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lmprove your Ski IIs

Readlng for Fi rst

with Answer l<ey

Series editors:
Malcolm Mann o Steve Taylore-Knowles

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10 9 B 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
page 4

Reading skills

Skill: Reading for specific information

Team sports Vocabulary: Free time topic vocabulary
Exampractice FirctPaper 1 PartT
Skill: Reading for gist
Business trawel Vocabulary: Travel topic vocabulary
Exampractice FirctPaper 1 Part6
Skill: Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items
Entertainment and rnedia Vocabulary: Entertainment topic vocabulary
Exam practice: Fircf Paper 1 Part 7

Skill: Distinguishing main ideas from supporting details

Applyingfor ajob Uocabulary: Work topic vocabulary
Exam practice: FirsfPaperl PartS

Skill: Understanding purposeandfunction

Vegetarianism Vocabulary: Food and drink topic vocabulary
Exam practice: ErsfPaperl Part5

Skill: Understanding cohesion

Green organisations Vocabulary: Environment topic vocabulary
Exampractice:. FirstPaper 1 Part6

Skill: Understanding aftitude and opinion

Traditions around the world Vocabulary: Culture topic vocabulary
Exam practice FirctPaper lPart7
Skill: Understanding coherence
Healtltcare and health systems Vocabulary: Health and fitness topic vocabulary
Exam practice FirctPaper 1 Part6

Skill: Understanding exemplification

Fame and celebrity Vocabulary: People topic vocabulary
Exam practice: FnsfPaperl Part5

SkilL Understanding text structure

Higher education Vocabulary: Education topic vocabulary
Exam practice FirctPaper 1 Part6
Skill: Understandingcomparison
Tbchnologjt in the horne Vocabulary: Technology topic vocabulary
Exampractice FirctPaper 1 PartT
Skill: Understanding implication
Imprisonment Vocabulary: Social issues topic vocabulary
Exam practice: I7rsfPaper 1 Part 5

poge 102
ryh4 is lmprove your Skr1ls.' Reading How is Improve yourskrTls., Reading
for First? for First oiganiseO?
Reading for First is part of the Im4troue your The course is made up of 12 units, each aimed at
Skills exam skills series: four preparation books developing a particular reading skill (e.g. scanning).
which cover all aspects of the Cambrid,ge Engtish: Every unit is themed around a commonly occurring
First (FCE) exarn. This course aims to develop topic from the First exarn.
the key reading skills, and language and exam
techniques, for parts 5-7 of the First Use of Engtish Each unit consists of:
and Reading paper. The course can be used in r Skills development: explanation, examples and
coqjunction with the other books in the series: Use tasks to develop and practise relevant reading
of Englishfor First, Writing for First and Listening skills both for general use and the exam. Each
and Speaking for First. It can also be used as a skill is broken down into simple stages with
general skills development course, or as preparation reference to why each skill is important for First.
for other general English tests. r Vocabulary: usefulvocabularyforthe First
How do I use lmprove your Skiils? r Exam foeus and practice: focus on how each
skill relates to the exam, followed by authentic
You can use any of the books in this series either in First style tasks for real exam practice.
class or to study on your own. The course will guide
you through the activities step by step, so you can There are also Skells tip boxes throughout the book
use this book with or without a teacher. containing useful information and ideas on how to
approach the exam reading tasks.
Ifyou are studying as part ofa class, your teacher
will direct you on how to use each activity. Some
activities can be treated as discussions, in which
case they can be a useful opportunity to share ideas
and techniques with other learners.

How will Improve your S/<r7ls How is the First exam organised and
increase my chances of exam where does reading fit in?
success? The Fi,rst exam consists of four papers: Use
of English & Readi,ng, Writing, Speaki,ng and
Skills development Li.stening. Paxts 5-7 of the Use of Engli,sh &
The skills sections form a detailed syllabus of core Reading paper test your reading skills. The
reading skills which are useful both in the exam and complete paper takes I hour and 15 minutes.
in everyday life - reading for specific information
understanding attitude and opinion, for example.
What does each task consist of?
People often do these things in their own language
without noticing, so it can take some practice to The reading tasks (Parts 5-Q make up20D6 of your
perform these actions in another language. Learning final mark in Fi,rst. There are three passages which
and understanding vocabulary and grammar can take
have been taken from a range of sources and aim to
priority in the classroom, and these very important test your reading ability in a number of ways. Part 5
shlls can often get ignored.
is a text followed by six multiple choice questions.
Part 6 is a gapped text task - six sentences have
Language input been removed which you need to replace with one
of seven given options. There are two marks for
Each unit includes useful vocabulary and phrases
each question in parts 5 and 6. Paxt7 consists of
forthe exam. In Improue gour SkiLIs: Reading for
four short texts preceded by ten matching questions.
First,you will find a wide range of topic vocabulary
Candidates have to find specific information in
and ideas to make sure that you are well prepared
the texts in order to answer these questions. Each
when you reach the real exam.
question is worth one mark in Part 7.
Exam technique The tasks will test a variety of the following key
In any exam, it is important to be prepared for the reading skills:
types oftasks you are likely to be given, and to have r Understanding detail and finding specific details
methods ready to answer any particular question. The r Understanding gist
Enamfocus section helps you develop and practise r Understanding attitude, opinion and purpose
these methods. The Skrills lip boxes give short, simple r Deducing meaning from context and implication
advice about different types of questions, as well as r Identifying main ideas and examples
study skills and how to effectively use the skills you
have learned. The course covers every question type
This course will develop your knowledge and
thatyou will face in the -Firsl exam. understanding of all of the above skills, as well as
the techniques you will need to use when reading,
such as scanning and skimming.
specific i nform ation


lmprove your reading skills: reading for specific information

When you readfor speci-fi.c information, Aou try to find one or Tnore tletails in a tert.
These might be names, numbers, times or other types of fact. You know what you are
looking for, and gou locate the infonnation you need in the tert. Sometimes, read,ing
Jor speciJic infonnation inuolues reading to see if infot-mation is contained in a tert.

1 Wf,ict of these is not an example of speciflc information?

A a person's name
B thegistofatext
Sometimes, you only need part of the i,nfonnation in a long tert. For erample, a train
ti.metab\e contains information about many trains and mang stati,ons. Houeuer, you
are probably only interested in one or ttlo trains and one or two stcttions. Reading for
specifir infonnation hel,ps you tofi.nd onlg the infor-nzation you need.

I Uolmight read something for speciflc information when you

A only need some of the information it contains.
B want to know every piece of information in it.
First, checkfor any headings or chapter titles. They may contain the inJormation
you neerl. Then, quickly rnoue Aour eAes oaer the words, looking for the p\ace where
the speci,fi.c infonnation Wpedrs. This is called 'scanning'. The infonnati.on might be
e:tpressed in dilferent u)aAs, so the ability to predict and paraphrase is im,pofiant. Once
youfutd the place, read, that part careJully, maki,ng sure that you unclerstand it.

$ Wtren you scan a text, you

A try to find a particular piece of information you need.
B read it quickly to get a general idea of the meaning.

Reading for specifi"c information is particularly important in First Paper 1 Parts

5 and 7. In Part 5, you need to ansu)er lnultiple choice questiotts. This rrtuy m,ean
scanning the te$t and then reading part of the tefit closely toJind infot-mation about
details, opinions, attitudes, etc. In Patt 7, you haue to do a matchirtg task. You
don't haue tilrLe to read the uhole tert slotlly and carefully to find the anawer to each
question, so Aou need to scanfor specifir: information and thqn read it carefu\ly.

! tn Flrst Paper lPartT, reading for specific information is useful because it

A helps you understand every detail of the text.
B helps you complete the task in time.
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:j j ,lia ll I
r{- {L:\lr r

l,ook at tlrt plioto untl anslr't't tht'tluesliotts.

\\'hat slioltiug cvcnt tlties lhis lrlrolo sltor'r"i
nrllatlion / r'clay la<'e / 100 trtclrt' sltt itil
Ilon'utuc'lt tlrt y<ltt thinl< tt'antu'oll< is a palt ol tltis slrolt'/
ver'1' litllc / n<lut' al zrll / a glt'at <leal
I)o vou t'nj<11' t akittg ltat't in or u'att'hittg lhis kirltl <11'spor'f i \\II11' / \Vlty tiof i

\\ii1e a u'orcl tirlnr tlie lrox in t'at'lt gal) t() t'ontplcte tltt'lilttast's

score defeal rose Keep

I the ganrt' a lt'r'orrl

2 )'0lll oy('<in tlio ball a goal

3 ar) ol)l)ollcnt

Rcatl llte pnraglalrh atitl t'it't'lt' tltt' <'<lt'ret't ll'rltrls.

In contrast to individual sports, team sports provide (1) candidates / participants with an oppodunity
to work together to achieve goals. This (2) friendship / teamwork teaches players a different set of
skills that goes beyond natural (3) talents / skills such as being able to run fast or hit the ball hard.
Players must make a (4) group / set efforl to score points and do well in games, especially if they're
thinking of winning a competition or national (5) challenge / championship. In team spotls such as
football, basketball and hockey, this means coming up with a winning (6) strategy / programme to
put into use on the field, court or rink. Obviously, athletes must play in the (7) titles / positions to
which they're best suited, whether it be striker, midfielder or goalkeeper. There are extra challenges
in team sporls, such as getting on with your teammates and, for some people, making (8) tough /
rough decisions for the team. Some team sports involve physical (9) connection / contact, making
protective clothing such as knee pads and safety (10) helmets / hats necessary, as required in crickel
and hockey. These concerns aside, team sporls are a terrific way for people to achieve common
goals, to get some exercise and to make great friends all at once.
Unit 1

Develop your reading skills: reading for specific information

1 neaa these exce4tts frotn sports articles ancl write the competitor's name, sport and accomplishment
I With only seconds left in the game, striker Rene 4 Born in 1895, legendary athlete Babe
Lucci came up front behind to score the winning Ruth is one of the most famous players irr
goal. This will surely ntake hinr a name to watch American baseball history. In the span of
in football. his career, he scored 714 hon're runs.

The event, hekl this year in Sydney, Australia, 5 Other breakthroughs in women's sport
inr:ludes participants from over twenty countries, inclucle Ann Meyers, who in 1974 became
including the IJS sailing team led bv recrorcl holder the flrst high school student to play for a
Alan Lock. LIS national team in basketball.

The flrst round of thc bowling tournantent takes 6 We met with Antonio Diez, an Argentine
place this Saturclay. Don Clark's teant, which l'rc water pokr player, tcl discruss trow his teanr
helpe<l win last vear's top prize, will leacl the round. won the gold mcdal at the rnen's Water
Polo Worlcl Ohampionship.

I W.ite the numbers of the sent.etrces in exerclse I that cont,ain the following infrlrn'ration.
More than one answer ruay bc possible.

I Irrtporl a nl yeal': 4 Location:

2 Day of the week: 5 Nanre of a competition:
3 Refercnce to a <:ountry/nationality: 6 Education levcl:

J Wnte a worcl or phrase from the text in cach gap to cromplete the sentences

Compared to other team sports, rowing requires a Probably the most important skill is learning how
major group effort from athletes. Each rower must to use the oar, which is the wooden bar that goes
move at exactly the same time as every other into the water. A single rowing stroke involves 'the
rower on the team. This can be quite a challenge catch', or putting the oar in the water, and 'the
for large teams that have as many as eight rowers release', or taking it out of the water after pulling.
in a single boat. A learner rower will practise with Once this is learned, it's a matter of continual
other beginners, along with a traine[ for six to practice as well as muscle trainino to become a
eight weeks in order to learn the necessary skills. professional athlete.

I Rowing as a sport involves a big from participants.

2 In rowing, atl-rletes rtr<tve at as their teant-ntates.
3 A single team of rowers can consist of as many as
To learr-r the basic skills, yor,r neecl from weeks of
D Rowers usc a oar to pull the boat.
6 Placing the oar in the water is known as
I When the oar is taken out of the water, this is called
8 To be an athletic rower, you ntust combine practice with
Readino for soecific information

{ Uatcn the phrases with the headlines.

I the beginning of a practice

2 a professional gain
3 Iocation of a major event
b Draw forces hockey game into thrilling oaertime

4 a type of injury
D details of an exciting game
6 a below-standard performance

5 Underline one or two words from the headlines that gave you the answers.

6 Match each article with a headline from exercise 4.

Team Green had a great stad, scoring one goal It was a tragic moment for Ray Stephens,
in the first ten minutes of the game. The Falcons during a competition he and his team must have
didn't score their first goal until the game was spent months practising for. Luckily, a medical
halfway through. Then, in a dramatic change of team arrived on the scene within minutes of
luck, their star striker, John Aimes, took control of the accident. Medics raced onto the track with
the match and scored two more goals in less than a stretcher to carry Stephens off to a nearby
twenty minutes. When Team Green's coach, Tom ambulance. lt seems that the accident occurred
Broward, switched goalkeepers towards the end, just as Stephens was passing the baton to
it was clear that he was desperate to keep the fellow runner Neil Lowe. Stephens let go of the
Falcons from scoring again. His plan didn't work. baton before Lowe grabbed hold of it. The injury
The Falcons went on to score two more goals, occurred when Stephens jumped forward to keep
winning the game 5-1, and coach Broward was the baton from hitting the track, falling forward in
soon out of a iob. the orocess.

7 Read the articles in exercise 6 again and decide

if the statements are True (T) or False (F).
I The Falcons scored their flrst goal early
in the gante
2 John Ainres scored the secend and third
goals for the Falcons
3 Team Green changed players in the last
parl of the game.
4 Ray Stephens waited a long time to
receive medical attention.
5 Stephens was able to leave the track on
his own.
6 Lowe was in the process of receiving the
baton from Stephens.
blog posts quickly arrtl corrrulctt' tlrc chafl.


I meet with my cycling team once

a week, but we do our practising
on our own. lt's definitely a
team sport with great emphasis
on individual performance.
That works really well for me,
particularly because I can
practise whenever I like. These
days, I do it for a couple of hours
on Mondays and Wednesdays
after my last <lass which ends at
4pm. lt's perfect because I can
use the bike trails in the park Player Wsetlt Paul
between school and home. The SPort
only drawback is that some team- Practice days
Practice length
mates don't meet every week.
That's not good for teamwork.

s Tick the information that is mentionerl irr the article. l)o not reul the afticle fion'r starl to finislt.
1 the garne's rlrigin 6 f'amous players
2 who plays the gan'ur 7 penalty rr"rle

3 nnrnber of players 8 playirtg area clescriptiott

4 scoring systenr 9 competitions
5 rules of play 10 wht:re the ganre is playcd

Perhaps more game than sport, dodge ball is certainly all

about having fun. Some of us may remember playing this
sport as primary school pupils. lts popularity, however,
has led to its being played at other educational levels in
many countries. Dodge ball differs greatly from other team
sports that use a ball. First of all, there is not just one ball,
but several; sometimes as many as ten in play all at once.
The balls have to be made of light rubber and filled with air
so that they can bounce around the playing areas and not
injure other players. Secondly, scoring, if it can be called
that, involves hitting another player, resulting in their exit
from the round. Be careful, though - if they catch your ball,
you're out. The winning team is the one that eliminates all
the players from the other team. Generally, the balls cannot
be kicked nor can they be thrown at people's heads on
purpose. Other rules of the game vary with some teams
making up their own rules.

10 Llnderline the inforn'ration in the artir:le which gave you

the answers.
Reading for specific information

Look at the exam practice section on pages 12 and 13 and choose the correct answer.
When reading for speciflc information you should
a scan all the texts to find in'rportant pieces of information flrst.
b read every question, then scan all the texts for all the answers.
c look at one question, then scan for the answer in the texts.

Answer each question with the letter of a text, A or B. For some questions, more than
one text may be chosen.
Which text includes
1 locations where the sport takes place?
2 how many team members participate?
3 at least two activities involved in game play?
4 players' physical requirements?
5 a speciflc example of teamwork'?
6 how points are scored?
7 a position that players hold?
8 how the goal areas are positioned?

A Volleyball B Basketball
Volleyball is a terrific team spot't because it's a very active Basketball is a very fast-paced game involving
game that is played in a great spot, usually a sandy place two teams with five players in each team. The
on a beach or in a park. The skills required by players players must score points by throwing the ball
involve hitting the ball over the net, either from an up- in one of the two baskets placed at each end of
close position or from a back area. Each player must the court. A great deal of teamwork is involved
also know how to be a server and serve the ball to begin because players must pass the ball to one
a round of game play. In reality, all players must be skilled another frequently throughout the game. The
in each position of the game, as players change positions game play goes on continuously, so players use
after each round of play. This gives everyone a chance to a lot of energy in this sport. lt also helps to be
participate in the different roles of the spott. tall as the basket is placed three metres high.

$ Underline and write the information in the texts which gave you the answers.

2 Skills tip
3 In Frrst Paper 1 Part 7, does
scanning for information help us
a determine if a piece of information
a is NOT in a text? Yes / No
6 b locate information in more than
one text? Yes / No

Unit 1

You are going to read an article about four team captains. For questions l-10,
choose from the team captains (A-D). The team captains may be chosen more tha.n once.

Which person
says that encouraging the team is extremely important? ml
mentions putting players in positions that they may not like? ml
says that he/she will never resort to rudeness? M-r
has trouble maintaining his/her players' safety? ffi-t
makes sure that the game goes according to a pre-arranged plan? ffi-t
recognises the players' desire to be well known for what they do? ffit
reminds players that they are useless if they g"t nurtf WI
is aware that game plans sometimes have to change? w-t
gives players a few special words prior to a game? ffi-t
keeps adequate medical supplies handy? ffi-t

Skills tip
When you do frrst Paper 1 Part 7, look at the titles of the
separate texts, then look at the first question and make
a note of a key word or phrase. Look through the texts
for information thbt's related to that key word or phrase,
Each time you find information related to the key word or
phrase, read more carefully to find out if it's the corect
answer. Continue doing this until you've answered all the
questions. Leave enough time at the end to double check
that your answers are conect,
Reading iot si;llr.;irit ritlL;t iitiiiii;l i

Four team captains tslk about their sport.

A Stephen Hartman - Rugby C Peter Shawl - lce Hockey

Rugby's a pretty tough contact sport, and as such lce hockey's a particularly dangerous sport, as anyone
can attract some pretty tough players. In the heat of who watches it or plays will tell you. Despite all the
the game, some of them may want to argue with the protective gear we wear - the knee pads, the shin pads,
referee, but that's no way to play - or win - the match. the safety helmets, etc - players can still end up with
I'm the only person on my team who can talk to the ref, injuries. With everyone skating at full speed around the
and I always do that with the utmost politeness and rink, it's highly likely that there's going to be some physical
respect, even if I strongly disagree with the call that's contact. And the rules allow us to use our whole body in
been made. I'd say the secret to being a good captain order to stop an opponent dead in their tracks. One issue
lies in organisational skills. Before the match, I draw I face as team captain is what to do about that. I tell my
up a checklist of the opposing team's strengths and team to generally play it safe, because what good are they
weaknesses, and decide on the main strategy. I need to to the rest of the team when they've been carried off on a
make sure each player's natural talents will be used to stretcher? | do my best to make sure their gear's in good
the fullest. During the match, I need to constantly check shape, that they know what they're doing before they get
players are sticking to the strategy we decided on - but out on the rink, and that the first-aid kit is well stocked!
without too much micro-management, and being flexible
depending on the situation. Ensuring that everyone D Vera Bedington - Football

constantly works as a team is extremely important, Top footballers these days have the money and fame of
because winning's all about group effotl. royalty, and quite a few of the players at my level aspire
to be like them. Basically, they all want to be stars! That's
B Monica Sykes - Basketball
great in terms of giving it your all during the game in the
It takes more than just hours of training and practising quest for personal glory. But one of the things I need to
to defeat your opponents. The main responsibility of a do as a team captain is make sure everyone's playing in
team captain, in my opinion, is to be optimistic that the the right position. I've got several players who want to be
team can win. So, before every game, I give a little pep strikers and who want to hold the record for scoring the
talk to the team to motivate them. Players need to hear most goals during the season. They're all terrific players,
things like 'This is our game to win,' and 'We can do but I know who the best ones are for each position. A
this'. Of course, it doesn't stop there. Once the whistle key part of my job is to make tough decisions about their
blows, l'm out there on the court, doing all the things a roles when it comes to an impodant game like a national
leader has to do. I'm there to tell them it's all right when championship. I have to continually stress to them that it's
they make a mistake, to give them praise for a job well not just their individual pedormance but teamwork that
done, to keep pushing them. That kind of support is wins the game.
essential if you want a chance of winning the league.
for gist


lmprove your reading skills: reading for gist

The gist oJ a tert is the general meaning. When you read,for gist, you und,erstand the
topic of the te:xt and the writer's opinion in general. You don't read, to und,erstand, the
details. Reading for gist is a qui.ck way of reading to find out what a tert i.s about.

1 Wtr"n you read for gist, you read

A slowly to understand each word.
B quickly to get the general meaning.

It giues us the general meaning of a tert qui,ckly. Then, we can d,ecide whether we
need to read it in more d.etail or not. Sometimes, the general meaning is enough but,
at other times, we need more infot-mation. When you read a reoiew oJ afi,tm, for
erample, you might just want to know uhat kind offilm it is and uhether it is uorth
seeing or not. With an arti,cle on a website, you might read itfor gistfirst and, then go
back to read specifir parts in detail.

I Wtren you read a fllm review for gist, you find out
A all the good and bad points about the film.
B whether the writer recommends the fllm or not.

Look at the title oJ the tert and any photos. They often tell aou whdt a teilt is about.
Then, 'ski,m' the tert. This means you read i,t uery quickly, ignoring any word,s or
phrases you don't know. You can usually und,erstand, the gist without understand,ing
eaetg single word in a tert. Try to focus on 'key words', (words which contain the
main meaning) and ignore words which don't particularly add. to the main meaning.
Ako, pay nxore attenti,on to thefirst ssntence i,n each paragraph. This is usually the
'topi,c sentence', uthich telk Eou what the paragraph is about.

$ When you read for gist, what should you do with words you don't understand?
A Make a note of them for later.
B Ignore them for now.

Reading for gist is particularly important in Frst Paper I Parts 5 and, 6 and hetps
with Part 7. In Part 5, it helps you to understand quickly what the tert is about beJore
you look at the questions. It also helps you to answer questi,ons about general meaning
and, the writer's opi,nions. In Part 6, readi,ng for gist gi,aes you the ouerall meaning
and logic of the tefit, uhich helps you to put the remoaed sentetlces in the right places.
In Part 7, read,ing the short terts for gist giaes you the general meaning of each one,
bejore reading them in more detai.I tofind specifi,c i.nJormation.

I tn F,l,rst Paper 1, reading for gist

A can help with Parts 5, 6 and 7.
B is important in Part 7 only.

Look at the photo aud answer thc qrtcstions.

' Tic'k llte types of business trar''el tltat arc corrnlott itt yonr'<'t-rttntry.
trtrr,elling alrroarl on business
flying to another town/city in the sante country on bttsiuess
drir-ing long clistanccs to and frout work each day
trtrr.-elling to and frorn w'ork by train
going on lclng train journeys to business utectings
driving long clistances to businc.ss meetings
Nuntbt'r tl-re following problems business travt'llers face, ratrketl in order of how
serious yriu think they arc. Put nunrber 1 trext to the ntost serious.
loarl rage STTCSS

delayed or c'an<'elletl flights or trains .jert lag

ilhress broken rontine

These words ancl phrases are all rclated to travellittg.

Put them in the <'rlrrect categories. Arl<l two morc wortls or phrases t<.r ea<rlt categoly.

commute delays guest house hotel jet lag ruggage

Circle the n-ord or phrase that does not belong.

1 tcr stay in / go in / travel to / jet off to a place
2 to get to / go on / arrive at / reach your destination
3 to journey / visit London / go away / travel on business
4 to be orr a plane / flight / travel / trip
5 to go with the / take the / travel by / use the train
\\'r'ilc a uor<l frour the box in each gap. &
exotic foreign local luxurious

Carole says of her time as our senior representative abroad'l would definitely recommend the travel industry as a career
five-star hotels where your every need is taken care of? Most of all, I loved finding out more about (3) cultures
and getting to meet (4) people. However, it's here at company headquarters in Paris that lfeel I really belongl

Unit 2

Develop your reading skills: reading for gist

Read the titles and sub-titles of four newspaper
articles. What do you think each article is about?

Nearly 200 years ago, Harold phillipson used Driving to ztsork in your car could be killing you
to take the train from Radnor to go to work in
and tleTe not talking about accidents. The usalt yu sit,
Philadelphia every day. Amazingly, he wrote it all
the air you breathe and even your car stereo could be
down in detail. Now, reporter Judith Amundson
has been reading the diary of one of rhe worldt harming yu! Hov.sever, iti tbe zuay youfeel that

first commuters. could be causing you tlte most damage.

2 Write down any words and phrases you think might appear in the articles
in exercise 1.

3 Read the beginnings of two articles about aspects of travel. Match

each sentence
with an article. Put the sentences in the correct order to complete the paragraphs.

When people think of commuting, they A new internet service for business travellers
usually have a car or train in mind, but few promises to take all the stresses and strains
people would think of a bicycle. ... out of travelling. ...

a They also beneflt from the savings they make on petrol, car insurance
and parking expenses.
b All you have to do is fill in a simple form at troublefreetrips.com and you
will receive a package on
your computer with vital information on how to get the most
out of your trip.
However, there is a dedicated and growing number of people who sometimes
choose to travel long
distances to and from work in this way.
d Think of the hours you would spend searching for all that information
on different sites.
e This will include travel information, recommended places to
stay and visit and even events that are
on during your stay.
They do it because they love the freedom it gives them and also the exercise
they get, which helps to
compensate for the unhealthy aspects ofa deskjob.
for fitsl

,jl r


Iit'lrrl onlr lltt'firsl st'ttlcttt'r'itt t'rtt'lt ol llrt'lorrr'1t'rls ltt'lou \\'lr:rl rkr tott lltinli t'ltt'lt lt'rl rt ill lrt'ltlrottl.

Why spend hours on the road or on the Anyone who travels anywhere can become ill, but the
train when you could fly to your meeting in frequent business traveller is more at risk than most of
approximately sixty minutes? 'What about us. Stomach problems are the most common, with up
the cost?' you say. 'Surely air travel is far too to half of all business people reporting at least one such
expensive - the accounts depadment would incident in a foreign country. These distressing complaints
never agree to it.'Well, we've got good news can sometimes be avorded, if you are careful about what
here, too. We're offering flights from London you eat and drink. Experts also advise us to be careful of
to Glasgow for just 169 return, if you book adding ice in drinks, since the ice may have been made
in advance. Plus, with our early morning and with contaminated water. You should bear this in mind
late evening flights, think of how much you when drinking water, too. Only bottled water will give you a
will save in overnight accommodation. lsn't reasonable chance of staying well. There can be few things
it time to have a word with your accounts worse than flying half-way around the world - only to miss
department? an imDorlant meetinq due to illness.

Just what is it that turns normal people into Language is not the only barrier you have to overcome tn
monsters when they get behind the wheel of another country - there are many cultural differences that can
a car? We have seen from studies that the stand in the way of doing good business. The business card
people who get stressed and angry while is a perfect example of this. In the West, we might casually
driving do not easily lose their tempers in accept someone's card and put it in our pocket. This could
ordinary everyday situations. Some experts cause offence in many pafts of Asia, where you are expected
have claimed that people become territorial to look at it and keep it in sight during your meeting. Also,
about the road space their car occupies. lf be careful with your appearance. A smart, clean suit would
someone invades this, the reaction is an angry be the safest look and men should be clean-shaven, too.
one. However. we also have to consider the Remember that in some cultures you are expected to remove
purpose of the journey. When people are late your shoes in certain rooms so pay attention to details such
for an appointment or a meeting, they get as Vour socks!
annoyed and every little event on the road can
cause more anqer and stress.
Unit 2

5 Reaa the texts in exercise 4 agunand match each text

with a heading.
There are two extra headings which you do not need to use.

6 Four sentences have been removed from the texts in exercise 4.

Put one sentence in the correct place in each text.
a In Asia, these are usually offered and accepted with both hands.
b Doctors recommend avoiding salads, since they may contain the bacteria
that cause the problem, or have been washed with water that is
not as
pure as it should be.
c Think about it - the price of petrol or a return train ticket would cost a
great deal more.
d with some drivers it is only a matter of time before these all add up and
cause an angry response.

7 Which words and phrases helped you decide?

I Answer the questions about the texts in exercise 4.

I What makes some drivers annoyed?
2 Why might ice in drinks be dangerous?
3 Why are socks important to the business traveller?
4 How much does a return flight from London to Glasgow cost?
5 How many business people suffer from stomach problems?
6 What do some people become territorial about?
Reading for gist

Look at the exam practice section on page 20. Read the title and the first sentence
of the text and circle the correct answers.
1 The text is probably mostly about business people / tourists.
2 The writer is likely to focus on negative aspects only / positive and negative aspects.

2 Read the text on page 20 for gist and write the numbers of the paragraphs that are
main\y about these subjects.
1 Drivers and train passengers - . 3 Opinions other than the writer's
2 Food and exercise 4 People who fly

3 Underline the information in the text which gave you the answers.

4 Look at the numbered gaps in the text below and choose what
information (a, b or c) could fit in each gap. Give reasons for your choices.

The ]rotel is rated live stars and is located just 6ve The hotel itself is equipped with all the luxuries the
minutes' walk from the famous Golden Sands business traveller could wish for, with free wireless
Beach. Also within easy walking distance are several broadband access in all rooms and public areas.
excellent cafes and restaurants and we are just a There is a fully eqr.ripped gyrn and swimming pool.

short taxi journey away from the main conference [ZT_lw. a]so have a 2OO-seater restaurant with a

centres and the town ."n,r.. FTI range ofcontinental and local dishes on offer daily.

Gap I Gap} '

a a comment about the rooms in the hotel a something about the history of the hotel
b the distances from an airport or train station b something in the town that business
c opening hours ofthe hotel restaurant travellers would be interested in
c something else which the hotel offers

5 Write two sentences that could go in the gaps in exercise 4.

Gap I

$ Decide if these statements are true (T) or false (F).

Skills tip
I Reading for gist helps you only in Part 6. In Flrsf Paper 1 Part 6, does
2 Reading for gist can help you to quickly understand reading for gist help you
what the text is about in all parts of Paper 1. a identify and locate the
different things the writer
3 Reading for gist can help you to answer general
Yes / No
questions about the text in Part 5. mentions?
b understand the general
4 Reading for gist can help you to quickly understand theme of the text? Yes / No
the texts in Part 7, before reading them in more detail.
Unit 2

Exam practice:
Part 6
Yclu are going to reacl anarticle abotrl people who t,ravel for thcir work. Six sentences have been renroverl
from the article. (lhoose from the senten<:es A-(] the onc. whi<:h fils ea<:h gap ( l-tj). There rs one extra
sentence which you do not neecl to use.

of travelling
Timothy Duke looks at some of tlte problems business tra,uellers
face - andfnds some solutions.
To many people, travelling on business sounds Flona Valentine, manager of Vaientine Fitness Centre,
glamorous. The idea of jetting off to a foreign country, knows how much business tri s can spoil an otherwise
staying in a luxurious hotel and eating exotic food healthy lifestyle. Fiona explair ;, 'Many of our clients lose
f-----r--- -r
certainly has an appeal to those who find their working motivation after a trip. | 4 | lThen, when they return,
lives routine and boring. The health worries, discomfort it's hard for them to get back to a healthy routine.'
and stress tell a different story, however.
But there is a ray of hope for the business traveller. Fiona
We have known for some time that flying through continues, 'We advise clients on the healthier options
different time zones can cause jet lag. The effects of on hotel menus. One tactic is to choose the healthiest
this vary from simply feeling tired to disorientation or meal on offer and only eat hall a portion. We also
interrupted sleep, sometimes lasting several days. More suggest buying fruit when you can - or packing some in
recent studies have highlighted links between flying your luggage. As for exercise, we strongly recommend
and two potentially deadly conditions - increased blood walking as much as possibte. |5 I l'
pressure and deep vein thrombosls (DVf), which is
And let's not forget that it's nice to travel, even if it is for
thought to be caused by restricted mo5,m:n.t, as
,such work. One businessman, Daniel Long, had some good
that experienced on a long-haul flight. |1| ]
ideas. 'l avoid large hotel chains,' he told me. ,l find
But frequent flyers are not the only ones who have them to be pretty much the same everywf,"r". JGT-I
health concerns. People who take the train or drive long Iwould much rather be in a family-run guest house
distances to
Tg*t,ngt may still suffer from conditions where I can meet local people. Whenever possible, I try
such as DV|-. |2 ] | This is your job and you don't to have a free day or two at the beginning or at the end,
want to be late, so any problems such as bad weather or so I can really get to know the place. Then it's more like a
delays are bound to increase your stress levels ano we holiday. lt takes all the stress out of it.'
know that that is not healthy.

Another common problem is that, away from home, the

business traveller may be forced to rely on less healthy
food. While travelling, it's often much easier to buy
sweets and snacks than it r- +^ +in"t healthier options
such as fruit or a saiad. i; t i
Reading for gist

And when they reach their destination, many You'd be surprised how many kilometres you
people also repoft a temptation to reward can cover inside an airport terminal.
themselves with a big meal after their long
There are, however, many benefits of foreign
Journey. travel for business people.
They tell me that they find it impossible to stick
So I always try to find somewhere to stay which
to a diet or exercise programme when they're
has a bit more character.
away from home.
G And it is well documented that even a short
c When you think that some business people have
daily commute to work can raise blood pressure
to fly many times a year, it is easy to see how
to worrying levels.
the risks could become serious.

Skills tip
When you do Frrsf Paper '1 Part 6, try to identify
what aspect of the topic is being discussed in each
section of the text. A new paragraph often (but not
always) introduces a slightly different topic. The first
sentence of each paragraph usually tells you what
the paragraph is about. Sometimes it can indicate
a change of topic. The vocabulary in the missing
sentence must relate in some way to the topic in
that section.
the meaning
of unfamiliar lexical items


lmprove your reading skills: deducing the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items

UnJamiliar lerical items are u:ords and phrases uhich you don't know. When Eou
uhat they mean, Aou utork out uhat they meanfrom the contert. Someti,mes,
Aou can u)ork out efiectlA what a word or phrase lneans. More oJtun, howeoer, Aou can
onlA get a general idea oJ what a word or phrase rrleans by studying the contert.

1 Wnat helps you work out the meaning of words you don't know in a text?
A the context they appear in
B a general idea of English words

You can't knout euery word and phrase in English. Nobodg knows euery English word!
There will always be things Aou don't understand. It's important to know what to d,o
whsn that happens. This skill will giue Aou an iclect oJ their meaning and so help Eou
understand the te:rt.

2 Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items is a skill that

A native speakers don't need.
B you will always need.

Ignore the words or phrases Aou don't know and try to understand the gist oJ the tert.
Then, zoork out uhat part of speech (adiective, noun, etc) the toord or phrase is. Read
the sentence the word or phrase appedrs in and consider the general meaning. Is it a
positiue or negatiue idea? Does i,t describe a physical action or a, nlental acti,on? Can
you think of other uords and phrases thcr,t seem tofit there? Try to get as close to the
meaning as Aou can.

$ myou can only get a general idea of the meaning of a word or phrase,
A you won't be able to understand the text.
B it can still be very useful.
Deducing the meaning oJ unfamiliar lerical items is important in First Paper 1
Parts 5, 6 and 7. In al| these parts oJ the eram, tryi,ng to understand words and
phrases Aou don't know wi,Ll help Eou do the tasks. In Part 5, it lrclps you to se\ect the
co?-rect answers to the multiple choice questions. In Part 6, it helps you to understand
connections betloeen the te:rt and the remoaed ssntsnces. And in Part 7, deducing
unfamiLiar leri,caL items will help you understand specific information, so you can do
the matching task.

! ln Flrst Paper I Part 6, deducing the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items

A helps you see links between the text and the removed sentences.
B helps you see why each sentence has been removed.
Dpdr rninn
L/U\lLlUll lv , L\. l li..i:
1i'r I ,;,.1 r
ji .',,,1i', lic.l irtxtCsl lif trlS
Get started
Look at the photo and answer the questions.
* How tlo you listen to music and watch television or flIms?
r What is your favourite type of entertainment and why?
Develop your \tccabulary
t Write a wortl from the box in each gap to complete
tl're sentences.

fan r industry n judging x media r networking * red-carpet

I I'd love to work in the entertainment after

university - my antbition is to become a television
2 The actress attracted unwanted attention
after she was involved in a political scandal.
3 The band has a huge base, who follow all
their activities on Twitter.
4 She caused a meclia sensation when she appeared at
the event in a goltl designer dress.
a) social
I love using sites - I have accounts on Twitter, Facebook and Flickr.

6 The show's panel is r-nade up of one nrusicr producer, two ptlp singers and a
celebrity TV presenter.

f, Read the paragraph ancl circle the correct words.

Not every actor will end up being a (1) celebrity / famous, constantly in the
public (2) sight / eye. Most begin their careers working in the theatre, where
they learn their craft. lt's important to develop the ability to give a good (3) act /
performance night after night, even if you are wearing a heavy stage (4) suit /
costume that's difficult to move in. But these are problems that all (5) talented /
suitable performers learn to overcome. And though world-wide fame may be hard
to achieve, theatre (6) spectators / audiences always appreciate good acting.

J Uatctr the worcls in bold with their synonyms.

I What time tlo they broadcast the news on the BBC in the evening?
2 Angry viewers voted her off the reality TV sh<lw.

3 The show's ratings have inrproved since Andy Clrouch took on the
leacl role - severl rnillion viewers now tune in to watch each episclde.
4 Kate got a job as a TV producer on a new celebrity cooking programnle'
i) She's so famous that the papatazzi follow her everywhere.
a viewing flgures, number of people who watch a show
b person who makes a TV show
c transmit, show on TV
d people who watch TV
e photographers who follow celebrities and take their photos
Unit 3

Develop your reading skills:

deducing the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items
1 Uut"tl the words in bold with the correct parts of speech.
I The applause was deafening as the curtain came down.
The audience loved the play.
2 I'm not having much luck booking a seat for the ballet.
The tickets are sold out.
3 Homeland is a series with very high viewer ratings in the
UK - the final episode was watched by 2.g million people.
4 She managed to perform in the concert despite feeling
very unwell. After the show she went back to bed.
5 She was tremendously pleased with the positive
reviews of her novel.
a noun
b adjective
c verb
d adverb
e conjunction

I canyou deduce the meaning of the words in bold in exercise l?

Circle the most suitable answer.
I deafening means very loud / very quiet
2 booking a seat means reserving a ticket / finding somewhere to
3 rati,ngs means interactive participation / how people
4 despite means because / although
-roy watch a show
5 tremendously means not very / very
Deducing the meaning of Lrnfarniliar lexicai items

3 Read the paragraph and answer the questions.

The theatre group Moving on was set up in 2012 to work with young unemployed
people in the community. The idea was to put on performances relating to issues
that young people face in their everyday lives. Playwright Danielle Abela is closely
involved with the project. 'l had 13 weeks to write and stage a play with a group
of enthusiastic but inexperienced teenagers. We wanted to tackle the negative
image that so many adults have of teenagers today. our protect gives young people
the chance to prove that they have an avnful lot to offer their local community'
The great thing was that the whole team, the kids and everyone else involved,
threw themselves into it.'

1 When did the theatre grouP begin?

2 What is the subject of the group's shows?
3 Does Danielle's involvement include writing only, or writing and directing?
4 What does Danielle say about adults' view of young people?
b According to Daniellu, do yonrlg people offer something negative or positive to their community?
6 What does Danielle say about the team's work?

4 Write the words and phrases in bold from exercise 3 next to their definitions'
Use your answers from exercise 3 to help you deduce the meaning of the words'

I deal with something difflcult

2 problems
3 a large amount

4 put on, direct

5 used a lot of energy
6 start, establish

I)t'r'itlt'il llrc u'or'<ls irrrrl plrr.lrst's irr lroltl \\'lrirl rlo llrr'lrlrr':rscs irr lrolrl rrrcirrr?
Itrrvt' lr posilii t' (l)) ol ir rrt'girlivt' (N) rrrcirrrirrg ('lroost' 1Irt' llcst :llls\\ ('r..
I .lolrrr nrade a <.onrpk'1 t' f'<rol ol'hirnsr:lf I Slrc lovcs being irr the lirnelight,
itl tlrt'1lir'1v - il uirs so t'nrlrirlrirssirrgl 1rosirrg lirr 1ri<.1 rrrts irrrrl gir.irrg intcn.ier,r-s.
a lt'urlirrg ir rltrit't lili'
2 IIt'r 1rt'r'[irlrrrirrrr,(i \\'ils lr shorv-st,olrJler b lrt'irrg llrt' r.t'r11 r't' ol rut'tli:r irilt,nlion
<' rlr'garrisirrg ollrcr' 1rt'oplt'
irrrrl got Iirrrltrslir.r't'r'it'us irr 1lrt, pr.r,ss.
2 'l'lrc lt'lrrl
at.1 or is ill :rntl rrrirrrr., ol'1 ltt,
<'osl rrnlcs tlorr'1 {il lrrrl tht'show must gio ()n.
il 'l'ltr' play u irs :r Irox-ol'li<.t' fl<l1r
irn<l A \\ (' (.:Ill Il('\'(\1 .q1\'(' ul)
ckrst'rI trl'1t'r'.irrst lorrr. u t't'l<s. b llrc sil rrirliorr is lrolrt'lt'ss
(' \\'(' rrt'r'rl 1o [irrrl ntolt' (.()slunt(,s
4 'l'lrr'plol is int,riguing irrrtl u.ill :] | It' stole the shorv n illr lris astonishing
l<t't'll Yorr orr 1 Irt' r'rlgc ol l orrl st'lrl. rllurcc sl<ills.
a Irt' r'rrirrcrl Iltt' n lrolt' pt'r'lirr.ntant.r,
5 \\'i1 lr srr<.lr l star-studded <.lrsl. b lrt' nirs 1Irt' lrcsl 1rt'r.lirlnrt'r'
Irtrrlit'rrt cs iu(,:.illl'(t 1o Ikr<.1< t<i llrc filrrr. c Irt' rrlrst'l llrt' ollrcr. lrcrlor.rrrt,r.s
4 ['rrr running the show. lrt'r.t', so
slol r irrlt'r'lt'r'irrg lrrrl tlo trs votr'r't,tolrll
a I illsisl lrt'oplt' \\.()l.l( log(,lli(,1'
b I tlorr'1 lrirvt'rrtrrt.lr Iirrrt'
c I'rrr llrt'pt,r'sorr in t.ltiLlgc
i> It u"irs ir nlagni{i(.('trl pt'r.lor.rrurnc.t, irntI
llit'iinul s<.errt'brought the house down.
a lllit(l(' the t[rtlit'nt.t' \.('t.y angr.V
b n'r't'irr'tl u,iltl altltlarrsc
c cnuserl the stagr. to collapse
Deducing the nreaning of Liilfarniliat ielxtcal items


Look at the exant practice section on pages 28 and 29 and tick the statements that are true.
Being able to deduce the neaning of unfantiliar lexical itenrs ...
I is a skill which only the best students can clevelop.
2 requires yor-r to coutpletely understand all the words in a text.
3 will help you to understancl the texts better as a whole.
4 can help you to identify synonyms in a text.
5 takes up too n'ruch valuable tinre for little or no resrtlt.
6 is one of the ways that will help you to identify which text a question refers to.

I Read the paragraph ancl match the worcls and phrases in bolcl with
their synonyrns. Do NOT use a dictionary to help you. Skills tip
In Fr,rsf Paper 1 Pad
In comparison with only a few years ago, the price of tablet PCs has plunged' With 7, should you try to
deduce the meaning of
the latest models on offer at such low prices, many people have decided to invest
unfamiliar lexical items
in one. They don't think it's such a major extravagance either. In fact, they view it as
a by looking only at the
a necessity. You can download books, films and music onto it and it pedorms many
sentence in which the
other useful functions as well. Once you have one, you'll find it hard to imagine how
item occurs? Yes / No
you ever managed without it - it will quickly become an essential part of your life.
b by looking at the
context of both the
1 plunged a tasks sentence and the rest
2 invest in b fallen dramatically of the paragraph?
Yes / No
3 extravagance c very important
4 functions d buy
5 essential e waste of nroney

3 Look at exercise 2 again. Which of these strategies helped

you to guess the meaning of the unknown words and phrases'/

I trying to guess from context what the synonym could be

2 replacing the r.rnknown wclrds with a synonyn (from
the list a-e.) to see if the sentence still macle sense
3 looking for a word or phrase with a related nteaning
shortly before or after the unknown word

4 Which statement best describes the ability to deduce the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items?
a It's a skill that can help you in many parts of -Frtsl Paper l.
b It's a skill with little benefit in an exam setting.
c It can only help you in one part of Fit'st Paper 1.
Unit 3

Exam practice:
You are going to read an article about attitudes to the world of entertainment.
For questions 1-10, choose from the people (A-D) The people may be chosen more than once.

Which person
plans with others how to get the results they want? r-n
mentions setbacks that have affected part of the entertainment industry? ET-_]
feels an industry took the wrong approach to modern developments at first? FT-_]
says that in his/her industry consumers used to accept whatever was offered to them? FT-_]
comments on the presentation of entertainment acts? F-t-'l
finds it difficult to seoarate their home life from their work? Fl-l
emphasises what they have to do to maintain their position in the industry? FTI
says technological advances have changed how people consume entertainment? [8-ll
emphasises the need for fresh ideas to keep people interested? trt-l
tries to involve their followers in what thev do as much as possible? Fo[-]

Skills tip
In Fr,rst Paper 1 Par1.7 , it's a good idea to read through
the questions before you read the texts to help you think
about the kind of information you need to identify. You
can underline key words and phrases in the questions to
help you look out for synonyms in the text. When reading
through the texts, underline the words, phrases and
ideas you think relate to the questions and compare them
with the key words you have identified in the questions.
Remember that you don't have to understand every single
word in the texts in order to be able to complete this task
Dodr rninn'i
.' ,,.,;i , ,'ii:',i '1, , r '

NIW fiHilLJruN
in entertainment
A The television executive G The viewer

Like myself, most television executives look back fondly l'm a big fan of talent shows. They're great fun to watch
to a golden age when viewers were happy to schedule and I love being involved in the whole judging process.
their leisure hours around the broadcast times of their Just before the show is broadcast, I log on to a live blog
favourite TV series. But those days are gone; audiences for the show and while the pedormers are on stage,
today are far more sophisticated and no longer accept I blog about whether the performance is any good,

the idea of being spoon-fed their entertainment. The what the costumes are like and if they're talented or
television industry has had to adapt to this new climate not. I feel very involved and it's tremendous fun. I like
of viewer-led broadcasting. Although costume dramas the fact that television is much more interactive these
and crime series still achieve good ratings, in order days - as a viewer you can really feel a part of the whole
to stay ahead of the game, television producers have process. The shows aren't just in the hands of the TV
to constantly find new shows to attract advertisers. judging panel - the audience has power as well. That's

Audiences become bored with the same game shows, what makes it such fun. I enjoy voting off the judges'
talent shows and reality TV shows after a while, so you favourites. I discuss tactical voting strategies with other
have to come up with exciting new formats to keep the bloggers and we do our best to help our favourites win!
viewers tuned in.
D The record producer
B The actress
The music industry had no sooner recovered from the
Finding work as an actress is about keeping yourself effects of technological developments such as CDs and
in the public eye. lt's no longer simply a case of being DVDs, than another hi-tech leap forward knocked it off
well-trained in the dramatic arts; the job also involves a its feet again. The latest threat is the unstoppable rise
great deal of self-promotion. For example, if l'm lucky of new social networking sites as well as devices such
enough to be invited to a red-carpet event, I have to as smartphones and tablet PCs, which give people easy
put on a good show for the paparazzi to make sure I access to those sites. lnstead of going out to buy music
get plenty of media attention. Social networking sites from a shop, people are simply downloading MP3 files
such as Twitter can be useful in that respect, too - | use straight from the net onto their devices. In the industry
Twitter to publicise my work and to keep my fan base we were very slow to adapt to the new ways in which
up to date with all my activities. You have to interact people use technology to access entertainment. lt's
with your fans and let them feel that they're a part of the easy to understand why. For years, music moguls had
entertainment world, too. lt does mean, though, that I total control over the products they sold until, almost
have to be very careful about striking a balance between overnight, that all ended. We tried to stamp out activities
being a celebrity and a private person, which can be very such as downloading music or uploading videos onto
challenging sometimes! YouTube. Then it dawned on us that music videos are
a good promotional strategy for bands. There's an old
saying: 'lf you can't beat them, join them' and this is
what we in the music industry have started to do. Today,
a future that had seemed in doubt is much more secure.
ideas from supporting de


lmprove your reading skills: distinguishing main ideas from supporting details

A tert usually contains a small number of main ideas. Each main iclea may be
supported by eramples, reasons, further infortnation and" other supporting detai,ls.
To Jully understa,nd a tefit, Aou need to be ab\e to see what a main idea is and what a
sttTtporti,ng detail is. It is an i.mportant part of understanding the stracture of a teut.

1 Wnicn of the following is not a supporting detail?

A a summary of the whole text
B an explanation of the reasons why something is true

When you read, it's im.portant to understand the stracture oJ the tert. It helps you to
pay attention to the most im.portant things. Part of that is distinguishing mai,n id,eas
from supporting d,etails. The main ideas shotn Eou the key points in the tert. The
supporting details show you why the writer belieues the mai,n ideo,s. Und,erstanding
both oJ these things is an important part of understandi.ng the tert cts a uhole.

I Supporting details help you to understand

A why you are reading a text.
B the reasons for the writer's opinions.
You need to understand what kind of information (examples, reasons, etc) is usually
presented as supporting detaik. Look outfor this kind of infonnation and see what
it refers to. Pay particular attention to thefirst sentsnce of each paragraph, whiclt, is
oJten the 'topic sentence' (although sometinws the topic sentence nxaA appear later in
the paragraph). Thns usually makes a mai.n poi,nt, which the rest of the paragraph
then supports. Make a note oJ aLI the main points, together with any supporti,ng
details prouided. Compat'e this to the structure oJ the tert as a whole.

$ It t
if you know that examples and reasons are usually
A main points.
B supporting details.

Distinguishi.ng mai.n icleas Jrom supporting d,etai.ls is particularlg impor'tant in

First Paper 1 Parts 5 and, 6 and, helps wi,th Patt 7. In Part 5, i,t helps Aou to answer
questions on the wag the tert is organised and otherfeatures oJ the tert, such as
eramples. In Part 6, it helps you understand the shucture oJ the tert. Then, Aou cun
see hou each rernoued sentencef,ts into the tefft structure. In Part 7, you may need to
understand supporting details in order to do the matching task.

4 tto* does distinguishing main ideas from supporting details help in Part 6?
A You can see how each removed sentence relates to the whole text.
B You can see examples of sentences that have been removed.
Distinguishing main ideas from supporting details
Get started
Look at the photo and answer the questions.
r What might the woman on the right have done to
reach this interview'/
r Which of these emotions might the woman be
feeling? Why?

ung? r boled r exclted r nervous r pleased

r What do you think might happen next?

Develop your vocabulary

1 uatctr to make phrases.
I job a form
2 learning b market
3 careers c counsellor
4 application d packet

5 pay e curve

f Write a word from the box in each gap to complete
the sentences.
apply r attend r gain r land : offers r send

I You can valuable experience taking

a summer job in an office.
2 Ifyou for a job, make sure you
research the company carefully.
3 After months of trying, Tony flnally managed to
4 Jean was ill, so she couldn't the interview she'd been preparing for.
a) My advice is to out as many applications as you can.
6 You will probably have to flll in dozens of application forms before a company you aJob.

$ neaa the paragraph and circle the correct words.

Dear Alan,
A new job (1) chance / opportunity has just come up that we feel is ideal for you. The (2) employee /
employer is opening new offices in the north-east, which could mean fast growth and rapid (Q promotion /
qualification for someone willing to work hard. Please note, however, that this is an entry-level
(4) position / location and as such you should not expect to be offered a very high (5) post / salary. Have
a closer look at the advertisement online at www.starrecruitment.co.uk and, if you are interested, send me
an up-to-date (6) CV / PS and a covering letter explaining why you are suitable for the job.

With best wishes,

Deborah Willis
Star Recruitmenl
Unit 4

Develop your reading skills:

distinguishing main ideas from supporting details
1 Reaa the text and label the unclerlined sentences. You will use one of the letters twice.
a supporting reason
b example
c topic sentence
That's not the only point. Managers will often put a CV on the reiection pile
for any number of reasons. This is not something one should take personally.
It happens because they will receive hundreds of applications for a job and
need a way to cut that number down ouickly to the twenty or so they intend
to interview. The list is obviously endless, but includes major gaps, such as----
"--lack of ouafifications, and minor oversights, such as spelling errors-/

2 Match each topic sentence with a supporting detail.

I Very few people in a new job could carry out their duties perfectly from the start.
2 It is worth doing a course, if that skill is in great demand at present.
3 Latest figures show record unemployment for 16-year-old school leavers.
4 This particular recruitment agency has a remarkable record of filling job vacancies.
5 There are lists ofstandard interview questions on the internet.

a This has been put down to the current economic climate, which shows no sign of improving.
b The main reason for this is that they make sure their recommended candidates are suitable.
c Employers understand that there is a learning curve in every position.
d An obvious example is computer literacy, which is a must in every office nowadays.
e These include classics like 'What's your greatest weakness'?'and candidates should have
an answer prepared.

3 Match the paragraphs with the topic sentences.

There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

1 No-one is expecting an interviewee to grin manically throughout the interview,

but there's nothing worse than a blank or worried expression. Here's an old trick: looking
up at the ceiling and raising your eyebrows just before entering the interview roon'I
will relax your face.
2 Interviewers spend all day listening to answers to the same set of questions, and
so they would appreciate someone who is concise. Also, digressing into an anecdote
about your Aunt Sandy doesn't say much for your ability to focus on one task. If you
have a relevant story to tell, practise it until you can deliver it in as few words as possible.
3 Scratching the nose or breaking eye contact, for example, are both sure signs that the
interviewee is not being entirely honest. Someone who does not sit straight might be lazy,
while someone who sits too straight is probably not creative. These are subjective and
perhaps hasty judgements, but interviewers are human, like everyone else.

a Your face should be open and friendly, inviting conversation from the interviewer.
b Small details, such as posture, or the way you hold your head, have a greater impact
than you can imagine.
c One interviewer we surveyed said she pays a lot of attention to a candidate's body language.
d Candidates should keep their answers to the point, without being monosyllabic.
Distinguishing main icleas frorn supporting detatls

4 Write a word or phrase from the article in each gap to .&{
r &&
complete the sentences.
l.b:o. ' d
UK companies are complaining that more .*ft*t
and more school leavers that apply to them
for jobs lack the basics in education. 'l need
security guards who can write short reports,'
said Tina Hutton, personnel manager at
Failsafe Security. 'When some of them try to
spell, they come up with words that not even
a computer spellchecker would recognise!'
Young people today rely on word processor
programs that autocorrect and cannot even do
simple arithmetic without a calculator to help
them. Many teachers blame this dependency
on modern technology for falling standards
among school leavers. As a result, many firms
are putting potential interviewees through a
series of tests before they even talk to them'

I The article is about young people who apply for

jobs without having a basic
Many of them can't -- or do
The reason given is that they depend too much
on ___--
Because of this, companies sometimes only
interview candidates after they have sat
some --*

$ Write'MI'for main idea or'SD'for supporting detail'

If you don't produce a good covering letter, that might
be as far as the application process goes'
The covering letter is the first thing that an employer
will read.

Getting their first iob is one of those moments everyone

It's likely to be something like a papergirl or a waiter,
but you still feel a real thrill.
It's partly because he's lazy, but he has also had some
extremely bad luck.
My brother hasn't had a steady job for over three years
and no job at all for the past twelve months'

Benefits of the position include one free meal every

shift and tips.
We have an opening for a waiter to cover evening shifts
at our busy seaside hotel.
Unit 4

6 Bactr of these paragraphs includes supporting details.

Match each paragraph with a statement showing the role of the supporting detail.

I I always made sure I kept all my applications carefully and

systematically filed away. That way, I never got confused even
if I was dealing with twenty of them simultaneously, all at
different stages.
2 Job satisfaction should be uppermost in a graduate's mind when
considering what jobs to apply for. Big pay packets might be
tempting, but in the end nothing can compare to a contented
working li[e.
3 Many of today's school leavers are flnding themselves jobless within
twelve months of leaving school. They include Leo Mann, who left
at sixteen, expecting to flnd work on a building site, but is now
considering returning to college.
4 Laura's father owns a large shipping company and she had a
position waiting for her. That's why she could swan off on a round-
the-world trip after the exams, while we applied for job after job.
a giving an example of the main idea
b expanding on the main idea
c giving a reason for the main idea
d giving a consequence of the main idea

7 ReaA the article and answer the questions.

Graduating to robbery?

om McGregor, 23, walked into the Leith Street

branch of the National Bank at 1 I am on
Friday and demanded money at gunpoint.
After emptying the cashiers'tills of f.l5,000, he
left and attempted to make his getaway on foot.
Unfortunately for him, he ran straight into two police
officers, who arrested him. McGregor explained that
he had been unable to find a job since graduating
from university and poverty had forced him into this
desperate act. The gun turned out to be a replica.

I Who robbed the bank?

2 When did he rob it?
3 How much did he steal?
4 What happened to him after he left the bank?
5 What makes McGregor an unusual bank robber?
6 Why did he rob the bank?

$ Write a topic sentence to complete the gap in the article

in exercise 7.
Distinguishing main ideas fronn supporting details


Look at the exam practice section on pages 36 and 37
and circle the correct word or phrase in each sentence. Skills tip
I You will flnd the main idea of each paragraph near the beginning / end.. In Frsl Paper 1 Part 5,
should you undedine
2 A supporting idea comes before / after the main idea. the topic sentences in
3 Examples / Reasons might follow these words and phrases: ltike, the passage
such as, i,ncluding.
4 Examples / Reasons might follow these words and phrases: because, a while you are reading
since, in order to. through it for the first
5 Knowing the main point of a paragraph would deflnitely help answer time? Yes / No
questions aboutwhy the writer said something / the point the b after you have read it
writer is trying to make. and the questions
once? Yes/ No

2 ReaO the text and underline the topic sentence.

3 ReaO the text in exercise 2 againand choose the correct answer.

The point the writer is trying to emphasise is that
& it is important to create an impressive CV. c you know that no other candidate is equal to you.
b your performance in the interview makes a d you must use every opportunity to prove
strong impression. your suitability.

4 Complete these sentences with the answers you did NOT use in exercise 3.

1 You will not be offered a job just because

2 In order to make it to the interview stage,
3 The way you look and speak is important because

5 Complete each statement with Part 6 or Part 7.

In First Paper 1, distinguishing main ideas from supporting details
I will help you to flnd what kind of sentence is missing in .

2 will give you a way to break down short texts quickly in .

3 will help you find the right answer when the gap is a topic sentence in .

Unit 4

Exam practice:
Part 5
lbu are goirtg to rctrtl art zrrlic'le about a graduate lclclking fol hcr first.iob. For questiols l-6,
cltoosc the answer'(A, Il, (' or I)) whic'h vou think best fits ac<:orfling t9 the text.

big wide world
Tbday's gradaates are entering one of the toughestjob markets in decades. Syloia
Morgan urites about how shefnally landed tbat crucialfirstpost.
Iwas by no means typical among my peers, but I feel So the interviews did start coming. There would have been
Iwas well organised in my approach to job hunting. many more, however, if I hadn't had a strict rule; I refused
Even before graduation, when many of my friends were any that even hinted at working as an unpaid intern. These
enjoying what they termed their 'final year of freedom', I positions are becoming more and more common in the
was attending career fairs and getting an idea of which UK, which I think is an extremely damaging trend. Not
companies were hiring in my chosen field - publishing. I only do young people nowadays get into debt to obtain
had some sit-down meetings with representatives at the a degree, but they also have to be prepared to work for
fairs and distributed my CV but even then there was a six months or a year without remittance, in the hope of a
feeling of 'let's wait and see'. Nobody wanted to commit position with a salary at the end of it. Certainly, you gain
and none of the companies seemed sure they would even experience in the good positions of this kind, but in many
have jobs to offer in the summer, assuming I graduated you may end up as a glorified coffee maker.
with the degree my lecturers expected from me.
Rejection is something you have to prepare yourself for
I did, but found myself back home in July feeling I was mentally. First of all, because you will, in all likelihood,
starting again from square one. Although I had taken a receive many of those dreaded emails (or letters,
short holiday straight after leaving university, I had spent occasionally) before you get the break you are looking
it looking through newspaper job advertisements and for. Secondly, because no matter how strong your self-
online job sites. There had been very little movement confidence is, those brief polite sentences will eventually
in the publishing field and when I got home and found dent it. I strongly advise you not to walk that path alone.
that none of the companies I had contacted before Compare notes with university friends and you will find
graduating were prepared to make a job offer, I made the many are going through the same thing. Without my
pragmatic decision to widen my focus considerably. friends, I would have felt like a failure and then I'd never
I approached job hunting, as much as possible, as a job
have got a job.
in itself. Monday to Friday, I put in nine-to-five days (with Because I did, eventually, find someone who was prepared
a break for lunch) filling out online application forms, to overlook my lack of experience and appreciate my
sending out CVs and following leads. lf something looked qualifications, I was offered a job and I accepted it. lt
promising, I was prepared to work overtime in order to was after 139 applications - | kept careful count. The
exploit the opportunity fully. When I got an interview, starting salary isn't wonderful, but it's a young, fast-
I did my homework as a sales representative on a moving company with good opportunities for promotion.
business trip would: researching the company, plotting Three months on, I could look back at my six months of
a sales strategy and trying to put myself in the potential unemployment as a waste of time, but I prefer to see it as
employer's shoes by asking myself questions such as a learning curve and a growth experience. This is the real
'What are they looking for?' world and the more leisurely life of academic development,
careers counselling and self-discovery at university is over.
Distinguishing rxain ideas from supporting details

From the first paragraph, we understand that What does the word 'remittance' mean in the
A Sylvia feels like she missed out on a lot of fourth paragraph?
oppor.tunities at university. A oualifications
B many of Sylvia's fellow students didn't B experience
focus on job-hunting before graduation. c pay

C the job fairs Sylvia attended led to some

D duties

promising possibilities. When a job application ends in rejection, Sylvia

D Sylvia wishes she had done more to obtain believes you should
a job pre-graduation. A share the experience with people who can
After returning home from her holiday, Sylvia
B not allow it to do the slightest damage to
A decided to start applying to publishing your self-image.
companies from the beginning.
C treat it as a valuable lesson in self-reliance.
B realised that she had been applying for jobs D be prepared to examine your
that she wasn't oualified for. preconceptions about yourself.
C immediately began searching newspapers
How does Sylvia feel about the time she spent
and websites for jobs.
looking for work?
D switched to a more realistic approach to
A nostalgic about her university days
B determined never to let it happen again
What point is Sylvia making in the third C disappointed it didn't lead to a better job
paragraph? D positive that it taught her a valuable lesson
A Sales jobs are very often the hardest ones
to get.
Skills tip
B Your approach to finding a job must be Beware of the wrong options - they are not
orofessional. called 'distractors' for nothing. They are trying
to trick you into choosing them, so they will
C You should be prepared to do overtime
often correspond to something in the text. They
even when unoaid. might say the exact opposite, only be half-right
D How you find a job shows how well you will or not say quite the same thing. They may even
be all right and simply not answer the question
do in it. that is being asked. Once you have identified
the main idea of a paragraph, you can often rule
out one or more of these options. Use this as a
method of focusing on the answer to the more
difficult questions.
purpose and function 't*t,t


lmprove your reading skills: understanding purpose and function

A writer wri,tes a tertJor a reason. It might be to entertain, i,nfor"m or persuade their
readers. It might be because they want to make arrangements or offer aduice. The
reason for urtti,ng is the putpose. A piece of writing also has a Junction, si,mi,lar
to the wr[,ter's pulpose. The Junction might be to entertain people, to giue people
infonnation, etc.

1 Wni"n of these statements is true?

A A piece of writing has a function.
B All pieces of writing try to entertain.
To Jully unrlerstand a te$t, Aou need to know whE it was written and what it is trying
to say. Understanding the pu?pose andfunction helyts Eou to know what to etpect
when reading. Ako, when you understand a uriter's pu?pose and a tert's Junction,
you can judge how successful it is. IJ the putpose is to persuade, do youfmd i.t
persuasiue? If the purpose andJunction is to sntertain, i,s i.t entertaini,ng?

2 Understanding the purpose and function of a text helps you to

A read about what you know.
B judge how good the text is.

Make sure you are familiar with the usual putposes and functions associ,ated uith
dilferent kinds of terts. For erample, the purytose andfunction oJ a story maA be to
sntertain or to amuse. It probably isn't to recommend or to inform. Then, ask yourselJ
questions as Aou read. Wy did the writer write this? Who i,s i.t aimed at? Wat was
the putpose?

$ ffre example of a story is used to show that

A very few writers know how to write stories well.
B some text types and some purposes and functions often go together.

Understanding putpose andfunction is most useful i.n Paper 1 Part 5. In thi,s part,
Aou nxaA be asked questions about the writer's putpose or the function of the tert. You
maE also be asked questions about who the target reader is, whi,ch is closely related to
the putpose anclfuncti,on of a tert. Some parts of the matching task in Paper I Part 7
may also rely on an unclerstanding oJ the putpose andJunction of the terts.

4 What is connected to the purpose and function of a text?

A the target reader
B asking questions about a text
Understanding purpose and function
Get started
Read the statements and write 'A if you agree or 'D' if
you disagree.

r Vegetarian food is boring and not very appealing.

r All vegetarian food is completely healthy.
r It's relatively easy to follow a vegetarian diet.
r Vegetarians lead a much healthier lifestyle.

Develop your vocabulary

Each of the words in bold is in the wrong sentence.
Write a word in bold from another sentence to replace the
incorrect one.
I An excellent way to cook vegetables is to boil them in
a shallow pan with a little olive oil.
After placing the potatoes in the baking tray, put them
in the oven and steam them for one hour.
When you roast vegetables, you get dark, evenly
spaced lines across the surface.
4 The healthiest way to cook food is to saut6 it
over a pan of water.
o People who grill a lot of fatty foods often have weight problems.
6 The recipe says to consume the pasta for ten minutes.

2 write a word tne,!311n gach gap r?:.To.l"l"**:

dietary r dressing r greasyt savoury/ spiby rfspliilkle r tasteless I tinned I vegan

Many people have successfully made the change and the right amount of it. If you like a bit of heat
t,i tomato
to vegetarianism. It's certainly harder for some in your food. try adding t6t :'fl"
than others. Ifyou're used to having a stearring sauce, which is a lerrific vegetarian addition
hot meat stew or a iuicy steak for dinner then to many meals. Of course, even a vegetarian
this change in your (l ) l{"{-d'{* f habih meal can be unhealthy. Frying vegetables in oil
may be difficult. However, it is poss6le to makes them quite (7) fW'J and this is
maintain a vegetarian diet and there is a wide not to evervone's taste. Go eas! on the creamy
variety of recipes available for both sweet and sauces as well, since they're usually full of butter,

e1 Sit;OLt i'l dishes. Vegetables can be cream and cheg.re, unless ofcourse you're
delicious, ifydl learn how to cook them properly. 61 WlCy'v and don't eal any dairy products
It's imoortant toruse fresh olive oil and to either. ti's also best to stick with n:rn t:plgt$.=
rll i Jit KhI-\e food with herbs and spices, vegelables, so avoid the supermarket aisle with lhe
such as basil, oregano or black pepppr-Sglads do 1S; -i , a..lrl.- food and spend more time in the
not have to be boring and (4) '\ t"J L'.Y fresh produce section.
'' .
^ w{
long as vou add the right kind of (5 ) 1' ; U[\
Unit 5

Develop your read ing ski lls: understancli ng pu rps$* ;:nd fu rnr:.{irx r

N{atch each type of text with a prlrlx)se.

1 email a Io educate people about a subject

2 neu,s iu'tic'le b to infornr the public about something that recently happened
3 pcrsonal blog c to persuarle solneone to do or buy something
4 novel d to cornmunicate with another person
5 rrlrort e to express I'eelings about a subject
6 nclr.er'l f to publish t.hc findings of a str"rdy
7 encyclolraedia g to share personal information with nrany people
8 opinion article h to entertain a reader

I W.ite tr terxt t11re frclur exercise I aftel these intrrrrluctory sentenr:es.

I I firrd it disgusting to se'e a steak on a lrlate - what about the poor animal?
,. Ilaving fi'esh vegetables rlelivere<l to votu hrxne has never been easier with our
neu. online delir-ery service, (lanlen at Ilonre.
3 I rn rvriting to tell yor.r nbont this terrifir' organic' foocl fair I attendcd last weckend.
4 The soybe.an is a spec'ies of plant that is nati'u.e to parts of east,ern Asia and is
gro\\'ll fbr its nrany clifferent uses.
Resear<'h shorvs that a vegetarian rliet c'an provide just as much protein as a
traditional rliet. but ('onles witlt a utr<'l'r l<lwer fat and r:holesterol content.
N,Iargarel Pace, a born ancl brecl cily clweller, grew t,irecl of the hustle and bustle of
.krhannt'slxrrg and optctl lbr a quict lif'e managing a citrus fan'n in the countryside.

J Ilecicle il'lhe senlenc'es about the short parngraphs are tme (T) or false (F).

I This was written lbr a large trudience. 4 This could be found in a magazine or an advert
or heard on a television programme.
I think it's great that you want to start following
a vegetarian diet and I can help you to get Tired of feeling exhausted all the time? Have you
started, if you like. Do you want to meet put on a few extra pounds that seem impossible to
sometime and talk more about it? lose? Are you sick of eating tinned food all the time?
Perhaps it's time you gave the Raw Foods Challenge
2 The person wrote this sttrtence frrr an a try and put an end to those worries.
encyr:lopaedia zrrticle.
5 This person is expressing an opinion.
There are many reasons why a person may
choose to follow a vegetarian diet and those It's high time that we got our produce out of the hands
reasons include ethical and moral beliefs, of scientists, out of laboratories, in which a hundred
dietary concerns and religion. different tomatoes are grown to look exactly alike.

3 The writer wrcte this sentence for personal 6 This sentence could be found in a research
reasons. report.

Sorry it's been so long since my last In a letter to the country's agriculture minister,
communication, but I've been on an exciting environmentalists expressed outrage over the
month-long volunteering adventure at an ministry's decision to allow factories to open in the
organic farm in the countryside. farming heartland.
Understanding purpose and function

4 neaA the articles and label them storg, neus arti,cle, opinion arti,cle or persuasiue article.
a c

l've never been keen on eating meat. First of all, I'm A recent report highlights the environtnental
not fond of the taste, the look or the smell of it. lt might impact that meat-based diets have on farmland.
It detennined that a plot of land can
has beer-r
have something to do with the way I was brought up.
produce rnany more times the amount of food in
My parents were vegetarians, so there was never any
grains, fiuit and vegetables than if the san-re plot of
meat in the house. However, I also feel that eating
land was supporting farm animals. Additionally, the
meat is a form of violence against animals. I think that amount of water used to grow plants is far less than
animals are kind, innocent creatures that deserve our the anrount needed to tnaintain a population of
respect. In fact, I think killing them should be a crime. cattle, sheep or even chickens.

b d

We really need to do more to rethink our eating It was Jill's second week of staying on a meat-free
habits and there's evidence to show that this need is diet and she thought that she wouldn't be able
to stand it for a minute longer. She never used to
no\ r urgent. we all know by now that meat products
crave things such as hamburgers and hot dogs
use far more resources than non-meat products. that much before, but now that she had decided
Pretty soon we won't have enough resources for the not to eat them anymore, she couldn't seem to
think of anything else. She also used to love all
production of meat and that should be enough to
kinds of vegetables and vegetable dishes. But
change anybody's mind. Wouldn't it be better if we
she was beginning to feel that if she never saw
switched to vegetarianism now, rather than wait until another vegetable in her life that would be just
we have no choice? fine bv her.

5 Wt o might be the target reader for the texts in exercise 4?

Write the correct letter. More than one answer may be possible.

1 an environmentalist
2 someone who thinks more people should be vegetarians
3 people who consume too much meat
4 a person reading for entertainment
5 a scientist

6 people finding it difflcult to become vegetarians

$ trlatctr the articles from exercise 4 with the purposes below.

More than one answer may be possible. Not all the purposes match an article.

I to inform 6 to persuade
2 to educate 7 to describe
3 to entertain 8 to advertise
4 to express feelings 9 to advise
5 to argue an issue 10 to warn

i IletrtI tlit' st'tilt'ttt't's utt<l t'hoose llrt' Iirnr'1i<ln ol'llre st'<'ortrl s('nt('n(.('
I iNil.,,- il;;i'i;liiilik;i;i(.i \'(;'i,;;i,ri, rriers a.tl , 5 - I'nr trying to organisc a rlinncr atl t,he new
trtrliealtliv.'l'he lrrrlh is thirl lhcy can provitit' Vegetal iarl rt'slz[r|iinl irr nrv ncighbclurhood
llte sanrt'r'sserrtial urrtrienls as a lratlilional Write lrack as s()oll as voil t'an itncl let nre
j clic't. llrl oltert vr'itli k'ss lirl lrrrrl I'ew.t'r'c.irlorit's krtorl. utich is the llcsl niglrt lbr you.
a 1o c'lalil'y a Iat'l a to nr:rkc a suggt'stiorr
b to give un oliiniorr b to utake 1ll:rns
2 Aulx,r'gincs iu'r, a rlt'licious \'('g('l:ll)lc Ilrl rrrrrrrv 'l'ltis ncu, law lvill ntakt' it lt'gal 1o sell
pcolrle tlon't like tht'ir bil ter'1as1t'. 'lir gct ritl of gent ti<'ally-rnoclilierl plorlut.e in our
this tastt'. it's nect'ssit|v t0 soirl< llrenr in saltv strlrelrrurrkots. We mrrsl rlentnrxl that. tl'rc law
u at er' ltlr t lrir'1 v rninrrtes belirre' r.<loking. lrt' ovelturned bef<rlt' it's loo lalt .
a lo \\'ill'n a I () \\:ill ll
b t<l givt' arlvic.t' b 1o exlllairr a slel) ilt a l)l'o('('ss
3 iirii;;iiiiit;ii;i";iii,ifi:"g.,t,i,:i,ii,,r,",ui,iu", 7 A li'r,r, <l1 1ht urban fttrnrs irr tlrt' c.ity arc
jcrr'et.allc.Iicrlestt'r<lllcr.t.ls1ltittitlteit.ttlt'a1- i lrlinging \'('g('tal)le anrl lrerli prorluc.tiort right
ic:llillg cotttiter'par'ls. Il u,t'nl ott 1o sav 1hal , I I into orrr nciglrliorrrhclorls. Tlte orrc on tht'
c'ort<'t'r'rtirtg t'ltolt'stetrrl tvl)('s, \'egctariarrs
lratl iI i
('ot'n(,r ol (irxre Stlt'el arrrl Srrsst'x Avr.nuc
iliig]rt'r auxrurts o1 'gro<l'<'holt'stt'trrl, or III)1,. rcloes t'xar.llv that.
a to elalroratt' rin a 1u<'l a 1o give an cxarrrple
b to gir.e an r.xitnrplt' b 1cl nrake a suggesl iorr
4 I't'" seen people irt rt-sluulants not onlv orrlt,r' 8 I'r',. often healtl 1lt,<4tk'suy that they wish
large lrortions of tnt-:rl. btrt also cal only lltev coulrl give uI) nreat,lrtrt thev.iust <'an't
hall' oI u.h;.rt's on tlrt'il plale. Bt'sitle's beirig scenl 1o nrakt it halrpt'n. I srw to t.hose
st'nselt ss, I think lhat's irresprinsible. pcc4,rle, go to vour li'irlgc, throw clut zrll the
a lo o\lrlt'ss:Ul opittiott rurt'ut lrrorlu<'ts ancl rkrn't look llackl
b to $'2lrll a 1o nrakc a suggesliorr
b to nrakt lrlarrs

'.'! Ileatl tltt't'xttzrt't fi'otu u nrugazint'alti<'lc. [,1nlch thc sentetr<,es u.ith the liut<,tions.

1 l've been a vegetarlan for sixteen years and a vegan for the last six years. 2 Although it's a challenge to
maintain the lifestyle, l'm very happy that I've made the decision to do so. 3 In order to maintain a vegan diet,
there are a number of things you must look out for - you may think you're buying something that doesn't contain
meat or dairy products, but in fact there may be some hidden processed ingredients that do in fact come from
animals. a The first thing to do is to look carefully at product labels and the various minor ingredients that are
listed. 5 lf an item contains gelatine, it is neither vegan nor vegetarian, as gelatine is an animal substance, made
from the bones of animals. 6
Therefore, this is something you absolutely must avoid, in order to maintain a vegan
diet, or a vegetarian one for that matter. 7 lf you're truly determined to live a vegan lifestyle, access sources on
the internet and visit bookshops or libraries to find lists of veoan foods.

I a t<r introrlu<'r'er pro('('ss 5 e to givc ba<'kgrrunrl inlbrutation

2 b to gi\'(. a r,valning 6 f to girr'a stt'1t in zr l)ro('css
3 (: to nrake a srrggesliort 7 to pror''itle an exuutltle
4 d to exllrt'ss a leeling

.$ $rhat u,as lhe rvliler's l)llrl)ose in n,ritiug tlrt' arlit.le in

Io r('porl
Understanding purpose and function


Look at the exam practice section on page 44 2 In the sarne paragraph, what is the writer's purpose
and read the first paragraph. What is the writer's in talking about'rules'?
purpose in writing this paragraph? a to inform readers about the rules of vegetarianism
a to discuss how he or she relates to the topic b to suggest what rules all vegetarians should follow
b to give an entertaining story about a dinner c to explain the writer's personal rules of
party vegetarianism
c to complain about other people's eating habits d to name the top two rules concerning
d to deflne what a typical vegetarian is vegetarianism

$ neaO this extract and answer the questions.

The phrase 'don't have a clue'means people Which is NOT a reason the writer
A don't want to know something. mentions cheese?
B don't have any information about something. A to provide an interesting fact
C don't need information about something. B to explain what tofu tastes like
D know quite enough about something.
don't C to get people to try tofu
Why does the writer mention green beans? D to compare tofu to a common food
A to give an example What's the purpose of this excerPt?
B to rephrase an idea A to praise the health beneflts oftofu
C to provide apoint ofreference B to explain why people hate tofu
D to state an opinion C to teach people how to make tofu
The description of the tofu-making process D to familiarise people with tofu
A helps to make tofu seem less strange.
B provides a useful set of instructions. Skills tip
C shows how difflcult it is to make. ln Firsf Paper 1 Part 5,
D explains how long it takes to make. to determine the writer's
purpose, it's helpful to
a consider what kind
4 In -Firsl Paper 1 Pari 7 , for which question would you
of text the writer wrote.
need to understand the purpose and function of a text?
Yes / No
a Which person has only travelled with other people? b identify the main topic
b Which person is expressing an opinion about a lifestyle? of the text. Yes / No
Exam practice:
Part 5
You are going to reacl an articrle about vegetarianisn'r. I.'or qnestions 1-6, choose
the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think flts best ac'cording to the text.

a chance
I don't consider myself to be a vegetarian, at least not in Even with all the health benefits of a vegetarian diet
the strictest sense of the term. The two rules I follow as - lower risk of head attack, prevention of high blood
a semi-vegetarian - if that's even a proper phrase - are oressure. reduced rates of cancer - there still seems to be
that I never cook meals at home using meat, nor do I a complete lack of vegetarian eateries and a shortage of
order meat dishes when dining out. Obviously, these vegetarian options at most restaurants. I began to wonder
aren't the only occasions when I have meals. My friends if people were simply addicted to meat. That may be true
sometimes throw dinner parties and I wouldn't want to for some, but for others who might give vegetarianism a
force my dietary beliefs upon them. So I eat whatever try, I realised that there was something else in the way -
they prepare. lf they've spent an hour roasting a leg of the culture of vegetarianism appeared to be unpleasant.
lamb or a side of beef, I can make an exception to my It seems that there are too many vegetarians who believe
diet and tuck in along with the rest of the guests. that their way of eating is superior to any other. They
aren't just vegetarians, they're better people, or so they
Mind you, l'm not offended by the taste of meat at all.
think. This is rather offensive. You walk into a vegetarian
On the contrary, I love the worst that meat has to offer
restaurant and suddenly you feel guilty for having eaten
- greasy hamburgers, savoury ribs dripping in barbecue
that chicken wing at your parents' house the week before.
sauce and thick, grilled steaks still pink in the middle. As
Even someone like me, who eats meat extremely rarely,
a matter of fact, I grew up eating that kind of food. As an
feels a bit uncomfortable within that whole atmosphere.
adult, however, I became more conscious of my eating
habits. I started to consume less and less meat, until one So, I propose that we, the vegetarians of the world -
day I found that I could go for months without eating any again, assuming I can be considered a part of that group,
meals containing meat at all. I began to explore the idea or would even want to be - should become more relaxed
of giving up animal-based foods altogether, just to see about our meat-eating counterparts having a steaming
how lwould get on. cup of beef stew or sprinkling sliced chicken bits all over
their salad, when and if they ever have one. Perhaps, if
Soon enough, a whole new world of food opened up
vegetarianism is seen to be an attractive alternative, more
to me. I started eating a lot of vegetables and not just
people might try it. lt would be a shame for the idea to
ordinary, tasteless salads tossed with a bit of dressing.
become trendy, only to go out of fashion in a few years'
I would steam broccoli and have it with rice and soy
time. I suppose, for vegetarianism to take root in society 61
sauce. I would saute courgettes and aubergines in olive oil
for all to enjoy, it needs to change its image to one that is
and basil. I would try my hand at making vegetable soup
fun, inviting and worth following.
with pasta, creamy mushroom soup and spicy cabbage
soup (not one of my best creations, l'll admit). What I
discovered is that maintaining a vegetarian diet is not only
healthy, delicious and inexpensive, it's also abundant in
variety. But there was one thing I couldn't quite shake from
my mind - why isn't this way of eating more popular?
Understanding purpose and function

The writer eats his friends' meals because The writer says the main problem with
A he feels as though he's got no choice. vegetarians is that they are
B it doesn't violate any of his rules. A aggressive.
C he wants to be a polite guest. B arrogant.
D the taste of meat is appealing. C rude.

How did the writer give up meat?

D unsocial.

A He did it through a gradual process. 5 The phrase 'take root' in line 6'1 refers to
B He just decided one day to give it up. vegetarianism becoming more
C He set himself a goal of eating no meat. A valuable.
D He reverted to the eating habits of his B fashionable.
childhood. C exciting.

In the third paragraph, the writer

D established.

A talks about a few badly-prepared meals. 6 The writer's purpose in writing this article is to
B discusses the wide selection of vegetarian A argue against the main point of discussion.
dishes available. B persuade readers to change habits.
C realises why vegetarianism isn't popular. C provide information about a lifestyle.
D discusses the kinds of dishes he cannot eat. D express opinions and make suggestions.

Skills tip
A good approach to Part 5 is to quickly read
the text for gist before attempting to answer
the questions. Then, when you get to the
questions, you'll have a good idea of where the
information is located. You will probably have
to re-read portions of the text with extra care
in order to pinpoint the answers but, because
you've read the entire text, you should know
approximately where in the text to look.


lmprove your reading skills: understanding cohesion

Cohesion i,s the way parts oJ a tert are connected to each oth,er. They might be connected
by grammar. For erample, conjunctions (and, but, although), pronou'ns (she, they, we)
and articles connect ideas togethen Patts of a tart might also be connected by synonErms
(e.9. arimal, creature, Lt) or by aduerbs and phrases (e.9. However, On the other hand,
F\rrthermore). Cohesion is c\osely related to coherence (Unit 8).

1 Wtri"t of the following does not help cohesion?

A synonyms
B capital letters

Different parts oJ a sentence are connected to each other. We need to understand

how they are connected so that we can understa'nd the meaning of the sentence. In a
simi.l,ar way, different parts oJ a tert are connected. To understand the whole te:xt, we
need to understand how the parts are connected. Cohesiae deaices (al| the words and
phrases that help create cohesion) tell us about main points, eramples, further poi,nts,
etc, anrl show us when diffirent sentences are talking about the same thing.

f lt *e don't understand cohesion, we can't understand

A the whole meaning of a text.
B any ofthe sentences in atext.
Look outfor cohesiae deuices. This means spotting and understanding connecting
phrases and conjunctions. Also, uatch outfor sAnonAins and pay attention to
grammatical reference words (this, it, that, etc). Ask yourselJ uhat other things they
refer to, ei,ther before or after them in the tert.

3 Wittr a word like 'this', you should ask yourself

A why the writer has used it.
B what it refers to.

Understanding cohesion is an important part oJ all reading, so it's important in

First Paper 1 Parts 5, 6 and 7. In Parts 5 and 7, it helps Aou to see the way the tert is
organised so that Aou can understand the main ideas, sttpporting eramples and other
details. In Part 6, understanding cohesion is particu\arlA important because it helps
Aou to see how the remoued sentences are connected to diffirent parts of the te$t.

4 ln First Paper 1 Part 6, understanding cohesion is useful because it helps you

A recreate the original text.
B understand why a sentence has been removed.
Get started
Look at the photo and answer the questions.
r What environmental problem is represented by the picture?
: What different things can be done to deal with this problem?

Develop your vocabulary

1 Uut"fr the words to make phrases.
I endangered a energy
2 fossil b species
3 renewable c spill
4 oil d layer
5 ozone e fuel

I Write a word or phrase from the box to complete the text.

crops r deforestation r extinct r habitat r mining r pesticides r setup r shortage r srTlog r

Sign up to NatureSave/
Why did a group of local people decide to (1) the green organisation NafureSave? lt was
because we realised that people in the area are doing so many things to damage the environment.
One major problem is the widespread cutting down of trees, known as (2) ^ The land is then

used to build factories on. These factories produce air pollution, and we now have a major problem in the
city with (3) , which is a horrible, -dirty mixture of smoke and fog. On some days,
(4) is absolutely terrible.
Another related problem is that a number of animals and insects that lived-in the local forests have lost
their natural (5) and so are becoming (6) .

A different problem is that a lot of the land round here that used to be used for growing (7)
has- been sold to companies (8) coal. Because of this, we now have a (9) of
local fresh fruit and vegetables. What's more, the farmers who are still growing produce are now using
harmful (10)-- . -
So, we've got a lot of work to do to try and educate people. I hope you decide to join us in-our struggle!
- -
Unit 6

Develop your reading skills: understanding cohesion

1 Underline the word or phrase in each second sentence
that has a similar meaning to the word or phrase in bold.
a The preservation of the environment is
something which we all need to think about.
b If we pfotLCEL what we have, then the world will
be a safer place for future generations.
1 a Members of this organisation are dedicated to
. saving endangered species from extinction.
b This commitment is reflected in our many active
campaigns both at home and internationally.
2 a Industrialisation has had a terrible impact on the
quality of the air in our cities.
b The results can be clearly seen in the statistics
regarding premature deaths.
3a Many people use the argument that we have a
duty to save animals that are under threat.
b They claim that it is a disgrace that we do so
little for endangered species.
4a We have nearly used up our resources of coal,
gas and oil.
b These so-called fossil fuels have taken billions of
years to form.
5a The destruction of the rainforests means
that many birds and insects lose their natural
b There are fears that the damage may be
irreversible and that thousands of species will
become extinct.
6a Our rivers and lakes have been contaminated by
chemicals from both industry and agriculture.
b Nobody knows what the long-term effects of this
kind of pollution will be.

2 Decide what each word in bold refers to.

I Joining an organisation is likely to be far more The deforestation changed the landscape and
effective than simply working alone. This is wiped out the natural habitats of these birds. It
clearly the best way to achieve your goal. was only when the rain came that they realised
a joining an organisation it was responsible for flooding, too.
b working alone a The deforestation
c achievingyourgoal b the landscape
2 They are different ages and offer a variety of c the rain
skills but really make a difference. We must As they gathered for a series of meetings on
thank the dedicated volunteers who give up climate problems, the members'main concern
their evenings and weekends to help. was to set targets on carbon emissions.
a skills a" climate problems
b dedicatedvolunteers b targets
e evenings and weekends c members

Iit':rtl l lrt' l ritt itgritlrlt ittttl <'ittlt' l ltt' t'otr t'<'1 u ot tls
r lr' rlit itst's.

. i'iii-*':

\\'r'i1r'ir rvotrl lrrrnt lltt'lrox itt t'ttt'lt gill) 1() < otttlllt'tt'
t ll(' l)ill itgl illtlt.'l'ltt't't' itt t' fivc u ot tls u lri<'lt lott tltr
rrol rtt't'rl 1o trsr'.

although and but furthermore he

however so there this which

People today tend to think of the greenhouse effect

as a relatively new phenomenon of the late 20th and
early 21st century. (1) , before 1900,
Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius found a link
between human activity and the balance of nature.
In developing his theory to explain the ice ages,
(2) - that the carbon dioxide
produced by industry would prevent a new ice
age from happening. (3) was an early
understanding of the phenomenon of global warming.
For-over 60 years, most scientists believed that
Arrhenius was wrong, (4) we now know
- accurate. These days,
that his theories were very
we all recognise that global warming is a potentially
disastrous phenomenon, (5) this was not
the way Arrhenius saw it. -He thought it would save the
planet and improve the climate so that we could grow
more food for the rising population.
Unit t.

\.' Rczrrl the sltclrt tcxts antl write' 'Yes' or'Ntr to answer ca<'h qrtestion.

I Do N(iOs recr-il'c money lionr thc

Some environmental organisations receive money from the
government. On the other hand, NGOs are organisations that
generate their own finances.
2 [)id the ntan continttc to slqrport
He left the organisation after a disagreement over their
most of tltr. clrgauiszrtion's w-clrk'J
nuclear policy, although he remained a supporter of their other
3 Did they belicve thal hutrtans w('re They accepted that climate change existed but insisted that it
rcsponsible lbr c'limate changc'? was a natural phenomenon.

Several environmental organisatrons existed in 1900. However,

4 Wcre enl'irollurental organiszrtions their work was limited to regional or specialised causes such
in 1!.)00 operating on a global sc-ale'?
as the setting up of national parks or discouraging women from
wearing bird feathers as a fashion statement.

b Conrpletc the sentences with irleas ol'yortr own.

I Air llollution is a nta.jor problem in our cities. Bet'ause of this, ...
2 We know thc envirortrttent is in rlzrngel" so ...
3 Farnrers use expensive cheuti<'als when grow-ing foocl. What's nlorc, . . .

4 Sonre spccies of bircls arc threatettecl with extinction btrt ...

5 hrdustric's art' ntainly intcresterl irt uraking Inolley. As a resttlt, ...
6 The countrvsitle usecl to bc a conrpletely n:rtural envir<lnnrertt. However, ...

7 Writc one worl in each gap to ccltttplcle tl're ptrrzrgrapl'r.

at least one case of air pollution that goes back hundreds of years. In 1306, King Edward the First
of England banned the burning of a type of fuel called sea coal. lt got this name (2) it
was found and collected on beaches. Sea coal was a great advantage for ordinary people because
- to be widely used
wood meant that people had to find an alternative source of fuel. and sea coal began
wood does. Soon, towns and cities became dirty, smelly and unhealthy and the smog in London was

I Rea<l the text. Dccirle whethe.r e:rcl'r sentenc:e lbllou's rtaturallv on fi'ont the end
of the text. Write 'Yes' or 'No'. If yor-r write 'No', explaitt 'why not.

Friends of the Earlh was founded in 1969 in the United States. lt is currently active in 74 countries,
protecting the environment and encouraging recycling. The organisation recognises that the Earth
is the only home we have, and it is dedicated to taking better care of it. At the heart of many
of its campaigns is the idea that rich countries which have exploited poorer countries have a
responsibility to do something to repay the debt.

1 (lurrerrt c.arnpaigns in<'lutle putting l)rossure on govornnrents to stop climate change.

2 This can orrly be achieved if people lezrrn to respec't the'ir <lwn environrttent.
3 In this u'ay, the clrgnnisation hopes to stol), or evcn r('verse, the damage t,hat has beeu done
Understandino cohesion

Look at the exam practice section on pages 52 and 53 ancl tick the
statements that are true. Skills tip
In Flrsf Paper 1 Pad 6,
Understanding cohesion will help you should you look for cohesive
1 get a general understanding of the main idea of the text. devrces

2 decide which sentence fits in a gap. a in the missing

sentences only? Yes / No
3 decide which sentences don't fit in a gap. b in the missing sentences
4 decide which sentence doesn't flt in any gap. and the sentences
before and after the gaps?
5 make a guess if you're not 100% sure.
Yes / No
6 check your answers at the end.

2 Reaa the paragraph and write a sentence to complete the gap.

People have suggested many points in history as the start of the green movement,
but one stands out from all the rest because we have a clear image of it.

It was taken in 1968 by the astronauts on the Apollo 8 mission and was the first
colour photo taken of the Earth from a distance. For many, it symbolised how small
and fraoile the Earth is. and made us realise how impodant it is for us to look after it.

3 Choose the best sentence to complete the gap in the paragraph in exercise 2.
a Space travel gave us a fantastic opportunity to study what conditions
were like on the Moon and how they compared with the Earth.
b The photo, which has become known as Earthri'se, shows the Earth
as a tiny, blue planet, alone in the blackness of space.
c For example, the London smog of 1952, the Bikini Atoll bomb tests of 1954,
the book Silent Spring in 1962 and the Santa Barbara oil spill of 1969 have
all been put forward.

4 Tick the things that helped you choose your answer in exercise 3.
Note down any relevant information.

I a clear link to the sentence before the gap

2 a clear link to the sentence after the gap
3 cohesive devices such as he/i,t/they/this/these/those
4 cohesive devices such as and/so/hott:eaer/a]so
5 synonymous words orphrases

$ Wtrictr statement is true about lirsl Paper 1?

a Understanding cohesion only helps with Part 6.

b Understanding cohesion only helps with Parts 5, 6, and 7.
c Understanding cohesion helps with all the texts in Paper 1.
Unit 6

Exam practice:
Part 6
Yrru are going to read an arti<:le about t.hc history of environnrcntal problettrs. Six sentences have
beert rentoved fiont the article. Choosc fion'r the sent,ences A-(i the one which flts each gap ( l-6).
There is one extra sentence which volt rlo nclt neecl to ttse.

en.oironmental issues
Jane Logue explains how the race to saoe the planet
gathered speed.
It wasn't until around 200 years ago that we began to In London in 'l 952, there was an incident that many say
become seriously concerned about the negative impact starled the environmental movement. A combination of
that humans were having on the environment. There were weather conditions and coal smoke led to several days
two closely-related reasons for this realisation. of severe smog in England's capital. The consequences
at the time seemed to be confined to traffic problems
The first of these was that there was a significant
and cancelled sporting fixtures due to poor visibility.
rise in the population. Large numbers of people were
However, it soon became clear that thousands of people
now polluting our rivers and lakes, and cutting down
|----r-..-..1 had died as a direct result of the air pollution in that short
ourtrees. |1| I Manufacturing processes caused T----.]------]
people's health to suffer and we became aware of the
periodof time.la | |

damage being done to the landscape by activities such Since the 950s, however, our planet has had to face
as deforestation, mining for coal and steel-making. a range of new threats. For example, the widespread
use of pesticides in the US inspired a book by Rachel
We could no longer close our eyes to the facts. There
Carson in 1962 called StTenf Spring, which became a
were simply too many people causing too much damage r-----r-------l

to our planet. Recognising the problem, the United

bestseller.l5l I

States began creating National Parks. These were Meanwhile, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF)was
large areas of land where development and industry established to protect the habitats of wild animals and
were not allowed. One of the people behind the setting stop endangered species from becoming extinct. The
up of the first National Parks was John Muir, an early development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power led
environmentalist who also became president of the to the forming of groups such as Greenpeace, and a series
| I
of well-documented oil spills helped draw attention to the
environmental catastrophes that humankind was capable
Still operating today, the Sierra Club is active in r--T----
many areas, particularly in campaigning to end our
of bringing about. | 6 | lAcid rain, the hole in the ozone
layer and genetically modified crops have given rise to
dependence on fossil fuels and to explore renewable
a vast number of organisations dedicated to limiting the
energy sources such as wind and solar power. FT-_-l
damage. But, even with thousands of green organisations
But although several green organisations existed on both
in the UK alone, it's tempting to wonder whether the race
sides of the Atlantic in the first half of the 20th century,
to secure a better future is one that we are winning.
their power was limited.
Understandino cohesion

wasn't untilthe 1950s that the first

In the UK. it The popularity of this publication showed just
National Park was set up. how many people were against interfering with
the natural balance of nature.
Today, we have no shodage of environmental
concerns, or of groups committed to dealing This was founded in 1892 and was one of the
with them. first environmental organisations in the United
c The other key factor was the rise of industry.
G The city was forced to face up to its problems,
D Here too, the Americans were far behind the rest
and action was taken to make sure such a
of the world.
tragedy would not happen again.

Skills tip
When you do Frrsf Paper 1 Paft 6, remember that
the missing sentence could link to the sentence
before the gap, the sentence after the gap, or
both. In some cases, the link is not in the sentence
immediately before/after the gap, but one or two
sentences earlier or later, so make sure you have a
good understanding of the whole text (see Unit 2,
reading for gist).
When you're considering a sentence to put in a
gap, check to see if there are links to the information
before and after that gap. Look for clues such as
they/this/these/those, however/despite, and/also,
synonymous words/phrases, names, dates and
ideas that have or haven't alreadv been mentioned.
attitude and opinion


lmprove your reading skills: understanding attitude and opinion

A uriter's attitude and opinion are part of tthat the uriter thinks about a
subject. For
erample, a uriter's attitude towards \t)hdt he or she is writing about could, be
that it
is unacceptable, or that it shoutd, happen mote. [Jnderstandiig attitucle and, opinion
inuolaes recognising what is a neutrarJact and, what is an oninion.

1 part of understanding attitude and opinion involves

A knowing your own opinions.
B separating fact from opinion.
Many pieces of uriting are a mirture of Jact ancl opinion aruI you need, to be able
to separate onefrom the other. If you d,on't umlerstand, t,hert a writer is giuing you
their opinion and uhen they are presenting Jacts, aou cannot propedy und"erstand, the
argument they are making. you are arso in clanger oJ accepting as
fact things which
are actually just the zurtter's opinion.

I tt yottdon't recognise when a writer is giving their opinion, you might

A take their opinion as fact.
B miss important facts.
Look at ways in uthich opinions are oJten etryressecl. This inclucles simpte phrases like
1 think that .. . ', but also more compricated, fottns of erpression, such as ,There seems
no doubt that ...'. Also Look at the precise word,s a writer chooses. For erample,
if a
writer descrtbes a person as 'thin', 'slim' or'skinny,, ue know that the person isn'tJat
and we can also tell tahether the rtriter sees this as a neutralfact, a positiue aspect
a negatiue aq)ect.

$ One thing you need to consider is the writer's

A personality.
B choice of words.

In First Paper 1 Part 5, aou maa be o,sked, specific questions about the writer's
dttitude and opinion on a subject. To answer those questions, it,s important that you
are able tofind and understarul points in the tefit where the utriter giues his
or her
opinion. In Part 6, attitud,e and, opi,nion are part oJ the gtobat of a tert and
understanrling that helps aou put the retnoued, sentences i.n the^noiing
corcect gaps. In part
7, you may be asked to match uords or phrases based speci-fi,catty
on the attitucles and,
opinions you read in the terts.

{ Speciflc questions about attitude and opinion may appear in

A Part 5.
B Part 6.
#*t ctfirt***
Look at the pl'roto anrl answer the questions.
'. I{ow comlllon are traditional <:ultural events in vour t'ountry'/
r Do you think it is important frrr them to be preserved? Wlty?/Why not?
* l)o you ever attend such events? Why//Why not'?

ffi eveleip ysilr \r{;cehul#} rv

"! Choose the correct worcl to complete the sentences.

1 Ours is a culture in tradition. It's not always easy to pin down what
a soaked b steeped national is.
a personality b identity
2 My uncle uses a small sharp knife to make
out of wood. While I was on holiday in Inclia,
a carvings b carpets I visited tlrc (ioltlen in
Anrritsar - it is a centre of worship for
3 Many an<rient peoples participated in rituals clesignecl people ol" tlre Sikh leligion.
to bring then-r a good , so that there would a Tcmple b civilisation
be plenty of food to eat througl'rout the year.
a heritage b harvest

f Write a worcl or pl'rrase fronr the box in each gap to contyrlete the text..

customs r die out m rituals ru roots B values

country or society. The way of life and social organisation of a group of people develop from a set of shared
as birth, death or maniage. With the advent of the modern technology-based society, many traditional

? Match the words with their deflnitions.

t heritage a the local area where you live, inclucling the people
2 co1-r1'runity b a persr " front whtlrn yolr are fles<:encled
3 cuisine c a society of a partic:ular tinle and plar:e

4 ciyilisation d something passecl clown fron llrevious getrerations

5 ancestor e the fcrod of a partic:r.rlar country or regioll
Unit /
Develop your reading skills: Understanding attituc{e and *p*$nl*r-r
Read the text. Which of the statements rn'hich follow express
opinions and which ones offer facts? Write 'O'for opinion or'F' for fact.

Civilisations around the world have produced art dating back to the earliest period
of their history. To my mind, there can be no argument that this is proof that ar1 is an
essential part of being human. Even before the invention of writing, ancient peoples
were producing works of art to express their feelings and to describe their everyday
rituals and pastimes. lt is wrong to consider this art as primitive. The delicate lines of
cave drawings and intricately carved figures from pre-history should be appreciated
as products of artists every bit as sophisticated as the ones of the modern world. lt
is a shame that most people seem to view ancient traditional art forms as basic and
simple, You only have to look at the aboriginal art that is still created today to see the
skill that is required to combine elegant lines and eye-catching colours in such an
expressive way.

Creating art has always been a Ancient artists were as

feature of all societies. skilful as the artists of today.
It is part of human nature to i) Few people appreciate ancient art.
create art.
6 There isn't nruch difference
Before the invention of writing, between how aboriginal art is
art was one way that people could prorlur:ed now and in the past.
express themselves.

2 Reaa the text ancl answer the questions.

As a big opera fan, I often ask myself if this art form is actually a part of the culture and traditions
of this country or just an old-fashioned form of entertainment for snobs. I suppose there is some
truth in that idea but it's not the whole truth. I would suggest that it is still an integral part of our
cultural life. However, l'm not sure that it is a medium which is accessible to everyone. Opera as
an art form will become irrelevant in our modern society if the opera companies don't do more
to attract the interest of people from all backgrounds, in particular the younger generation.
As far as l'm concerned, there is a lot we can do to encourage greater participation in the
ads. Opera should be for everyone, not just for an elite few. Education has a major role to play
but so do the artists themselves. lt's my view that the opera community has not done enough to
encourage greater public support and interest. lt's high time that this changed.

What question does the writer Is the writer optirnistic about the
consider in the beginning of the text'? possibility of n-raking opera nrore accessible?

How does the writer feel about What two factors does the writer identify as
the iclea that opera is olcl-fashioned? necessary for nrore people to enjoy opera?

What negative opinion does the writer What criticisn does the writer
express about the accessibility of opera? n'rake about people in the world of opera?
Understanding attitude and opinion

3 nct the phrases which can be used for introducing an opinion.

I As far as I'm concerned ... 6 In my experience ...
2 I'm not sure that... 7 I wonder why ...
3 Personally, I think... 8 On the contrary ...
4 I suppose / reckon / guess that I ... 9 I would suggest that ...
5 In spite of being ...

4 Using the phrases you ticked in exercise 3, write sentences of your own to answer the questions.
I Can you learn a lot about the culture and 3 Do you think traditional cultures can survive
traditions of another country as a tourist? in the modern world?
2 What aspects of your culture can express 4 Should modern societies make an effort to
your national identity? preserve local traditions?

$ neaA the pairs of sentences and decide which ones express a personal opinion
and which ones express a general opinion. Write 'G' for general or'P' for personal.
I a Some people say that technology will 3 a It is generally accepted that folk music still
destroy traditional customs. has s-trong roots in local culture.
b Personally speaking, I think that In my experience, music is one of the
other factors are more important in most distinctive aspects of traditional
destroying traditions. cultures.
2a I would suggest that culture and 4 As far as I'm concerned, not all
local customs give people a sense of traditional customs are necessarily a
community. good thing.
b It is thought that strong traditions It is considered vital that we preserve our
reinforce national identity. local customs at all costs.

6 Choo"" the correct answer.

1 General opinion is used to show 2 A writer may express a general opinion
a views that are held by most people. & because he or she doesn't have a personal opinion.
b only what the writer thinks. b to contrast with or reinforce his or her own opinion.

7 Reaa the paragraph and circle the correct words.

Unit I
B Which of the sentences first sentence?
a or b has the same meaning as the
I The women of the village wear extraordinarily beautiful jewellery.
a I thought the jewellery the women in the village wore was quite pretty.
b The jewellery the women in the village wore was absolutely gorgeous.

2 I couldn't begin to describe how deafening the tribal drums were.

a I don't want to describe how loud the tribal drums were.
b It's very difficult to describe how loud the tribal drums were.
3 It seems to me that some tourists think local traditions are simply a form of
a I agree that local traditions should be regarded as entertainment for
visil ors.
b I don't think tourists should just see local traditions as something to
entertain lhem.
4 The destruction of the local culture has had a devastating effect on the
a The destruction of the local culture has had a huge impact on the
people in the community.
b The destruction of the local culture has had a limited effect on the
5 I guess that most people would enjoy the folk music of this region.
a I'm certain that most people would enjoy the folk music of this region.
b I suppose that most people would enjoy the folk music of this region.

I Choose the best sentence to flll each gap. There is one extra sentence you do not need to use.
a One result of such a strategy is that
Protecting traditional cultures is by no means an easy
such areas become more like a theme
task. The task isn't helped by the fact that opinion is park for tourists than a real community
divided amongst the various experts on how to go about in which people live and work.
it. (1) These can include lack of employment in rural b In my view, we should examine the
areas, the effects of war or drought and the advancement reasons why so many traditional
of technology in traditional societies. Many of these societies are close to collapse.
problems can be very difficult to control. (2) ls it c Then we can try to create
- cultures
possible, or even desirable, to sustain traditional conditions that encourage their
artificially? For example, we cannot insist that remote continued existence.
settlements use their traditional forms of communication
d It is doubtful whether they will
ever agree.
rather than mobile phones. (3) This would not benefit
e But another question worth asking is,
- cultures themselves. lt
anyone, least of all the traditional
even if we could, should we?
seems to me that the best approach is firstly to record as
much as we can about traditional cultures. (4) _
Understanding attitude and opinion


attitude OprnlOn
Look at the exam practice section on pages 60 and 61 and answer the questions.
I What are the texts about according to the title and subtitle?
a the way of life in different places b the benefits of modern society
2 How many times can you choose the different people (A-D) in your answers?
a only once b more than once
3 Is a
it good iclea to underline the key words in the questions?
a Yes, it is. b No, it isn't.

2 nct the ideas that are good techniques for ,Firut Paper l, Part 7 .

I Scan the texts for words that are synonyms of words in the questions.
2 Read all the texts slowly several times before reading the questions.
3 Look out for phrases in the text that show opinion and attitude.
4 Once you identify a part ofa text related to a question, read it carefully.
5 Answer questions quickly as you won't have time to check them.

3 Reaa the pairs of sentences and decide which ones are opinions.
I a Unfortunately, our society appears to be changing very rapidly.
b Less than 30% of the population are involved in traditional craftwork.
2 a The city is well-known for the number of cultural events that take place there.
b The loss of funding for the festival is a shameful development.
3 a Most people agree that it's important to keep traditions alive.
b The government recognises the rights of native peoples.
4 a Schools should do more to help preserve regional languages.
Skills tip
ln Frrst Paper 1 Par1.7
b The school runs a language course for students on Saturdays.
attitude and opinion

a can be found in the

4 Look again at the sentences you chose in exercise 3 and underline texts only. Yes / No
examples of these things. b are always used in all
I a qualifying adjective the questions. Yes / No
2 an indirect expression of opinion (t,here see?ns no doubt that ... etc) c can be found in both
3 a modal verb the questions and
4 a qualifying adverb texts. Yes / No

5 Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F).

1 Opinion and attitude are only expressed with phrases such asl. I thi,nk,
I belieue, In my opinion etc.
2 Understanding attitude and opinion is only useful for Part 7 of Paper L
3 Understanding attitude and opinion is useful for Parts 5, 6 and 7 of Paper 1.

4 Being able to tell the difference between fact and opinion is a useful skill
for analysing texts.
Unit 7

Exam practice:
You are going to read an article where people describe the traditions and
customs of their country. For questions 1-10, choose from the people (A-D).
The people may be chosen more than once.

Which person
explains how today's cultural activities are influenced by their ancestors?
thinks that prosperity has affected traditions and beliefs in their society?
compares the small size of their country with its influence on the surrounding region?
describes how a traditional custom is related to people's beliefs about food?
contrasts their country's difficult past with its varied cultural heritage?
says that one of their traditions has roots in both ancient and modern relioion?
explains how a traditional event got its name?
mentions the prestige associated with a parlicular cultural event?
emphasises how a cultural event brings the people of the country together?
explains how other nations have influenced all aspects of their culture?

Skills tip
The ability to tell the difference between facts and opinions
is a skill that will help in many parts of Flrsf Paper 1. lt will
help you to identify the type of information you need to find
in texts. To identify what parts of a text offer an optnton,
look for words and phrases such as I thinldfeet/betieve,
As far as I'm concerned, Most people agree thaf, as well
as qualifying adjectives and adverbs and modal verbs
expressing what people could/should/musf do.
LJLL.| t\1il tv arlilr
I t\l\Jt
\Jt anrl
utL'tuLturr]e LI tu nnirtion

Four people discuss the culture of their countries

A Jussi Koskinen - Finland C Arus Magapian - Armenia

The Republic of Finland is a country steeped in tradition. Armenia is a country with a long and troubled history
Although we are one of the smaller north European and war and bloodshed have characterised our recent
countries, we have probably made a larger contribution to past. The country has also suffered economically and
Europe's cultural traditions than our geographically larger today poverty and unemployment are very high. Armenia
neighbours. We have a strong sense of national identity, is a poor country but it is rich in tradition. Due to its
rooted in our country's history and cultural heritage. Many geographical position on the old caravan routes at the
of our holidays and celebrations are a mixture of the crossroads between Europe, Asia and the Middle East,
1,000-year old Christian influence and the remains of old Armenian culture has been influenced by many different
Finnish pagan traditions. My favourite celebration of the societies and civilisations. Greek, Persian, Turkish and
year is Juhannus, when we celebrate the summer solstice Arab influences can be seen in our cuisine, our folk
by lighting a huge bonfire. Before ',|316 this was a pagan dancing and music and our beautiful, bright traditional
festival known as Ukon juhla, but it was subsequently costumes. Undoubtedly, the tradition that Armenia is
renamed Juhannus after John the Baotist. ln ancient best known for is carpet weaving. For hundreds of years,
folklore, midsummer was a night of powerful magic when women have been the main weavers. Each caroet is a
fairies were believed to appear. What makes this night work of art and the symbols and designs used are like a
even more special is Finland's famous 'midnight sun' - 'text' that tells the story of Armenian beliefs and rituals.
around midsummer the sun never sets and the nioht is The carpets and other woven textiles are used to cover
little more than a darkening of the sky. floors, walls and furniture and are often, but not always,
in deep, dark red colours.
B Farisha Da Silva - Trinidad and Tobago
D Wayan Balik - Bali
Unlike some parts of the Caribbean, the Republic of
Trinidad and Tobago has a strong and growing economy Balinese culture is a combination of religion, tradition and
due to its petroleum industry - our country is the leading art. In our country, we consider religion to be art and most
Caribbean producer of oil and gas. The downside of people are enthusiastic artists. We spend a lot of our free
this, it seems to me, is that, as the country has become time using the skills which have been passed down to
wealthier, many of our customs and even our values us from our parents' and grandparents'generations to
have changed. That said, two things unite everyone in create works of ar1. These artworks can take the form
this country - calypso and carnival. Calypso is a style of beautiful paintings, extraordinary carvings, superb
of music which originated here around the beginning of weaving, and even rice decorations that are displayed
the 20th century and has its roots in West African music. in public temples or in homes. Nowhere is this aftistic
The annual Trinidad and Tobago carnival is the most expression better displayed than at the annual Bali Kite
significant event on the islands' cultural and tourism Festival. The kites are believed to send a message to the
calendar. Carnival time is definitely my favourite time gods asking for a good harvest. Traditional giant kites
of year. The parades are fantastic and the steel bands are made and flown by teams from local villages. The
get everyone dancing in the streets. Today musical beautiful kites include fish, bird and leaf shapes and red,
competitions make up a large parl of the carnival - white and black are traditional colours used in the kites'
every musician on the islands fights for the honour of design. Sometimes the kites lose height and fall down
being named 'Calypso Monarch' and the competition is into the water-logged rice fields - then it's a race through
broadcast live on W' the water to rescue the kite. Great fun!

lmprove your reading skills: understanding coherence

(lnd,erstanding coherence lneans understanding the logicol meaning of a tert. In
na,tratiue terts, such as stories or biogra4thical terts, it includes following the logical
order oJ euents. In argumentatiue tefits, such as orti,cles and essays, it includes
following the writer's Logi,c and the way the argument ts put together. Coherence is
closely related to cohesion (Unit 6).

I f'art of understanding coherence in a story is

A understanding what characters think.
B knowing in what order things happened.
Und.erstand.ing coherence is pat-t of understand'ing the global meaning of a tert. If you
d,on't understand the way the ideas in a te:f,t work together, gou can'tfully understand
the tert. You will get confused about the order of eaents or about the argument a uriter
is presenti.ng. You need to understand the Juncti,on oJ dilferent parts of a tert, in order
to decide whether Aou agree or d,i,sagree with the writer and why.

2 Understanding coherence will help you

A come up with new ideas on the topic of the text.
B form your own opinion of what the writer is saying.
Part oJ understancling coherence is understandi.ng cohesion (unit 6). It also i,naolues
considering horo a tert is organised, how id'eas are connected' and how theA relate to
the topic. You use clues in the tert as well as Aour own knowledge to clo this.

3 One important part of coherence is to think about

A logical connections between ideas.
B punctuation.

Und.erstanding coherence is parti,culafly im4tortant in F\rst Pa,per I Parts 5 and 6. In

Pa,rt 5, Aou ynaA be asked questiorts about the logic oJ th.e tert or the uay it is organised.
In Part 6, unclerstanding coherence helps you to work out the relationship betwean
dilJerent parts of the teilt to put the remoued sentellces back in the cor'rect place.

4 m mrst Paper 1 Part 5, you could be asked

A about the structure ofthe text.
B to explain what coherence is.

Get started
Look at the photo and answer the questions.
r What job is this person doing?
Would you like to do this job? Why?/Why not?
r What might be difflcult about this job?
Choose from the list.

boredom r emotional pain I long hours j

: qTry91_: _'l1g_',: _ _- i

r What might be rewarding about the job?

Choose from the list.

helping people r interesting work

: lg"s lgll9?I: :

, l

Develop your vocabulary

1 Uat"t the words with their definitions.
I ward a something that is put on the skin to kill bacteria
2 patient b somebody who a doctor is trying to cure
3 infection c a room in a hospital with many beds
4 bedridden d forced to stay in bed due to illness
5 antiseptic e a disease caused by bacteria entering the body

6 treatment f the method a doctor uses to cure somebodv

I Complete each sentence using a word from the box.

bedside r life r mortality r natural r nurse r OuO|i" l

I The old man died of causes at the age of 95.
2 In the interests of health, no-one can leave the town where the
epidemic has broken out.
3 The doctor had a wonderful manner and made patients feel secure.
4 The rate among children in the developing world is still too high.
5 expectancy in 19th century hospitals was extremely low - hundreds
of patients died of infection due to poor sanitary conditions.
6 After years of working on the wards, she has been promoted to head

3 Read the paragraph and circle the correct words.

To: All nurses

From: The head nurse
Please remember that while you are (1) on / at duty, you are responsible for the medical
care and well-being of the patients. Make sure they are checked (2) in / on every 30
minutes at least (more often in critical cases), and that any patient who is (3) in / of pain
is given pain relief as soon as possible. We have people suffering (4) of / from some very
serious diseases on this ward, who need to be looked (5)tor / after properly. lf in doubt,
call a doctor. Finally, if a patient does pass (Q along / away, please inform the head nurse
and dutv doctor immediatelv.

Develop your reading skills: understanding coherence

1 Complete each sentence using a word or phrase fron the text.
Many of the new fitness crazes are high-energy
group activities. They tend to push you to your
limits and beyond through a combination of
trainer enthusiasm and peer pressure. Those
people who are just starting such an exercise
should be aware of this. lt is easy to end up
with an injury such as a pulled muscle or even
a trip to hospital which may put beginners back
on the couch for days, weeks or months.

I The writer believes that should not clo high-energy fitness activities.
2 One minor injury they could suffer from is a(n)
3 This could happen because the group will them to do more than they shoultl.
4 They might be unable to do any for some time because of this.

I neaA the flrst sentence. Tick the sentence a or b which would

follow if a person agreed with the idea in the first sentence.
I Surueys huue consistentlSl slt,outrt th,at the Britislt publir: u:ants a rtoti.onal h,ealttt seruir;e
a Perhaps it's tirne for politicians to start listening to thent.
b Do people always know what's good for them, however?
2 Whenr:t:et' thet'e ctre probl.etns itt u hospital., th.e tl'ut'se.s qt'e held resytcntsiblr:.
a The newspapers never say anything about cuts and shortages.
b That's because they are on the front line, in direct contact with patients.
3 Att annual r]rcck-ttp il,s snrld bg doc!or-s to be uital..fbt.[he our:t--Jbrt.ies.
a Some men should consider taking aspirin to prevent heart attacks.
b Even if a patient is in good health, his or her doctor can check for
possible future problems.

4 More and tnot'e hospitals ure bei.ngl dr:signed us 'pat,iertt-for:usecl' cat'e centres.
a The needs and wants of the patient and their fanrily should be
central to hospital policy.
b Going to hospital can be a frightening anci confusing experience.

$ eut the sentences into the correct orcler.

I After all, this is the professional who will have access to the entire family in a way
that no other specialist will.
He or she might also see a number of generations, from grandmother to mother to
3 claughter, for example.
4 A GP or General Practitioner is what the Americans call a'farnily cloctor', and to my
n'rind the An'rerican term is m<tre apt.
Having access to patients over a wide age range can help in understanding the
causes of illness, including both environnental factors and inherited diseases.
IIe or she might, for exantple, conte to your home to see a sick child.
Understanding ' iliri

Ik'arl the tr-x1 anrl rtrrtnbt'r tltt' cvt'ttls itt tht' ot'<let tht-v ha|pcucrl.

t rriil tlrt' ]rc,rll]t tcrtrc'. ()ut'rr lrrrtl lrrrrtllr tlrorrglrl .tlrottt

illrcss. goirrq to Iris tlot tor. ittst otrce irt tltc tltrcc rcltrs
bcforc tlrc' sc:tt-t'. I Ic tl rtlrlltrs lrccrr llt ltrtd hrrd cvctt rllll
lr rrlrlrlltott orttc ir Itis tucrrticr. []rrt lltcrr, lrto ttlttttllts
I a Owe. starteO o,l,.q..job.
lretorc lris -l()tlr birtlrtlrrr, lrc Ir:rd rilrrrt ilrc cloc tot rtl llrt'
'rrrilcl 2 b Ou t'rr t'atr a nlaralll()n.
lro:lril:ri lrttcl tenttccl l lrclrt rtttrrck'. I Ic ri its ri orkirrg
r en tlrc lirrrc rrrrcl Irircl jtrst strrr.tctl rt rreu iob. itr
lr:rr-cl rrt 3 c Owen went to his cloctot'.
lrrct. ()rrc tl,tr.,ts lrc urts qoirrg orrl of tltc tloor, lrc lclt a d Owen went to the hclspital.
slrrrr'p prtir ir lris c'lrcst.
e Ornen hacl a heart attack.

I)rrt the verbs in brtrckets intcl the correct f orm lcl colrtr)lete the text.

Just as Dr Slocum (1) (enter) the doors of

the hospital, an ambulance came driving through the gates,
siren blaring and lights flashing. She (2)
(graduate) from medical school only a few months before, but
all that theory (Q (not preparQ her for the
realthing. '(4 (you take) this one, please,
Dr Slocum?' said her mentor, Dr Barton, and suddenly she
(5) (stand) by the back of the ambulance
waiting for the doors to open. She (6)
(had) neither breakfast nor a cup of coffee. The paramedic
opened the doors from the inside of the ambulance and
(7) fiump) out, pulling a stretcher after him.
'There (Q (be) a terrible accident on the
motorway,' he said. 'There are more on the way.'

Write a word from the box in each gap to complete the text.
There are three extra words which you do not need to use. 1
finally firstly lastly meanwhile other
previously then

f\ \i ,r,,r i l',,,rt r lnil)'not

u'rtn $,ttrlclu'iclc
-L.,lf tn"-r" i.rut to rhr prople ot this village hc lr'as yrart
of'the architcclure. He l'ratl acruallv beett ltot'rt herc.
his parcr.rts having urovccl to \\ktttcl (lrecn thrcc veius
( I) His flthcr rt'tts a cloctor too, st.r it tt'its
r)utLlral tor hinr to sftldv tnctlicit-tc. Hc u'etlt ilbrotlcl ttr
specialisc but (1) his firthcr rvas gr<lu'itrg
ill. Dr Polter lcturnccl honrc atrcl (:t)
-. it u'its clcar his tirthcl u'ottlcl
uficn tt<tt rccovet'. hc
gavc Llp his str-rtlies. Thc vcn' ( l) clav his
lirthcr"s llracticc \\'ils opcn lirr ltttsit-tcss agairl. Whcrl
[)r' Ilauricc Poncr ('i) -.
ltlssctl att'itv
last u'ccli. hc hacl bcct-t ottt'r'illagc clrlctot' lirr trcttt'lv
50 r'cals. -
Untt i.l

7 I'tnt.'tr lhe ttott's n ilh lhc parzrgraphs to nrakc a 1-rl:rn fbr a biogralthi<.al text.
I Inlrrirhrction: a birth:rnd eady ye.ars
2 I)aragrnlrh l: b why tlre subject is iurportant
3 I)aragralrh 2: c cleath antl tl'ur sub.jer.t's further influence
4 Paragraph.S: d thr. strbjec'1's first contac.t with his lif'e's w-ork
5 ('clrtchrsion: e the sulljr.c't's ntajor a<:hievemenls

$ Rearl the'intro<lu<.tion lo a le.xt anrl r.lrrlose tlu'best answers.

It is perhaps ironic that the success of our public health I What kind of text is this an introcluction to?
system is the very thing that is threatening its existence. a a biography
People are living longer and that means they will need b an article
more years of care, something that costs more than
c a story

our health providers are receiving from health jnsurance 2 What is the writer going to talk about?
funds. To solve this problem we need to radicallv rethink a the history of the pnblic health system
our approach to healthcare.
b the end of the public health system
c a way to save the public health systenr

$ Reacl tlte two ltaragralrhs which lblkrw lhe text in exercise 8 and answer the questions below

The answer is to go to the other end of the age scale: youth. what we must begin
to do is to educate our young people on how to live a healthier lifestyle. This would
mean, for example, having lessons in school on the dangers of smoking and
drinking and on how to eat a balanced diet. (1) _
What would the result be? A healthier population in general and fewer visits to
doctors and hospitals. (2) The only way to save our health system is to require
it less, which means making- an effort to become healthier people for life. The added
benefit of having an improved quality of life is also not one to be taken lighily.

I What lr,rrttlcl yotl expe('t the missing sentence in the first paragraph to be?
a a lelrhrasing ol I he nrtrin iclea of the paragraph
b anothcr examlrle of how- to ntake youltg people healthier
c an explattatiott of rvhal l he result ol' the main i<lea woulcl be
2 Wltat wotrltl vott t'xpect tlrt' nrissing sentence in the se<:ond paragraph to be?
a another resull clf the ac.tion suggest.erl in the first paragraph
b a possible tlanger of the :tr.tion suggeste<l in the first paragraph
c itll aroa Ih:rt w'oulrl rtcll. bt'nf['e<'tecl by the ar:tion suggestecl in the first paragrapl'r

|[ t'tr,rusc the best tu'o sentt nces to fill the gaps in the text in exercise g.
a In latr:r life, the agerl would be nrore a<'tive, more independent ancl
Iess likely to ueerl long-lerm treatment f<rr conrlitions snch as high
lrloorl Irrcssull' ( )l' an!li lrir.
b We nrust, hower.'eL, be <.aleful not to clo too nur<.h too soon, sinc:e
things ('altnot lle' urrtlone so etrsilv.
c Te:rching our young people hou' to live in a healthier nlanner ls
lhe one antl only solution to this in<'rcasingly pressing problern.
d Arr enqlhasis on fitrrt'ss ancl lhe inrportanc-e of physir.al :rctivitv
u'oulrl also br- bencfic.inl.
Understanding coherence

Look at the exam practice section on pages 68 and 69 and tick the Skills tip
ideas you think will help you understand the coherence of the text.
In Frrsf Paper 1 Part 6,
you should
I Reading the first paragraph carefully.
a read the paragraphs first
2 Understanding the meaning of difficult words.
and imagine what could
3 Understanding the purpose ofthe text. be missing. Yes / No
4 Noting the main idea of each paragraph. b read the missing
sentences first and
5 Imagining what the subject of the text looked like. imagine what paragraPhs
6 Understanding how the writer feels about the subject of the text. they could fit in. Yes / No

2 Choose the best sentence to flll the gap in the text.

a We have things to do, places to go, that great new action adventure fllm to see'
b Following a balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables would give
us all the vitamins we need.
Additionally, a vitamin pill is the perfect solution to the problem and swallowing
one takes less than a second.

3 How did you choose the correct answer in exercise 2? Match the reasons
below with the options in exercise 2. You will use some options more than once.
I This option flts with the sentence before the gap but not the one after.
2 The sentence after the gap explains how to do what is described in this option'
3 This option does not fit with how the writer feels about vitamins.
4 This option is a bit too positive, considering the tone of the piece.
5 There is no first point for this option to add to.

4 Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F).

1 Understanding coherence only helps with FirstPaper I Part 6.

2 Understanding coherence helps with detail questions in First Paper I Part 5.
3 Understanding coherence helps with sequence questions in Fi,rst Paper I Part 5.
4 Understanding coherence helps with purpose questions in First Paper 1 Part 5'
Unit E

Exam practice:
Part 6
\otr art' gcling lo rt'ttcl atr arlic'k' abotrl F lclrctrce' Nightingale, an inrpofiant flgure in nnrsing.
Six setttt'tlces have b('t'lt t't'Ilovt'rl llrrnr the artic'le. (lhoosr. fionr the sentences A-G the clne
vgllic'lt fits eat'h gap ( 1-6). Tlrt'n' is one oxtra senten<'e whic.h vou do not neecl to use.

tlte lamp
Separating tlte myth of Florence Nigbtingalefrom thefacts.
The legend of Florence Nightingale, 'the lady with the was independent of the church and her book, Notes on
lamp', conjures up the image of the caring nurse on duty Nursing, published in 1859, carefully emphasised the
at night, going from ward to ward checking on wounded fact that a nurse practised a profession just as much as a
soldiers in the Crimea. There is no doubt that Nightingate doctor OiO.
did bring comfort to those men but her success in
What was perhaps the most interesting aspect of the
raising their life expectancy is exaggerated and her real
book was the importance she placed on 'bedside manner'
achievements neglected. Following the war and after
and how to treat bedridden patients in hospital. Doctors
her return to Britain, she became a well-known health
came in for some pointed criticism for their failings in this
reformer, publishing works on childbirth, public healthcare
area and nurses were encouraged to make the patients'
and hospitals and the treatment of wounded soldiers.
well-being, physical, mental and emotional, their mission.
Florence Nightingale was born into a wealthy family and
| 4 I I By 1882, a number of graduates were head
was lucky enough to have a father who believed that nurses at some of the largest hospitals in the country.
women should be educated. This, for him. did nor mean
She lobbied the British government again in 1858 and
simply in the classics, music and painting, which was the
1859 to look into healthcare for the British army in India.
limit for even the most accomplished women of the dav.
T-_T*-----.I She believed the lack of medical care and the ooor
I1| | The last of these proved especially hetpful to
sanitary conditions were contributing to the high mortality
her later work in the field of medical statistics.
rates amongst army personnel serving in that country.
Her work during the Crimean War was legendary even A comprehensive report was prepared and her careful
then, though many improvements made at that time were and clear presentation of data made her arguments hard
not her doing. She was not a promoter of antiseptics, for to ignore. After ten years of reform, there was alreadv a
example, since understanding of infection was still basic massiveimprovement. l5 | |

at that time. However, she did believe people in bad

health needed rest and a good diet in order to give their
In later life, Florence Nig;;t" suffered from a disease
called brucellosis and, as a result, was often bedridden
bodies the best chance of recovery. She also used her r-----r---'-.f
herself. | 6 | | Her expedise in field medicine was
growing fame to great effect. FT-l
sought after by the Union government during the
She used her public reputation on her return to Britain American Civil War and in 1883 she was awarded the
to set up the Nightingale Training School for nurses. Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. She died of natural
Up to that point, nursing had been under the control causes in 1910 at the age of 90, passing away in her
of the church: nurses were either nuns or they were sleep. Her personality, work and theories still influence
trained by nuns. Nightingale's school was the first that nursing to this day.
Understandino coherence

A The first nurses who trained at the Nightingale Despite often being in great pain, she never tired
School started working in '1865. and she carried out some of her most pioneering
work in hospital planning from her bed.
Nightingale received a well-rounded education
which included science, history, philosophy and For example, deaths among soldiers had fallen
mathematics. to 18 per 1 ,000 from an original rate of 69.
This was something that, as a nurse, Nightingale G It was through her effot'ts that the British
had witnessed first-hand. government commissioned the engineer
lsambard Brunel to design a field hospital.
D lt is still in print - and studied - today.

Skills tip
When you do Frrsf Paper 1 Part 6, use every clue
that is given to you. For example, the title, sub-
heading and first paragraph all summarise the text
in different ways and at different lengths. Consider
these questions: Why has the writer written this text?
How does he/she feel about the subject? What main
points will be mentioned? This careful reading of the
title, sub-heading and first paragraph will help you
as you go through the rest of the text. Don't just skip
them because there is no missing sentence there. lt's
the only part of the text that is complete - and that is
extremely useful.


lmprove your reading skills: understanding exemplification

Eramples are used in many terts. They are itnportant in supporting and erp\aining
what the writer i,s saying. Wrtters use them to shottt hotLt a general poi.nt opplies to
pafiicular situations. Understanding eremplificati.on rneans recogni,sing an era'mple
uhen you read'it and knouting uhat i,t is an erampLe of.

1 kiter" use examples to

A support the points they are making.
B avoid providing too much explanation.
Writers use erarnples to swpotl, t,he poi'nts tlte'g m,ake. When you can recognise and
unde'rstand the erampl,es, 'you can judge ltolo successJul a.n a,rgunrcnt. is. You can
judge tohether t,he exatnples are used col't'ect,lA and whetlrcr you ogl'ee utith the toriter.
You can tell iJ the generaL points the uriter makes apply to specific situatiotts.

2 Understanding exempliflcation helps in

A choosing speciflc texts to read.
B judging the success of an argument.

You need to knout how w'rit,ers shout that somethittg is an erarnple. This includes
simple phrases (for example, for instance, such as) as weII e,s more complicated
erpressions (I'his can be seen in ... , One application of this is ...). You cLlso need to
tecognise et:amples that are not clearly indicated by phrases and expressions.

$ vouneedto
A focus mostly on complicated example expressions.
B focus on examples however they are presented.

In First Paper I Part 5, you may be asked quest'ions about how a tert is organised,
including questions about eramples. 1tz First Paper 1 Part 6, eratnpLes at'e one of the
woys in uhich different ports of the tert are connected. In Part 7, you may need to
understand specific details oJ eramples.

{ Understanding exemplification helps in Part 6 because

A examples sometimes link parts of the text together.
B all the removed sentences are usually examples.
#*t *t*rf*r:
Look at the photo and answer the qtrestious.
e What qr.ralities cloes a person need iu ortler Io lle farnotts'/
* What do you believe is more intportant - being fantotts or having n-roney? Why?
x Wl'rat skills and talents ntust yott possess in rlr<ler to be a fautous ' '.
actor'? artist? clancer? scientist? singer? writer'J

ilcv*l*p V*il r vf,lqjid *.) Li $E* r.


"! Uatct'r the worcls with their definitions.

I appreciative a small light brown spots on your skin
2 confident b friendly

3 clyecl c being a little overweiglrt

4 freckles d thankftrl

5 harsh e shy

6 pale f believing in yourself

7 plump <J
b having been artificially c'olotrretl

8 rese.rved h not kincl

9 sociable I having skin darkenecl by the sttt't
l0 tanned j Iight coloured

? Reaa the paragraph and <rircle the t'rlrrect words.

Many famous people got their lucky break in talent shows. lt seems easy enough to do. The
producers come to a town nearby and dozens of people sign (1) up / in for the competition. Of
course, participants want to create a strong impression. Some contestants dress (2) up / down
like real film stars, others come dressed in something more outrageous and wild. How you look
doesn't really matter though; the most important thing is to show (3) up / off your talents and
hope that the judges take (4) over / to you quickly. lf you're truly talented, you shouldn't have any
problem standing (0 by / out from the crowd. At the very least, you should try to have the most
fun you can possibly have.
Unit 9

Develop your reading skills: understanding exemplification

Look at the main ideas in bold in each sentence. Underline the supporting examples.
I Celebrities are often surrounded by symbols of wealth. For example, if you visit
their luxurious homes, you will probably see expensive sports cars parked outside.
2 When actors achieve fame, the signs of attaining success aren't hard to spot.
For instance, when they go out in public, the paparazzimay follow them or fans
will approach them for autographs.
3 A-list stars are the most famous of actors, such as the ones who star in big
Hollywood productions and the ones whose names always appear in the papers.
4 Celebrities can find themselves in danger due to their star status. One instance
of this is when a stalker terrorises their everyday lives or when they receive
threatening mail.
5 These simple steps to success are essential for any actor who wants to succeed
in the world of acting. Firstly, an actor must work hard at his or her craft. Secondly,
he or she must actively seek auditions. And thirdly, they need just a bit of luck.
6 They say that nothing in life is free and the same applies to fame. This can be
seen in the way celebrities pay thousands of pounds to look their best, including the
fees they must pay to managers, lawyers and personal assistants.

2 Circle the phrases from the sentences in exercise 1 which indicate that examples will follow.

3 Match the examples with the newspaper headlines.

assaulted a fan r avoids the spotlight r best-selling book r creative writing professor
r literary genius r lives in isolation r massive crowd r numerous unpaid bills
r packed audience r record ticket sales r turns down award r uncontrolled aggressive behaviour
3 lnrtst REJEcrs FAME

Nouelist ta Receiue Auard

4 Reaa these extracts from two different reviews of the same event and explain the main
difference between them.

The awards ceremony took place in one of Los The awards ceremony took place in the world famous
Angeles'most famous and luxurious cinema Grauman's Chinese Theatre on Hollywood Boulevard.
theatres on one of its most well-known streets. The Attendees included Leonardo DiCaprio, Martin Scorsese,
occasion was marked by the presence of many great Robert de Niro, Francis Ford Coppola, Monica Bellucci and
Hollywood actors and directors who attended the Nicholas Cage.The event was chiefly sponsored by Metro-
packed ceremony. The event was sponsored by a Goldwyn-Mayer with the help of Vanity Forr and Gucci
major Hollywood film studio with the help of other fashion house. The ceremony was held to honour 75 years of
sponsors. The ceremony was held to honour ltaly's fi lm-making contributions from American directors, actors,
contribution to American cinema. producers, screenwriters and composers of ltalian heritage.
Understand ing exernplification

5 Which of the two extracts in exercise 4 is more successful in clescribing the event? Why?

6 Match the phrases with examples taken from exercise 4. Some phreses have more than one example.

I cinema theatre a Gucci fashion house

2 famous street b Italian film people
3 actor/director c Robert de Niro
4 main sponsor d Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
5 other sponsors e Vanity Fai,r'
6 those being honoured f Francis Ford Coppola
g HollywooclBoulevarcl
h Grauman's Chinese Theatre
i Monica Bellucci

7 Reaa the article and answer the questions.

Celebrities often create their own publicity. For

example, many stars often alert the press of their plans
for a night out ensuring that when they arrive there
will be a crowd of photographers waiting to take their
photograph, whether it's good or not. An even more
extreme strategy to attract attention can be seen in
celebrity weddings. The ceremony is usually covered
by every major newspaper in the world and not just the
big day itself but all the events leading up to it - the
courtship, the wedding announcement, the enormous
diamond ring, the pre-nuptial agreement and so on.
By the time the two stars tie the knot, everyone is sick
of hearing about it. Another instance of creating your
own publicity is showing up at an awards ceremony
wearing an outrageous or expensive outfit, one
that will look good in photographs and be noticed.
Journalists make a big fuss about whether or not the
star was well dressed or not but. in the meantime. the
star gets their photo in all the magazines. Of course,
stars do occasionally go too far and they get stuck
with a bad reputation, something that's harder to
shake off than an unflattering photograph.

1 Name three things stars do to make their own publicity.

2 Name three events that happen before a celebrity wedding.

3 Name an example of what happens when a celebrity wears an expensive outfit.

4 Name an example of something that's worse than a bad photograph.

Unit 9

$ Reaa the article and choose the best sentence to fill each gap.

People find fame in many different ways - sometimes by taking risks, at other times fame
springs from a related line of work and quite often it derives from family connections.
(1) In the 1950s, film star Jayne Mansfield - who at that time had very few film credits to
her-name - moved her entire family from Texas to Hollywood in order to pursue a film career.
(2) Other stars started out in modelling before hitting the big screen. (3) The same
goes- for Kellan Lutz, star of the Twilight franchise, who modelled for Abercrombie
- & Fitch rn
his early days. (4) Kate Hudson, daughter of award-winning actress Goldie Hawn, maoe
a name for herself -by giving a critically-acclaimed performance in Atmost Famous. (5) _
As you can see, there is never just one way to achieve your goals and the quest for fame is
no exceotton.

charlize Theron, the star of such films as Motls/er and prometlte,us, flew to Los
Angeles on a one-way ticket when she was just 19 in the hope of becoming an actress.
b Some actors take huge risks in their search for stardom.
c Ashton Kutcher, star of television's Tu:o ancl a Hatf Men as well as numerous films,
began his career as a fashion model before flnding fame as an actor.
Both Will and Jada Pinkett Smith's children, Jaclen and Willow, appeared in
successful Hollywood fllns before they were even teenagers.
Some of today's best-known actors already had one foot in the door because of their
famous parents.

$ Wtiicn of the removed sentences in exercise 8 are examples which illustrate a point in the text?

1 0 at" these situations examples of the benefits (B) or drawbacks (D) of fame?
I having the respect ofpeople in your industry
2 earning lots of money by doing what you love
3 meeting other really famous people
4 not having to pay for designer clothes
5 being followed around by hundreds of people
6 seeing your face on the covers of magazines
7 having a large staff to take care of you
8 losing the ability to maintain your privacy

1 1 Tick the situations that are examples of an invasion of celebrity privacy.

I photographing a celebrity at a film premiere
2 photographing a celebrity while they are shopping
3 asking a celebrity for an autograph
4 asking a celebrity how much money they make
5 fllning a celebrity in their home from across the street
6 fllming a celebrity with a mobile phone while they're dining out
7 getting a celebrity's phone number and calling them
8 getting a celebrity's adclress and sending them a fan letter
Understand ing exern pl if ication


Yn Examfocus:

Look at the exam practice section on page 76 and read the first paragraph.
What does Katie's appearance serve as an example of?
a someone who works at a petrol station c someone who lives in a small town
b someone who is not likely to be famous d someone who is friendly and sociable

2 Reaa the extract from an article and answer the questions.

An example of a serious issue celebrities Which of the following is NOT an example of the
have is 'excessive precautions' mentioned in the extract?
A having their picture taken. A having an assistant
B jogging in the morning. B destroying documents
C having their private moments invaded. C burning items
D having too much rubbish. D asking an assistant to destroy items
Celebrities taking their children to school The word'extreme'in line 8 refers to the behaviour of
is an example of A dangerous admirers.
A a serious issue. B celebrityassistants.
B a photo opportunity. C celebrities.
C a particular complaint. D devotedfans.
D a private moment.

$ mite two examples from the text of each of the following ideas.
Skills tip
I private moments ln Flrst Paper 1 Pad 5,
2 extraprecautions understanding exemplification
is important for
3 celebrity admirers
a identifying the main
idea of the text. Yes / No
{ Uatct the parts of First Paper I with the strategies. b understanding the
writer's supporting ideas.
1 PartS _ Yes / No
2 Part6
3 PartT -_
a An example in one sentence connects to a part of a previous sentence.
b It's important to understand the details in order to flnd correct examples of it.
c Understanding an example helps eliminate incorrect distractors.
Unit !l

Exam practice:
Part 5
\iltt att goirrg to tt'a<l n sloty alroul :l \4,()llrzur u,ho linntl f antc. For qtrcslions l-(i,
t'littost'thc:tttsrvct'(A, Il, ('ol I)) rvhit'h y<-rtr lhink fits bcst a<.r,orclipg l9 the lext.

Katie Kirkland wasn't what you would call celebrity She took leave from herjob and, over the next three
material. She was of average height and slighfly plump, weeks, she worked full-time recording songs. The studio
with pale skin and dark, shoulder-length hair which owner set up a band and they recorded 12 songs.
she sometimes dyed light brown when she felt like After a month of editing, the album hit the record shops
doing something special for herself. She worked at a and Katie's music caught on right away. Presenters on
petrol station selling petrol, a job which she had done morning television programmes wanted to interview
for the better part of her 35 years of life. She had a Katie and have her perform. As exciting as it all was,
pleasant, round face with freckles. She was a sociable Katie felt reserved, as she didn't feel confident about
person with a warm smile and well known in her small her looks. The studio did its best to dress her up like a
town, mainly for her ability to sing. That was the one star, but she still didn't quite look the part. Critics praised
superstar trait Katie would ever possess. her singing abilities but media criticism was harsh, even

On a chilly afternoon in March, a man pulled into unfair, regarding her appearance. Nonetheless, Katie had

Katie's petrol station to buy petrol. Katie, parlicularly an instant fan base, full of people who could relate to her
cheerful that day, assisted the man by filling his car. She normal looks and down-to-earth personality. However,
hummed a few lines of the Rolling Stones' Satisfaction the attention came at a steep price.
while holding the petrol nozzle. The man, who In a matter of months, Katie's life had gone from a
recognised the famous tune, started singing the words. simple, quiet existence to a thrilling wild ride and
Katie joined in and the two of them sang the whole song finally to what she considered to be a terrible curse.
together and had a great laugh. 'You've got an amazing It wasn't what she had signed up for. The fans, who
voice. You really stand out from the crowd! Why are you once were just adoring and appreciative, had turned
working here?' said the man. into a mob. When Katie showed up for performances,
'Oh, thanks, but you know, I'm just a small-town girl. l'm people wanting autographs and photographs would

not the celebrity type,' Katie replied with a shy smile. swarm around her. They would come to her house at
all hours of the day, hoping to catch a glimpse of her.
The man left and returned the next day with a frienq, a Photographers began to publish unflattering pictures
slim, tanned and well-dressed man, who asked Katie to of Katie, which upset her beyond belief. Just when she
come to his recording studio in the city. 'We'll arrange thought she might go mad, she decided to take over the
everything for you. We'll pick you up, record some reins of her own life. With millions of pounds in album
songs and if at any point you don't feel comfortable sales, Katie, taking the tanned man's words to heart,
about anything, we'll call it quits, no worries.' Katie decided it was time to get away from celebrity life. She
was thrilled at the oppoftunity to show off her talents. tearfully left her house, her friends, her whole life behind.
She made arrangements to take a day off from worr, The papers circulated headlines screaming 'Where's
travelled to the studio and recorded a few songs. Katie?' but no-one could find her. Katie had decided her
'You're absolutely brilliant! You've got to make 15 minutes of fame were over. So soon after becoming 70
an album. You're going to be a huge star, Katie!' a star, she travelled far, far away, where the burning
exclaimed Mr White, the studio owner, who had taken lights of fame would never find her again.
to her straight away. Katie was beside herself with iov.
Understanding exemplif icatton

What extraordinary feature does Katie have? What was the reaction to Katie?
A her hair style A She received only positive reviews.
B her personality B People thought her singing wasn't very good.
C her voice C Her fans didn't like her appearance.
D her work ethic D There was a mixed resoonse.

Katie's response to the man's compliment was Katie's stardom soon became
A reserved. A a dream come true.
B cheerful. B a real nightmare.
C annoyed. C a rags-to-riches story.
D hooeful. D a boring and dulltask.

What do we learn about the tanned man's offer? The ohrase ''15 minutes of fame' in line 70 refers to
A lt was an offer Katie couldn't refuse. A the exact amount of time Katie was in the
B There seemed to be a hidden agenda. spotlight.
C Katie was under no obligation to the man. B the length of time that it took Katie to
D There were some thinqs left out. decide to leave.
C the length of one of the songs from her
D the short amount of time Katie spent as a

Skills tip
Part 5 may include a question that asks you to
refer to a specific line in the text. The question
may ask about the meaning of a word or
phrase that you probably won't know, The
clues to the answer are included in the text
that very closely surrounds the word or phrase.
Read this parl of the text very carefully and
think about how the four choices fit (or don't fit)
into the text.
text structure

lmprove your reading skills: understanding text structure

A well-written te:rt has d clear styucture. Argumentatiue terts often haue an
introduction, a main body uhere the argument is presenterl and a conclusion.
Main points are presentetl in separate paragraphs, with eramples, ree,sons, etc.
understanding tefit st?ucture helps you to see hous all the parts of a tert work
together. It inuolues distinguishing main id,easfrom supporting ctetails (unit
understanding pur"pose andfunction (unit s), unclerstand,ing cohesion (unit 6)
and coherence (Unit 8), amongst other things.

1 Wtrictr of these statements is true?

A All texts usually have introductions and conclusions.
B A particular text type usually follows a typical structure.
understanding tert st'tucture is 'importantfor each part oJ a tert you read,. It hetps
Aou to recognise and understand the Junction of each section. It is also important for
your global understandi,ng oJ a tett. It's a key part of unclerstand,ing t.he tert.

2 Understanding text stmcture can help you to work out

A what the writer thinks of a whole topic area.
B what eachpart of the text does.

Make sure you are Jamiliar wi,th the kind,s of structures we often see in difJerent types
of terts. For erample, a newspaper or magazine article oJten begins uith general
background i.n-formation, Jollon:ed, by key euents or id"eas, uith eramples and, reasons,
and it often ends with a personal comment.fi.om the w.iter.

3 Reports generally don't contain

A long descriptivepassages.
B recommendations.

1n First Paper 1 Part 5, aou maa be askecl questions about the tert stt-ucture. These
could include questions about what word,s refer to, or about how d,ifferent parts oJ
the te:tt are connected. In Part 6, putting the remoued sentences into the coryect gaps
in|olues understanding the function of the sentences and, the sttacture oJ the whole
tert. In Part 7, statements about the te$ts maa rely on und,erstancling impLication,
attitude and opinion, comparison, erempti-fi.ccttion, etc.

{ Understanding text structure helps you to

A see how each part of the text is connected to the rest.
B understand the whole text without reading the details.
Understanding text structure
Get started
Look at the photo and answer the questions.
r What are the advantages ofhigher education?
Are there any disadvantages?
r Which of the following have you done or
are you considering doing?
n retraining for a job
n studying for a degree
a doing postgraduate studies
n undertaking vocational training
n having a gap year before university
o starting your career straight after
n studying a subject because of itsjob
n doing some kind of apprenticeship or
skills t raining

Develop your vocabulary

1 Circle the word or phrase that does not belong.
1 to get / have / gain I take / obtain good marks
2 to get / make I find / be offered a place on a course
3 to study / go / work hard / fall behind at university
4 to miss a lesson / tutorial / lecture / course

2 Complete the rable.



3 ReaA the paragraph and circle the correct words.

So I really don't know what to do for the best. My parents want me to go (1) in / to / al
university and study (2) in / at / for a degree in law. They say that it's the best (3) option /
opinion / selection if I want to enter the job (4) career / profession / market when I
graduate. However, I don't know if l'm suited to another five years or more of study. And I'm
worried that l'm not capable of studying at degree (5) level / height / subjects. I found my
school exams really stressful and I don't know if I want to go through all that again.
What do you think?
Unit l tl

Develop your read in g ski ls; u rrri*r I *r fr n r'ts.$ r s'r,,

1 t'irttr' llrt' r'orrt'<'1 worrl or'lrlrlast, in t,u<.h s('nt(,ll(.e.

I Ilat'lt r'oont in tht' hall of rt'sirlcnc,t' is pro'".i<lerl
with a rlt'sk. a bcrl nnrl a srrrall loilct itntl shor,r't l
In addition / On the other hand. lltt'r't. is
crrliboar'<l sltace ltrr'<.lothes, u b<lok<.ast', a lanttr
anrl a noti<'e bclar'<1.
2 Ilet'ently, the Illilish gor,.t rnurt'nl passetl a law
allowing trnivt'rsities to r.hat'gr. rrl) lo a rrrilxinrunr

o1'S 9,(XX) a v('al' Iirr 1 hcil lt'es. For instance /
Ber:ause of this, urauy slrr<lt'nls ar.t'Iintrnc.iallv
rrnalrlc 1o rurrlerlakc a tlegrt.r. (.ours('.
3 \'otrl attcnrlan<.t'ztt ea<.lt let.trrrr. is n<tl
<'onrpulsorv. However / Also, .y()u ilt'(' r'ecluin'd
Io go to a nrininurnt nuu'rlrer ol' lcr.t ures lirr eac.h
4 In \['alker''s.Voulh, r,r'r'v fi'u. lrer4rk'u,'r'llt oll
to sl urlv at rrnivt'rsitv lt'r't'l. At that tirne /
Furthermore, higher etlrr<.atiotr lr,ers rcs<'Lve<l Iirr.
the lrrivilcgr.rl li'w.
5 In souto cas('s, taking il year of'f only tlelays
voul strrclies zrncl rvon'l look goorl on ycltrr ('\,. It
might be better to go / Once you have gone lo
rrnir.t'r'sity stlaight frotn s<.h<lol il'vou rlcln't har,e {
auy specific. plans lol your gal) v(rar.
6 Stuclents ale usrrally oflcre<l a pltrce at unix'rsily
n'hich is c'onclitional ou ac.ltieving c,ertain exam
grarles. Before / After that, the oI'l'er.is t'ilher
t'onfir'nterl clr w.ilhdrnrvn llast'rl on tht' stuclt'nt's
at'trral ex:un rcsulls.

f lVr-ite a u.orrl or'llhrrse, in lrokl firrur

ext.r'cise I on t'ach line 1o zllls\l,,cl'lhe rlrrt.slions.
Whi<'h lr'onl/lrhrase hr-lps lo itlentif.v:
I a t't'as<ln?

2 anolhel sirtrilal poiut'/

3 an erantplei

4 a coutlastins idt'a'/

5 a suggcsti<ln rtr le<,otutrrt'nrlalion?

6 a st'qtren<'t. o1't'x'ttts?
Understandino text structure

3 Choose the sentence, a or b, that follows most logically from the first sentence. In two
of the items, both answers are correct.

Working while you are studying can help

a It can also teach you responsibility and
give you useful work experience.
b On the other hand, there is a danger that
it will distract you from your studies.
AII too often, employers look for some kind
of work experience.
a This can be frustrating for someone
who has devoted their time to studying.
b Despite the beneflts of this, it will
probably not help you find ajob.

{ ReaO the paragraphs and underline the topic sentence (the main idea) in each one.
Although we tend to think of going to university The technological age has had a huge effect on
when we talk about higher education, there education, with the rise of the internet making
is more to it than that. Vocational training, for arguably the biggest difference. To take just
example, is increasingly important. We have long one example, imagine how long it took scholars
recognised the need for an education which leads in the past to get access to information. They
directly to a trade or profession and educational would have had to travel many miles - often to
institutions are now offering more of such foreign lands - in search of the information they
courses. needed. This is in sharp contrast with today's
scholars who have access to a vast amount of
A little less than 1,000 years ago, universities information freely available online.
began to be popular throughout Europe. In the
north, the focus was on the arts and religious According to his autobiography, Charlton's
subjects. Most of the teaching was done college education was never about getting
through the medium of Latin, and ancient texts, a job. He was determined to learn as much
such as those by Aristotle and Hippocrates, about life as his books and lecturers could
were read. The number of educational teach him. He believed that it was his duty to
establishments continued to grow, although by surround himself with poetry, literature and
the end of the 18th century there were still fewer great ideas. Whether or not that was useful to
than 150 in the whole of Europe. him afterwards was never a consideration.

$ Read the paragraphs in exercise 4 again and answer the questions. Which paragraph(s):

I is argumentative?
2 arepurelynarrative?
3 has a mixture of argumentative and narrative writing?
Unit 10

6 Underline the key words in the paragraphs that helped you find the answers to exercise 5.

7 Match each sentence with what it contains.

Then decide where they flt best in the paragraphs in exercise 4.

a examples
b feelings in anarrative
e events in anarrative
d contrasting ideas

He felt that the purpose of university was to 3 Southern universities, on the other hand,
make him a better person. taught mainly law and medicine.

2 Plumbers, electricians, chefs and nurses are all 4 They overcame a huge number of obstacles.
professionals who beneflt from an education
which is practical as well as theoretical.

8 fn" first sentence in each paragraph below is missing. Write a topic sentence for each one.

$ Write a sentence to say what the paragraphs in exercise 8 are about.


10 Decide whether each paragraph in exercise 8 is narrative or discursive.

Underline words or phrases that helped you decide.
I ,

1 1 Complete the sentences with ideas of your own.

I Studying alone helps you to concentrate on your work. However, ...
2 Going to university is definitely a good idea. First of all, ...
3 Paul couldn't decide whether to study literature or something more practical. In the end, ...
4 Online courses are a good solution for some students. This includes people who ...
5 There is no reason why you can't have a great social life at college. If you can ...
6 Sarah was extremely nervous about leaving her family and taking up a place at university.
Once she got there, ...
Understanding text structure

text structure I l'

1 loot< at the exam practice section on page 84 and answer the questions.

1 What is the text about? What type of writing is it? i

2. Identify sections of the text where the writer talks about:
Skills tip -l l

r the beneflts ofhaving a higher education: Paragraphs In Flrst Paper 1 Part 6,

r the negative aspects ofhigher education: Paragraphs does understanding text
structure help you
r narrative writing (in the past tense): Paragraphs
a follow the writer's
r your choice of degree course: Paragraphs argument? Yes / No
b find detailed information?
r money: Paragraph
Yes / No
2 Read the short extracts below and look at the gaps and the phrases in bold. Answer the questions.
I When you are a first-year student at university, there is so much going on socially that you might
get into difficulty. FTI To avoid this, it's a good idea to make a study plan and stick to it.
What ki,nd of dfficulty might the uriter talking about? What mi,ght Aou u)ant to auoid?
2 It is worth looking at universities which have the best graduate employment records. lTT_-]
However, you might be surprised to know that neither Oxford nor Cambridge made the top ten
last year.
Is the mi,ssing sentence li,kely to be q,bout good uniuersities or bad ones?
3 There is always a danger that your qualifications will not help you find a iob. I gT_-]
Graduates in archaeology were similarly unsuccessful.
Is the missing sentence li,kely to be about degrees uhich lead to a job, or degrees u;hi,ch do
not lead to a job? What could archaeologg graduates be simi,Iar to? What does 'unsuccessJul'
probab|g refer to?
4 Distance learning courses have several distinct advantages. First of all, you do not
need to move away from home. Secondly, you do not have to travel to lectures or tutorials -
everything you need is on your computer. tZT_l
What kind of i,nformation tuould Aou erpect tofind in the gap?

3 Match each sentence with the correct gap in exercise 2.

a Some of them frequently report that 90% or more of their graduates have found a job within
six months.
b These factors could save you considerable amounts of time and money.
c Joining clubs and societies, as well as socialising with a new group of friends, could mean
that you fall behind with your course work.
d A recent study in the USA found that the worst choice of degree major was anthropology, with
high unemployment rates and low salaries among graduates.

4 Tick the statements that are true about Firsl Paper l. Understanding text structure helps you
I understand what certain words refer to in Part 5.

2 see how different parts of the text are connected in Part 6.

3 understand the writer's attitude and opinion in Part 7.
4 find examples and reasons in Part 7.
Unit lC

Exam practice:
Part 6
You are going to reacl an article about higher education. Six sentences have been
removecl from the article. flhoose fiom the sentences A-G the one which fits eaclt
gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you <lo not need to use.

for everyone?
Everyone tells you the same thing - work hard at school Because, let's face it, not everyone is suited to another
so that you can go on to study at a university or college. three or four years of study. Some people are better off
It seems to be sensible advice. After all, the more not continuing their education. FT-_-l In addition, your
qualified you are, the better chance you have of getting a family's financial circumstances might make it difficult to
good job, right? Higher education is always a good thing, go away to study. Furthermore, some people simply can't
isn't it? afford the expense of it all.

Firstly, it depends on what you're planning to study. This brings us to the all-important subject of money.
In terms of being employable when you graduate, the The average graduate with a bachelor's degree owes
different branches of medicine, including dentistry, are in excess of !1 5,000 and this figure is increasing every
probably the safest choices. Some studies show that year. lf one also considers the fact that he or she typically
close to 100o/o of graduates in these fields found a job has to wait at least three months before he or she starts
within six months. fTl earning, you can see that spending those extra three
or four years actually earning money can make quite a
On the other hand, if it is your dream to study history or r----T-------1
difference.l 5|
sociology, you need to be aware that, at the moment, |

you are less likely fi*glon if your degree is in either

Of course, despite all this, there are still many benefits of
of these subjects. I 2 | | Once they graduated, studying at degree t"u"t. I OTI And graduates usually
many were unable to find work. Others were forced to get paid higher salaries. In the end, the advice to work
undertake more years of study or retraining in order to hard at school is sound advice. No-one in their right mind
enter the job market. would tell you to do the opposite. Leaving school with
good qualifications will at least give you more options.
Degrees related to business and management are among
What you do with those options is up to you.
the most popular at the moment, which means there is
a great deal of competition for places both at university
and at work. So you may not find a place on your chosen
course and, if you do, you will graduate with the same
qualifications as thousands of other people. To avoid
this you might consider studying more specialised
subjects such as waste management or environmental
management. They may not be your first choice but they
are among the newer kinds of courses on offer which
could welllead to a good;oo. FTI
Understandino text structure

However, you have to ask yourself if it's worth These include people who suffer terribly from
spending several years of your life studying exam nerves, and those who find academic
something that is less than ideal for you. work really difficult.

lf you can find a job at 18 (or, why not, at This would mean moving to the other end of the
'16), then you could end up being much more country or even to a different country altogether.
financially secure.
A degree that is not in demand is practically
Law graduates were similady successful, so if useless, as many recent graduates have found
these subjects are really what you want to study out to their cost.
and you can get a place on a course you are
A large number of employers look for some
evidence of higher education.

Skills tip
When you do Flrsf Paper 1 Part 6, understanding
text structure will help you to follow the writer's
arguments; identify different sections of the text; find
examples and reasons to supporl the mdn topic of a
paragraph; notice when the writer changes direction
or begins a new subject. All of these will help you
choose the correct sentences to fill the gaps.

lmprove your reading skills: understanding comparison

Writers often make comparisons. They try to erplain things by comparing something
the readet'doesn't knotn about tt:ith something the reader does knou about,.
Unclerstancling compari,son ineans recognising dilferent kirds oJ compctrison and
understanding what is being compared.

1 Comparisons may be used to

A show how little some readers know.
B explain something in terms you understand.

It is an importont pa.rt of understa,nding uhctt a writer is trying to erpLa,i,n. If you

don't recognise a,nd u'nderstand a comparison, you u;on'tfully understand that part oJ
the tert. You may confuse the topi,c uith an'idea uhich is being usedfor comparison.

2 SV understanding comparison, you are more likely to understand

A topics.
B confusion.

A key pat't of understanding comparison is to recognise commonly used erpressions.

These include phrases such as in comparison, is like arzd is similar to. They also
include grammatical stl'u"ctures such as comparatiue and superlatiue forms and as ...
as. They also include metaphors and similes.

3 Wni"i of these sentences does NOT contain a comparison?

A Tablet computers will soon be as popular as laptops.
B Most teenagers don't like strict rules about their use of technology.
Understanding compari,son is releuant to Parts 5, 6 and 7 of F\rst Paper 1. In Part 5,
compo,risons maE tell you about the u;riter's attitude or opinion and help you
understa.nd specifi.c details. In Part 6, a remoued sentence may draw a comparison
uith something in the rnain tert. In Part 7, you may be asked to match a staternent to
a letl based on a comporison.

4 In part 5, comparisons in a text may reveal

A which questions are easier than others.
B what a writer feels about a subject.

{};::t t:+,:+rt*:":,

Look at the photo and answer the questions.

. What does the picture show?
. What are the benefits of this kind of household technology?
Are homes with smart technology better for the environnlent? Why? / Why ntlt?
, Woulcl you like to live in this kind of home? Why? / Why not?

#+:v*!r: F:'.oii.lL.r f" "*'#*# *?L"* *i.? $-V

j Circle the correct word in each sentence.

1 The remote control uses digital / latest technology.
2 You shoulcl use a low temperature washing set / programme for clelicate Iabrics.
3 A vacuun'r cleaner is a labour-saving machine / device.
4 Video players are obsolete / extinct nowadays'
5 A goocl security structure / system helps to prevent burglaries.
6 This smartphone has a revolutionary / basic new clesign.
7 You can contact / operate the DVD player manr.rally or by remote control.

,.' Write a word front the box in each gap to conrplete the text.

comouterised " conventional ,* efficient u features

gadgets . models ;i programmed *r state-of-the-art

11l-rer-rchoosing one of our (1) kitchens you u.ill li-rc-l evervthing \rou necd irncl
more. ()ur designs contain many (2) that are not normalll for-rncl in other
more (3) kitchens. Firstlr', the fridge-freezer has a (a) control
par-rel tl-rat automaticallv acljusts the settings depending on hos'full it is. Our fhtruklus
built-in cookers are self-cleaning and the oven can be (5) so that vou can tinle
ancl saves -
both energ\, ancl t'ater rvhen cleaning vour clishes. ,\nd hnallr', all tl-re kitchcn
Unit 11

Develop your reading skills: understanding comparison

I Write a word from the box in each gap.

as r compared r comparison r like r same r similar

I An e-reader is _-__ ___-_,_ to a tablet computer.

2 Her new carpet cleaner looks a bit _ a
modern steam engine!
3 In _*=_- to conventional
or light
116rrL bulbs,
uuruD, these
r ones are much more energy efflcient.

', 4 Wide screen TVs are very cheap _'-_ to

' their price even
a year ago.
5 He thinks the sound quality of digital music isn't as
good ____ that on old vinyl records.
6 Cordless kettles work in the *__-- way as an
ordinary one does.

I W.ite the complete phrase used to make each of the

comparisons in exercise 1.
I 4
2 D

3 6

$ Reaa the definitions and circle the correct answer.

I a phrase that describes something bg comparing
it to something else using the uord, ,like' or,us,
This is a metaphor / simile.
2 a word or phrase that means one thing and
i,s used to refer to another thi,ng in ord,er to
emphasise their similar qua,li tie s
This is a metaphor / simile.

4 Decide if the phrases in bold are similes (S) or metaphors (M).

1 Your new coffee maker looks like something out of star warst
2 It's as cold as ice in here. why don't you turn on the heating?
3 The designer has incorporated geothermal heating into the new house
it's very like the system the ancient Romans used to heat their public baths.
4 My new smart fridge can tell me exactly what shopping I need and even
create recipes - it's magic.
5 I'll have to get someone to come and set up the new computer system, I'm too
busy and time is money.
6 The touch screen on my new mobile is as hard as nails _ nothing can
break or
scratch it.
Understandino comoarison

5 ReaO the short texts and decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F).

I Manufacturers must use their hands in a certain way to create

their products.
, Companies are busy developing new home technology products.

3 The idea for this household appliance came to its inventor in a dream.
4 Everyone who has a house would like to own the new laser vacuum cleaner.

5 The baby rocker moves in the same way as a mother rocking her baby.
6 With this device your child can have two mothers.

6 Read the paragraph and circle the correct words.

This food processor is a bit (1) similar / like a space-age gadget for preparing
food. Not (2) only / also does it perform more functions than ordinary
blenders, but it (3) also / only does them better. lt is similar (4) as / to the
type of processor used by chefs in professional kitchens but it requires no
special skills to use it. You will have (5) much / more room in your kitchen
because with this clever tool you won't need (6) like / as many different
appliances as before. lt can chop, grate, blend, mix and slice - in fact it's your
best friend! Your sauces, soups, cakes and desserts will be (7) best / better
than ever and will take half the time to make. lt could just be the (Q more /
most important kitchen appliance you will ever buy.

/ Reaa the paragraph in exercise 6 again and flnd examples of these kinds of comparison.

1 comparatives
2 a superlative
3 a metaphor
4 a simile
5 os ... as structure
Unit I

B React the text and clecicle if the statenlerrts are true (T) or false (Ir)

What will the homes of the future be like? They electricity companies. The interiors of modern
will have little in common with the homes we live homes will have the most advanced robotics and
in today. In order to become more environmentally smart technology people can afford. A central
friendly, they may be built underground, like control panel will operate heating and lighting and
animal dens, in order to conserve energy. Another the wealthiest people will programme robots to do
development which will be seen more and more all the cooking and cleaning. With more leisure time
frequently is the technique of building the walls people will have a much better quality of life. Homes
and roofs from photovoltaic panels. These panels, will be designed as our own personal worlds. They
which look like large black slabs, can create will be places to live, work and be entedained in
more electricity than the homes need, allowing and, unlike today, we will have little need to leave
homeowners to sell surolus electricitv back to them unless we want to.

I Honre.s ol the Itrl ule will be verv sinrilar to the ones we live in norv.
2 Homcs coulcl nrimic the way aninrals buikl their honres.
3 llndc'rgrounrl homes will re<lucc thc anrount of cle<'trir:ity people use.
4 I'hotor,'oltaic panels will provicle some of the electricity fbr honres of thc firture.
5 Ikrw a<lvan<'e<l the te<'hnology in pt olllr"s homes is will rlepend on how riclt they are'.

6 An inc'r'ease in I're.e tinre will nrean an inrprovt urent in people's lives.

7 T'he hornes of the firtrrre will make people nrore indeyrendent.

$ lVrlte one n,orcl in each gap to cortrplete the text.

The world of home entertainment has moved a home entertainment system is easy to set up
on spectacularly (1) comparison and your living room will look (3) tidier
to the electronic appliances of the past. Now without having so many cables everywhere. And
there is no need for separate systems, such as a (4) best thing of all is that, with such
DVD player, a TV and a stereo. All you need is a good sound and picture quality, your living room will
computer, a good screen and speakers. Compared be (5) a cinema and-concert hall rolled
(2) installing lots of separate systems, into one!
0 HeaA the text in exercise 9 again antl answer the questions. -
1 What is the nrain dil'l'erence Lretween entertainment
systcnrs of the past ancl the present ?

2 Why u,ill living rooms be tidier with a

rttodern honre entertainnrer-rt svstem?

3 What is a nrodern home

entertainment systen-r
conrparecl trI?
Understanding cornparison

c0mpans0n Il
Look at the exam practice section on page 92. which of the questions make
use of comparative structures? Underline the key words and phrases used.

2 Tick the sentences that use comparison.

I The new airport is like a great big, high-tech shopping centre.
2 surprisingly, there were no winners in the recent competition.
3 My partner doesn't like speaking about his work.
4 sarah had a similar experience to that with her video camera last year.
5 Just as the popularity of loud music has risen sharply, so too has the
incidence of hearing loss among teenagers.
6 You should always compare prices online before buying.
7 I think the contrast on the screen is wrong.
8 Paul is not as good with computers as his sister Leanne.

$ f,oot< at the sentences which you ticked in exercise 2 and decide Skills tip
what kind of comparison thev use. ln Fr,rst Paper 1 ParI T , the ability to
accurately identify comparisons
a a comparative structure
a can help you match the questions
b a simile (using hke)
with the correct text. Yes / No
c using a word for conrparison b could be confusing when trying to
match questions to texts. Yes / No
4 ltut"t, the texts with the ouestions. c can make understanding the
meaning in a text easier. yes / No
A Smartphones
With the early widespread use of mobile phones came
B Television
a common complaint. Mobile phones were inhibiting
Thanks to advertising for television shows and
the development of real communication and meaningful
DVDs created for babies, many parents believe thar
friendships, as people were constanily interrupting
watching educational programmes will stimulate
face-to-face conversations in order to answer texts and
their babies' brains and actually improve learning.
to make calls. So how much worse is it today with the
Many parents seem to accept this idea. They
advent of smartphones and other touch screen devices?
believe that exposing a baby to educational DVDs
Everyone has some kind of multi-purpose gadget that can
will put him or her on to an early path to a highly-
be used for communication, playing music and games or
developed intelligence. Maybe not. A new study
suding the net. But have our relationships really suffered
has shown that babies who spent more time in fronr
as a result? | believe they're as good as they ever were.
of the W actually performed worse in language and
skills tests than those babies who watched less.
In which text does the writer
I explain that a technological gadget is not beneflcial?
2 compare the present with the recent past?
3 express the view that things have not changed for the worse?
4 compare two different groups and kinds of behaviour?
5 compare the way people socialise now with the oast?
Unit 11

You are going to read an article about technologl in the home.

For questions 1-10, choose from the texts (A-D). The texts may be chosen more than once.

Which text
mentions the variety of ditferent appliances available? wffit
explains how one device can be used instead of many others? ffit
emphasises how much people in the past would have liked this modern appliance? W_l
compares a domestic appliance to something used for road maintenance? W_-]
says that a domestic task in the past required a great deal of physical strength? W--]
mentions how the most up-to-date homes are now organised? ffi.t
contrasts the ecological benefits of a modern appliance to methods of the past? ffit
refers to an appliance from the past that took a long time to prepare before it could be used? ffi-]
makes a prediction about a padicular device? ffi-l
describes a modern appliance as being similar to a seruant? ffi-l
Skills tip
ln Frsf Paper 1 Part 7, the questions may refer to a
eomparison made in the reading texts. The ability to
quickly scan and identifry comparisons will help you
to match a question to a particular reading text. Read
the questions and underline any key words or phrases
connected with comparisons. Scan the reading texts
looking for any words., phrases or structures used to
make comparisons and then check these against the
comparisons you have identified in the question.
l\J\rl ULL,t| l\lll lV :'r:1,-1r 5r)it

domestic bliss
How has household technology rewolutionistd W in the home?
A The washing machine C The vacuum cleaner

In days gone by, there were few chores more back- Wall-to-wall carpets are now a feature of many homes

breaking than doing the laundry. For centuries, heavy' but they would be very difficult to keep clean, if it weren't
wet clothing and sheets had to be cleaned by hand with for vacuum cleaners. The first electrical carpet cleaners
no other help than a washboard and a mangle. These using suction appeared at the beginning of the last

were the nearest thing to a washing machine and a dryer' century and have undergone many refinements since then'
The washboard was simply a board with ridges on it Advances in robotics have resulted in vacuum cleaners

that made scrubbing clothes easier and a mangle used that can clean all the rooms in a house without the need
two rollers to squeeze excess water out of cloth' a bit for a human to operate them. They are like a hightech
like a steam roller that is used to flatten the tarmac on housemaid and have proved a real labour-saving device

highways! for families everywhere.

But there is simply no comparison between a washboard Before vacuum cleaners became available and affordable

and mangle and a modern washing machine' Not only for all, cleaning rugs and carpets meant either sweeping
is the washing machine highly efficient and easy to use' them with a stiff brush or hanging them over a line outside
it also saves on water, so it is more environmentally and beating the dirt out of them with a large stick or
friendly than washing by hand. There is little doubt that wooden paddle. You needed the muscles of a weightlifter
the housewives of the past would have been delighted to get your carpets clean back then. Today, you hardly
to use a modern washing machine with its wide range of have to lift a finger.

wasnrng programmes.
D The computer

B The cooker Now found in nearly every home, the computer is the

You could say that choosing a cooker is as complicated device that has had the most revolutionary effect on
as deciding what kind of car to get these days. There are how we lead our lives. And just as it has affected today's
so many difierent types of cookers and ovens - gas or domestic technology, so too will it affect the domestic
electric, with or without a fan oven, a microwave oven appliances of the future. Computers have begun to
with or without a conventional grill. The list of features is replace many other devices around the home, making

endless and, just as is the case for so many household them obsolete. Computers are increasingly used for
appliances these days, many use digital technology and entertainment and communication, for shopping and
are computerised, too. work and as a way of controlling other systems and
devices in the home. Who needs all those gadgets of the
It's a far cry from the days when a pot was hung over a
past, such as a sound system or DVD recorder, when
fire or when the cook had to use wood or coal to light
the computer can per-form all their functions and more?
a stove or cooking range and heat it for hours before it
State-of-the-art homes now use computer technology to
could even be used. Now cookers heat up instantly and
run almost every aspect of domestic life, from controlling
many of the latest models can even be programmed to
the heating to automatically ordering food from the
turn themselves on and off when you're not there.
supermarket. And computers are likely to play an ever-
increasing role in how we run our homes in the future.

lmprove your reading skillst understanding implication

Some things are not stated clearly in a teut. Hotteuer, they may be implied. For
erctmple, if
a wri,ter says, 'Prisr.tn taught me a lot.', ue can reasonably assume that
the uriter was conuicted oJ a crime, euen though it's not erplicit. Understanding
i,mplication lneans seeing uthat is behind the things a uriter says.

I Wfren something is implied,

A it isn't stated explicitly in a text.
B it is because the writer is trying to hide it.

Writers ewect that we will understand some things without being told erplicitly. If we
don't recognise and understand, things that are implied, we will only understand part
of the tert and we might miss something important.

f ltyottdon't understand implication, you might

A not understand something stated explicitly.
B miss an important piece of information.
Read a tert careJullg and ask yourselJ questions about it. 'If what the wrtter says is
trae, what else must, logicallg, be ttae? What does the zariter want lne to understa,nd,
euen though he or she hasn't said it erplicitly? Wha,t is being implied here?' Then,
consider these things as Aou read the rest of the tert and check your understanding
against both erplicit and implicit information.

$ as you read, you need to keep checking that

A you understand what has been implied.
B any new information is in fact true.

It is important in Frst Paper 1 Parts 5, 6 and 7. In Pa,rt 5, you may be asked specifir
questions about things that ore implied in the tert. In Part 6, remoaed sentences maA
be connected to something that is im,plied in the tert. In Part 7, Eou may need to
understand attitude or opinion and this may be implied, rather than stated erplicitly.

{ Understanding implication is useful for understanding

A what is implied in the questions in Part 5.
B attitude and opinion in Part 7.
f**{t*l t"f f:
r1i fltl
tf t
rt t{l Understanding irnplication
{,lf **
{ il-{tt

Look at the photo and answer the questions.

Why might this man be in this situation'J
How do you think he might be feeling'/
What do you think his typical day is like'?


Match to make phrases.

I crime a cclnflnement

2 l'rardened b criminal
3 justice c offence

4 life d rate
5 minor e sentence

6 solitary f system

Write a word from the box in each gap to complete the sentences

charqe commit convict finds sentence

1 If the.iury you guilty, the iudge will send you to prison.

2 Nobody shoulcl be able to a crime without facing the consequences'

3 The police didn't him with anything as they had no proof.
4 The jury can't her of murder - she wasn't in the country at the time.

5 'Since it's your first offence,' said the juclge, 'I'll only you to six months in prison''

Read the paragraph and circle the conect words.

-----------o { iltrIti '- E':'riiq't for businessman

The (1) jury /judge in the case of businessman Ken that the Canadian businessman should stay behind
Ruddle have reached a guilty verdict. They were not (4) bars / walls until she was ready to pass (5) sentence /
convinced by the (2) lawyer's / cellmate's argument that punishment next week. She warned Ruddle that, in light
his client was not guilty of (3) bribery / shoplifting and ofthe seriousness ofthe offence, he should expect a term

that the money he gave to a government official was of (6) prison / imprisonment.
in the form of a loan. Judge Margaret Reynolds ruled
Unit 12

Develop your reading skills: understanding implication

Read the sentences and tick what is impliec.
1 The judge sentenced him to life imprisonment.
a He had been found guilty of a serious crime.
b He was unfairly treated by the judge

2 Most prisoners are keen to learn new skills in prison.

a Many prisoners find good jobs on release from prison
b Some prisoners have no interest in improving themselves. _
3 While in prison, Keith learned to stand up for himself.
a People in prison tried to threaten Keith.
b People in prison tried to teach Keith things.

4 A ten-year sentence is excessive for a crime such as shoplifting.

a The punishment should fit the crime.
b You shouldn't go to jail for shoplifting.
5 Olivia found the first few months inside the worst.
a Olivia eqjoyed prison after the first few months.
b Olivia got more used to prison as time passed.

f Vatcnthe sentences with what they imply.

I This was his tenth offence, but the first time he had spent any time behind bars.
2 The people who say prisons are like hotels have never spent time in one.
3 A prison offi.cer can't be a father, counsellor and teacher, too.
4 What chance does someone have re-entering the world after a ten-year sentence?
5 Prisons are often said to be a criminal's universitv.
a The writer has been in prison.
b Ex-convicts very often end up back in prison.
c Thejustice system is soft on offenders.
d Minor offenders often flnd out in prison how to carry out serious crimes.
e Prisons need specialist staffto help prisoners.

$ nead the paragraph and tick the statements which are implied.

I Reeves had never been to prison before. 4 Reeves'lawyer was upset with the judge.
, Reeves would be sharing a cell. D Reeves' lawyer had done a badjob.
3 Reeves felt very shaken by his experience. 6 Reeves had not paid his lawyer.
Understanding implication

4 tttutct each sentence with the tone of the writer. There is an extra word that you
do not need to use

angry r humorous r regretful r sad I sarcastic

I suppose what pass as necessities in prison today are en-suite showers,

internet access, colour TVs in every cell and a weekly visit from the prison barber.
What a disgrace that we feel it is acceptable to put people in solitary conflnement
for weeks on end. How exactly are such inhuman conditions meant to make anyone
a useful member of society?
The prisoners had made Christmas presents for their kids and one of them
dressed as Santa Claus and distributed the presents. After he had finished playing
his role, he waved goodbye to the guards and headed towards the visitors' exit.
I wish I had tried to reach my son sooner. By the time I got in touch he was
so angry and resentful that he hardly wanted to listen.

$ Read the sentences from exercise 4 again and tick what is implied.

1 a Prisoners are treated too easily these days.

b Prisoners are treated too harshly these days.
2 a People should not be kept in solitary confinement for as long as they are.
b We must make sure solitary conflnement is never used in prisons'
3 a Aprisonerplayedajoke.
b Aprisonertriedto escaPe.
4 a The writer and his son have a good relationship.
b The writer and his son have a bad relationship.

6 neaa the paragraphs and decide whether each idea is expressed explicitly (E) or implicitly (I).
1 The main problem with prison is boredom. I should know, I've spent enough time behind
bars. The worst of it is when you're young, because you're so full of energy. Half of the
trouble I got into was just the result of working off the energy that had built up in me from
sitting in a cell twenty-three hours a day. The other half was pure stupidity and stubbornness.
a The writer has spent many years in prison'
b The writer was a youth when he first went to prison.

2 Almost every writer who talks about their experience in prison makes some reference to the sky.
It is usually blue, infinite. Sometimes a bird flies up there and this pulls hardest at the prisoner's
heartstrings. No free man attaches quite so much signiflcance to such an everyday sight.
a The sky stands as a symbol of freedom to all prisoners.
b There are a number of people who have written about their time in jail.

3 I've visited many prisons in my time and spoken to many prisoners. What struck me for the
most part was how little of what they did was their fault. They had a bad upbringing, the
teachers at school failed them, the police were always out to get them. Some even blamed
God. Often they were completely innocent and wanted me to help them to get out. But even
those who admitted they were guilty as charged still felt they deserved to be free.
a The information the writer has about prisoners was often gained from flrst hand.
b The writer has very little sympathy for the people he has met in prison.
Unit 12

/ Reaa the paragraphs in exercise 6 again and choose the correct answers.
I Who does the writer of paragraph 1 blame for the trouble he got into as a youth in prison?
a himself
b the prison system
c both himself and the system
2 How does the writer feel about free men in paragraph 2?
a They don't make connections with what they see around them.
b They fail to appreciate the freedom that they e4joy.
c They have no intention of going back to prison.
3 What does the writer imply about convicts in paragraph 3?
a Very few of them are willing to take responsibility for their own actions.
b Many of them are in prison for crimes they did not commit.
c We should take a hard look at the system before we condemn them.

$ neaa the letter and circle the sentences that flt best.

Dear Mum,

I know it's been a week, but l've only just got a chance to sit down and write. I don't want you to
worry too much but, as you can imagine, it's not much fun here. At least I know now how bad it is
and I can face it. (1) Before I got here, it was fear of the unknown as much as anything else. /
Since it's my third time inside, nothing comes as a shock.

The only good thing is that the judge only gave me six months. l'll never forget your face as I was
led off, Mum, and I will never let you look like that again. l'll be on my best behaviour, do my time
and learn anything they're willing to teach me. (2) Then l'll be ready for a life of crime when I get
out. / Then l'll be out, ready to get a job and look after you for a change.

My cellmate's a lad from lreland, if you can believe it! We get on well. He tells me stories of lreland
that remind me of the ones you used to tell me. l'm teaching him to read and write a bit better. In
return, he let me use his camera, so l've sent you a picture of where l'm staying. (3) I'm on the top
one, and he's on the bottom. / That's the front entrance, where you'll come in when you visit.

Take care of yourself.


I Reao the letter in exercise 8 again. write five inferences we can make from it.


Understanding implication

Think abor.rt -First Paper I Part ll ancl tick the staten'rents that are true.
finderstanding implication will help you
I with questions about the consequences of actions in the text.
Skills tip
2 to see what word is a synonym of one in the text. In Fr,rst Paper 1 Paft 5,
3 to untierstand the attitude of the writer to ideas in the text. should you use your first
quick read through
4 to comprehend the general meaning of a paragraph.
a to underline words
5 to kno',v what word a particular pronoun refers to. whose meaning you
are unsure of? Yes / No

Read the paragraph and answer the question. b to get a good impression
2 of what the writer feels
about the issues raised?
We seem to have forgotten the whole idea of youthful indiscretion' How
Yes / No
many of us have done something in our youth that could have re-sulted
in a criminal charge, such as stealing a chocolate bar or buying alcohol
underage, to name a couple of examples familiar to me? This is not to say
that these should not be illegal - of course they should. But should they
really be cause for being jailed, for an end to the offender's education, for
a stigma that will follow him or her around for the next 50 years, blocking
job opportunities, careers in the public service, even voting rights?

What can you infer from the paragraph?

a The writer thinks the readers don't remetnber their youth.
b The writer believes that young offenders get off too lightly.
c The writer has spent time in an institution for young offenders.
d The writer has committed minor offences as a youth.

3 Match the incorrect answers from the question in exercise 2 with the
reasons they were incorrect.

1 This is the opposite of the point the writer is making'

2 The writer did things that'could have resulted' in a
conviction, not things that did result in a conviction.
3 The writer says this explicitly, not implicitly.

4 Choose the correct ending to complete each sentence.

I In Fris/ Paper 1 Part 6, understanding implication will help you
a recognise implicit content in missing sentences.
b understand what reference words in missing sentences link to.
2 ln Frrsf Paper 1 Part 7, understanding implication will help you
a n'ratch less obvious elements such as attitude and opinion.
b spot rephrased elements from the texts in the questions.
Unit 12

Exam practice:
Part 5
You are going to read an article about private prisons. For questions l-6,
choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think best fits accorcling to the text

tlte solution?
With a prowen preferencefor all things prioatised, the government is turning its eye
on prisons again. But canAmerica's experience teach us something?

There are now around '100,000 prisoners in private prisons the prison no longer makes financial sense, they may pull
in the US, ranging from young offender institutions to out, leaving local authorities to foot the bill.
high security facilities for the most hardened criminals:
The prison system itself can also suffer when its aim is
murderers and those who have committed other serious
profit and not the rehabilitation of prisoners. lt costs less if
crimes. The prison population in the US has seen a
you can put more people in each prison cell, even though
small decrease over the past two years, after decades of
experience has shown that this leads to victimisation and
consistent and continuous groMh. This is partly due to a
a rise in gang culture. Fewer prison guards means a lower
drop in crime rates and partly from a general recognition on
wages bill, even if it puts the few remaining guards at
the part of state and federal government that putting petty
greater risk. Problem cases are more and more frequently
criminals behind bars was the least effective way to deal
dealt with with extended periods of solitary confinement,
with crime. lt is, however, bad news for private prisons.
which is known to worsen depression, antisocial feeling
Private prisons are run like any other business, which and violent tendencies.
means they need customers. What is unusual about
This latter tactic is being used more and more frequently
them, though, is that their customers don't really want to
with young offenders, a group that even the most cynical
use their services; the criminal who volunteers to go to
would admit has the best chance of escaping from the
jail is the exception to the rule. The private prison system
vicious circle of crime and punishment. lt has also been
relies on the justice system of judges, juries and lawyers
shown that teenagers suffer these bad reactions even
to provide them with the customers they need in order to
after temporary isolation, and that it can trigger or worsen
remain profitable. This means that there is a group pushing
mental illness in them. But solitary confinement is the
for longer and more frequent prison sentences that is not
easiest way to deal with such problems and it is often used
motivated by ideology, but by money.
as a threat and as punishment, since being alone is what
It leads to some deep conflicts of interest for governments, they dread the most.
the justice system and the general public. Two of the
We need to decide once and for all what we want from
biggest private prison companies have been involved in
our orisons. When we convict someone of a crime and
lobbying the government for longer sentences and for the
sentence them to imprisonment, are we simply saying we
creation of new crimes. One extreme case involved bribery:
want them off the streets for six months, two years or even
two judges were paid to send 2,000 youths to a private
for life? Do we want someone who commits a crime to
prison for juvenile offenders, some for offences as minor
fear doing it again because prison is so terrifying? To some
as stealing some DVDs. There are also whole towns that
extent, perhaps we do. But surely, in this day and age,
depend on their prisons for employment, which creates
revenge, punishment, public protection and deterrence are
an unhealthy need for prisoners in the wider community.
not the only reasons for putting the guilty in prison. lf we
Such towns have often helped build the private prisons
believe in people's capacity for change, we must commit
with public o[ more often, borrowed money, in an effort to
to the rehabilitation that prisons can offer, and that is
attract the private prison company. lf the company decides
something that private prisons are unable to do.
Understanding irnplication

What can we understand from the first In the fourth paragraph, it is implied that
paragraph? A public prisons don't use solitary confinement.
A The US justice system is less likely today to B prison officers in private prisons get lower
jail people for minor offences' wages.
B Record numbers of people are serving C the best way to deal with violent offenders
sentences in US Prisons. is to isolate them.
C Private prisons in the US are generally used D private prisons are more dangerous and
for specialtyPes of Prisoner. violent than Public ones.
D The US government intends to imprison a According to the writer, teenage offenders
larger number of crtminals. A only become violent after long periods in
Who are the 'customers' in the second solitary confinement.
paragraph? B are more likely to be rehabilitated than other
A prisoners criminals.
B judges C need time alone to think about their actions.
C volunteers D usually suffer from serious mental illness.
D orison workers What does the writer believe about the public
Towns with private prisons have an interest in prison system?
prison sentencing because A lts sole purpose is to make sure prisoners
A many local restdents work in the prisons. never reoffend.
B some citizens have family in jail. B lts programme must include some form of
C the prison authorities will help them to higher education.
borrow money. C lf privatised, it will not be able to perform its
D they don't want to see more prisons built. vital role.
D lts role is to punish offenders and offer
revenge to victims.

Skills tip
With questions that ask you what the writer 'implies',
what you can 'infer', what is 'suggested' or what can
be 'understood' from a part of the text, don't search
for the part of the text where one of the options is
mentioned. In fact, if you find an exact match, it's a
good clue that that option is NOT the correct answer.
Try to think generally about the impression, feeling
and meaning you got from the phrase, sentence,
paragraph or entire text, Once you have a clear idea
of it. look at the options and choose the one that is
closest to what you were thinking.

Unit 1
1 group effort
Exam focus
lmprove your reading skills 2 exactly the same time
1B 2A 3A 48 3 eight
1A 28 3A,B 48 58 68 7A
4 six to eight
Get started 5 wooden
6 the catch 3
The photo shows a relay race.
1 on a beach or in a oark
Students' own answers to remaining 7 the release
B muscle training
2 five players in each team
3 hitting the ball. serve the ball. throwing
Develop your vocabulary the ball. pass the ball
1f 2e 3c 4d 5b 6a 4 use a lot of energy. helos to be tall
5 5 oass the ball to one another
1 lose
a disappointing loss 6 throwing the ball in one of the two
2 keep b thrilling overtime baskets
3 defeat
c Stadium: national championship 7 server
4 hold d broken ankle B olaced at each end of the cour1. olaced
5 score e wins big three metres high
2 f Training: to start Skills tip
1 participants
6 a Yes, b Yes
2 teamwork
1a 2d
3 talents
4 group
5 championship
1F 2T 3T 4F 5F 6T
6 strategy I
7 positions Player Andy Beth Paul
B tough
I contact Sport basketball cycling polo
10 helmets
Practice weekdays Mondays weekends
Develop your reading skills days ano

1 Rene Lucci, football, scored winning Practice an nour two hours three hours
goal length and a half (twice
2 Alan Lock, sailing, record holder a weeK)
3 Don Clark, bowling, won top prize
Likes having practising belng with
4 Babe Ruth, baseball, scored 714 home
energy wnenever his horse
throughout she likes
5 Ann Meyers, basketball, first high
the day
school student on US national team
6 Antonio Diez, water polo, won gold Dislikes waking up some field not
medal eany teammates maintained
2 don't meet well
14,5 every weeK
23 I
3 2,4,5,6 information to be ticked: 2,4,5,7
56 2 primary school puoils
65 4 involves hitting another plaver
5 balls cannot be kicked nor can thev be
thrown at oeople's heads on purpose
7 if they catch your ball. you're out
Answer key

Exam practice Develop your vocabulary 5

1 B 'The main responsibility of a team 1 (Possible extra words in italics) 1c 2d 3t 4a
captain, in my opinion, is to be Accommodation: guest house, hotel, 6
optimistic that the team can win. So, s-star, motel, bed and breakfast Sentence a = Text 4 (before the sentence
before every game, I give a little PeP Travel ling: commute, luggage, fl i ght, beginning, 'ln the West... .')
talk to the team to motivate them.' journey, trip, timetable Sentence b = Text 3 (after the sentence
and 'l'm there to tell them it's all right Problems: delays, fet lag, travel sickness, ending, 'careful about what you eat and
when they make a mistake, to give stress, cancel/ations drink.')
them praise for a lob well done, to keep 2 Sentence c = Text 1 (after the sentence
pushing them. That kind of suPPott l goin ending, 'for just t69 return, if you book in
is essential if you want a chance of 2goon advance.')
winning the league.' 3 journey Sentence d = Text 2 (at the end of the text)
2 D 'l've got several players who want to 4 travel 7
be strikers ... A key part of my job is to 5 go with the Suggested answers
make tough decisions about their roles'. Sentence a ('The business card', 'ln
3 A 'l'm the only person on my team who Asia, these are usually .. . accepted with
1 exotic
can talk to the ref, and I always do that both hands.', 'ln the West, we might
2 luxurious
with the utmost politeness and respect, casually accept... .')
3 foreign
even if I strongly disagree with the call Sentence b ('Stomach problems', 'be
4 local
that's been made.' avoided, if you are careful about what
4 C 'And the rules allow us to use Develop your reading skills you eat and drink.', 'recommend avoiding
our whole body in order to stop an salads...may contain the bacteria', 'water
opponent dead in their tracks. One that is not as pure as it should be.')
Suggested answers
issue I face as team captain is what to Sentence c ('flights from London to
1 The benefits of train/rail travel
do about that.' Glasgow for just t69', 'the price of petrol
2 The increased number of business trips
5 A'Before the match, | ... decide on the or a return train ticket would cost a great
taken by air / The Past, Present and
main strategy. ... During the match, I deal more.')
future of air travel for business people
need to constantly check players are Sentence d ('every little event', 'can
3 Commuting in the past
sticking to the strategy we decided on'. cause more anger and stress.', 'these all
4 (Lesser-known) health concerns related
6 D 'Top footballers these days have the add up and cause an angry response'')
to driving
money and fame of royalty, and quite a
2 8
few of the players at my level aspire to
Suggested answers Suggested answers
be like them. Basically, they all want to
1 less pollution, fewer traffic jams, less 1 Being late for an appointment or meeting
be stars!'
stress, working/relaxing on the train' 2 lt may have been made with
7 C 'l tell my team to generally play it
shorter journey times, saving money on contaminated water.
safe, because what good are they to
petrol, etc 3 Because in some cultures You are
the rest of the team when they've been
2 speed, comfort, globalisation, aircraft expected to remove Your shoes in
carried off on a stretcher?'
types, multinational businesses, certain rooms.
8 A'During the match, I need to
accommodation, foreign cultures, ticket 4 t69
constantly check players are sticking
prices, statistics on the number of 5 Up to half
to the strategy we decided on - but
flights per year, etc 6 The road space their car occuPies
without too much micro-management,
and being flexible dePending on 3 problems/advantages of commuting
Exam focus
years ago, (lack of) comfort, safety/
the situation.'
dangers, journey time, etc 1
9 B'So, before every game, I give a little
4 problems caused by sitting down for 1 business people
pep talk to the team to motivate them''
long periods, air pollution, loud music, 2 positive and negative aspects
10 C 'l do my best to make sure . .. that the
first-aid kit is well stocked!' stress, road rage, etc 2
3 1 Paragraph 3
Article 1: c, f, a 2 Paragraphs 4, 5 and 6
Unit 2 Article 2: b, e, d 3 Paragraphs 5, 6 and 7
4 Paragraphs 1 and2
lmprove your reading skills 3
Suggested answers
1B 2B 3B 4A 1 The advantages of business air travel Suggested answers
2 (Explanations for) bad behaviour among 1 'People who take the train or drive long
Get started
drivers / road rage distances to meetings'
Students' own answers
3 lllnesses that frequent business 2 'less healthy food', 'sweets and
travellers suffer from snacks', 'fruit or a salad', 'Fitness
4 Examples of cultural differences (and Centre', 'healthier options on hotel
their importance to business travellers) menus', 'the healthiest meal', 'eat half a
portion', 'walking as much as possible'
3 the opinions of Fiona Valentine and 4 B The first sentence in the paragraph 3
Daniel Long talks about food and exercise from Suggested answers
4 'jetting off to a foreign country,' 'flying the point of view of a fitness expert. 1 in 2012
through drfferent time zones can cause The next sentence mentions loss of 2 things young people have to face in
jet lag', 'links between flying and', ,on a motivation to keep fit. The missing their everyday lives
long-haul flight' (Note that flying is also sentence refers to the problem people 3 writing and directing
mentioned in Paragraph 3 but this is not have with their fitness regime when they 4 They have a negative image of young
the main topic of the paragraph.) are 'away from home'. The sentence people.
4 after the gap follows chronologically 5 positive
Suggested answers with 'Then, when they return' and the 6 They worked with energy and
Gap 1 b - The whole of the paragraph mention of getting back to their routine. enthusiasm.
up to the gap is about the location and 5 D The missing sentence refers to
nearby amenities. lt would be unusual 'how many kilometres you can
1 tackle
to change the subject at this point, but cover' at an airport. This follows the
2 issues
guests at this hotel would want to know recommendation to walk 'as much as
3 an awful lot
how accessible it is. possible' while travelling.
4 stage
Gap 2 c - The sentences before and after 6 F The missing sentence contains
5 threw themselves into it
the gap are about the hotel's facilities. lt the idea of a place to stay with 'a bit
6 set up
would be odd to introduce either of the more character'. This contrasts with
other two options in the middle of this the sentence before the gap, which
paragrapn. mentions hotel chatns being 'pretty
1N 2P 3N 4P 5P
much the same everywhere'. After the 6
Suggested answers
gap, we have examples of 'character' 1b 2a 3b 4c 5b
in 'a family-run guest house', as well as
Gap 1 Both the airport and the railway Exam focus
the idea of meeting 'local people'.
station are close to the hotel and can be
reached by taxi or bus.
sentences to be ticked: 3, 4 and 6
Gap 2 In addition, there is a conference
room / a snack bar / 24-hour reception Unit 3 Skills tip
service / room service / etc. a No, b Yes
lmprove your reading skills
Skills tip 1A 28 38 4A
a Yes, b Yes 1b 2d 3e 4a 5c
6 Get started 3
1F 2T 31 4T Students' own answers Students'own answers
Exam practice Develop your vocabulary
1 C The preceding paragraph is clearly 1

about the health risks involved with 1 industry Exam practice

flying. This sentence concludes the 2 media 1 C The viewer says 'l discuss tactical
section with its references to flying 3 fan voting strategies with other bloggers
'many times a year' and 'the risks'. 4 red-carpet and we do our best to help our
After the gap, the writing moves away 5 networking favourites win!' In this way, they can
from flying as a means of transport. 6 judging 'get the results they want'.
2 G The sentence before the gap talks 2 2 D A 'setback' is a problem or a change
about the health issues associated with '1
celebrity for the worse and the record producer
taking the train or driving. The missing 2 eye mentions how CDs and DVDs 'knocked
sentence continues this idea with 'even 3 performance [the music industry] off its feet'. This
a short daily commute' and the jdea 4 costume section also talks about new social
of raised blood pressure. After the 5 talented media being a'threat'.
gap, this is echoed in the reference to 6 audiences 3 D The record producer says that the
increased stress levels. music industry was 'very slow to adapt
3 A The paragraph is about food. The to the new ways' and explains how they
1c 2d 3a 4b 5e
sentence before the gap talks about tried to 'stamp out' certain consumer
eating while travelling and the missing Develop your reading skills activities. He/She goes on to say that
sentence continues this idea with ,And they changed their tactics, using the
when they reach their destination', word 'Then'to indicate what they did
followed by a further reference to food
1b 2c 3a 4e 5d
('a big meal'). 2
1 very loud
2 reserving a ticket
3 how many people watch a show
4 although
5 very
Answer key
4 A The television executive talks about a 2 2
'golden age' which is a reference to the 1 gain Being the best candidate for the job is
past and the question uses ,used to,, 2 apply one thing. That alone is not of much help.
which also refers to the past. HelShe 3 land however. if you cannot persuade your
goes on to say that 'audiences today 4 attend ootential emolover that no-one else can
are far more sophisticated and no longer 5 send do the job better than you. This applies ...
accept the idea of being spoon{ed their 6 offers
entertainment.' This is another way of
3 o
saying that in the past viewers accepted
1 opportunity
'whatever was offered to them., 4
2 employer
5 C The viewer comments on the 1c 2a 3b
3 promotion
presentation of entedainment acts. Hel 5
4 position
She says, 'l blog about whether the 1 Part 6
5 salary
performance is any good, what the 2 Paft7
costumes are like ...'. 3 Part 6
6 B The actress says 'l have to be Develop your reading skills
very careful about striking a balance Exam practice
between being a celebrity and a private 1 B 'when many of my friends were
person' and the question says that this
1c 2a 3b 4b enjoying what they termed their "final
person 'finds it difficult to separate their 2 year of freedom", I was attending career
home life from their work'.
c 2d 3a 4b 5e fairs'.
7 B The actress says 'the job .. . involves 3 2 D 'when I got home and found...,
a great deal of self-promotion' and 1a 2d 3c I made the pragmatic decision to widen
talks about 'keeping yourself in the 4 my focus considerably.'
public eye.' She also says that she 1 education
3 B 'Monday to Friday, I put in nine-to-
uses Twitter to publicise her work. All 2 spell, (simple) arithmetic five days (with a break for lunch) filling
of these are ways of 'maintaining her 3 (modern) technology out online application forms, sending
position in the industry'. 4 tests out CVs and following leads.'
B D The record producer talks about 4 C 'working as an unpaid intern' means
'the unstoppable rise of new social the same as 'work for six months or a
1 SD, MI
networking sites as well as devices year without remittance'. The writer says
2 MI, SD
such as smadphones and tablet pCs, the same thing in two different ways.
3 SD, MI
which give people easy access' and 5 A'Compare notes with university
4 SD, MI
repeats this idea later in the text: friends and you will find many are going
'the new ways in which people use 6 through the same thing.'
technology to access entertainment.' 1c 2b 3a 4d 6 D 'l could look back at my six months
9 A The television executive says iyou 7 of unemployment as a waste of time,
have to come up with exciting new 1 Tom McGregor but I prefer to see it as a learning curve
formats to keep the viewers tuned in', 2 at11am on Friday and a growth experience.'
which means the same as ,fresh ideas 3 t15,000
to keep people interested'. 4 He was arrested. llF
10 B The actress 'tries to involve [her] 5 He is a university graduate. UNIT 5
followers as much as possible' by 6 He had no job or money.
publicising her work [on Twitter] so lmprove your reading skills
I 1A 28 38 4A
that she can keep her ,fan base up to Suggested answer
date'. She explains that she wants her A university graduate robbed a bank and Get started
fans to 'feel that they're a part of the nearly got away with t15,000. Students'own answers
entertainment world, too.'
Exam focus Develop your vocabulary

Unit 4 1

1 beginning

1 saut6
2 atter 2 roast
lmprove your reading skills
3 Examples grill
1A 28 38 4A
4 Reasons
4 steam
Get star.ted 5 why the writer said something 5 consume
Students' own answers Skills tip 6 boil
a Yes, b No
Develop your vocabulary

1b 2e 3c 4a 5d
2 2 A The writer says, 'l started to consume 2
1 dietary less and less meat', which refers to a 1a 2b 3a 4c
2 savoury gradual process.
3 sprinkle 3 B Examples of vegetarian dishes in the 'I and
4 tasteless text are 'broccoli...with rice and soy 2 As a result
5 dressing sauce" 'courgettes and aubergines in 3 Because of
6 spicy olive oil and basil', 'vegetable soup with 4 However
7 greasy pasta, creamy mushroom soup and
5 In fact
B vegan spicy cabbage soup'.
9 tinned 4
4 B The writer says that there are too
1 However
many vegetarians who 'believe that their
Develop your reading skilts 2he
way of eating is superior to any other.'
3 This
1 This refers to them being arrogant.
1d 2b 3g 4 but/although
4h 5f 6c 7 a 8 e 5 D The text says 'for vegetarianism to
5 buValthough
2 take root in society', and then goes
1 opinion article on to say 'for all to enjoy'. The second 5
2 advert part is a key phrase because it means 1No
3 email that vegetarianism would become 2 Yes
4 encyclopaedia 'established' in this way. 3No
5 report 6 D The writer expresses a summarising 4No
6 novel opinion in the middle paragraph, 6
'What I discovered is that maintaining Suggested answers
a vegetarian diet is not only healthy, 1 factories need to use cleaner forms of
1F 21 3T 4T 5T 6F
delicious and inexpensive, it's also energy.
4 abundant in variety.' He goes on to 2 we have to do something about it
a opinion adicle make a suggestion at the end of the quickly.
b persuasive adicle article. 'So, I propose that we, the 3 a lot of these chemicals are harmful to
c news article vegetarians of the world ... should humans and animals.
d story become more relaxed about our meat- 4 thankfully most bird species are not in
5 eating counterparts'. danger for now.
1c 2a,b,c 3b 4d 5c 6d 5 they don't do enough to protect the
6 envrronment.
1c 2c 3d 4a 5b 6a,b Tnone Unit6 6 this has changed since the industrial
Snone 9b 10b revolution.
lmprove your reading skills
7 7
1B 2A 3B 4A
a 2b 3a 4a 5b 6a 7a Ba 1 However/Nevertheless/Nonetheless
Get started 2 because
1e 2d 3a 4t 3 they
5g 6b 7c Students'ownanswers
4 Also/Moreover/Fudhermore
9 Develop your vocabulary 5 but
1 6it
Exam focus 1b 2e 3a 4c 5d 7 Despite
1 2 I
a 1 set up 1 Yes
2 deforestation 2 No (although 'This can only be
3 smog achieved' fits grammatically, the ending
4 visibility 'if people learn to respect their own
5 habitat environment.' doesn't logically connect
1B 2C 3A 4B 5D with the idea of richer countries
6 extinct
Skills tip 7 crops repaying poorer countries)
a Yes, b No 8 mining 3 Yes
4 9 shodage
b Exam focus
10 pesticides
Exam practice Develop your reading skills sentences to be ticked: 2,3,4,5,6
1 C When the writer says, 'l wouldn't
want to force my dietary beliefs upon
1 Skills tip
1 commitment a No, b Yes
them', he's saying he will eat what his
2 results 2
friends prepare in order to be polite.
3 endangered species (suggested answer)
4 fossil fuels It's a photograph of the Earth from space.
5 damage
6 pollution
Answer key
3 3 Exam focus
D 1d 2a 3e 4c 5b 1

Develop your reading skills
1a 2b 3a
sentences to be ticked: 1,2,3,5
(suggested answers for notes) 1
sentences to be ticked: 1, 3 and 4
1 'clear image of it' and 'The photo' (see 1F 20 3F
also the answer to 5) 40 50 6F 3

2 'The photo' and 'lt was taken' 2

1a 2b 3a 4a
3 'lt was taken' Suggested answers 4
5 'image' and 'photo', 'tiny blue planet' 1 whether opera is part of the country's 1 shameful (2b)
and 'small and fragile' traditional cultural life or not 2 Most people agree (3a)
2 The writer thinks that this is partly true. 3 should (4a)
3 Opera isn't open to people from all 4 Unfortunately (1a)
backgrounds or to younger people. Skills tip
Exam practice 4 Yes. He or she says that there's a a No, b No, c Yes
1 C The first paragraph says 'There lot to be done to encourage greater 5
were two closely-related reasons'. The participation. 1F 2F 3T 4T
second paragraph starts with 'The 5 the role of education and the role of the
first of these was'. The first gap has to opera community itself in encouraging Exam practice
introduce the second reason. After the dra4tar intaraai 1 D The writer explains that people in
gap,'Manufacturing processes' relates 6 They have not done enough to their country use 'the skills which have
to'industry'. encourage people to enjoy opera. been passed down to us from our
2 F 'This was founded' refers to the 3 parents' and grandparents' generations
Sierra Club. sentences to be ticked: 1,2,3, 4,6 and 9 to create works of ad.' This means the
3 A The Sierra Club was founded in the same as 'today's cultural activities are
USA. After the gap, it talks about green influenced by their ancestors'.
Suggested answers
organisations 'on both sides of the 2 B The writer states that 'The downside
1 Personally, I think it's difficult to learn
Atlantic', so we need a sentence in the of this, it seems to me, is that, as the
anything significant about a culture as
gap that introduces the idea of either country has become wealthier, many
a tourist.
the UK or Europe. of our customs and even our values
2 | suppose the main cultural aspects
4 G 'The city' refers back to 'London' and have changed.'This means the same
which can express national identity are
'England's capital', 'its problems' refers as 'prosperity has affected traditions
language. customs and cuisine.
back to 'air pollution' and 'tragedy' refers and beliefs'.
3 I'm not sure that traditional cultures
back to 'thousands of people had died'. 3 A The writer says 'Although we are
have much of a future in the modern
5 E 'this publication' refers back to 'a one of the smaller north European
book...called Silent Spring' . countries, we have probably made a
4 | would suggest that there's little point
6 B The first two sentences of the final larger contrrbution to Europe's cultural
in preserving a culture if people have
paragraph refer to the past. The traditions than our geographically larger
changed their way of life.
sentences after the gap refer to now. neighbours' and the question asks for a
The gap has to introduce the concept 5 comparison between 'the small size of
of now ('Today'). Also, 'no shortage 1 their country' and 'its influence on the
of...groups' relates to 'But, even with aG,bP surrounding region'.
thousands of green organisations'. 2 4 D The writer explains that the kites
aP,bG at the festival 'are believed to send
a message to the gods asking for a
Unit 7 3
guvw k^.,,^-+
I rot vc-t. '

5 C The 'difficult past' mentioned in the

lmprove your reading skills 4 question refers to 'a long and troubled
1B 2A 3B 4A aBbG history' and 'war and bloodshed' in the
6 history of Armenia. And the 'cultural
Get started
Students' own answers
1a 2b heritage' of the question refers to a
7 phrase in the text which talks about
Develop your vocabulary t hugely how Armenia is 'rich in tradition'.
2 relaxed 6 A The writer describes how the
celebration of Juhannus is 'a mixture of
1b 2a 3b 4b 5a 3 perfectly
the 1,000-year old Christian influence
4 overweight
2 and the remains of old Finnish pagan
.1 5 pleasant
customs traditions.' This is a combination of an
2 values 8
ancient and a more modern religion.
3 roots 1b 2b 3b 4a 5b
4 rituals 9
5 die out 1b 2e 3a 4c
7 A The event in question is the 3 4 A This sentence follows naturally
celebration of Juhannus. The writer 1c 2a 3e 4b 5d from the discussion of Nightingale's
explains that it was originally called 4 philosophy of patient care. The
'Ukon juhla' and that at a later date 1b 2c 3a 4e 5d sentence that follows the gap shows
it was named 'Juhannus' after John how the graduates of the Nightingale
the Baptist. School (mentioned in the missing
1 was entering
8 B 'prestige' means honour or sentence) did well and moved on to
2 had/'d graduated
respect and this text explains how higher posts.
3 had not/hadn't prepared
'every musician on the islands fights 5 F The missing sentence gives an
4 Will/Can you take
for the honour of being named example of the 'massive improvement'
6 \^rra at.n.lin^
"Calypso Monarch"'. (in soldiers' health in India) mentioned
6 had/'d had
9 B lf a cultural event 'brings ... people ... immediately before the gap.
7 jumped
together' it unites them. The writer says 6 E The sentence before the gap talks
B has/'s been
that 'two things unite everyone in this about how Nightingale was ill and
country' and explains that these factors 6 bedridden. The missing sentence
are calypso music and the celebration 1 previously talks about 'being in great pain' and
of carnival. 2 meanwhile continuing to work from her sick bed.
10 C This text mentions 'Greek, Persian, 3 then
Turkish and Arab influences' as having 4 next
an effect on Armenia's 'cuisine, our folk 5 finally Unit 9
dancing and music and our beautiful, 7
bright traditional costumes'. The 1b 2a 3d 4e 5c lmprove your reading skills
question also talks about 'all aspects of
1A 2B 3B 4A
their culture'. 1b 2c Get started
I Students' own answers
Unit 8 1b 2a
Develop your vocabulary
lmprove your reading skills 1d 2a 1

1B 28 3A 4A 1d 2t 39 4a 5h 6j 7c 8e
Exam focus 9b 10 i

Get started 1 2
Students'own answers sentences to be ticked: 1, 3, 4 and 6 1up
Skills tip 2up
Develop your vocabulary
a Yes, b No 3 off
1c 2b 3e 4d 5a 6f 2
5 out
1 natural 3 Develop your reading skills
2 public 1a 2b 3c 4a 5c 1

3 bedside 4 1 Celebrities are often surrounded by

4 mortality 1F 2F 3T 4T symbols of wealth. For example, if
5 Life you visit their luxurious homes, you will
6 nurse Exam practice probably see expensive sports cars
1 B The paragraph talks about her narkad nr ricido
education. The missing sentence 2 When actors achieve fame, the signs
lists the subjects which made up her of attaining success aren't hard to
education. In the sentence after the spot. For instance, when they go out
gap, 'The last of these ...' refers to in public, the paparazzi may follow
4 from
'mathematics'. them, or fans will aooroach them for
5 after
2 G The missing sentence tells us how autograpns.
6 away
she 'used her growing fame to great 3 A-list stars are the most famous of
Develop your reading skills effect' by being instrumental in having a actors, such as the ones who star in
field hospital designed. big Hollywood productions and the
3 D The sentence before the gap is about ones whose names always appear in
1 beginners
Nightingale's book, Nofes on Nursing. the papers.
2 pulled muscle
The first sentence of the paragraph 4 Celebrities can find themselves in
3 push
which follows the gap continues talking danger due to their star status. One
4 exercise
about it. The missing sentence must instance of this is when a stalker
2 therefore also be about her book: 'lt is terrorises their everyday lives or when
1a 2b 3b 4a still in prini'. they receive threatening mail.
Answer key

5 These simple steps to success are I 6 D lmmediately after the phrase '15
essential for any actor who wants to 1b 2a 3c 4e 5d minutes of fame' is used in the text, the
succeed in the world of acting. Firstly, I writer says 'So soon after becoming a
an actor must work hard at his or her a,c,d star'. This refers to the short amount of
etalt. Secondly, he or she must actively time Katie spent as a celebrity.
seek auditions. And thirdly, they need
Suggested answers
iust a bit of luck. 1B 2B 3B 4B 5D 6BorD
6 They say that nothing in life is free
78 8D Unit 10
and the same applies to fame. This
can be seen in the way celebrities 11 lmprove your reading skills
oay thousands of pounds to look Suggested answers 1B 28 3A 4A
their best. including the fees they sentences to be ticked: 2, 4,5,6 and 7
Get started
must pay to managers. lawvers and
Exam focus Students' own answers
personal assistants.
2 Develop your vocabulary
For example, For instance, such as, One 'l
instance of this, Firstly, Secondly, thirdly,
1C 2D 3A 4C
1 take
This can be seen 3
2 make
1 jogging through the neighbourhood,
3 3go
taking kids to school
4 course
2 shredding documents, burning things
assaulted a fan 3 overly-devoted fan, dangerous admirers 2
numerous unpaid bills 1 qualification(s)
Skills tip
uncontrolled aggressive behaviour 2 qualified
a No, b Yes
2 3 graduation
4 4 graduate
best-selling book
creative writing professor
1c 2a 3b 5 education
literary genius 6 educated
Exam practice
1 C Katie's one extraordinary feature 3
avoids the spotlight was 'her ability to sing. That was the 1to
lives in isolation one superstar trait Katie would ever 2 for
turns down award possess'. A 'superstar trait' is an 3 option
extraordinary feature or quality. 4 market
2 A Katie's response, "'Oh, thanks, but 5 level
massive crowd
packed audience you know, I'm just a small-town girl.
Develop your reading skills
record ticket sales I'm not the celebrity type," Katie replied
with a shy smile', suggests she was
4 1 ln addition
reserved or shy.
Suggested answer 2 Because of this
3 C The tanned man's offer, "'We'll
The first extract has no examples and 3 However
arrange everything for you. We'll pick
the second extract is full of examples, 4 At that time
you up, record some songs and if at any
including the specific venue and the 5 lt might be better to go
point you don't feel comfortable about
names of those who attended the event. 6 After
anything, we'll call it quits, no worries"',
5 was honest in nature and included an 2
Suggested answer easy way out for Katie if she didn't like 1 Because of this
The second extract is more successful it. This indicates that Katie was under no 2 In addition, Also, Furthermore
in describing the event because it gives obligation to the man. 3 For instance
specific examples which makes it more 4 D The text says that, 'Katie had an 4 On the other hand, However
interesting for the reader. instant fan base, full of people who could 5 lt might be better to go
6 relate to her. . .'. However, it also says 6 At that time, Once you have gone,
th 2g 3c,f,i 4d 5e,a 6b that, 'media criticism was harsh, even Before, After
7 unfair, regarding her appearance.' This 3
1 alert the press to where they're means that the response was neither 1b
going, celebrity wedding, wearing an wholly negative nor wholly positive which 2 both
outrageous outfit is the same as'a mixed response.' 3a
2 the courtship, the wedding 5 B The text says that 'Katie's life had 4 both
announcement, the enormous ring, the gone from a simple, quiet existence to a
pre-nuptial agreement thrilling wild ride and finally to what she 6a
3 Journalists make a big fuss; OR, the star considered to be a terrible curse'. In the
gets their photo in all the magazines. end, her life had become a nightmare.
4 a bad reputation
4 10 3 The writer will probably write about
a Vocational training. for example, is Suggested answers degrees which do not lead to a job.
increasingly important. Paragraph 1: narrative writing - 'Frrst of Archaeology graduates could be similar
b A little less than 1,000 years ago, all', 'Then, as James later found out', to graduates in another field.
universities began to be pooular 'had convinced', 'Everyone seemed to be 'Unsuccessful' probably refers to
throughout Eurooe. deciding', 'nobody was thinking', 'ln the finding a job.
c The technological age has had a huge end', 'lt was only later that' 4 The writer could add one further
effect on education. with the rise of the Paragraph 2: argumentative (discursive) advantage of distance learning courses.
internet making arguablv the biggest writing -'First of all', 'Secondly', 'which Alternatively, there could be a 'change
difference. can', 'Then', 'ln addition', 'However' of direction' preceded, for example, by
d According to his autobiography. 11 'However' or'On the other hand', where
Charlton's college education was never Suggested answers the writer adds a negative aspect.
about getting a iob. '1 ... there are times when it is good to Clues to this could be found in the
5 share the opinions of others. sentence after the gap.
1a 2bandd 3c 2 ... it will give you a better chance of 3
6 finding a good job. 1c 2a 3d 4b
Suggested answers 3 ... he decided to follow his dream and 4
1 'Although we tend to think', 'there is study poetry. All four points should be ticked.
more to it than that', 'for example', 'We 4 ... have mobility problems or family
have long recognised', etc obligations. Exanr practice
2 ffext b) Past tenses, e.g. 'began', 'was/ 5 ... still manage to study regularly, you 1 C The words 'similarly successful'
were', 'continued'. Time references, e.g. should make the most of meeting new in the missing sentence refer back
'A little less than 1,000 years ago', 'by people. to 'close to 100%o of graduates' in
the end of the 1 Bth century' 6 ... however, she felt as though she the main text. Also the phrase 'these
[|ext d) Past tenses, e.g. 'was', belonged there. subjects' in the missing sentence refers
'believed'. Time references, e.g. back to 'medicine, including dentistry'
Exanr focus and 'these fields' in the preceding
3 Narrative: Past tenses, e.g. 'took', 'has/ 1 paragraph. Note too that after the gap,
have had'. Time references c n 'in thc 1 The text is about higher education the writer changes the subject ('On the
past' and whether or not it is a good idea. other hand,') to talk about degrees that
Argumentative: 'To take just one The type of writing is argumentative/ are less likely to lead to a job.
example', 'This is in sharp contrast with' discursive. 2 F The phrase 'not in demand' in the
7 2 missing sentence echoes 'less likely to
1 feelings in a narrative the benefits of having a higher education: find a job' in the text before the gap and
- Text d - would fit
Paragraphs 1,2,4,7 previews the sentence after the gap.
equally well after sentence 1,2,3 or 4
2 examples - Text a - after sentence 2 or the negatrve aspects of higher education: The missing sentence also introduces
Paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 6 narrative writing with the present
at the end of the paragraph
narrative writing (in the past tense): pedect ('have found out'), which is
3 a contrasting idea - Text b - after
sentence 2 Paragraphs 2, 3 then continued in the simple past after
4 events in a narrative - Text c your choice of degree course: Paragraphs the gap.
- after
sentence 2 or 3 2,3, 4 3 A The phrase 'less than ideal for you'
money: Paragraph 6 echoes 'may not be your first choice'
which appears in the text before the
Suggested answers Skills tip
gap. 'However,' adds a condition to
1 Topic sentence: There was a lot of a Yes, b No
the sentence before the gap. The
pressure on James to go to university. / 2 meaning of the missing sentence then
James was the only person who didn't Suggested answers links with the opening sentence of the
want to go to university. / James 1 The most frequent difficulty paragraph after the gap, 'not everyone
strongly objected to going on to higher encountered is one concerning is suited to'.
education, etc academic work. 4 D The missing sentence provides
2 Topic sentence: Study groups have You would want to avoid failing exams examples of the main idea which
a number of benefits. / There are a or missing work. appears in the text before the gap, 'not
number of advantages to studying in a 2 The writer will probably write about everyone is suited to another three
group. / Studying with other people is good universities. lt is possible that the
or four years of study. Some people
generally a good idea. writer might change direction here and are better off not continuing their
9 talk about bad universities (introduced, education'. The sentences after the gap
.1 for example, by 'However' or 'On the
Paragraph is about someone who went add more examples of thrs.
to Oxford University although he didn't other hand'), but the sentence after
wanl to. the gap begins with 'However', so this
Paragraph 2 is about the benefits (and is unlikely.
one drawback) of study groups.
Answer key
5 B The phrase 'financially secure' in the 4 Exam practice
missing sentence echoes the subject 1S 2S 3S 4M 5M 6S 1 B This text talks about 'so many
of the paragraph, which is money. After 5 different types of cookers and ovens
the gap, the writer changes direction
1F 2T 3F 4T 5T 6F - gas or electric, with or without a fan
to talk about the benefits of higher oven, a microwave, etc.' This means
education. that there is a wide 'variety' available.
1 like
6 G The missing sentence provides an 2 D Several references in the text justify
2 only
example of the 'benefits' mentioned this answer. 'Computers have begun
3 also
before the gap. After the gap, there is a to replace many other devices around
fudher example.
the home, making them obsolete.' and
5 more
'Who needs all those gadgets of the
past ... when the computer can perform
Unit 11 7 better
8 most
all their functions and more?'
3 A When talking about the washing
lmprove your reading skills 7 machine, the writer says 'There is little
1B 2A 3B 48 1 more room (item 5), better than ever doubt that the housewives of the past
(item 7) would have been delighted to use a
Get started 2 the most important (item B) modern washing machine'.
Students' own answers 3 it's your best friend 4 A In this text the writer describes a
4 like a space-age gadget (item 1) mangle as being 'a bit like a steam
Develop your vocabulary
5 as many different appliances as (item 6) roller that is used to flatten the tarmac
8 on highways!' which is a machine 'used
1 digital
2 programme
1F 2T 31 4F 5T 6T 7r for road maintenance'.

3 device I 5 C In this text, the writer talks about how

1in in the past you needed 'the muscles of
4 obsolete
2 to / with a weightlifter to get your carpets clean'.
5 system
3 much This means that a person required 'a
6 revolutionary
4 the great deal of physical strength'.
7 operate
5 like 6 D There are a number of references to
2 the organisation of 'the most up-to-
1 state-of-the-ad 10
date homes'. In particular, 'Computers
2 features Suggested answers
are increasingly used for entedainment
3 conventional 1 In the past you had to have lots of
and communication, for shopping and
4 anmnr rtarica.i separate systems whereas today you
work and as a way of controlling other
5 programmed only need one system.
systems and devices in the home.'
6 efficient 2 You won't have as many cables with
and 'State-of-the-art homes now use
7 gadgets one system as you do with lots of
computer technology to run almost
8 models systems.
every aspect of domestic life'.
3 a cinema and concert hall combined
7 A The writer says 'Not only is the
Develop your reading skills
Exam focus washing machine highly efficient and
easy to use, it also saves on water, so
1 similar it is more environmentallv friendlv than
2 like questions 4 (compares ... to) 7 (contrasts
washing by hand.'
3 comparison ... to) and 1 0 (being similar to)
8 B In the past people had to 'use wood
4 compared 2 or coal to light a stove or cooking range
5as sentences to be ticked: 1, 4, 5 and 8 and heat it for hours before it could
6 same 3 even be used.'This is synonymous with
2 a 5 (Just as ... so too), B (not as good ... 'an appliance from the past that took a
1 is similar to as) long time to prepare'.
2 looks (a bit) like b 1 (like a great, big, high-tech shopping 9 D In this texi, the writer states that 'just
3 in comparison to centre) as it has affected today's domestic
4 compared to c 4 (similar) technology, so too will it affect the
5 (not) as (good) as
Skills tip domestic appliances of the future.' He
6 in the same way as a Yes, b No, c Yes or she is making 'a prediction' about
3 the use of technology in the future.
10 C The writer comoares the vacuum
1 simile 1B 2A 3A 48 5A
cleaner to 'a ... housemaid' which is
2 metaphor
the same as 'a servant' mentioned in
the ouestion.
"il Unit 12
4 4 D The paragraph begins by saying
Suggested answers that private prisons are interested
1 lt's Mark's first time in orison. in making a profit and not in helping
lmprove your reading skills
ba 1A 28 3A 48 2 Mark doesn't like it in prison. prisoners. lt goes on to list all the
u 3 Mark's mother was very upset in court. ways in which this can be proved -
!t Get started 4 Mark doesn't intend to commit crimes 'more people in each prison cell',
cf Students' own answers anymore. 'Fewer prison guards', 'extended
e 5 Mark's mother is from lreland. periods of solitary confinement'. The
x Develop your vocabulary writer also relates these phenomena
l Exam focus to 'victimisation and a rise in gang
d4 1d 2b 3t 4e 5c 6a 1 culture', 'remaining guards at greater
sentences to be ticked: 1, 3 and 4 risk' and 'worsen depression, antisocial
2 feeling and violent tendencies'. All of
1 finds Skills tip
5 a No, b Yes this equates to private prisons being
2 commit
1a 'more dangerous and violent than
3 charge 2
oublic ones.'
6 4 convict o
5 B In the fifth paragraph the writer says
sut 5 sentence 3 that young offenders have'the best
3 1b 2c 3a chance of escaping from the vicious
n 1 jury 4 circle of crime and punishment' which
n 2 lawyer's
2( 1a 2a means that young people are more
3 bribery likely to become rehabilitated and to
4 bars Exam practice stop offending than other groups within
5 sentence 1 A In the first paragraph, it says the the prison population.
tl 6 imprisonment prison population has fallen slightly 6 C At the end of the final paragraph,
r and that this is 'partly from a general the writer says 'we must commit to the
't Develop your reading skills recognition on the part of state and rehabilitation that prisons can offer, and
1 federal government that putting petty that is something that private prisons
EN 'la 2b 3a 4a 5b criminals behind bars was the least are unable to do.' In other words. if all
2 effective way to deal with crime.' prisons are privatised, the public prison
1c 2a 3e 4b 5d 2 A After the first mention of 'customers' system 'will not be able to perform its
in the second paragraph, the text vital role' (that of rehabilitation).
e 3
goes on to say 'What is unusual about
Sentences to be ticked: 1, 3 and 5
7 them, though, is that their customers
1fr 4 don't really want to use their services'.
e 1 sarcastic A person who 'uses'the prison
2e 2 angry service must be a orisoner. The text
3 humorous immediately after this sentence also
3a 4 regretful refers to 'the criminal'.
s 5 3 A In the second part of paragraph 3
4e 1a 2a 3a 4b the text says 'There are also whole
6 towns that depend on their prisons for
8 1a E, b I
employment'. This means the same
Su, 2al,bE as the question, i.e. that 'many local
1l 3aE,bl residents work in the orisons.'

F 7
1c 2b 3a
1 Before I got here, it was fear of the

unknown as much as anything else.
2 Then l'll be out, ready to get a job and
look after you for a change.
3 I'm on the top one, and he's on
: the bottom.

rsBN 9780230460959

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