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Single-Phase Transformers

It should be mentioned here that the electric power is generated at voltage in the range of the 11-30KV.
Transmitting a given amount of power requires a fixed product of voltage and current. Thus the higher
the voltage, the lower the current can be. Lower line currents are associated with lower losses (I2Z). -
Transmitting the power in low voltage range for long distance is not feasible since all the power will be
lost as a voltage drop on the transmission line.
An obvious solution to this problem is to raise the voltage level to some hundred KV (ranging from 110
to 700 KV). Here comes the function of the transformer. This device is one of the most important
inventions of all times. Without a doubt, they are the most important piece of equipment along the
power transmission and distribution systems. Transformers make it possible to convert the energy taken
from generators into usable, transmittable form. Without them, it would be next to impossible to use
the energy produced by the utility companies.

Transformers are used indifferent applications, such as:

1. Step-up transformers for transmission


2. Step-down transformers for distribution
3. High voltage measurements (potential transformers)
4. High current measurement (current transformers)
5. Insulating one circuit from the other
6. Insulating DC circuits from AC circuits

Transformer Construction
A single-phase transformer consists basically from two or more windings coupled by magnetic core.
When one of the windings (primary) is connected to an AC source, a time varying flux is produced in
the core. This flux is confined within the magnetic core and it links the second winding (secondary).
When any electric load is connected to the secondary winding, a current will flow.

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φ
I1 I2

+ +
E1 N1 N2 E2 V2 Load
V1
- -

Ideal Transformer

For ideal transformer, the following assumptions are valid:

1. No leakage flux (all the flux produced by the primary winding links the secondary)
2. No winding resistance (V1= E1 and V21= E2)
3. The core reluctance is zero ( ℜ = 0, and µ = ∞ )
4. No core losses (eddy + hysteresis)

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Let the mutual flux linking both windings φ m be sinusoidal, such that: φ m = φ p sin ω t . According to
Faraday's law, the induced emf can be expressed as:

dλ 1 dφ m
e1 = = N1 = ωφ p N1 cos ω t
dt dt

dλ 2 dφ m
e2 = = N2 = ωφ p N 2 cos ω t
dt dt

The RMS values of the induced emf are:

1
E1 = ωφ p N1 = 4.44 fφ p N1
2

1
E2 = ωφ p N 2 = 4.44 fφ p N 2
2

The polarities of the induced emf are given by Lenz's law, that is, the emfs produces currents that tend
to oppose the flux change.

E1 N1 V1
The ration between the primary and secondary induced emf is: = = = a , which is known as
E2 N 2 V2
the transformer Turns Ratio. Since the transformer is ideal and there is no losses, then the input power
equals the output power, V1 I1 = V2 I 2 , then:

E1 N1 V1 I 2
= = = =a
E2 N 2 V2 I1

From the above equation, we can show that:

1
V1 = aV2 and I1 = I2
a

Dividing the above two equations we obtain:


V1 a 2V2
Z1 = = = a 2 Z 2 = Z 2\
I1 I2

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Z 2\ is known as the secondary winding impedance referred to the primary winding. In addition, both
the current and the voltage in the secondary circuit can be referred to the primary circuit as follows:
V1
= a , then V1 = aV2 = V2\
V2

I1 1 1
= , then I1 = I 2 = I 2\
I2 a a
The equivalent circuit of the transformer Referred to the primary is given as follows:
I2
I1 I 2\ =
a

V2\ = aV 2
V1 z 2\ = a 2 Z 2
E1 E2\ = aE2

Transformer equivalent circuit referred to the primary side

The equivalent circuit of the transformer Referred to the secondary is given as follows:

I1\ = aI 1 I2

V1
V1\ = E1 V2
a E1\ = E2
a

Transformer equivalent circuit referred to the secondary side

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Example

A 240/120 volt, 60Hz, ideal transformer is rated at 5 KVA.

a) Calculate the turns ratio


b) Calculate the rated primary and secondary currents
c) Calculate the primary and secondary currents when the transformer delivers 3.2KW at rated
secondary voltage and 0.8 power factor lagging.

Solution:
N1 V1 240
a) a = = = =2
N 2 V2 120
5000
b) I1rated = = 20.83 A
240
5000
I 2rated = = 41.67 A
120
I N
or 2 = 1 = a = 2
I1 N 2
3200
c) For the given load, I 2 = = 33.33 A
120 × 0.8
I 2 33.33
And I1 = = = 16.67 A
a 2

Non-Ideal (Actual) Transformer

The assumptions made in the previous section for ideal transformer are no longer applicable when
analyzing the performance of an actual transformer.

Characteristics of non-ideal transformers

1. The primary and secondary windings have resistances


2. Not all the flux produced by one winding will link the other winding because of flux leakage
3. The core of an actual transformer has a finite permeability.
4. There are core losses (Hysteresis and Eddy current) due to the presence of alternating flux in the
core; (iron losses).

Consider the actual transformer circuit shown in the figure below:

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φm

R1 I1 R2 I2
+ +
V1 E1
φ11 φ12 E2 V2 Load
- -
N1 N2

Where:

φm = The mutual flux (linking flux)


φ 11 = Primary leakage flux
φ 21 = Secondary leakage flux
N1 = Primary winding number of turns
N2 = Secondary winding number of turns
R1 = Primary winding resistance
R2 = Secondary winding resistance

For the primary winding, the flux linking the winding is given as:

φ 1 = φ m + φ 11

The voltage equation for the primary loop can be written as:

dλ 1 dφ 1
V1 = R1i1 + = R1i1 + N1
dt dt

dφ m dφ
Thus V1 = R1i1 + N1 + N1
11

dt dt

dφ di1
Since N1φ 11= i1 L1 , ∴ N1 = L1
11

dt dt
di1 dφ m di
∴ V1 = R1i1 + L1 + N1 = R1i1 + L1 1 + e1 (A)
dt dt dt
In the secondary circuit, the voltage equation may be written as follows:

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dλ dφ 2
V1 = − R2i2 + = − R2 i2 + N 2
2

dt dt
From the flux direction, φ 2 = φ m − φ 12 ,

dφ m dφ
Thus: V2 = − R2i2 + N 2 − N2
12

dt dt
di2 dφ m di
And ∴ V2 = − R2 i2 − L2 + N2 = − R2 i2 − L2 2 + e2 (B)
dt dt dt
Where e1 and e2 are the induced emf in the primary and the secondary windings, respectively. It can be
shown that:
e1 N1
= =a
e2 N 2
Equations A & B can be written in frequency domain as follows:
∴ V1 = R1i1 + jω L1i1 + E1
V2 = − R2 i2 − jω L2i2 + E2

To model the core losses of the transformer a parallel circuit consists of an inductor Lm and a resistor

Rc is added usually to the primary side of the transformer equivalent circuit, where:

Lm = Represents the core magnetization


Rc = Represents the core losses (Hysteresis & Eddy current losses)

The core related circuit elements Lm & Rc are usually determined at the rated voltage and referred to the
primary. They are assumed constant when the transformer is operating at or near the rated conditions.

The equivalent circuit of the transformer is shown in the figure below:

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I1 R1 L1 R2 L2 I2

Ie

Ic Im Load
V1
Rc Lm E1 E2 V2

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer

The equivalent circuit of the transformer in the frequency domain is given as:

I1 R1 jX 1 I 2\ = I 2 a R2 jX 2 I2

Ie

Load
V1
Rc jX m E1 E2 V2
Ic Im

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer

Where:

E1 = Primary induced voltage


E2 = Secondary induced voltage
V1 = Primary terminal voltage
V2 = Secondary terminal voltage
I1 = Primary current

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I2 = Secondary current
Ie = Excitation current
Im = Magnetizing current
Ic = Core loss current
Xm =Magnetizing reactance
X1 =Primary leakage reactance
X2 =Secondary leakage reactance
Rc = Core loss resistance
R1 = Primary winding resistance
R2 = Secondary winding resistance

Transformer equivalent circuit phasor diagram:

The load is V2 , I 2 and θ 2

V1 = R1i1 + jX 1i1 + E1
V2 = − R2i2 − jX 2 i2 + E2

Ie = Ic + Im
I1 = I e + I 2\
I 2\ = I 2 a
a = N1 N 2
I c // E1
I m ⊥ E1

V1

jI 1 X 1
E1
E2
Ic I1 R1

V2 jI 2 X 2
θ2 I 2 R2
Im Ie \
I 2
I2

I1

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Referred Transformer Equivalent Circuit
1. Referred to primary side

I1 R1 jX 1 a 2 R2 a 2 jX 2 I 2\ I2 a I2

R2\ jX 2\
Ie

Ic Im
V1 jX m
Rc V2\ aV2 V2

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer

R2\ = a 2 R2
X 2\ = a 2 X 2
I 2\ = I 2 a
E 2\ = aE 2
V 2\ = aV 2
a = N1 N 2
E 2\ = E1

V1

E1 = E 2\ jI 1 X 1
Ic
I1 R1
\ \ \
V 2 jI X
2 2
θ2 I 2\ R2\
Im Ie
I 2\

I1

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2. Referred to secondary side

R1 jX 1
I1 aI1 a2 a2 R2 jX 2 I2

I e\
I c\ I m\
V1 Rc jX m
V1 V1\ V1 a V2
a2 a2

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer

R1
R1\ =
a2
X
X 1\ = 21
a
I1\ = aI1
E1
E1\ =
a
V
V1\ = 1
a
a = N1 N 2

Example

A 25 KVA, 440/220 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following parameters:


R1 = 0.16Ω , R2 = 0.04Ω , Rc = 270Ω , X 1 = 0.32Ω , X 2 = 0.08Ω , X m = 100Ω . The transformer
delivers 20kW at 0.8 power factor lagging to a load on the low voltage side with 220 V across the load.
Find the primary terminal voltage.

Solution

Step #1
Determine the load voltage and current:
The voltage across the load is taken as a reference in this case and is equal to V2 = 220∠0 V .
For a load of 20 kW at power factor of 0.8 lag, the load current is equal to:

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P2 20,000
I2 = = ∠ − cos −1 0.8 = 113.64∠ − 36.9 A
V2 cosθ 2 220 × 0.8
Step #2

Refer the circuit to the primary side:


N1 440
a= = =2
N 2 220

V2\ = aV2 = 440∠0 V


I 2 113.6
I 2\ = = = 56.82∠ − 36.9 A
a 2
R2\ = a 2 R2 = 0.16 Ω

X 2\ = a 2 X 2 = 0.32 Ω

Step #3
Solve the equivalent circuit

I1
R1 jX 1 R2\ jX 2\ I 2\ I2 a

Ie

Ic Im
V1 jX m
Rc V2\ aV2

E1 = V2\ + I 2\ (R2\ + jX 2\ )
E1 = 440∠0 + 56.82∠ − 36.9(0.16 + j 0.32) = 458.2∠1 = 458.2 + j 9.07
The shunt branch current is:
E1 458.3∠1
Ic = = = 1.7 + j 0.03
Rc 270

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E1 458.3∠1
Im = = = 0.09 − j 4.58
jX m j100

I e = I c + I m = 1.79 − j 4.55
Thus the primary current is given as:
I1 = I e + I 2\ = 61.04∠ − 39.3 A
The primary voltage is:
V1 = E1 + I1 (R1 + jX 1 ) = (458.2 + j 9.07 ) + (61.04∠ − 39.3)(0.16 + j 0.32) = 478.4∠2.2 V

Approximate Equivalent Circuits


The approximation is based on the fact that the magnetization (no load) current I e is small compared to

the full load primary input current. In practice I e = 3 − 5% I1 . Moreover, since the primary and the
secondary winding resistances and leakage reactances are very small, then the internal voltage drop is
very small such that ∆V1 = I1 (R1 + jX 1 ) ≤ 3 − 5%V1 .
V1 = E1 + I1 (R1 + jX 1 )

Since I1 = I e + I 2\ , then:

V1 = E1 + I e (R1 + jX 1 ) + I 2\ (R1 + jX 1 )

If I e is very small compared to I1 and R1 & X 1 are also very small, then I e (R1 + jX 1 ) is very small

and neglecting it will have negligible effect on both E1 and V2 . The approximate equivalent circuit can
thus be given in the form:

I1 I 2\ I2 a R1 jX 1 R2\ jX 2\

Ie

Ic Im
V1 jX m
Rc V2\ aV2

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I1 I 2\ I2 a Req jX eq

Ie

Ic Im
V1 jX m
Rc V2\ aV2

Where:
Req = R1 + R2\ = R1 + a 2 R2

X eq = X 1 + X 2\ = X 1 + a 2 X 2

The phasor diagram of the approximated equivalent circuit is given as:

V1

Ic

V2\ jI 2\ X eq1
θ2 \
I Req1
2
Im Ie \
I 2

I1

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Second Approximation
If the current I e can be neglected, then the circuit is reduced to the second approximation as shown in

the figure below:

I1 I 2\ = I 2 a Req jX eq

V1
V2\ = aV2

Req and X eq are the equivalent resistance and reactance referred to the primary side. The phasor

diagram of this circuit will be as shown below:


V1

V2\ jI 2\ X eq1
θ2 \
I Req1
2

I = I1
\
2

I1

Voltage Regulation
Distribution and power transformers are often used to supply loads that are designed to operate at
essentially constant voltage. The amount of the secondary current drawn by the load depends on the
load magnitude. As this current change, the load voltage will change consequently. This change is due
to the voltage drop on the transformer internal impedance. A measure of how much the voltage will
change as the load is varied is called “voltage regulation”

Definition
The voltage regulation is defined as the change in the magnitude of the secondary voltage as the current
changes from full load to no load with the primary voltage held constant.

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V2 nd no−load − V2 nd full −load
Voltage regulation ε =
V2 nd full −load

V1 − V2\ V1\ − V2
ε= =
V2\ V2

Efficiency
The percentage efficiency of the transformer is defined as the ratio of the power output to the power
input.
Poutput
η= × 100
Pinput

Poutput
η= × 100
Poutput + losses

Where the losses are the core and copper losses.

å losses = P core + Pcopper


å losses = P core + I12 Req1

å losses = P NL + Psc − fl

Efficiency at any load “x”


If the transformer is loaded with x% of its full load, then the copper losses at this loading level will
be x 2 Psc .

For any loading percentage x, I x2 Req1 = x 2 I 2fl Req1 . The output power at any percentage x of the full load

is: Poutput x = xPoutput fl = xV2 I fl cosθ 2

The efficiency for any loading condition is:


Poutput Pinput − å losses PNL + x 2 Psc
ηx = = = 1−
Poutput + losses Pinput xPoutput + x 2 Psc + PNL

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Maximum Efficiency
∂η
For maximum efficiency, = 0 . This will lead to PNL = x 2 Psc . In other words, for the maximum
dx
efficiency will occur at the loading level where the no-load losses is equal to the copper losses.
Consequently, the loading level at which the maximum efficiency occurs is given by:
PNL
x=
Psc

Transformer Parameters Determination

The transformer parameters are R1 , R2 , X 1 , X 2 , Rc , and X m . These parameters can be determined


experimentally by two tests; the open circuit and the short circuit tests.

Open circuit test


This test gives information regarding the losses in the transformer core. It can be used to
determine Rc and X m .
If we connect the circuit as shown in the figure below:
LV HV

φm

W
I1
A
+ +
V1 V E1 V2 V

- -
N1 N2

The equivalent circuit of the transformer will be as shown in the figure below. Measuring the voltage,
current and power, then:

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I1 I 2\ = 0 R1 jX 1 R2\ jX 2\

Ie

Ic Im
V1 Rc jX m V2\ = aV2

I1 I 2\ = 0

Ie

Ic Im

jX m V2 = aV2
\
V1 Rc

The measured values are: PNL , I NL and V1 . From the above circuit:

V12 I
RC = and Yo = NL
PNL V1

1 1
Yo = −j
Rc Xm

1
∴Xm =
æ 1 ö
Yo2 − çç 2 ÷÷
è Rc ø

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Short circuit test
This test provides the values of the total leakage impedances and the value of the losses in the winding
at full load.
In short circuit test, we short-circuit the low voltage winding and we put the input voltage on the high
voltage winding. Increase the input voltage in steps until we reach the full load current (about 20-30%
of input voltage) and measure the voltage, current and power. The circuit connection and the equivalent
circuits will be as shown:
LV
HV

φm

W
I1
A
+ +
V1 V E1 V2
- -
N1 N2

I1 I 2\ = I 2 a R1 jX 1 R2\ jX 2\

V1

Psc
Req =
I12

V1
Z eq =
I1

X eq = Z eq2 − Req2

If the transformer is designed to have equal losses on the primary and secondary circuits, then:
Req
R1 = R2\ =
2
X eq
X 1 = X 2\ =
2

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Example
A 50 KVA, 2400/240, 60 Hz, single-phase transformer has a short circuit and open circuit tests
performed on the high-voltage and low-voltage sides respectively, and the following results were
obtained:
Voltage (V) Current (A) Power (W)
Open circuit test 240 5.4 186
Short circuit test 48 20.8 620

a) Determine the approximated equivalent circuit referred to the primary side.


b) Determine the voltage regulation and the efficiency at rated load, 0.8 power factor lagging and
rated voltage at the secondary terminals.

Solution
a) The parameters of the transformer referred to the primary side are: R1 , R2\ , X 1 , X 2\ , Rc and X m .
From the short circuit test
Vsc 48
Z eq = = = 2.3Ω
I sc 20.8
Psc 620
Req = = = 1.43Ω
I sc (20.8)2
2

X eq = Z eq2 − Req2 = (2.3)2 − (1.43)2 = 1.8Ω

From the open circuit test


Since the open circuit test was performed on the low-voltage side, then the determined parameters are
going to referred to secondary side.
I NL 5.4
Yo\ = = = 0.0225 S
Voc 240

æ P ö
θ oc = cos −1 çç NL ÷÷ = 81.8 Lagging
è Voc I NL ø
Yo\ = 0.0225 ∠ − 81.8 ° S

Yo\ = Gc − jBm = 0.0225 ∠ − 81.8° = (3.23 − j 22.3) × 10 −3 S

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1
Rc\ = = 309.6Ω
Gc

1
X m\ = = 44.8Ω
Bm
1
Rc\ = = 309.6Ω
Gc

, ∴ Rc = Rc\ × a 2 = 309.6 × (10) = 30.96 kΩ


Rc
Rc\ =
2
2
a
∴ X m = X m\ × a 2 = 44.8 × (10) = 4.48 kΩ
2

b) At the rated secondary conditions and 0.8 power factor lagging,


V2\ = aV2 = 10 × 240∠0 = 2400∠0V
50,000
I 2\ = ∠ − cos −1 0.8 = 20.83∠ − 36.9 A
2400
V1 = V2\ + I 2\ (Req + jX eq ) = 2400∠0 + (20.83∠ − 36.9)(1.43 + j1.8) = 2446.6∠0.3V

The percentage voltage regulation is:


2446.6 − 2400
ε= × 100 = 1.9 %
2400
The transformer efficiency is:
Output
η= × 100
Input
Output power = 50,000 * 0.8 = 40,000 Watt
Input power = Output power + Losses
Losses = Core losses + Copper losses
= 186 + 620 = 806 Watt
40,000
∴η = ×100 = 98 %
40,000 + 806

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