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# Para Ing.

Fidel Salinas
Popocatepetl 208 col. Montenegro Santa Catarina N.L.
Cel.- 81-17379450 , fijo 81-83361383

INPUT PARAMETERS

Parameter Value

## Eccentricity [e] 20 inch

Design factor [nd]** 3

psi

Calculate

## Note 3: ** Appropriate design factor shall be selected to cover material

nonuniformity, uncertainty of service conditions, calculation and analysis inaccuracy
etc.

RESULTS

Parameter Value

## Radius of gyration of column [r] 5.96 inch

Slenderness ratio of column [S] 82.53

lbf

## Note 1: * Suggested values per manual of steel construction.

Note 2: ** Shall be larger than design factor. Green color means safe, red color
means not safe according to input parameters.

Definitions:

## Allowable stress: If a calculated maximum stress of a member for the expected

service conditions is less than a certain value and if this certain value has a proper
margin against failure stress, then this value is called allowable stress. The allowable
stress shall be less than failure stress with some margin because of uncertainty of
the conditions of service, nonuniformity of material, and inaccuracy of stress
analysis. In other words, allowable stress is a maximum load which can be safely
placed on a structure.

## Buckling: Sudden failure of a structural member subjected to compressive stress,

where the compressive stress at the point of failure is less than the ultimate
compressive strength of the material. The failure is due to the instability of the
structure.

Failure stress: Loss of function stress for the design. Yield strength, proof strength,
ultimate tensile strength, critical load for instability (buckling) can be selected for
failure stress but this selection depends design, material in use and type of analysis
that will performed.
Design factor (nd):The ratio of failure stress to allowable stress. The design factor
is what the item is required to withstand .The design factor is defined for an
application (generally provided in advance and often set by regulatory code or
policy) and is not an actual calculation.

## Eccentricity: If a load act on a member with some offset to the centroid of a

member, it’s called eccentric loading. The perpendicular distance from the line of
action of the load to either principal central axis is the eccentricity with respect to
that axis.

## Effective length : The effective length of a column is the distance between

successive points which has zero moment.

Effective slenderness ratio: The ratio of effective length of column to the radius of
gyration both with respect to the same axis of bending. The ratio is used as a
means of assessing the stability of the element. Higher slenderness ratio results

## Factor of Safety (Safety Factor): The ratio of failure stress to actual/expected

stress. The difference between the factor of safety (safety factor) and design factor
is: The factor of safety gives the safety margin of designed part against failure. The
design factor gives the requirement value for the design. Safety factor shall be
greater than or equal to design factor.

## Modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus): The rate of change of unit tensile or

compressive stress with respect to unit tensile or compressive strain for the
condition of uniaxial stress within the proportional limit. Typical values: Aluminum:
69 GPa, Steel: 200GPa.

Neutral axis: The line of zero fiber stress in any given section of a member subject
to bending; it is the line formed by the intersection of the neutral surface and the
section.

Neutral surface: The longitudinal surface of zero fiber stress in a member subject
to bending, it contains the neutral axis of every section.

Proportional Limit: The largest value of stress up to which a linear relation still
exist between stress and strain (Hooke’s Law).

Radius of Gyration (Area): The distance from an axis at which the area of a body
may be assumed to be concentrated and the second moment area of this
configuration equal to the second moment area of the actual body about the same
axis.

## Stability: The structure's ability to support a given load without experiencing a

sudden change in its configuration.

## Yield strength: The stress at which a material exhibits a specified permanent

deformation or set. Example: Al6061-T6: 145 MPa