochemical cycles which one does not have losses due to
respiration?

a)sulphur

b)nitrogen

c)phosphorus

d)all of above

The Sulfur Cycle

What is Sulfur?
A. A nonmetallic chemical element
B. A yellow rock
C. Dried up lava
D. Rain

2. What does acid rain do?


A. Creates winds
B. Increases productivity of plants
C. Lowers the pH of soils, lakes, and rivers
D. Blocks solar radiation

3. How is Sulfur Dioxide NOT created?


A. Smelting
B. burning coal
C. Volcanoes
D. Compressing ocean rocks
4. How are humans trying to be proactive in reducing our sulfur
emission?
A. By refining fossil fuels in factories
B. By using clean coal
C. By producing acid rain
D. Increasing metal mining

5. Which of the following is an Organic Reservoir? A. Deep


oceanic rock
B. The atmosphere
C. Ice
D. Soil

OXYGEN CYCLE
Around how much of the human body is composed of oxygen?
10%
20%
40%
65%
90%

2) What other element cycle is the oxygen cycle most interconnected with?
Nitrogen cycle
Water cycle
Carbon cycle
Food chain
Nutrient cycle

3) Which of the following processes produces oxygen in the oxygen cycle?


Respiration
Decomposing
Oxidation
Sunlight
Combustion

4) Which of the following processes uses oxygen through the burning of fuels
like wood and coal?
Respiration
Decomposing
Oxidation
Sunlight
Combustion

5) Which of the following processes uses oxygen through the matter of dead
plants and animals?
Respiration
Decomposing
Oxidation
Sunlight
Combustion

6) Which of the following processes uses oxygen when things rust?


Respiration
Decomposing
Oxidation
Sunlight
Combustion

7) Which of the following processes uses oxygen through the breathing of


animals?
Respiration
Decomposing
Oxidation
Sunlight
Combustion

8) In which of the following processes do plants produce oxygen from carbon


dioxide, water, and sunlight?
Respiration
Decomposing
Oxidation
Photosynthesis
Combustion

9) True or False: Unlike land animals, fish breath hydrogen and not oxygen.
TRUE
FALSE

10) What tiny plants live near the surface of the ocean and produce lots of
oxygen?
Seaweed
Coral
Rainforests
Cyclothones
Phytoplankton

 Q. What role do producers play in the carbon and oxygen cycles


They cant do anything because its dangerous
Take in carbon dioxide gas from the air during photosynthesis

Q. Producers , Consumers and decomposers play roles in what


Recycling carbon and oxygen
Cut down houses

Run around screaming

Q. What happens when humans burn oil and other fuel

All animals die

Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere

People get sick

Q. If trees are burned down to clear a forest,additional_____is released in the


burning process.
carbon dioxide

oxygen
fossil fuels

Q. What does a plant to with Carbon Dioxide?

It uses the nutrients from the soil to process food.

Uses it along with water and light to go through photosynthesis.

It breaks down the oxygen in order to survive and releases it into the air.
It removes toxins from the plant.

Q. Why is the CO2 and O2 cycle considered to be a cycle?

there is a exchange of gases


the trees use it and trees are apart of all cycles
there is a continuous exchange of gases

Q. During the oxygen cycle,Producers release oxygen as a result of what?

energy

precipitation
photosynthesis

Q. when humans burn ____ carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
air
oil

water

 Question 9
60 seconds

Q. What does a plant to with Carbon Dioxide?


answer choices

It uses the nutrients from the soil to process food.


Uses it along with water and light to go through photosynthesis.

It breaks down the oxygen in order to survive and releases it into the air.
It removes toxins from the plant.

Q. True or False? When animals are decaying they release Co2?


answer choices

True
False

1. The objective of environmental education is


(a) Raise consciousness about environmental education
(b) To teach environmentally appropriate behaviour
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(c) Create an environmental ethic that fosters awareness about ecological inter-
dependence of economics, social and political
(d) All of the above
2. Which of the following is not influenced by human activities?
(a) Depletion of ground water

(b) Destruction of mangroves and wetlands

(c) Increased extinction rate of species

(d) None of the above

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3. Environmental education is important only at


(a) Primary school stage

(b) Secondary school stage

(c) Collage stage

(d) All stages


4. The atmosphere extends upto a height of about 10,000 km. It is divided into the
following four thermal layers
(1) Mesosphere

(2) Stratosphere

(3) Thermosphere

(4) Troposphere

The correct sequence of these layers starting from the surface of the Earth
upwards is:
(a) 2, 4, 1, 3

(b) 4, 2, 1, 3

(c) 4, 2, 3, 1

(d) 2, 4, 3, 1

5. Which of the following conceptual components of the environment are effective


transporters of matter?
(a) Atmosphere and hydrosphere

(b) Atmosphere and lithosphere

(c) Hydrosphere and lithosphere

(d) Lithosphere and biosphere

6. Biosphere is
(a) The solid shell of inorganic materials on the surface of the Earth
(b) The thin shell of organic matter on the surface of earth comprising of all the living
things
(c) The sphere which occupies the maximum volume of all the spheres
(d) All of the above
7. Which of the following conceptual sphere of the environment is having the
least storage capacity for matter?
(a) Atmosphere

(b) Lithosphere

(c) Hydrosphere

(d) Biosphere

8. Which of the following is an example of impact of development activities on the


Hydrosphere?
(a) Air pollution

(b) Soil pollution

(c) Soil erosion

(d) Water pollution

9. Weather occurs in the Earths:


(a) Troposhere

(b) Mesophere

(c) Ionosphere

(d) Thermosphere

10. Biosphere is a term used to represent the:


(a) Entire atmosphere consisting of troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and
thermosphere
(b) Entire hydrosphere-representing the entire collection of water over the Earth as well
as inside the Earth
(c) A small zone of Earth, where the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere come in
contact with one another
(d) Entire lithosphere-representing the solid Earth and its interior
11. The term ecology was introduced by:
(a) Haeckel
(b) Odum

(c) Tansely

(d) Ramdeo Mishra

12. The study of interactions between living and non-living organisms and
environment is called
(a) Ecosystem

(b) Ecology

(c) Phyto-geography

(d) Phytosociology

13. An ecosystem consist of


(a) Green plants and animals

(b) Green plants and decomposers

(c) Producers and consumers

(d) Green plants, animals, decomposers and abiotic environment


14. The environment which has been modified by human activities is called
(a) Natural environment

(b) Anthropogenic environment

(c) Modem environment

(d) Urban environment

15. Which of the following statements is not true?


(a) Inorganic nutrients are recycled in an ecosystem
(b) Energy flows through the ecosystem in the form of C-C bonds
(c) Energy is recycled in an ecosystem
(d) Respiration process releases energy
16. Driving force in an ecosystem is
(a) Plants

(b) Producers

(c) Solar energy

(d) Biomass energy

17. Physical and chemical components of an ecosystem constitute


(a) Biotic structure

(b) Abioltic structure

(c) Both of these

(d) None of these

18. Which one of the following is an abiotic component of the ecosystem?


(a) Bacteria

(b) Plants

(c) Humus

(d) Fungi

19. Which of the following is a possible producer in an ecosystem?


(a) Plants

(b) Animals

(c) Human beings

(d) Fish

20. The organisms which feed on dead organisms and excreta of living organisms
are known
(a) Decomposers
(b) Consumers

(c) Producers

(d) Carnivores

21. A trophic level refers to:


(a) Area in the tropics

(b) An organism’s portion in a food chain

(c) An organism’s position in an ecosystem

(d) An organism’s position in a biome


22. In a food chain animals constitute the:
(a) First trophic level

(b) Second trophic level

(c) Intermediate trophic level

(d) Ultimate trophic level

23. The food chain in which microorganisms breakdown dead producers is


called:
(a) Consumer food chain

(b) Predator food chain

(c) Parasitic food chain

(d) Detritus food chain

24. Food chain starts with


(a) Producer

(b) Herbivores

(c) Carnivores
(d) Omnivores

25. In a food chain, humans are


(a) Secondary consumers

(b) Primary consumer

(c) Producers

(d) Primary and secondary consumers both

26. Which one is the correct food chain?


(a) Phytoplankton —» Zooplankton —» Fish
(b) Zooplankton —» Phytoplankton —» Fish
(c) Zooplankton —» Protozoans —» Fish
(d) Grass —» Fish —» Zooplankton
27. A food web consists of
(a) Interlocking food chains

(b) Producers, consumers and decomposers

(c) A portion of a food chain

(d) A set of similar consumers

28. Food webs are


(a) One kind of food

(b) Not related to food chains at all

(c) Inter-connected arrangement of food chains

(d) Linear arrangement of food chains


29. Pyramid of number is given by
(a) Haeckel

(b) Odum
(c) Elton

(d) Tansely

30. Which ecological pyramid is always upright?


(a) Pyramid of number

(b) Pyramid of biomass

(c) Pyramid of energy

(d) Pyramid of number and biomass

31. An ecological pyramid refers to the


(a) Pyramid of energy

(b) Pyramid of number

(c) Pyramid of biomass

(d) All of the above

32. An ecosystem may not undergo changes because:


(a) It is in a state of homeostasis

(b) It has plants and animals both

(c) It gets solar energy continuously

(d) The decomposers are present in it

33. Energy flow in ecosystem is given by:


(a) Haeckel

(b) Odum

(c) Tansely

(d) Ramdeo Mishra


34. Energy flow in an ecosystem is always:
(a) Unidirectional

(b) Cyclic

(c) Reversible

(d) Multi-directional

35. The primary producers in a forest ecosystem are:


(a) Chlorophyll containing trees and plants

(b) Herbivores

(c) Carnivores

(d) Bacteria and other micro-organism


36. The desert among the following which is not a cold desert is:
(a) Golbi desert

(b) Patagonian desert

(c) Atacama desert

(d) Majava desert

37. The darker zone in lakes where light penetration is negligible is called the:
(a) Euphotic zone

(b) Littoral zone

(c) Limnetic zone

(d) Benthic zone

38. The zone of a sea lying over the continental shelf is known as the:
(a) Bathyl zone

(b) Neritic zone


(c) Abyssal zone

(d) Littoral zone

39. Which one of the following is not a fresh water biome?


(a) Lotic

(b) Lentic

(c) Spings

(d) Deep sea

40. Tendency of pollutants to become concentrated in successive trophic levels


is known as:
(a) Biomagnification

(b) Biorhythm

(c) Bioremediation

(d) Biopiracy

41. Eutrophication is:


(a) An improved water quality status of lakes
(b) The result of accumulation of plant nutrients in water bodies
(c) A process in the carbon cycle
(d) A water purification technique
42. Increase in fauna and decrease in flora would be harmful due to increase in:
(a) Diseases

(b) CO

(c) O2
(d) Radioactive pollution

43. The largest reservoir of nitrogen an our planet is:


(a) Ocean
(b) Atmosphere

(c) Biosphere

(d) Fossil fuels

44. Overgrazing results in:


(a) Soil erosion

(b) Retention of useful species

(c) Productive soils

(d) All of the above

45. In the world, the economy of the India is:


(a) Largest

(b) Third largest

(c) Second largest

(d) Fourth largest

46. In services output, India is:


(a) 10

(b) 12

(c) 15

(d) 4

Answers:
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. (d); 2. (d); 3. (d); 4. (b); 5. (a); 6. (b); 7. (a); 8. (d); 9. (a); 10. (c); 11. (a); 12. (b); 13.
(d); 14. (b); 15. (c); 16. (c); 17. (c) 18. (c); 19. (a); 20. (a); 21. (c); 22. (c); 23. (d); 24. (a);
25. (d); 26. (a); 27. (a); 28. (c); 29. (c); 30. (c); 31. (d); 32. (a); 33. (b); 34. (a); 35. (a);
36. (d); 37. (d); 38. (b); 39. (a); 40. (a); 41. (b); 42. (b); 43. (b); 44. (a); 45. (d); 46. (c)