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Augustus

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This article is about the first Roman Emperor. For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation).
"Octavius" and "Octavian" redirect here. For other uses, see Octavius (disambiguation) and Octavian
(disambiguation).
For other people with similar names, see Gaius Octavius (disambiguation) and Gaius Julius Caesar.

Augustus

Princeps Civitatis

Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century

Emperor of the Roman Empire

Reign 16 January 27 BC –

19 August AD 14

(40 years)

Predecessor Office established


Successor Tiberius

Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus

23 September 63 BC

Rome, Italia, Roman Republic

Died 19 August AD 14

(aged 75)

Nola, Italia, Roman Empire

Burial Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome

 Clodia Pulchra (42–40 BC; divorce)


Spouse
 Scribonia (40–38 BC; divorce)

 Livia Drusilla (37 BC–AD 14; his death)

Issue  Julia the Elder

 Lucius Caesar (adopted)

 Gaius Caesar (adopted)

 Agrippa Postumus (adopted)

 Tiberius (adopted)

Regnal name

Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus

House Julio-Claudian dynasty

Father  Gaius Octavius

 Julius Caesar (adoptive)

Mother Atia Balba Caesonia

Roman imperial dynasties


Julio-Claudian dynasty

A bust of Augustus, wearing the Civic


Crown. Glyptothek, Munich.

Chronology

Augustus 27 BC – AD 14

Tiberius AD 14–37

Caligula AD 37–41

Claudius AD 41–54

Nero AD 54–68

Family

Gens Julia
Gens Claudia
Julio-Claudian family tree
Category:Julio-Claudian dynasty

Succession

Preceded by Followed by
Roman Republic Year of the Four
Emperors

Augustus (Latin: Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus;[nb 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD


14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first emperorof the Roman Empire,
reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.[nb 2] His status as the founder of the Roman
Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial
leaders in human history.[1][2] The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as
the Pax Romana. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two
centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long
civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.
Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of
the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and
Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark
Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar.
Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among
themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the
competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and
Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC.
After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free
Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and
the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as
a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate,
including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for
Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his
sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen
of the State"). The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first
phase of the Roman Empire.
Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum,
and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, and completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered
a major setback in Germania. Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region
of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. He reformed the
Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established
a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting
services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of
75, probably from natural causes. However, there were unconfirmed rumors that his
wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and
former son-in-law) Tiberius.
Contents

 1Name
 2Early life
 3Rise to power
o 3.1Heir to Caesar
o 3.2Growing tensions
o 3.3First conflict with Antony
o 3.4Second Triumvirate
 3.4.1Proscriptions
 3.4.2Battle of Philippi and division of territory
 3.4.3Rebellion and marriage alliances
 3.4.4War with Pompeius
 3.4.5War with Antony and Cleopatra
 4Sole ruler of Rome
o 4.1First settlement
o 4.2Change to Augustus
o 4.3Second settlement
o 4.4Primary reasons for the Second settlement
o 4.5Additional powers
o 4.6Conspiracy
o 4.7Stability and staying power
 5War and expansion
 6Death and succession
 7Legacy
o 7.1Revenue reforms
o 7.2Month of August
o 7.3Building projects
 8Physical appearance and official images
 9See also
 10References
o 10.1Notes
o 10.2Citations
o 10.3Works cited
 11Further reading
 12External links