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Ronquillo, Lance Gabriel C.



Different Cultures Around The World

The culture of the Philippines comprises a blend of traditional Filipino and Spanish Catholic traditions, with
influences from America and other parts of Asia. The Filipinos are family oriented and often religious with an
appreciation for art, fashion, music and food.
Filipinos are also hospitable people who love to have a good time. This often includes getting together to sing,
dance, and eat. The annual calendar is packed with festivals, many of which combine costumes and rituals from
the nation’s pre-Christian past with the Catholic beliefs and ideology of present day.
The Philippines business culture is a blend of Western and Eastern influences owing to the country’s location
and history. The Philippines has had a series of foreign influences, including Spanish and American, which have
all shaped the business culture. However, its business culture also contains traditional aspects of the local culture,
which are found in other Southeastern Asian nations. Hiya is an important concept that defines social conduct in
the Philippines, including in the work environment. Translated as “shame” or “shyness” and likened to “losing
face”, hiya is often a feeling avoided by Filipinos. Filipinos believe in Pakikisama, which is roughly defined as a
concept of smooth relationship and avoidance of confrontation.
The hierarchy is vertical and the most senior person in a company approves all final decisions. Nevertheless,
group consensus is necessary for all decisions before it reaches the most senior person. Decisions are likely to
take long to be reached as most people will give their opinion on a matter. However, at the end of the day they
will defer to higher ranking positions. Work culture is also dominated by family-run businesses where key family
members get to decide how the company operates.
Personal relationships are crucial for entertaining business relations. They are an important aspect of
negotiations and necessary to develop close ties with Filipino business contacts.

 Observe hierarchical relations determined by age and status. Showing respect is a core part of Filipino
culture and is often demonstrated through speech.
 Show an interest into the wellbeing of your Filipino counterpart’s family. In the Philippines, family is an
important component in an individual’s life.
 Acknowledge your counterpart’s education and English proficiency. Many Filipinos are fluent in English.
Avoid talking to them in overly simplified English as this may be interpreted as patronising.
 Smile when meeting people. Filipinos are renowned for being joyful people who try to show warmth
where they can.
 Compliment people’s efforts and hospitality. For Filipinos, hospitality is an essential component of
interaction and they will often go to extreme lengths to be hospitable to their company.

 Approach questions about income, standard of living or things that would often be considered personal in
Australia with sensitivity. These topics are not always welcomed in discussion. However, it is not
uncommon for Filipinos to ask questions relating to age, work and level of education to ensure they
address you correctly in future interactions.
 Avoid directly criticising the Philippines as a country. This may not be well received and criticisms from
a foreigner may be interpreted as an insult.
 Do not publicly display signs of anger, raising your voice or shouting in front of those older or superior
to you. Any confrontational or aggressive behaviour may bring hiya (shame or embarrassment), tarnishing
your reputation.
 Try not to be offended if your Filipino counterpart makes frank comments about people’s body shape.
Unlike in Australia, it is not considered taboo or rude to make comments such as, “Oh, you’ve put on
weight” or "Do you have a boyfriend/girlfriend?". Such comments are not intended to be hurtful, invasive
or offensive.

The culture of the ethnic Russian people (along with the cultures of many other ethnicities with which it has
intertwined in the territory of the Russian Federation) has a long tradition of achievement in many fields,
especially when it comes to literature, folk dancing, philosophy, classical music, traditional folk music, ballet,
architecture, painting, cinema, animation and politics, which all have had considerable influence on world culture.
Russia also has a rich material culture and a tradition in technology.
Russian culture grew from that of the East Slavs, with their pagan beliefs and specific way of life in the
wooded, steppe and forest-steppe areas of Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Early Russian culture and people were
much influenced by Scandinavian influences, by Finno-Ugric tribes, by Tatar people, by the nomadic tribes of
the Eurasian Steppe (notably those of Kipchak-Turkic and Iranic origin) and (in the late 1st millennium AD) by
the Varangians (supposedly Scandinavian Vikings). Early Slavic tribes in European Russia were much shaped by
the fusion of Nordic-European and Oriental-Asian cultures which formed Russian identity in the Volga region
and in the state of Kievan Rus'. Orthodox Christian missionaries began arriving from the Eastern Roman Empire
in the 9th century, and Kievan Rus' officially converted to Orthodox Christianity in 988. This largely defined the
Russian culture of the next millennium as a synthesis of Slavic and Byzantine cultures. Rus' was expressed in the
self-assertion of its own Eurasian culture.[clarification needed] After Constantinople fell to the Ottmans in 1453,
Russia remained the largest Orthodox nation in the world and eventually claimed succession to the Byzantine
legacy in the form of the Third Rome idea. At different periods in Russian history, the culture of Western Europe
also exerted strong influences over Russian citizens. Since the reforms of Peter the Great (reigned 1682-1725),
for two centuries Russian culture largely developed in the general context of European culture rather than pursuing
its own unique ways. The situation changed in the 20th century, when the distinctive Communist ideology
imported from Europe became a major factor in the culture of the Soviet Union, where Russia, in the form of the
Russian SFSR, was the largest and leading part.

Nowadays, the Nation Brands Index ranks Russian cultural heritage seventh,[citation needed] based on interviews
of some 20,000 people mainly from Western countries and from the Far East. Due to the relatively late
involvement of Russia in modern globalization and in international tourism, many aspects of Russian culture, like
Russian jokes and Russian art, remain largely unknown to foreigners.
Being on time to a business meeting in Russia is of the utmost importance. At least for one party, that is.
While Americans are expected to arrive not a second after the meeting's scheduled time, Russians may show up
as late as they desire and are unapologetic about it. The move is designed to test the patience of their U.S.
 Check for Russian closed days- Plan your trip to Russia with keeping an eye on scheduled Russian
holidays because some holidays may bring parades, concerts or other fun activities, but sometimes you
may find historical places, museums and churches closed or having short visitors' hours.
 Bring gifts for your Russian hosts- If you are invited at a place of a Russian host then please do bring
some gift for them. Flower, cakes, wine anything but going empty handed is not liked.
It is also a good idea to present flowers, but in odd numbers because even numbers are reserved for funeral.
 Put some extra food in plate- If you are eating with Russian families then at the end do put down some
food in your plate to show that you have eaten ample food and now you are full.
Making wine sip in between the food is also considered good in Russian traditions.
 Follow Russian brands in Russia- Always try to present Russian branded gifts to your hosts unless you
have something really very special of some other country.
 Wear black in night club!- Planning to see the nightlife in Russia ? Dressed up in Russian styles as Russian
are very formal in their dressing behaviors.
The dress code is black for men while for women it is short skirts with high heels. This will get you hitched
with Russian quite easily.
 Formal greeting for everyone- Greet your Russian friend with shaking hands in formal meetings and if
you are meeting informally then being a man tap and embrace your male friend. Female friends kiss each
other to greet.
 Do not put your money in back pockets- Russia has a problem of pick pockets, you can lose your stuff
any time in busy and crowded streets. So do not put your money and other valuable things in the back
pocket of your pant or bag.
 Do not eat without seeking permissions- If you are, having food with your Russian friend then does not
start food unless you are asked to do so.
 No elbows on dining table- If you are habitual to put your elbows on dining table or in your lap, then avoid
it doing in Russia because it perceives as rude in Russia.
 No empty bottles on table- Empty bottles are considered as bad omen in Russia. So do not put empty wine
bottles on the table. It brings bad luck for Russia. Always put them on the floor.
 No yellow flowers in Russia- Yellow color is commonly taken as a symbol of friendship but for Russians
yellow flowers are a symbol of separation between two people. So never try yellow flowers on Russians.
 No gifts for baby showers- Giving gifts on baby showers is a must thing in rest of the world but Russians
do not welcome a gift for the baby before it is born.
 No hand shakes at door- Do not greet or handshakes at the door in Russia. It is not pleasant. Go into a
room for the greetings.
 No similes and hands in pockets- Do not smile on strangers in Russia as its taken as a sign of hypocrisy
there. Pointing with finger is also not a good gesture In Russia and if you are a habit of standing with
keeping your hands in the pocket then tries to avoid it in Russia.

Present day Chinese culture is an amalgamation of old world traditions and a westernized lifestyle. The two
co-exist like the traditional Yin Yang formula of balance. This can be seen in the juxtaposition of towering
skyscrapers with heritage buildings, the contrast of western fashion with the traditional Chinese Qipao dress, the
people's paradoxical affinity for both dim sums and McDonald's.
Ancient Chinese Culture is older than 5000 years. Chinese cultural history has enormous diversity and variety.
The sophisticated Chinese civilization was rich in the Arts and Sciences, elaborate Painting and Printing
techniques and delicate pottery and sculpture. Chinese architectural traditions were much respected all over the
world. Chinese language and literature, philosophy and politics are still reckoned as a strong influence. Chinese
culture managed to retain its unique identity till the advent of Western culture in the mid-19th century.
Chinese Religion, Philosophy and Politics: Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism have left a collective and
lasting impression on Chinese culture and tradition. Confucianism propagated “Ren” (Love) and “Li” (rituals),
signifying respect for society and social hierarchy. Taoism advocated the controversial philosophy of inaction.
Buddhism emphasized on the need to attain self- emancipation through good deeds.
Americans working in China better have a gift ready when they show up for a business meeting. However,
don't expect it to be eagerly accepted. In China, the customary tradition is that gifts are refused up to three times
before being accepted. It is important to continue offering your present until it is finally taken.

 Do be on time. . Punctuality is important in China as it shows respect for others. Always be on time for
engagements or try to show up a little earlier. (10 minutes is culturally an acceptable degree of lateness.)
 Do keep calm. The bureaucracy and lack of directness can become frustrating. Remember to remain calm
at all times in order to save face for everyone.
 Do feel free to lavish praise. China has culture based on the concept of mianzi (/myen-dzuh/ ‘face’). It is
polite to lavish praise on both the person you are speaking to and on China itself.
 Don’t react negatively when asked personal questions regarding marital status, family, age, job or even
income. This is done out of polite curiosity and serves as Chinese-style small talk.
 Don’t write things in red ink. It symbolizes protest or severe criticism and is very impolite.
 Don’t carry out public displays of affection. China is a reserved society and generally frowns upon
excessive public displays of affection,. However, a hug with someone you know well is fine.
 Don’t get too touchy with others. Chinese tend to feel uncomfortable with a back slap, hug or arm around
their shoulder, and they especially don’t like it from those they don’t know well. Save it for someone you
have a good relationship with.

The culture of Japan has changed greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to
its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America. Strong
Chinese influences are still evident in traditional Japanese culture as China had historically been a regional
powerhouse, which has resulted in Japan absorbing many elements of Chinese culture first through Korea, then
later through direct cultural exchanges during China's Sui and Tang dynasties. The inhabitants of Japan
experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world during the Tokugawa shogunate after
Japanese missions to Imperial China, until the arrival of the "Black Ships" and the Meiji period. Today, the culture
of Japan stands as one of the leading and most prominent cultures around the world, mainly due to the global
reach of its popular culture.
While the business card has declined in importance in the U.S., that is far from the case in Japan. When
doing business with the Japanese, Americans should be armed with stacks of their business cards, which should
be printed in both English and Japanese.
The business card is held in very high regard in Japan. When presenting your card, it is critical to pass it
out with both hands, with the Japanese side facing up. When receiving a business card, Americans should accept
it with both hands and thank them while doing so. In addition, the business card should never be written on or
played with during the meeting, as both are signs of disrespect.

 TAKE OFF YOUR SHOES- Contrary to other cultures, the Japanese will not let you wear your shoes in
their house. This rule also applies to other places, like temples, and in many cases even restaurants and
pubs. This practice stems from a cultural phenomenon called "uchi-soto," which means "inside vs.
outside". "Inside" is associated with comfort, purity and cleanliness, while to the Japanese, the "outside"
is soiled, unknown, or even dangerous. This concept translates into all kinds of situations at any scale:
indoors vs. outdoors, family vs. other people, Japan vs. the world. So whenever you enter a space, make
sure to look out for signs that ask you to take off your shoes. And make sure to wear socks without holes!
Also, if you suffer from cold feet, don't worry. Those people who make you take off your shoes usually
also provide special slippers for indoor use.
 DO: FOLLOW THE RULES- Wherever you go in Japan, you are likely to run into signs telling you what
to do, what not to do, and how to do things. Follow them or you'll have highly annoyed clerks, service
personnel, police officers, or common people on the street pointing them out to you. Take a closer look at
the behavior they promote and you'll notice that all of these guidelines are set up to remind people to be
mindful of each other and keep the environment clean.
 DO: SLURP- Slurping noises in a ramen shop or teishoku (set menu usually including miso soup, rice,
and a side of greens) restaurant are to be expected. But don't think of this as bad manners! Japanese people
slurp for a reason. First of all, the only things that are slurped in Japan are noodles (ramen, soba or udon)
and soups. The reason behind this is that while slurping, they simultaneously inhale cold air, which cools
down the hot noodles and broth they are currently eating. Slurping won't be easy the first time you try it,
but it'll make your ramen experience that much more authentic. Tip: Don't close your mouth too much
while slurping up noodles. You won't get any air in, and the noodles will spray the soup everywhere! And
while we're on the topic of food...
 DO: TONE IT DOWN- The Japanese have a time and place for being loud, and that's in a karaoke box or
at an izakaya (pub). Anywhere else, they like to keep the volume down, mostly not to annoy each other.
On public transportation and shuttle buses, at shrines and temples, at restaurants and cafes, and especially
in hot springs – tone it down a little. Of course, that doesn't mean you can't talk at all in public places, but
just remember to be mindful of others.
 DO: KEEP TO THE LEFT- Japan is one of the few countries of the world where cars drive on the left.
And, subsequently, humans keep to the left as well, walking in the streets, riding an escalator, standing in
line. If you can make a habit of always staying left as well, you're likely to prevent running into someone.
The only exception in all of Japan are the escalators in Osaka and the Kansai region. For some reason,
people here stand on the right and pass on the left, and no one really knows why...

 DON'T: STARE- This "rule" was very confusing to me the first time I came to Japan. In Germany, where
I'm from, part of the conversation is to to look your counterpart in the eyes while talking. If you're not
looking, you're not paying attention. But this rule only partially applies in Japan. Here, an important part
of communication is to break eye-contact every once in a while. And when speaking to a superior, you're
not to look into their eyes at all. Early on, I was told by a Japanese friend that the way I watched him while
he spoke made him feel very uncomfortable. And that I should be careful because others might consider
it creepy, suggestive, even flirty. "But what do you do in formal situations, it must certainly be rude to
look at the ceiling or down at your feet the whole time? Especially in meetings or job interviews," I
interrogated him. "We are taught to look at their tie or general neck area instead," was his answer.
 DON'T: TOUCH ANYONE- Unless they invite you to... or you're on a crowded train and can't help it that
your whole side is pushed into another person. The Japanese culture is not a very touchy-feely one, and
even now public displays of affection of any kind are a rare sight. A common interaction for some cultures
includes grabbing a friend's arm when making a joke, or hugging or even kissing someone goodbye. This
kind of behavior is not common in Japan. However, if someone does extend their hand towards you, take
it! They've probably read a blog article similar to this one and are showing cultural sensitivity on their part
as well.
 DON'T: PLAY WITH YOUR CHOPSTICKS- Playing with your chopsticks is plain rude. Think about it:
Imagine someone at a restaurant drumming on the table with their spoon, licking their knife or pointing
around with their fork. You'd probably think that person was ill-behaved. Well, the same goes for
chopsticks – no licking, no drumming, no pointing. However, Japan does have some culture-specific
restrictions on chopstick wielding. Passing someone food from your chopsticks to theirs and sticking
chopsticks into a bowl of rice are both acts associated with the dead. At a Japanese funeral, after a person
is cremated, the family gathers around the ashes and together transports the dead person's bones into the
urn by passing them from one person to the next with large chopsticks. And the chopsticks sticking out of
your grub resemble incense stuck into a bowl of uncooked rice commonly placed in front of a Buddhist
family memorial shrine.
 DON'T: TIP YOUR WAITER- In many countries tipping somewhere between 10 and 20 percent when
paying at a cafe, a restaurant, or for your taxi is the norm. But in Japan, tipping, in general, isn't a thing.
The price you see is the price you pay. Even if the service was outstanding, your tip will most likely be
refused. In some areas, a waiter or cab driver might even actually run after you to return your tip and say,
"Sir/madam, you forgot your change!"

The culture of Brazil is primarily Western, but presents a very diverse nature showing that an ethnic and
cultural mixing occurred in the colonial period involving mostly Indigenous peoples of the coastal and most
accessible riverine areas, Portuguese people and African people. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, together
with further waves of Portuguese colonization, Italians, Spaniards, Germans, Austrians, Levantine Arabs (Syrians
and Lebanese), Armenian, Japanese, Chinese, Poles, Helvetians, Ukrainians and Russians settled in Brazil,
playing an important role in its culture as it started to shape a multicultural and multiethnic society. As
consequence of three centuries of colonization by the Portuguese empire, the core of Brazilian culture is derived
from the culture of Portugal. The numerous Portuguese inheritances include the language, cuisine items such as
rice and beans and feijoada, the predominant religion and the colonial architectural styles. These aspects, however,
were influenced by African and Indigenous American traditions, as well as those from other Western European
countries. Some aspects of Brazilian culture are contributions of Italian, Spaniard, German, Japanese and other
European immigrants. Amerindian people and Africans played a large role in the formation of Brazilian language,
cuisine, music, dance and religion.
This diverse cultural background has helped boast many celebrations and festivals that have become known
around the world, such as the Brazilian Carnival and the Bumba Meu Boi. The colourful culture creates an
environment that makes Brazil a popular destination for many tourists each year, around over 1 million.
Expect a complete invasion of personal space if doing business in Brazil. While it could be considered impolite
in the U.S., in Brazil it is customary to stand extremely close and use lots of physical contact while talking. While
the normal reaction might be to back away, those who do risk losing out on a potential business relationship, since
it is considered disrespectful.

 Make eye contact with those around you, even as you walk through the streets and marketplaces, or travel
on public transport. This is considered to be normal and polite. It is also a safety measure, as pickpocket
thieves are known to prey on those who do not make eye contact (since they can, presumably, not identify
the people around them and the perpetrator of the crime).
 Be a careful, alert pedestrian, looking carefully before crossing the street. This is a busy country, with
plenty of traffic.
 Leave the bulk of your money and important paperwork (passport, driver’s licence, etc...) in a safe place
at your accommodation. Carry only the money you need for the day with you. If necessary, make
photocopies of your paperwork to carry with you and leave the originals at your hotel.
 Pickpocketing is, unfortunately, a threat, particularly in bustling areas, full of locals and tourists making
their way around the beautiful cities of Brazil. Therefore, when visiting a very busy area, do not wear
valuable jewellery (including wristwatches) and do not carry cameras, money and wallets anywhere in or
from which they can easily be seen or taken.
 If you are the victim of any sort of crime, be sure to report it to the tourist police immediately.
 If you are going to be visiting a busy area, wear your backpack backwards, so that it hangs on your chest,
not behind you.
 Always check with your hotel if certain areas are safe, or if they advise that you do not visit them. Take
their advice to heart.
 Get a taxi rather than a bus for long distance travel. They are reasonably priced and safe.
 Brazilian locals are generally very helpful and often quite friendly. Accept their help if they offer it to
 If you need to draw money, choose an ATM inside a mall or bank rather than one on the street.
 Wear walking shoes (not hiking boots), shorts and a plain T-shirt to fit in with the locals.

 Get drunk. Brazilians are not often drunk and do not respect others that indulge in far too much alcohol.
 Do drugs. It is illegal to use or be in possession of drugs in Brazil.
 Make use of prostitutes. They often supplement their income by robbing their clients.
 Opt for really cheap accommodation. Small accommodation providers are generally not willing to provide
lodging for foreigners (which they may do, but begrudgingly) and may not offer the safety and
conveniences of larger establishments.
 Leave your luggage, shopping or any other personal possessions unattended.
 Give money to beggars and street children. Although these ones pose little or no physical danger to you,
they should not be supported financially.
 Walk in the streets or along the beaches after dark.