University of Zimbabwe
MT 115 CALCULUS FOR ENGINEERING
Chapter 2
Author:
T.V. Mupedza
Department:
Mathematics
August 28, 2019
Sequences
Deﬁnition 0.0.1. A sequence is a set of numbers u _{1} , u _{2} , u _{3} , and formed according to a deﬁnite rule.
in a deﬁnite order of arrangement
Each number in the sequence is called a term and u _{n} is called the nth term.
{u _{n} }, e.g., {u _{n} } = 2n, where u _{1} = 2, u _{2} = 4, u _{3} = 6 and so
on. The sequence is called ﬁnite or inﬁnite according as there are or are not a ﬁnite number of terms.
The sequence
u _{1} , u _{2} , u _{3} ,
is written brieﬂy as
Recursion Formula or Recurrence Relations So far we have seen that a sequence {U _{n} } may be deﬁned by giving a formula for {U _{n} } in terms of n. For example
U n = 2n _{2} − 5n + 4
^{.}
^{√} n ^{2} + 1 We can also deﬁne sequences by giving a relation or formula that connect successive terms of a sequence and specifying the value or values of the ﬁrst term or the ﬁrst and second terms etc. The formula or relation linking the terms is called a recursion formula or recurrence relation.
Example:
Find the values of the ﬁrst four terms of the sequence deﬁned by
u n+1 =
^{2}
,
u n
u _{0} = 1,
n ∈ N.
Solution:
You Try It: Deﬁne recursively
u
1
=
u 0+1 = ^{2}
u
0
u 2 = u 1+1 = ^{2}
u
1
u 3 = u 2+1 = ^{2}
u
2
=
=
_{1} ^{2} = 2
_{2} ^{2} = 1
^{2} = 2.
= _{1}
a _{0} = a _{1} = 1,
and
a _{n} = a _{n}_{−}_{1} + 2a _{n}_{−}_{2} , n ≥ 2.
Find a _{6} recursively.
1
0.1
Limits of Sequences
1
Lets consider the sequence u _{n} =
_{n} . terms of the sequence tend to or approach 0.
Deﬁnition 0.1.1. A number L is called the limit of an inﬁnite sequence a _{1} , a _{2} , a _{3} ,
for any positive number ε, we can ﬁnd a positive number N depending on ε such that a _{n} − L < ε
for all integers n > N . We write lim
We see that the
The sequence has the terms 1,
1
2 ^{,}
1
_{3} ^{,}
^{1}
_{4} ^{,}
.
.
.
.
or {a _{n} }, if
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} = L.
If {a _{n} } is a convergent sequence, it means that the terms a _{n} can be made arbitrarily close to L for n suﬃciently large.
Example: If u _{n} = 3 + ^{1}
_{=} 3n + 1
n n
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} = 3.
, the sequence is 4,
7 _{,} 10
2
3 ^{,}
and we can show that
If the limit of a sequence exists, the sequence is called convergent, otherwise, it is called divergent.
Example: Prove that lim
n→∞
1
_{n} = 0.
Let ε > 0, we can ﬁnd N (ε) such that _{n} − 0
1
1
n
^{=}
1
< ε.
_{n}
1
_{n} = 0.
Proof:
^{=}
Taking N to be the smallest integer greater than ^{1} _{ε} , we have, lim
n→∞
2
But n >
^{1}
_{ε} ^{.}
So N
=
^{1}
ε ^{.}
You Try It: Prove that lim
n→0
1
_{p} = 0 if p ∈ N.
n
Example: Use the deﬁnition of a limit to prove that lim
n→∞
2n − 1
3n + 2 ^{=}
2 ^{.}
3
Proof: Let ε > 0, we can ﬁnd N (ε) such that
2n − 1 3n + 2 ^{−} 3 2
^{=}
3(2n − 1) − 2(3n + 3)
3(3n + 2)
^{=}
6n − 3 − 6n − 4
3(3n + 2)
^{=}

−7 
3(3n + 2) 
^{=}
7
3(3n + 2)
7
3(3n + 2)
_{n}
^{<}
^{ε}
7 − 6ε
_{>}
9ε
^{.}
Take N = ^{7} ^{−} ^{6}^{ε} . So taking N to be the smallest integer greater than ^{7} ^{−} ^{6}^{ε} , we have
2n − 1 3n + 2 ^{−} 2 3
9ε _{} < ε , i.e.,
lim
n→∞
2n − 1
3n + 2 ^{=} 3
2 ^{.}
9ε
0.2 Theorems on Limits
If lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} = A and lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} b _{n} = B, then
1. _{n}_{→}_{∞} (a _{n} + b _{n} ) = lim
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} +
_{n}_{→}_{∞} b _{n} = A + B.
lim
2. _{n}_{→}_{∞} (a _{n} − b _{n} ) = lim
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} − lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} b _{n} = A − B.
3. _{n}_{→}_{∞} (a _{n} · b _{n} ) = ( lim
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} )( lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} b _{n} ) = AB.
4. lim
n→∞
lim
a n→∞ ^{a} ^{n}
n
=
b n→∞ ^{b} ^{n}
n
lim
=
A
_{B}
if
_{n}_{→}_{∞} b _{n} = B
lim
= 0.
_{} < ε
5. The limit of a convergent sequence {u _{n} } of real numbers is unique.
Proof: We must show that if lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} = l _{1} and
_{n}_{→}_{∞} u _{n} = l _{2} , then l _{1} = l _{2} . By hypothesis, given any
lim
ε > 0, we can ﬁnd N such that u _{n} − l _{1}  < _{2} ^{ε}
when n > N and u _{n} − l _{2}  < _{2} ^{ε}
when n > N . Then
l _{1} − l _{2}  = l _{1} − u _{n} + u _{n} − l _{2}  ≤ l _{1} − u _{n}  + u _{n} − l _{2}  < ^{ε}
2 ^{+} _{2} ε = ε,
i.e., l _{1} −l _{2}  is less than any positive ε (however small) and so must be zero, i.e., l _{1} −l _{2} = 0 =⇒ l _{1} = l _{2} .
3
Example: If lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} = A and lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} b _{n} = B, prove that lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} (a _{n} + b _{n} ) = A + B.
Proof: We must show that for any ε > 0, we can ﬁnd N > 0, such that (a _{n} + b _{n} ) − (A + B) < ε
for all n > N .
We have
(a _{n} + b _{n} ) − (A + B) = (a _{n} − A) + (b _{n} − B) ≤ a _{n} − A + b _{n} − B.
By hypothesis, given ε > 0 we can ﬁnd N _{1} and N _{2} such that a _{n} − A <
b _{n} − B < _{2} ^{ε} for all n > N _{2} . Then
(a _{n} + b _{n} ) − (A + B) < ^{ε}
2 ^{+} _{2} ε = ε
for all n > N where N = max(N _{1} , N _{2} ). Hence lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} (a _{n} + b _{n} ) = A + B.
^{ε}
_{2}
for all n > N _{1}
and
0.3 Sequences Tending to Inﬁnity
n tends to inﬁnity, n → ∞ (n grows or increases beyond any limit ). Inﬁnity is not a number and the sequences that tend to inﬁnity are not convergent.
We write lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} = ∞, if for each positive number M , we can ﬁnd a positive number N (depending
on M ) such that a _{n} > M for all n > N .
Similarly, we write lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} = −∞, if for each positive number M , we can ﬁnd a positive number N
such that a _{n} < −M for all n > N .
Example: Prove that (a)
_{n}_{→}_{∞} 3 ^{2}^{n}^{−}^{1} = ∞
lim
(b)
_{n}_{→}_{∞} (1 − 2n) = −∞.
lim
Proof: (a) If for each positive number M we can ﬁnd a positive number N such that a _{n} > M for
Taking N to be
all n > N , then 3 ^{2}^{n}^{−}^{1} > M
_{2} ^{} ^{l}^{n} ^{M}
^{1}
ln 3
+ 1 .
when (2n − 1) ln 3 > ln M , i.e., n >
the smallest greater than
1 ^{} ln M
2
ln 3
+ 1 , then
n→∞ 3 ^{2}^{n}^{−}^{1} = ∞.
lim
(b) If for each positive number M , we can ﬁnd a positive number N such that a _{n} < −M for all
> N , i.e., 1 − 2n < −M when 2n − 1 > M or n > ^{1} _{2} (M + 1). Taking N to be the smallest integer
greater than
n
_{2} (M + 1), we have lim
1
_{n}_{→}_{∞} (1 − 2n) = −∞.
4
0.4
Bounded and Monotonic Sequences
A sequence that tends to a limit l is said to be convergent and the sequence converges to l.
sequence may tend to +∞ or −∞, and is said to be divergent and it diverges to +∞ or −∞.
A
, where M is a constant, we say that the sequence {u _{n} } is bounded
above and M is called an upper bound. The smallest upper bound is called the least upper bound (l.u.b).
If u _{n} ≤ M for n = 1, 2, 3,
If 
u _{n} ≥ m, the sequence is bounded below and m is called a lower bound. The largest lower bound 
is 
called the greatest lower bound (g.l.b). 
If m ≤ u _{n} ≤ M , the sequence is called bounded, indicated by u _{n}  ≤ P . (Every convergent sequence is bounded, but the converse is not necessarily true)
If u _{n}_{+}_{1} ≥ u _{n} , the sequence is called monotonic increasing and if u _{n}_{+}_{1} > u _{n} it is called strictly
increasing.
If u _{n}_{+}_{1} ≤ u _{n} , the sequence is called monotonic decreasing, while if u _{n}_{+}_{1} < u _{n} it is
strictly decreasing.
Examples: 1. The sequence 1, 1.1, 1.11, 1.111,
2. The sequence 1, −1, 1, −1, 1,
is bounded and monotonic increasing.
is bounded but not monotonic increasing or decreasing.
Deﬁnition 0.4.1. A null sequence is a sequence that converges to 0, e.g., u _{n} =
1
_{n} _{−} _{1}_{0} , n ≥ 11.
If {u _{n} } does not tend to a limit or +∞ or −∞, we say that {u _{n} } oscillates (or is an oscillating
sequence). It can oscillate ﬁnitely (bounded) or inﬁnitely (unbounded).
Examples: u _{n} = (−1) ^{n} ,
u _{n} = (−1) ^{n} n.
0.5 Limits of Combination of Sequences
n→∞ ^{2} ^{−} n ^{+} n 3
1
_{2} or
We want to be able to evaluate limits, for example, of the form lim
n→∞ ^{2} ^{−} n ^{+} n 3
1
_{2} =
Example: lim
1
_{n}_{→}_{∞} 2 − lim _{n} + 3 lim
lim
n→∞
n→∞
1
_{n} _{2} = 2 − 0 + 0 = 2.
Example: lim
n→∞
3n ^{2} − 5n
5n ^{2} + 2n _{−} _{6} ^{=}
^{l}^{i}^{m}
n→∞
=
3 + 0
5 + 0 + 0 ^{=}
3 ^{.}
5
5
lim
n→∞
5 − 2n ^{2} 4 + 3n + 2n ^{2} ^{.}
_{n}_{→}_{∞} ( ^{√} n + 1 − ^{√} n) · √
^{√} n + 1 + ^{√} n ^{=}
n + 1 + ^{√} n
Example: lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} ( ^{√} n + 1 − ^{√} n) = lim
^{l}^{i}^{m}
n→∞
1
^{√} n + 1 + ^{√} n
= 0.
0.6 Squeeze Theorem
If
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} = l =
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} c _{n} = l.
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} b _{n} and there exists an N
lim
such that a _{n}
≤ c _{n}
≤
b _{n} ,
Example: Find lim
n→∞
cos n
n
^{.}
Solution: We know that −1 ≤ cos n ≤ 1
1
=⇒ −
=⇒ lim
n 1 _{≤} cos n cos n n
1
_{n} ≤
^{≤}
_{n} =⇒ − lim
n→∞
lim
n→∞
= 0.
n→∞
_{n}
cos n
n
≤ lim
n→∞
1
_{n} =⇒ 0 ≤
lim
n→∞
cos n
_{n}
for all
≤ 0
n
>
N , then
6
Inﬁnite Series
One important application of inﬁnite sequences is in representing inﬁnite summations. If {a _{n} } is an inﬁnite sequence, then
_{∞}
n=1
a _{n} = a _{1} + a _{2} + a _{3} + ···
is called an inﬁnite series (or simply a series). The numbers a _{1} , a _{2} , a _{3} ,
the series. To ﬁnd the sum of an inﬁnite series, consider the following sequence of partial sums.
are called the terms of
S
S
S _{3}
.
.
.
S _{n}
_{2}
_{1}
=
=
=
=
=
a a _{1} + a _{2} a _{1} + a _{2} + a _{3}
.
a _{1} + a _{2} + a _{3} + ··· + a _{n} .
_{1}
.
.
If this sequence of partial sums converges, then the series is said to converge and has the sum indicated in the following deﬁnition.
0.7 Deﬁnition of Convergent and Divergent Series
For the inﬁnite series ^{} a _{n} , the nth partial sum is given by
S _{n} = a _{1} + a _{2} + a _{3} + ··· + a _{n} .
If the sequence of partial sums {S _{n} } converges to S, then the series ^{} a _{n} converges. The limit S is called the sum of the series. If {S _{n} } diverges, then the series diverges.
7
Example 0.7.1. The series
∞
n=1
1
2 ^{n} ^{=}
1
2 ^{+} 4 ^{+} 8 ^{+}
1
1
1
_{1}_{6} + · · · has the following partial sums.
Because lim
n→∞
2 ^{n} − 1
2
^{n}
S _{1} =
S _{2} =
s _{3} =
=
s _{n} =
.
.
.
^{1}
2
1
1
3
2
1
^{+} 4 ^{=} 4
7
^{+} 4 ^{+} 8 ^{=} 8
1
.
1
1
.
2
.
1
2 ^{+} 4 ^{+}
.
1
_{8} + ··· +
1
2
^{n}
_{=} 2 ^{n} − 1
2
^{n}
^{.}
= 1, it follows that the series converges and its sum is 1.
Example 0.7.2. The nth partial sum of the series
∞
n=1
n ^{−} n + 1 ^{=} ^{1} ^{−}
1
1
2 +
1
1
2 ^{−} 1
3 ^{+} 3 ^{−}
1
1
_{4} + ···
1
is given by S _{n} = 1 − _{n} _{+} _{1} . Because the limit of S _{n} is 1, the series converges and its sum is 1.
Example 0.7.3. The series
partial sums diverges.
∞
n=1
1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + · · ·
diverges, because S _{n} = n and the sequence of
The series in Example (0.7.2) is a telescoping series. That is, it is of the form
(b _{1} − b _{2} ) + (b _{2} − b _{3} ) + (b _{3} − b _{4} ) + (b _{4} − b _{5} ) + ···
note that b _{2} is canceled by the second term, b _{3} is canceled by the third term and so on. Because the nth partial sum of the series is S _{n} = b _{1} − b _{n}_{+}_{1} , it follows that a telescoping series will only converge if and only if b _{n} approaches a ﬁnite number as n → ∞. Moreover, if the series converges, then its sum is
S = b _{1} −
Example 0.7.4. Find the sum of the series
∞
n=1
n→∞ ^{b} ^{n}^{+}^{1} ^{.}
lim
2
4n ^{2} − 1 ^{.}
Solution: Using partial fractions, we can write
a _{n} =
2
4n ^{2} − 1 ^{=}
2
(2n − 1)(2n + 1) ^{=}
1
2n − 1 ^{−}
1
2n + 1 ^{.}
From the telescoping form, we can see that the nth partial sum is
S _{n} =
1
1
− ^{1}
_{3} +
1
_{3} − ^{1} _{5} + ··· +
8
1
2n − 1 ^{−}
1 _{+} _{1} = 1 −
2n
^{1}
2n + 1 ^{.}
Thus, the series converges and its sum is 1. That is,
∞
n=1
2
4n ^{2}
_{−} _{1} =
n→∞ ^{1} ^{−}
_{n}_{→}_{∞} S _{n} = lim
lim
1 _{+} _{1} = 1.
2n
0.8 Geometric Series
A geometric series with ratio r is given by
∞
n=0
ar ^{n} = a + ar + ar ^{2} + · · · + ar ^{n} + ··· , a
= 0.
Theorem 0.8.1. A geometric series with ratio r diverges if r ≥ 1. If 0 < r < 1, then the series
converges to the sum
∞
ar ^{n} =
a
_{1} _{−} _{r} ,
0 < r < 1.
n=0
Example 0.8.1. The geometric series
∞
3
2 ^{n} ^{=}
∞
3 _{2} n = 3(1) + 3 ^{1} _{2} + 3
1
1
2 2
+ ···
Because 0 <
r
<
1, the series converges and its sum is
0.8.1 Properties of Inﬁnite Series
If ^{} a _{n} = A and ^{} b _{n} = B and c is a real number, then the following series converge to the
indicated sums. (i) ^{} ca _{n} = cA
(ii)
^{} (a _{n} ± b _{n} ) = ^{} a _{n} ± ^{} b _{n} = A ± B.
nth Term Test for Divergence
Limit of n−th Term of a Convergent Series
If 
the series ^{} a _{n} converges, then the sequence {a _{n} } converges to 0. 
If 
the sequence {a _{n} } does not converge to 0, then the series ^{} a _{n} diverges. 
9
0.9
Test for Convergence or Divergence of Series
In this and the following section, we will study several convergence tests that apply to series with positive terms.
0.9.1 The Integral Test
If f is positive, continuous, and decreasing for x ≥ 1 and a _{n} = f (n), then
either both converge or both diverge.
Example 0.9.1. Apply the integral test to the series
∞
n=1
n
n ^{2} + 1 ^{.}
∞
n=1
a _{n} and ∞ f (x) dx
1
Because f (x) =
obtain
^{x} _{+} _{1} satisﬁes the conditions for the integral test (check this), we can integrate to
x ^{2}
^{} ∞
1
x
^{2}
x _{+} _{1} dx
=
1
2 ∞ x ^{2}
2x _{+} _{1} dx = ^{1}
2
1
b→∞ b
lim
1
^{1} _{b}_{→}_{∞} ln(x ^{2} + 1) b
2
1
^{1} _{b}_{→}_{∞} [ln(b ^{2} + 1) − ln 2]
2
=
lim
lim
=
= ∞.
2x
x ^{2} + 1 ^{d}^{x}
Thus, the series diverges.
Example 0.9.2. Apply the integral test to the series
∞
n=1
1
n ^{2} + 1 ^{.}
Solution: Because f (x) =
obtain
^{1} _{+} _{1} satisﬁes the conditions for the integral test, we can integrate to
x ^{2}
^{} ∞
1
dx
x
^{2}
_{+} _{1}
=
=
=
b→∞ b
lim
1
dx
x
^{2}
_{+} _{1} =
_{b}_{→}_{∞} lim tan ^{−}^{1} x b
1
_{b}_{→}_{∞} (tan ^{−}^{1} b − tan ^{−}^{1} 1)
lim
^{π}
2
− ^{π}
4
= ^{π}
4 ^{.}
Thus, the series converges.
10
0.9.2
p− Series and Harmonic Series
A
is
series of the form
_{∞}
n=1
1
n ^{p} ^{=}
1
1
1 ^{p} ^{+} 2 ^{p} ^{+}
1
_{3} _{p} + ···
a p−series, where p is a positive constant. For p = 1, the series
is
Theorem 0.9.1. The p−series
the harmonic series.
∞
1
_{n}
n=1
1 
1 

= 1 + 
2 
^{+} 
_{3} 
1 
1 
1 ^{p} ^{+} 2 ^{p} ^{+}
+ ···
1
_{3} _{p} + ···
∞
1
n ^{p} ^{=}
n=1
(i) converges if p > 1 and (ii)
diverges if 0 < p ≤ 1.
Example 0.9.3. From the Theorem it follows that the harmonic series
diverges.
∞
n=1
1 
1 
1 

_{n} 
= 1 + 
2 
^{+} 
_{3} 
+ ··· 
0.10 Comparisons of Series
0.10.1 Direct Comparison Test
This is a test for positiveterm series. It allows you to compare a series having complicated terms with a simpler series whose convergence or divergence is known.
Direct Comparison Test
Theorem 0.10.1. Let 0 ≤ a _{n} ≤ b _{n} for all n.
1.
If
∞
n=1
b _{n} converges, then
∞
n=1
a _{n} converges.
11
2.
If
∞
n=1
a _{n} diverges, then
∞
n=1
b _{n} diverges.
Example 0.10.1. Determine the convergence or divergence of
∞
n=1
1
2 + 3 ^{n} ^{.}
Solution: This series resembles
yields
∞
n=1
1
_{n} (Convergent geometric series). Termbyterm comparison
3
a _{n} =
1 1
2 + 3 ^{n} ^{<}
_{n} = b _{n} ,
3
n ≥ 1.
Thus, by the Direct Comparison Test, the series converges.
Example 0.10.2. Determine the convergence or divergence of
∞
n=1
1
2 + ^{√} n ^{.}
Solution: The series resembles
∞
n=1
1
2 (Divergent p−series). Termbyterm comparison yields
1
n
1
2 + ^{√} n ^{≤}
1
√ _{n} ,
n ≥ 1
which does not meet the requirements for divergence. Still expecting the series to diverge, we can
compare the given series with
parison yields
_{n} (Divergent Harmonic series). In this case, termbyterm com
∞
n=1
1
a _{n} =
1 1
n ^{≤}
_{2} _{+} √ _{n} = b _{n} ,
n ≥ 4
and, by the Direct Comparison Test, the given series diverges.
0.10.2 Limit Comparison Test or Quotient Test
Often a given series closely resembles a p−series or a geometric series, yet we cannot establish the termbyterm comparison necessary to apply the Direct Comparison Test. We can apply a second comparison test, called the Limit Comparison Test.
Limit Comparison Test
Suppose that a _{n} > 0 and b _{n} > 0 and
n→∞ a n
n
lim
b
= L where L is ﬁnite and positive. Then the two
series ^{} a _{n} and ^{} b _{n} , either both converge or both diverge. If L = 0 and ^{} b _{n} converges, then
^{} a _{n} converges. If L = ∞ and ^{} b _{n} diverges, then ^{} a _{n} diverges.
12
Example 0.10.3. Show that the following harmonic series diverges.
∞
n=1
1
an _{+} _{b} ^{,}
a > 0, b > 0.
∞
n=1
1
_{n} we have
1
an+b
1
n
1
_{a} . Because this limit is
Solution: By comparison with
grater than 0, we can conclude from the Limit comparison Test that the given series diverges.
n
an + b ^{=}
lim
n→∞
= lim
n→∞
The limit Comparison Test works well for comparing a messy algebraic series with a p−series. In choosing an appropriate p−series, we must choose one with an nth term of the same magnitude as the nth term of the given series.
Given series 
Comparison series 
Conclusion 

∞

1 
∞

1 
Both series converge. 

3n ^{2} − 4n + 5 
n ^{2} 

n=1 
n=1 

∞ 
1 ^{√} 3n − 2 
∞ 
1 ^{√} 



n 
Both series diverge. 

n=1 
n=1 

∞ 
n ^{2} − 10 4n ^{5} + n ^{3} 
∞ 
∞ 
1 n 
^{3} 



n ^{2} n ^{5} ^{=} 

Both series converge. 

n=1 
n=1 
n=1 
0.11 Alternating Series
So far, most series we have dealt with have had positive terms. In this section, we will study series that contain both positive and negative terms. The simplest such series is an alternating series, whose terms alternate in sign. For example, the geometric series
∞
n=0
− _{1} 2 _{n}
=
∞
n=0
1
(−1) ^{n} _{2} _{n} = 1 −
1
2 ^{+} 4 ^{−}
1
1 1
8 ^{+}
_{1}_{6} − ···
1
is an alternating geometric series with r = − _{2} . Alternating series occur in two ways, either the odd terms are negative or the even terms are negative.
Alternating Series Test
Let a _{n} > 0. The alternating series
conditions are met.
∞
n=1
(−1) ^{n} a _{n} and
13
∞
n=1
(−1) ^{n}^{+}^{1} a _{n} converge, if the following two
1.
a _{n}_{+}_{1} ≤ a _{n} for all n.
2.
lim
_{n}_{→}_{∞} a _{n} = 0.
Example 0.11.1. Determine the convergence or divergence of
∞
n=1
(−1) ^{n}^{+}^{1} ^{1}
n ^{.}
1
n + 1
^{≤} 
1 
for all n and the limit (as n → ∞) of 
1 
is 0, we can apply the 
_{n} 
_{n} 
Solution: Because
Alternating Series Test to conclude that the series converges. (This series is called the alternating
harmonic series)
Example 0.11.2. Determine the convergence or divergence of
∞
n=1
n
(−2) ^{n}^{−}^{1} ^{.}
Solution: To apply the Alternating Series Test, note that, for n ≥ 1,
Hence, a _{n}_{+}_{1} = ^{n} ^{+} ^{1}
2 ^{n}
^{≤}
_{2}
1
2
n−1
2 ^{n} (n + 1)2 ^{n}^{−}^{1} n + 1
2
n
n
^{≤}
n
+ 1
n
^{≤}
≤ n2 ^{n}
^{≤}
n
+ 1
n
_{2} n−1 ^{.}
n
_{2} _{n}_{−}_{1} = a _{n} for all n. Furthermore, by L’Hopital’s rule,
lim
x→∞
x
_{2} _{x}_{−}_{1} =
lim
x→∞
1
_{2} _{x}_{−}_{1} _{(}_{l}_{n} _{2}_{)} = 0 =⇒
lim
n→inf
n
_{2} n−1 ^{=} ^{0}^{.}
Therefore, by the Alternating Series Test, the given series converges.
Cases for which the Alternating Series Test Fails
Example 0.11.3. The alternating series
∞
n=1
(−1) ^{n}^{+}^{1} (n + 1)
n
= ^{2}
1
− ^{3} + ^{4}
2
3 ^{−} 4 ^{+} 6 _{5} − ···
5
passes the ﬁrst condition in the alternating series test because a _{n}_{+}_{1} ≤ a _{n} for all n. We cannot apply the Alternating Series Test, because the series does not pass the second condition.
The alternating series
2
1
− ^{1}
1
+ ^{2}
2 ^{−}
1
2 ^{+} 3 ^{−}
2
1
3 ^{+} 2 ^{−}
1
1
_{4} + ···
passes the second condition because a _{n} approaches 0 as n → ∞. We cannot apply the Alternating
Series Test, however, because the series does not pass the ﬁrst condition.
14
0.12
Absolute and Conditional Convergence
Occasionally, a series may have both positive and negative terms and not be an alternating series, for example, the series
_{∞}
n=1
sin n
n ^{2}
_{=}
sin 1
1
_{+} sin 2 _{+} sin 3
4
_{9}
+ ···
has both positive and negative terms, yet it is not an alternating series. One way to obtain some information about the convergence of this series is to investigate the convergence of the series
∞
n=1
sin n
n ^{2}
_{} . By direct comparison, we have  sin n ≤ 1, for all n, so
sin n
n
^{2}
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.