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Issue 1 en

Fuel system
Industrial and Marine Engines
Description of operation

Part No.
1 588 585 © Scania CV AB, Sweden, 1999:01
Important information

• Valid from engine number:

9 engine 5 119 902


11 engine 5 364 870
12 engine 5 997 001
14 engine 5 562 819

• This description of operation covers only the fuel system components that are
mounted on the engine. Fuel supply equipment, such as tanks and fittings, are
described in our installation instructions.

• Some installations need to be fitted with extra fuel filters. The function of these fil-
ters is to separate dirt and water from the fuel. They are described in our installation
instructions.

Contents
Design, 9, 11 and 12 engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Design, 14 engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Fuel shut-off valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Feed pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Single-action feed pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Dual-action feed pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Fuel filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Injection pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Smoke limiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
14-litre engines, smoke limiter on the injection pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
9-litre, 11-litre and 12-litre engines, smoke limiter on governor housing . .17
Pump drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Pump setting and injection volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Overflow valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Delivery pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Injectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

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Design, 9, 11 and 12 engines

The feed pump sucks fuel through the tank filter,


the prefilter, if fitted, and the fuel shut-off valve.
It pumps the fuel through the fuel filters and on to 1. Injection pump
the injection pump.
2. Fuel filter, single or double
For a description of fuel shut-off valve operation, 3. Hand pump
see page 5. On 3000 and 7100 pumps the over-
4. Feed pump
flow valve is fitted in the same way as on the 14
engine’s injection pump, see page 4. 5. Fuel shut-off valve with overflow valve
(8000 pump only)
The injection pump distributes the fuel via the 6. Delivery pipe
delivery pipes and injections to the engine’s cylin-
ders at the right time and in an amount corre- 7. Injectors
sponding to the power output of the engine. 8. Leak-off fuel line
9. Return line
Surplus fuel returned from the overflow valve and
leak-off fuel from the injectors is returned to the 10. Suction pipe
tank via the leak-off fuel line and return lines. 11. Smoke limiter
12. Water-separating fuel filter, or equipment
for double fuel filters

Fuel system components, 9 and 11 engines

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Design, 14 engine

The feed pump sucks fuel through the tank filter


and prefilter, if fitted, and then pumps the fuel
through the fuel filters and on to the injection
pump. 1. Injection pump
2. Fuel filter
The injection pump distributes the fuel via the
delivery pipes and injections to the engine’s cylin- 3. Hand pump
ders at the right time and in an amount corre- 4. Feed pump
sponding to the power output of the engine. 5. Overflow valve
Surplus fuel returned from the overflow valve and 6. Delivery pipe
leak-off fuel from the injectors is returned to the 7. Injectors
tank via the leak-off fuel line and return line. 8. Leak-off fuel line
9. Return line
10. Suction pipe
11. Smoke limiter
12. Pump coupling
13. Water-separating fuel filter, or equipment

Fuel system components, 14 engine

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Fuel shut-off valve

Function
The fuel shut-off valve is a solenoid valve which
controls the supply of fuel to the engine. The
valve is mounted on the injection pump, see figure
on page 3.
The valve is in the open position, “drive position”,
when it is supplied with power and can accord-
ingly only be used for the “operated when run-
ning” function. The power supply must also be
turned on for bleeding the fuel system.
When the valve is closed, fuel is sucked from the
injection pump and the engine stops when the fuel
in the pump runs dry.

Valve open
Feed pump 1 sucks fuel from the tank through
suction line 2 and fuel shut-off valve 3. The fuel is
pumped through fuel filter 4, fuel shut-off valve 3
and on to the engine 5.
Surplus fuel from injection pump 6 is carried back
to the tank via fuel shut-off valve 3, overflow
valve 7 and fuel return line 8. Leak-off fuel from
the injectors is routed to the return line via a con-
nection on the overflow valve.

Fuel shut-off valve in open position

Valve closed
Feed pump 1 sucks fuel from injection pump 6.
The fuel is then pumped through fuel filter 4 and
fuel shut-off valve 3 via suction line 2 and back to
the tank.

Fuel shut-off valve in closed position

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Feed pumps

General
The purpose of the feed pump is to suck fuel from
the tank and pump it through the system to the
injection pump.
The feed pump is a mechanical piston pump
which is mounted on the injection pump. It is
driven by the injection pump’s camshaft, which
has two cams for driving the pump.
The single-action feed pump on 9-litre and
11-litre engines thus pumps fuel twice per cam-
shaft revolution and the dual-action feed pump on
12-litre and 14-litre engines pumps fuel four times
per camshaft revolution.
On the feed pump or in the suction line immedi- Camshaft, lobes for feed pump
ately before the feed pump is a hand pump for
bleeding the system after service work has been
carried out.
Feed pump capacity is so dimensioned that the
amount of fuel substantially exceeds the require-
ments of the engine. This ensures reliable auto-
matic bleeding and cooling of the injection pump.

Single-action feed pump


The single-action feed pump consists of two
chambers separated by a piston 5, which is spring-
loaded. Inside the piston is suction valve 13,
which forms a seal between the two chambers.
The piston is actuated directly by pushrod 1,
which is in its turn actuated by the cams on the
injection pump crankshaft.
A delivery valve is incorporated in union 10 on
the outlet side and seals the pressure chamber.

1. Pushrod 8. Copper gasket


2. O-ring 9. Pump housing
3. Guide ring 10. Union with
4. O-ring delivery valve
5. Pump piston 11. Spring guide
6. Spacing ring 12. Compression
7. Hand pump spring
13. Suction valve
Single-action feed pump, dismantled
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Function

Suction stroke
(Pumping between suction side and delivery
side)
When the camshaft’s cam forces the pushrod into
the pump, the pump piston is pressed out and, at
the same time, the suction valve opens as a result
of the vacuum which arises in the working space
and allows fuel to flow into this space (delivery
side).

Intermediate position
(Position of equilibrium)
Suction stroke
When the cam allows the pushrod to return, the
compression spring starts to press the pump piston
back. At the same time, the suction valve closes
when the pressure in the working space increases
and fresh fuel fills the suction side.

Pump stroke
(Pumping fuel to injection pump)
When the cam has returned so far that the pressure
in the working space (pressure chamber) opens
the delivery valve, fuel entering the working
space will flow into the injection pump.

Pump stroke

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Dual-action feed pump
The dual-action feed pump has 4 check valves, so
that the chambers are combined pump- and suc-
tion chambers. At each stroke, fuel is sucked into
one chamber and forced out of the other chamber.
The piston is actuated directly by the pushrod
which is in its turn actuated by the cams on the
injection pump’s crankshaft.

1. Pump housing 11. Piston spring


2. Suction valve 12. Gasket Dual-action feed pump, dismantled
3. Delivery valve 13. Plug
5. Gasket 14. Tappet
6. Valve spring 15. Tappet roller
7. Plug 16. Tappet shaft
8. O-ring 17. Guide
9. Pushrod 18. Spring ring
10. Piston

Stroke in
When the top of the cam has passed, the piston
return spring starts to press the pump piston back
in.
The inner pump chamber is then evacuated and, at
the same time, the vacuum opens the suction
valve in the outer pump chamber and fuel is
sucked through the prefilter and suction chamber, Stroke in
thus filling the outer pump chamber.
Stroke out
The camshaft’s cam forces the piston out and fuel
is then sucked into the inner pump chamber.
At the same time, the fuel present in the outer
pump chamber is forced through the pressure
chamber to the outlet until the top of the cam has
passed.

! WARNING!

Never block the outlet from the feed pump


as this will cause the pressure to rise
dangerously.
Stroke out

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Fuel filter

Design
Fuel filters are of single-mounted or double-
mounted type. The filters screw onto a retainer
which is bolted to the engine.
The filter consists of a metal container with a
folded paper element. The filter cannot be dis-
mantled but must be changed as a complete unit.
Double-mounted fuel filters are connected in par-
allel, i.e. half the fuel passes through each filter.
The single-mounted filter has no bleed screw and
is bled by undoing plug 4 in the free inlet passage.
Double-mounted filters have a bleed screw 4 on
the filter retainer.

1. Filter retainer 3. Gasket


2. Filter 4. Plug
Function
Single-mounted fuel filter, constituent parts
Fuel is pumped into the inlet by the fuel pump. It
then continues through passages in the filter
retainer to the upper part of the filter, down
through the filter or filters and on to the outlet pas-
sage. From there, the fuel is piped to the injection
pump.

Fuel filter with water separation


On the double-mounted filter, filter elements 2
can be changed for water-separating filters 3,
which are available as a spare part.
This filter is capable of separating small quantities
of water, such as condensate.
The filter has a drain valve 6 at the bottom. The
filter should be drained as part of the daily mainte- 1. Filter retainer 4. Bleed screw
nance schedule. 2. Standard filter 5. Gasket
Where there is a risk of the fuel containing water 3. Water-separating 6. Drain valve
or impurities, a separate water-separating filter filter
should be fitted.
See the installation instructions. Double-mounted fuel filter, constituent parts

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Injection pump

Control lever
1. 13. Timing gears
Stop arm
2. 14. Crankshaft gear
Control rack
3. 15. Crankshaft
Pump element
4. 16. Camshaft
Delivery valve
5. 17. Roller tappet
Delivery valve holder
6. 18. Cam for feed pump
Delivery pipe to engine cylinder
7. 19. Fuel line from tank
Smoke limiter
8. 20. Feed pump
Control rack stop for full load, with and
9. 21. Fuel line to filter
without pressure from turbocharger 22. Fuel line from filter
10. Pump coupling of steel disc type 23. Governor weights
11. Pump drive shaft
12. Pump gear
Schematic diagram of injection pump, 14-litre engine, with centrifugal governor
and smoke limiter

9-litre, 11-litre and 12-litre engines have no pump drive shaft 11 or pump coupling 10.
Pump gear 12 is mounted on camshaft 16 and the injection pump is connected directly to the
timing gears. Smoke limiter 8 is mounted on the governor housing, see also page 17, Smoke
limiter.

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Production engines are fitted with injection pumps The injection pump is connected to the pump
from three different serial number series. The last drive shaft, which is part of the engine’s timing
four digits of the pump designation denote which gear. On 9-litre and 11-litre engines, the injection
type it is. pump is mounted directly on the timing gear hous-
Examples: ing, on 14-litre engines the pump drive shaft and
steel disc coupling are used. The pump drive shaft
PES 6P 120A 1320/5 RS3380 = 3000-pump is geared so that the pump is driven at half engine
speed.
PE 8P 120A720 LS7189-10 = 7100-pump
The injection pump’s bearings, camshaft and tap-
PES 6P 120A 320 RS8046 = 8000-pump pets are lubricated with oil from the engine’s
lubricating system The pump elements are lubri-
cated by the fuel.
3000 and 8000 pumps are used on 9-litre, 11-litre The injection pump has a pump element for each
and 12-litre engines, 7100 pumps on 14-litre engine cylinder. The pump elements always have
engines. the same stroke. The quantity of fuel injected is
The designation is given on a plate on the injec- determined by how much the piston in the pump
tion pump. See also ”injection equipment”. element is turned.
In the following descriptions, reference is made The pump piston is turned by the control rack
primarily to these pump number series. which is controlled by the governor. All pistons
are turned at the same time and by the same
amount. Fuel injection starts when the pump pis-
ton closes the spill- and inlet ports in the pump
element.
The pump piston has a diagonal helix edge. Fuel
injection ceases when this helix edge passes the
spill port in the pump cylinder.

a ~amount of fuel Pump element and control rack,


Bosch P
Pump piston
A. 0-feed groove
B. Helix edge
C. Leak-off return groove

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Delivery valve
Above each pump element is a delivery valve con-
sisting of a valve housing 5 and valve piston 4.
The valve piston is held against its seat 3 by a
spring 2.
The delivery valve opens and releases fuel into the
delivery pipe when opening pressure is attained in
the pump element. When fuel pressure drops after
injection, the valve piston is forced back against
its seat by the spring.
When the delivery valve piston has closed, the
available volume for the fuel in the delivery pipe
increases. This lowers the pressure in the delivery
pipe and injectors, reducing the risk of fuel drip-
ping from the injectors.
The change in capacity is adapted to the length of 1. Delivery valve holder 4. Valve piston
the delivery pipe and this length must never be 2. Valve spring 5. Valve housing
changed. 3. Valve seat
The delivery valve is held in the pump housing by
the delivery valve holder 1, which is bolted to the
housing from above. A) Closed B) Injection
Delivery valve holder with delivery valve

Single-speed engines have delivery valves of A) Delivery valve


0-hole type, i.e. without idling hole. with idling hole
B) Delivery valve
without idling
hole A B

Certain types of engine have delivery valve hold-


ers with a relief brake to counteract delivery pipe
cavitation.
When injection starts, the spring-loaded valve 1. Delivery valve holder
plate 3 is lifted and the fuel flows freely to the
2. Compression spring
injector.
3. Valve plate
At the end of injection, when the injector closes, a 4. Valve housing
pressure wave is generated in the opposite direc-
tion. The valve plate is then pressed against its
seat by the return spring 2 and the fuel flowing
back is forced through the valve plate’s restrictor
hole.

Delivery valve holder with return restrictor hole

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Pump element and delivery valve,
principle of operation

First phase of piston stroke: inlet port is exposed


and fuel flows in.

Lower dead centre, fuel supply

Second phase of piston stroke: from bottom dead


centre until the top of the piston closes the inlet.

Prestroke

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Third phase of piston stroke: from when the top of
the piston has closed the inlet ports until the inlet
ports are opened by the helix edge. When the inlet
ports are opened, the delivery valve closes and
injection ceases.

Delivery stroke

Fourth phase of piston stroke: from when the


spill port is opened until top dead centre.

Idle stroke

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The axial groove is aligned with the port. In this
position there is no fuel delivery. The piston is
turned to this position to stop the engine.

Note Not applicable to 8000 pumps with


fuel shut-off valve

Non-delivery

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Smoke limiter

General
The smoke limiter limits control rack travel, giv-
ing a variable full load volume which is dependent
on the turbo pressure in the intake manifold.
This limitation considerably reduces the smoke in
the exhaust, both during acceleration and when
driving at full throttle at low engine speed when
the turbocharger provides low charge pressure.
A line connects the smoke limiter to the intake
manifold and a diaphragm in the smoke limiter is
actuated by changing pressure in the intake mani-
fold.

14-litre engines, smoke limiter on


the injection pump
The smoke limiter is mounted at the front end of
the injection pump, see figure on page 4.
Via pushrod 4, movements of diaphragm 2 actuate
angle arm 5 which, at low charge pressure,
restricts the movement of control rack 8. 1. From intake 4. Pushrod
manifold 5. Angle arm
2. Diaphragm 6. Full load stop
3. Spring 7. Control rack

Position of control rack at low charge pressure.


At sufficiently high pressure the angle arm, and
with it the control rack, are stopped by full load
stop 6.

Position of control rack at high charge pressure


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9-litre, 11-litre and 12-litre engines,
smoke limiter on governor housing
The smoke limiter is mounted on the governor
housing at the rear end of the injection pump, see
figure on page 3.
Below is a simple description of how the different
types work. Their operation is described more
extensively in the booklet “Mechanical gover-
nor”.
1. Inlet 5. Pressure-depend-
2. Diaphragm ent full load stop
3. Spring 6. Control rack
Smoke limiter, RQ governor 4. Pushrod
The pressure in intake manifold 1 actuates dia-
phragm 2 and pushrod 4. Movement of control
Smoke limiter, RQ governor
rack 6 is restricted by pressure-dependent full load
stop 5.

Smoke limiter, RQV-K governor


The pressure in intake manifold 1 actuates dia-
phragm 2 and pushrod 4. It thus controls pressure-
dependent full load stop 5, the shoulder 6 of
which restricts the movement of the control rack
(not shown).
1. Inlet 5. Pressure-depend-
2. Diaphragm ent full load stop
3. Spring 6. Shoulder
4. Pushrod

Smoke limiter, RQV-K governor

Smoke limiter, RSV governor 1. Inlet


2. Diaphragm
The pressure in intake manifold 1 actuates dia-
phragm 2 and pushrod 4. Movement of control 3. Spring
rack 6 is restricted by pressure-dependent full load 4. Pushrod
stop 5. 5. Pressure-depend-
ent full load stop
6. Control rack

Smoke limiter, RSV governor

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Pump drive

General
The injection pump must be set so that it injects
the right amount of fuel into each cylinder at the
right time during the power stroke.
The setting of the injection pump in degrees
before top dead centre is given on a plate on the
engine’s rocker cover or intake manifold. See
”Fuel system, Description of operation”.

9-litre, 11-litre and 12-litre engines


Injection timing is checked and adjusted by means Checking/adjusting injection timing using
of special tool 99 316, see “Checking and adjust-
special tool 99 316
ing injection timing” in “Fuel system, Description
of operation”.

14-litre engines
The pump coupling consists of two coupling
halves 1 and 5, which are connected via driver 4
and steel plates 3.
The coupling half on the injection pump shaft is
fixed in place by means of a key. The coupling
half on the pump’s drive shaft has clamps to per-
mit adjustment of the injection timing.
The coupling half on the injection pump shaft is
provided with marking which coincides with 1. Coupling half for pump drive shaft
marking on the injection pump’s end plate when 2. Flange
the injection pump is in position for the first cylin- 3. Plates
der’s injection, see “Checking and adjusting injec- 4. Driver
tion timing” in “Fuel system, Work description”. 5. Coupling half for injection pump
6. Clamp bolt
Pump coupling for 14-litre engine

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Pump setting and injection volumes

In order for the engine to achieve its specified per-


formance, the injection pump and governor must
be correctly set.
Setting of the regulator’s characteristics and the
pump’s injection volume must be carried out
using special test equipment.
Reconditioning and testing should therefore only
be carried out at workshops having experienced
personnel and the requisite equipment.
Pump and governor must be set in accordance
with Scania’s test tables. These indicate the set-
ting values and test equipment which are applica-
ble to a certain type of pump.
The test tables are included in ”Injection system”,
a special version of the workshop manual.
On completion of the work, the settings should be
security sealed to prevent unauthorized persons
from tampering with the pump.

Note An incorrectly adjusted injection


pump leads to poorer combustion
with increased black smoke and
higher fuel consumption as a result.
Incorrect adjustment can also
cause damage to the engine.

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Overflow valve

The purpose of the overflow valve is to limit the


pressure in the fuel system and continuously vent
it. The overflow valve ensures that the fuel circu-
lates round the system and that there is always
fuel in the injection pump for cooling, lubrication
and injection.
The overflow valve is mounted either on the injec-
tion pump, see page 4, or on the shut-off valve,
see page 3.
Opening pressure is 0.6 - 0.8 bar.
Working pressure is approx. 1 bar.

Diagram, closed and open


overflow valve

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Delivery pipes

Delivery pipes are precision manufactured from


steel tubing with cones and cap nuts at each end.
They are attached with clamps in order to damp
vibration and so reduce the risk of them fractur-
ing.
It is important to ensure that the delivery pipe is
not bent or reshaped, that it is clamped in the right
way and that the cap nut is tightened to the right
torque. Otherwise, the delivery pipe could easily
be damaged.
Broken or otherwise damaged delivery pipes must
not be repaired by soldering or welding, but
should be changed.
Delivery pipes must not be switched between dif-
ferent types or designs of engine as the delivery 1. Delivery pipe
valve’s operation, see page 12, is dependent on 2. Cap nut
the pipe being of the correct design. 3. Washer
4. Cone shaped end of pipe
5. Connection

Delivery pipe union

Double-wall delivery pipes


Certain engines, usually marine engines, are
equipped with double-wall delivery pipes, with or
without level monitor.
Double-wall delivery pipes consist of a regular
delivery pipe which is fitted with an outer jacket
which collects the fuel if the delivery pipe starts to
leak.
The danger of fire in the engine room is then
reduced as no fuel is sprayed out onto the hot
engine and warning of the leakage is given by the
level monitor.
Double-wall delivery pipes are changed as a com-
plete assembly, inner and outer pipes, and are only
available bent to shape as spare parts.
In other respects, the same applies to double-wall
delivery pipes as to standard delivery pipes.

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Injectors

Fuel is pumped through the delivery pipes to the


injectors by the injection pump. The injectors
atomize the fuel in the combustion chamber.
Pressed into the connection on the injector is a
rod-shaped filter. The fuel is pumped down to the 1. Delivery pipe union
nozzle through a passage in the rod filter. 2. Rod filter
When fuel from the injection pump reaches a cer- 3. Connection for leak-off
tain pressure (opening pressure), the nozzle nee- fuel pipe
dle lifts (start of injection). The fuel is then 4. Shim(s)
sprayed in atomized form into the engine’s com- 5. Spring
bustion chamber through accurately calibrated 6. Nozzle needle
holes.
The fuel that leaks between the nozzle needle and
nozzle housing is routed back to the fuel tank via
the leak-off fuel line which is connected to the
injectors.
The opening pressure can be adjusted by means of
washers.

Injectors, function

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