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It should be mentioned here that the electric power is generated at voltage in the range of the 11-30KV.

Transmitting a given amount of power requires a fixed product of voltage and current. Thus the higher

the voltage, the lower the current can be. Lower line currents are associated with lower losses (I2Z). -

Transmitting the power in low voltage range for long distance is not feasible since all the power will be

lost as a voltage drop on the transmission line.

An obvious solution to this problem is to raise the voltage level to some hundred KV (ranging from 110

to 700 KV). Here comes the function of the transformer. This device is one of the most important

inventions of all times. Without a doubt, they are the most important piece of equipment along the

power transmission and distribution systems. Transformers make it possible to convert the energy taken

from generators into usable, transmittable form. Without them, it would be next to impossible to use

the energy produced by the utility companies.

2. Step-down transformers for distribution

3. High voltage measurements (potential transformers)

4. High current measurement (current transformers)

5. Insulating one circuit from the other

6. Insulating DC circuits from AC circuits

Transformer Construction

A single-phase transformer consists basically from two or more windings coupled by magnetic core.

When one of the windings (primary) is connected to an AC source, a time varying flux is produced in

the core. This flux is confined within the magnetic core and it links the second winding (secondary).

When any electric load is connected to the secondary winding, a current will flow.

10

φ

I1 I2

+ +

E1 N1 N2 E2 V2 Load

V1

- -

Ideal Transformer

1. No leakage flux (all the flux produced by the primary winding links the secondary)

2. No winding resistance (V1= E1 and V21= E2)

3. The core reluctance is zero ( ℜ = 0, and µ = ∞ )

4. No core losses (eddy + hysteresis)

11

Let the mutual flux linking both windings φ m be sinusoidal, such that: φ m = φ p sin ω t . According to

Faraday's law, the induced emf can be expressed as:

dλ 1 dφ m

e1 = = N1 = ωφ p N1 cos ω t

dt dt

dλ 2 dφ m

e2 = = N2 = ωφ p N 2 cos ω t

dt dt

1

E1 = ωφ p N1 = 4.44 fφ p N1

2

1

E2 = ωφ p N 2 = 4.44 fφ p N 2

2

The polarities of the induced emf are given by Lenz's law, that is, the emfs produces currents that tend

to oppose the flux change.

E1 N1 V1

The ration between the primary and secondary induced emf is: = = = a , which is known as

E2 N 2 V2

the transformer Turns Ratio. Since the transformer is ideal and there is no losses, then the input power

equals the output power, V1 I1 = V2 I 2 , then:

E1 N1 V1 I 2

= = = =a

E2 N 2 V2 I1

1

V1 = aV2 and I1 = I2

a

V1 a 2V2

Z1 = = = a 2 Z 2 = Z 2\

I1 I2

12

Z 2\ is known as the secondary winding impedance referred to the primary winding. In addition, both

the current and the voltage in the secondary circuit can be referred to the primary circuit as follows:

V1

= a , then V1 = aV2 = V2\

V2

I1 1 1

= , then I1 = I 2 = I 2\

I2 a a

The equivalent circuit of the transformer Referred to the primary is given as follows:

I2

I1 I 2\ =

a

V2\ = aV 2

V1 z 2\ = a 2 Z 2

E1 E2\ = aE2

The equivalent circuit of the transformer Referred to the secondary is given as follows:

I1\ = aI 1 I2

V1

V1\ = E1 V2

a E1\ = E2

a

13

Example

b) Calculate the rated primary and secondary currents

c) Calculate the primary and secondary currents when the transformer delivers 3.2KW at rated

secondary voltage and 0.8 power factor lagging.

Solution:

N1 V1 240

a) a = = = =2

N 2 V2 120

5000

b) I1rated = = 20.83 A

240

5000

I 2rated = = 41.67 A

120

I N

or 2 = 1 = a = 2

I1 N 2

3200

c) For the given load, I 2 = = 33.33 A

120 × 0.8

I 2 33.33

And I1 = = = 16.67 A

a 2

The assumptions made in the previous section for ideal transformer are no longer applicable when

analyzing the performance of an actual transformer.

2. Not all the flux produced by one winding will link the other winding because of flux leakage

3. The core of an actual transformer has a finite permeability.

4. There are core losses (Hysteresis and Eddy current) due to the presence of alternating flux in the

core; (iron losses).

14

φm

R1 I1 R2 I2

+ +

V1 E1

φ11 φ12 E2 V2 Load

- -

N1 N2

Where:

φ 11 = Primary leakage flux

φ 21 = Secondary leakage flux

N1 = Primary winding number of turns

N2 = Secondary winding number of turns

R1 = Primary winding resistance

R2 = Secondary winding resistance

For the primary winding, the flux linking the winding is given as:

φ 1 = φ m + φ 11

The voltage equation for the primary loop can be written as:

dλ 1 dφ 1

V1 = R1i1 + = R1i1 + N1

dt dt

dφ m dφ

Thus V1 = R1i1 + N1 + N1

11

dt dt

dφ di1

Since N1φ 11= i1 L1 , ∴ N1 = L1

11

dt dt

di1 dφ m di

∴ V1 = R1i1 + L1 + N1 = R1i1 + L1 1 + e1 (A)

dt dt dt

In the secondary circuit, the voltage equation may be written as follows:

15

dλ dφ 2

V1 = − R2i2 + = − R2 i2 + N 2

2

dt dt

From the flux direction, φ 2 = φ m − φ 12 ,

dφ m dφ

Thus: V2 = − R2i2 + N 2 − N2

12

dt dt

di2 dφ m di

And ∴ V2 = − R2 i2 − L2 + N2 = − R2 i2 − L2 2 + e2 (B)

dt dt dt

Where e1 and e2 are the induced emf in the primary and the secondary windings, respectively. It can be

shown that:

e1 N1

= =a

e2 N 2

Equations A & B can be written in frequency domain as follows:

∴ V1 = R1i1 + jω L1i1 + E1

V2 = − R2 i2 − jω L2i2 + E2

To model the core losses of the transformer a parallel circuit consists of an inductor Lm and a resistor

Rc is added usually to the primary side of the transformer equivalent circuit, where:

Rc = Represents the core losses (Hysteresis & Eddy current losses)

The core related circuit elements Lm & Rc are usually determined at the rated voltage and referred to the

primary. They are assumed constant when the transformer is operating at or near the rated conditions.

16

I1 R1 L1 R2 L2 I2

Ie

Ic Im Load

V1

Rc Lm E1 E2 V2

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer

The equivalent circuit of the transformer in the frequency domain is given as:

I1 R1 jX 1 I 2\ = I 2 a R2 jX 2 I2

Ie

Load

V1

Rc jX m E1 E2 V2

Ic Im

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer

Where:

E2 = Secondary induced voltage

V1 = Primary terminal voltage

V2 = Secondary terminal voltage

I1 = Primary current

17

I2 = Secondary current

Ie = Excitation current

Im = Magnetizing current

Ic = Core loss current

Xm =Magnetizing reactance

X1 =Primary leakage reactance

X2 =Secondary leakage reactance

Rc = Core loss resistance

R1 = Primary winding resistance

R2 = Secondary winding resistance

V1 = R1i1 + jX 1i1 + E1

V2 = − R2i2 − jX 2 i2 + E2

Ie = Ic + Im

I1 = I e + I 2\

I 2\ = I 2 a

a = N1 N 2

I c // E1

I m ⊥ E1

V1

jI 1 X 1

E1

E2

Ic I1 R1

V2 jI 2 X 2

θ2 I 2 R2

Im Ie \

I 2

I2

I1

18

Referred Transformer Equivalent Circuit

1. Referred to primary side

I1 R1 jX 1 a 2 R2 a 2 jX 2 I 2\ I2 a I2

R2\ jX 2\

Ie

Ic Im

V1 jX m

Rc V2\ aV2 V2

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer

R2\ = a 2 R2

X 2\ = a 2 X 2

I 2\ = I 2 a

E 2\ = aE 2

V 2\ = aV 2

a = N1 N 2

E 2\ = E1

V1

E1 = E 2\ jI 1 X 1

Ic

I1 R1

\ \ \

V 2 jI X

2 2

θ2 I 2\ R2\

Im Ie

I 2\

I1

19

2. Referred to secondary side

R1 jX 1

I1 aI1 a2 a2 R2 jX 2 I2

I e\

I c\ I m\

V1 Rc jX m

V1 V1\ V1 a V2

a2 a2

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer

R1

R1\ =

a2

X

X 1\ = 21

a

I1\ = aI1

E1

E1\ =

a

V

V1\ = 1

a

a = N1 N 2

Example

R1 = 0.16Ω , R2 = 0.04Ω , Rc = 270Ω , X 1 = 0.32Ω , X 2 = 0.08Ω , X m = 100Ω . The transformer

delivers 20kW at 0.8 power factor lagging to a load on the low voltage side with 220 V across the load.

Find the primary terminal voltage.

Solution

Step #1

Determine the load voltage and current:

The voltage across the load is taken as a reference in this case and is equal to V2 = 220∠0 V .

For a load of 20 kW at power factor of 0.8 lag, the load current is equal to:

20

P2 20,000

I2 = = ∠ − cos −1 0.8 = 113.64∠ − 36.9 A

V2 cosθ 2 220 × 0.8

Step #2

N1 440

a= = =2

N 2 220

I 2 113.6

I 2\ = = = 56.82∠ − 36.9 A

a 2

R2\ = a 2 R2 = 0.16 Ω

X 2\ = a 2 X 2 = 0.32 Ω

Step #3

Solve the equivalent circuit

I1

R1 jX 1 R2\ jX 2\ I 2\ I2 a

Ie

Ic Im

V1 jX m

Rc V2\ aV2

E1 = V2\ + I 2\ (R2\ + jX 2\ )

E1 = 440∠0 + 56.82∠ − 36.9(0.16 + j 0.32) = 458.2∠1 = 458.2 + j 9.07

The shunt branch current is:

E1 458.3∠1

Ic = = = 1.7 + j 0.03

Rc 270

21

E1 458.3∠1

Im = = = 0.09 − j 4.58

jX m j100

I e = I c + I m = 1.79 − j 4.55

Thus the primary current is given as:

I1 = I e + I 2\ = 61.04∠ − 39.3 A

The primary voltage is:

V1 = E1 + I1 (R1 + jX 1 ) = (458.2 + j 9.07 ) + (61.04∠ − 39.3)(0.16 + j 0.32) = 478.4∠2.2 V

The approximation is based on the fact that the magnetization (no load) current I e is small compared to

the full load primary input current. In practice I e = 3 − 5% I1 . Moreover, since the primary and the

secondary winding resistances and leakage reactances are very small, then the internal voltage drop is

very small such that ∆V1 = I1 (R1 + jX 1 ) ≤ 3 − 5%V1 .

V1 = E1 + I1 (R1 + jX 1 )

Since I1 = I e + I 2\ , then:

V1 = E1 + I e (R1 + jX 1 ) + I 2\ (R1 + jX 1 )

If I e is very small compared to I1 and R1 & X 1 are also very small, then I e (R1 + jX 1 ) is very small

and neglecting it will have negligible effect on both E1 and V2 . The approximate equivalent circuit can

thus be given in the form:

I1 I 2\ I2 a R1 jX 1 R2\ jX 2\

Ie

Ic Im

V1 jX m

Rc V2\ aV2

22

I1 I 2\ I2 a Req jX eq

Ie

Ic Im

V1 jX m

Rc V2\ aV2

Where:

Req = R1 + R2\ = R1 + a 2 R2

X eq = X 1 + X 2\ = X 1 + a 2 X 2

V1

Ic

V2\ jI 2\ X eq1

θ2 \

I Req1

2

Im Ie \

I 2

I1

23

Second Approximation

If the current I e can be neglected, then the circuit is reduced to the second approximation as shown in

I1 I 2\ = I 2 a Req jX eq

V1

V2\ = aV2

Req and X eq are the equivalent resistance and reactance referred to the primary side. The phasor

V1

V2\ jI 2\ X eq1

θ2 \

I Req1

2

I = I1

\

2

I1

Voltage Regulation

Distribution and power transformers are often used to supply loads that are designed to operate at

essentially constant voltage. The amount of the secondary current drawn by the load depends on the

load magnitude. As this current change, the load voltage will change consequently. This change is due

to the voltage drop on the transformer internal impedance. A measure of how much the voltage will

change as the load is varied is called “voltage regulation”

Definition

The voltage regulation is defined as the change in the magnitude of the secondary voltage as the current

changes from full load to no load with the primary voltage held constant.

24

V2 nd no−load − V2 nd full −load

Voltage regulation ε =

V2 nd full −load

V1 − V2\ V1\ − V2

ε= =

V2\ V2

Efficiency

The percentage efficiency of the transformer is defined as the ratio of the power output to the power

input.

Poutput

η= × 100

Pinput

Poutput

η= × 100

Poutput + losses

å losses = P core + I12 Req1

å losses = P NL + Psc − fl

If the transformer is loaded with x% of its full load, then the copper losses at this loading level will

be x 2 Psc .

For any loading percentage x, I x2 Req1 = x 2 I 2fl Req1 . The output power at any percentage x of the full load

Poutput Pinput − å losses PNL + x 2 Psc

ηx = = = 1−

Poutput + losses Pinput xPoutput + x 2 Psc + PNL

25

Maximum Efficiency

∂η

For maximum efficiency, = 0 . This will lead to PNL = x 2 Psc . In other words, for the maximum

dx

efficiency will occur at the loading level where the no-load losses is equal to the copper losses.

Consequently, the loading level at which the maximum efficiency occurs is given by:

PNL

x=

Psc

experimentally by two tests; the open circuit and the short circuit tests.

This test gives information regarding the losses in the transformer core. It can be used to

determine Rc and X m .

If we connect the circuit as shown in the figure below:

LV HV

φm

W

I1

A

+ +

V1 V E1 V2 V

- -

N1 N2

The equivalent circuit of the transformer will be as shown in the figure below. Measuring the voltage,

current and power, then:

26

I1 I 2\ = 0 R1 jX 1 R2\ jX 2\

Ie

Ic Im

V1 Rc jX m V2\ = aV2

I1 I 2\ = 0

Ie

Ic Im

jX m V2 = aV2

\

V1 Rc

The measured values are: PNL , I NL and V1 . From the above circuit:

V12 I

RC = and Yo = NL

PNL V1

1 1

Yo = −j

Rc Xm

1

∴Xm =

æ 1 ö

Yo2 − çç 2 ÷÷

è Rc ø

27

Short circuit test

This test provides the values of the total leakage impedances and the value of the losses in the winding

at full load.

In short circuit test, we short-circuit the low voltage winding and we put the input voltage on the high

voltage winding. Increase the input voltage in steps until we reach the full load current (about 20-30%

of input voltage) and measure the voltage, current and power. The circuit connection and the equivalent

circuits will be as shown:

LV

HV

φm

W

I1

A

+ +

V1 V E1 V2

- -

N1 N2

I1 I 2\ = I 2 a R1 jX 1 R2\ jX 2\

V1

Psc

Req =

I12

V1

Z eq =

I1

X eq = Z eq2 − Req2

If the transformer is designed to have equal losses on the primary and secondary circuits, then:

Req

R1 = R2\ =

2

X eq

X 1 = X 2\ =

2

28

Example

A 50 KVA, 2400/240, 60 Hz, single-phase transformer has a short circuit and open circuit tests

performed on the high-voltage and low-voltage sides respectively, and the following results were

obtained:

Voltage (V) Current (A) Power (W)

Open circuit test 240 5.4 186

Short circuit test 48 20.8 620

b) Determine the voltage regulation and the efficiency at rated load, 0.8 power factor lagging and

rated voltage at the secondary terminals.

Solution

a) The parameters of the transformer referred to the primary side are: R1 , R2\ , X 1 , X 2\ , Rc and X m .

From the short circuit test

Vsc 48

Z eq = = = 2.3Ω

I sc 20.8

Psc 620

Req = = = 1.43Ω

I sc (20.8)2

2

Since the open circuit test was performed on the low-voltage side, then the determined parameters are

going to referred to secondary side.

I NL 5.4

Yo\ = = = 0.0225 S

Voc 240

æ P ö

θ oc = cos −1 çç NL ÷÷ = 81.8 Lagging

è Voc I NL ø

Yo\ = 0.0225 ∠ − 81.8 ° S

29

1

Rc\ = = 309.6Ω

Gc

1

X m\ = = 44.8Ω

Bm

1

Rc\ = = 309.6Ω

Gc

Rc

Rc\ =

2

2

a

∴ X m = X m\ × a 2 = 44.8 × (10) = 4.48 kΩ

2

V2\ = aV2 = 10 × 240∠0 = 2400∠0V

50,000

I 2\ = ∠ − cos −1 0.8 = 20.83∠ − 36.9 A

2400

V1 = V2\ + I 2\ (Req + jX eq ) = 2400∠0 + (20.83∠ − 36.9)(1.43 + j1.8) = 2446.6∠0.3V

2446.6 − 2400

ε= × 100 = 1.9 %

2400

The transformer efficiency is:

Output

η= × 100

Input

Output power = 50,000 * 0.8 = 40,000 Watt

Input power = Output power + Losses

Losses = Core losses + Copper losses

= 186 + 620 = 806 Watt

40,000

∴η = ×100 = 98 %

40,000 + 806

30

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