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Sep 06, 2019

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Reactive power is given by the equation, From the above equation, the reactive power generated or

delivered is significantly depends on excitation. When excitation is rated or critical, E cosθ = V, which means Q = 0, the generator neither

supplies nor draws any reactive power and operates at unity power factor.

02) What is/are the advantages of parallel operation of alternators?

Increase in reliability

The advantages of parallel operation of alternators are

1. Increase in reliability

2. Increase efficiency under light load conditions as the generators can be switched optimally according to the load.

3. Under maintenance or repair or routine work continuity supply is maintained

4. Future expansion ie quite easy

5. Any variation in voltage or frequency will hardly make a significant impact on the bus bar voltage and frequency.

03) What is/are the necessary conditions for parallel operation of alternators?

Both 1and 2

Necessary conditions for parallel operation of alternators are

1. Terminal voltage is same

2. Frequency should be same

3. Phase sequence should be same

04) When pure inductive load is connected to the alternator, what is the effect of armature reaction?

cross magnetization

demagnetization

magnetization

When the load is pure inductive, the armature flux will entirely demagnetizing the main flux. Therefore net flux in the air gap reduces with load

and the main flux should be more than the actual under lagging loads.

05) Two generators operating in parallel with rating 50MW and 100MW respectively. Both their respective governor

settings are identical as 4%, consider same no load frequency. How will the machine share a common load of 100

MW

50 MW and 50 MW respectively

System frequency f = f0 - (f0 - f1)/ Prated *P1 Where, f0 is rated power frequency. System frequency f = 50 - 0.04*50/50* P1 -------------- equation

number 1 and also System frequency f = 50 - 0.04*50/100* P2 -------------- equation number 2 Given that P1 + P2 = 100 ----------------equation

number 3 By solving the above equations P1 = 33.33 MW P2 = 66.67 MW

06) Two synchronous generators operating in parallel 200 MW and 400 MW respectively. The drooping

characteristics of their governors are 4% and 5% from no load to full load. Consider the governors operating at

50Hz on no load. How will the machine share, if the load is 600 MW?

System frequency f = f0 - (f0 - f1)/ Prated *P1 Where, f0 is rated power frequency. f = 50 - 0.04*50/200 * P1 f = 50 - 0.05*50/400 * P2Given that,

P1 + P2 = 600 MW By solving the above equations, P1 = 230.7 MW and P2 = 369.23 MW. Therefore, generator 1 gets over load.

07) Two synchronous generators operating in parallel 200 MW and 400 MW respectively. The drooping

characteristics of their governors are identical as 4% from no load to full load. Consider the governors operating at

50Hz on no load. How will the machine share, if the load is 600 MW?

System frequency f = f0 - (f0 - f1)/Prated * P1 Where, f0 is rated power frequency. f1 is full load frequency. f = 50 - 0.04 * 50/200* P1 f = 50 - 0.04 *

50/400* P2 Given that, P1 + P2 = 600 MW From the above equations, P1 = 200 MW and P2 = 400MW When different rating generators are in

parallel they have to share the load proportional to their ratings, this is achieved through identical governor settings across their prime mover.

08) Two synchronous generators operating in parallel 200 MW and 400 MW respectively. The drooping

characteristics of their governors are identical as 4% from no load to full load. Consider the governors operating at

50Hz on no load. What is the operating frequency, if the load is 600 MW?

50 Hz

45 HZ

48 Hz

48.5 Hz

If the governor settings are made identical as 4%, they share load exactly proportional to their ratings at a frequency f. f = 50 - 0.04*50/200 *

200 f = 48 Hz

09) Reactive power generated or delivered significantly depends on

load angle

excitation

both 1 and 2

frequency

Reactive power generated or delivered Q = V/Xs * ( E cosδ - V ) Where E = Excitation voltage V = Terminal voltage Xs = Synchronous reactance

δ = load angle From the above equation, the reactive power generated is significantly depends on excitation value. 1. When excitation is rated

value, i.e. E cosδ = V, which means Q = 0, the generator nether supplies nor draws reactive power and operates at unity power factor. 2. If

excitation is reduced. E cosδ < V, the generator draws reactive power from the bus and operates at leading power factor. 3. If excitation is

increased, E cosδ > V, the generator delivers reactive power to the load and operates at lagging power factor.

10) When excitation is increased (over excitation), the synchronous generator operates at

Reactive power generated or delivered Q = V/Xs * ( E cosδ - V ) Where E = Excitation voltage V = Terminal voltage Xs = Synchronous reactance

δ = load angle From the above equation, the reactive power generated is significantly depends on excitation value. 1. When excitation is rated

value, i.e. E cosδ = V, which means Q = 0, the generator nether supplies nor draws reactive power and operates at unity power factor. 2. If

excitation is reduced. E cosδ < V, the generator draws reactive power from the bus and operates at leading power factor. 3. If excitation is

increased, E cosδ > V, the generator delivers reactive power to the load and operates at lagging power factor.

01) In a synchronous generator with constant steam input supplies power to an infinite bus at a lagging power

factor. If the excitation is increased

Power developed P = EV/Xs * sinδ Where E = Excitation voltage V = Terminal voltage Xs = Synchronous reactance δ = load angle From the

above equation, when steam input is constant and excitation is increased, power angle will decrease. Power delivered P = VI cosφ From the

above equation, when excitation is increased then terminal voltage will increase and to maintain power input constant, power factor will

decrease.

02) In a synchronous generator, if mechanical input is increased with constant excitation, the load angle will

increase

decrease

Power P = EV/Xs * sinδ From the above equation, if input power is increased with constant excitation, power angle will increase. If input power

is decreased withe constant excitation, then power angle will decrease.

03) In synchronous generator V curve is drawn between

either of these

In synchronous generator V curve is drawn between field current on X-axis and armature current on Y-axis. For the same load and constant

terminal voltage, the current supplied by the generator is minimum when operates at unity power factor and increases correspondingly lagging

or leading. At critical excitation generator operates at unity power factor and current supplied by the generator is minimum at critical excitation.

04) In synchronous generator, inverted V curve is drawn between

In synchronous generator, inverted V curve is drawn between field current on X-axis and power factor on Y-axis. At critical excitation the power

factor is unity. If excitation is decreased, the generator operates at leading power factor and if excitation is increased, the generator operates at

lagging power factor. Therefore, the power factor is maximum at critical excitation and decreases correspondingly with under or over excitation.

05) Which of the following statement is correct, if short circuit ratios is high

Short circuit ratio (SCR) is the ratio of two field currents, the field current required to produce rated voltage on open circuit to the field current

required to rated current on short circuit. SCR = 1/( Xs(pu) adjusted ) Where, X s = Synchronous reactance If Xs is low, then SCR is high. The low

value of Xs gives, 1. Good voltage regulation 2. Power developed is high, because power developed P ∝ 1 / Xs 3. Machine is more stable but high

short circuit current.

06) Damper winding is used to

both 1 and 2

Due to sudden change in the load or mechanical input the rotor is subjected to vibrations and oscillate about its mean position. These swings are

known as hunting. If this frequent and matches with the rotor frequency, a mechanical resonance will make the vibrations to become severe.

Therefore these oscillations should be damped as quickly as possible. Therefore a damper winding is used to suppress the hunting. When the

rotor runs at synchronous speed Ns, damper winding has no value. Due to any oscillations a relative speed between stator rotating magnetic field

and rotor exist, consequently the damper winding come alive, emf induced, current produced, experience a torque which opposes it cause, i.e

relative speed i.e. hunting. Therefore oscillations are suppressed quickly.

07) The synchronous reactance( Xs) is the

Synchronous reactance Xs = Xl + Xar Where, Xl = reactance due to leakage flux Xar = reactance due to armature reaction of the machine

08) Synchronous reactance of an alternator represents

Total impedance Zs = Ra + jXs = Ra + j(Xl + Xar) Where Ra = armature resistance Xs = synchronous reactance Xl = leakage reactance Xar =

armature reactance

09) In a synchronous machine, if φ is the flux per pole and f is the frequency of the emf induced E then

E ∝ φf

E ∝ φ/f

E ∝ 1/(φf)

E ∝ f/φ

Average emf induced E = dφ/dt emf at 1 conductor E = PφNs/60 Ns = 120 *f/P Where, P = number of poles φ = flux per pole Ns = synchronous

speed f = frequency average emf E = (φP* 120* f/P)/60 = 2φf Therefore E ∝ φf

10) The leakage reactance of a 3-phase alternator is determined by performing

In synchronous impedance method voltage regulation is determined by calculating synchronous impedance Zs. MMF method is also determining

voltage drop through MMF, but the drops in machine 'Ia*Xl' is voltage quantity and 'Ia*Xar' is MMF quantity. Because armature reaction is the

reduction of flux which is represented through voltage drop. In potier method voltage quantities are calculated on voltage basis and MMF

quantities are calculated on MMF basis. He also separated leakage reactance and armature reactance and named it as potier reactance. It

requires open circuit, short circuit and zero power factor tests. But to find only leakage reactance open circuit and zero power factor tests are

sufficient.

01) If direct axis reactance Xd and quadrature axis reactance Xq are equal, then reluctance power is

maximum

zero

minimum

Power developed in salient pole machine contains two components. 1. Excitation power 2. Power due to saliency or reluctance Power developed

in salient pole machine P = EV/Xd * sinδ + V²/2( (Xd-Xq)/(Xd*Xq)) * sin2δ Therefore, if Xd = Xq, reluctance power will become zero.

02) In synchronous generator a synchronous dead load (lamp, furnaces etc) has no ____________ hence it has no

natural frequency of oscillation.

restoring torque.

damping torque.

Under construction.

03) What is the frequency of a alternator, if P = number of poles and N = revolution made per second?

PN / 2 Hz.

120 / PN Hz.

120N / P Hz.

120P / N Hz.

If a two poles alternator rotates one complete rotation, it produces one cycle of generated voltage. If a P poles alternator rotates one complete

rotation, it produces P/2 cycles of generated voltage. If a P poles alternator rotates N complete rotations, it produces NP/2 cycles of generated

voltage. As the N is the rotation made per second, the frequency that is number of cycles produced during one second, of the generated voltage

would be NP/2 Hz.

armature.

core.

none of these.

Basically, the alternators have the field winding in its rotary part and the armature windings in its stationary part. We know that the field

winding produces the magnetic fields and the other name of the field winding is magnetic field poles. Hence, the rotary part of the alternator is

magnetic field poles.

05) If peak value of phase mmf is F max , then peak value of the rotating field caused by three phase is

(3/2)Fmax.

Fmax.

3Fmax.

(1/2)Fmax.

The peak value of the resultant mmf is peak FPEAK = 1.5 FM. The value of depends on No. of turns/phase, winding current, No. of poles, and

winding factor. The formula for the peak value of MMF is given below

06) For a fault at the terminal of a synchronous generator, the fault current is maximum for a

3 - phase fault.

line to line fault.

Most of the faults occur in an alternate, are line to ground fault. This type of faults is most saviour in an alternator because the phase winding

conductors are placed in the slots of the steel stator and stator is always kept in ground potential.

07) If the excitation of the synchronous generator fails, it acts as a/an

synchronous generator.

synchronous motor.

induction motor.

induction generator.

Normally the alternatives are connected to the system to which number of others alternator are also connected and hence the system behaves as

an infinite bus. Due to influence of this in finite bus, there will be a rotating magnetic field in the stator windings of all alternators and these

fields are all rotated in synchronous read. The field created by the rotor windings gets locked with this rotating magnetic field of the stator and

also rotates in shame same speed. If the excitation of the generator fails, suddenly there will be no more magnetically locking between rotor and

rotating magnetic field of stator. But still the governor will supply same mechanical power to the rotor due to this sudden magnetic unlocking;

the rotor will be accelerated beyond the synchronous speed. Hence there will be a negative slip between rotor and rotating magnetic field which

creates large slip frequency currents in the rotor circuit to maintain the power output of the machine as an induction generator.

08) A 500 V, 55 kVA single phase alternator has an effective resistance of 0.5 Ã�Â©. An excitation current of 10 A

produces 200 A armature current on short circuit and an emf of 450 V on per circuit. The synchronous reactance

will be

2.241 Ã�Â©.

2.781 Ã�Â©.

25.564 Ã�Â©.

2.74 Ã�Â©.

The synchronous impedance (ZS) value is the ratio of the short circuit voltage and the short circuit current. Therefore ZS = 450/200 = 2.25

09) Methods of synchronizing of alternator may be done by

all of these.

The method of connecting an incoming alternator safely to the live bus-bars is called synchronizing. The equality of voltage between the

incoming alternator and the bus-bars can be easily checked by a voltmeter. The phase sequence of the alternator and the bus-bars can be

checked by a phase sequence indicator. Differences in frequency and phase of the voltages of the incoming alternator and bus-bars can be

checked by one of the following two methods: (i) By Three Lamp (one dark, two bright) method, (ii) By synchroscope.

10) A synchronous generator is feeding a zero power factor (lagging) load at rated current. The armature reaction

is

magnetizing.

demagnetizing.

ineffective.

The four-point starter eliminates the drawback of the three-point starter that if we adjust the field resistance in a three point starter to adjust the

certain level of field current, the main coil gets de-energized. So, the motor is suddenly getting turned OFF. But, in the four point starter, the

main voltage coil is not connected with the field resistance. Instead of it is directly connected to the armature circuit. It does not allow the motor

to stop even if we adjust the field current with very low value of a DC shunt motor. Hence, it is suitable for a dc shunt motor with field weakening

control.

1) The field system of an alternator is usually excited

230 V AC.

Under construction.

02) Alternator operates on the principle of

self induction.

electromagnetic induction.

mutual induction.

Under construction.

03) In a synchronous machine, if the field flux axis is ahead of the armature field axis in the direction of rotation,

the machine operating is

synchronous generator.

synchronous motor.

asynchronous motor.

asynchronous generator.

Under construction.

04) In an alternator the voltage generated per phase is proportional to

frequency of waveform.

Under construction.

05) The aircraft alternators are designed to generate emf of high frequency of 400 Hz in order to

all of above.

Under construction.

06) Three phase alternators are invariably connected in star so as to

07) The armature of a single phase alternator is completely wound with T turn coils distributed uniformly. The

induce voltage in each turn is 2 V ( rms ). The emf of the whole winding is

2T Volts.

1.11T Volts.

1.414T Volts.

1.273T Volts.

08) The maximum electric current that can be supplied by an alternator depends upon

speed of exciter.

number of poles.

exciter current.

09) Two alternators A and B are sharing an inductive load equally. If the excitation of alternator A is increased

10) Three phase alternators are invariably star-connected because

01) Modern 3-phase alternator of a central power station will have generated voltage of

132 kV.

400 V.

11 kV.

230 V.

Under construction.

02) In an alternator, voltage drops occurs in

03) The frequency of voltage generated by an alternator having 8 poles and rotating at 250 rpm is

50 Hz.

60 Hz.

25 Hz.

16.67 Hz.

Under construction.

04) Unbalance 3 - Ã�Â¦ stator currents cause

vibrations.

heating of rotor.

Under construction.

05) The maximum possible speed at which an alternator can be driven to generate 50 Hz and 4000 V is

4000 rpm.

3000 rpm.

3600 rpm.

1500 rpm.

Under construction.

06) Two mechanically coupled alternators deliver power at 50 Hz and 60 Hz respectively. The highest speed of the

alternators is

500 rpm.

600 rpm.

3000 rpm.

3600 rpm.

Under construction.

07) A synchorous generator connected to an infinite bus is over excited. Considering only the reactive power from

the point view of the system the machine acts as

A resistor.

A capacitor.

an inductor.

None of these.

Since overexcited synchorous generator conncted to an infinite bus. Here no single generator can influence either voltage or frequency.

08) Two mechanically coupled alternators deliver power at 50 Hz and 60 Hz respectively. Highest speed of

alternator is

500 rpm.

600 rpm.

3000 rpm.

3600 rpm.

[/math] For maximum speed, no. of poles should be minimum. If P 1 = 10, P2 = 10 as P1, P2 should be even.

09) A part an alternator winding consist of eight coils in series, each having an emf of 20 V rms induced in it. Coils

are placed in successive slots and between each slot and the next, there is an electrical phase displacement of 30°.

Find the emf of eight coils in series

56.91 V.

66.91 V.

76.91 V.

86.91 V.

coils = 8 X 20 = 160 V Vector sum = Kd X airmetic sum = 0.4182 X 160 = 66.91 V.

10) A 3-φ alternator has negligible stator resistance. A short circuit test is conducted on this alternator. At a

particular speed, a field current of If1 is required to drive the rated armature current. If the speed of the alternator

is reduced to half, the field current required to maintain rated armature current

If speed is reduced to half, then induced emf will be reduced to half or in other words to maintain rated open circuit voltage, the field current

But impedence varies with field current and so unless we know that

the value of Zs for various field currents it is impossible to maintain rated current at short circuited condition with the half reduced speed.

01) Torque angle of a synchorous machine operating from a constant voltage bus is usually defined as the space

angle between

As shown in the figure, V is applied voltage to stator and Eb is induced emf in the rotor, ± is the angle between two and is called load (or) torque

angle because it depends on the load. It will be more if the load is more . Also, if ± is more than a limited value, then the loss of synchronism in

the machine will occur.

02) The result of slip test on a 3-phase, 20 KVA, 400 V, 50 Hz connected salient pole alternator is given below-

Phase value: Vmax = 100 V, Vmin = 96 V, Imax = 10 A and I min = 7 A. The direct and quadranature axis reactances

are respectively

[math] X_q = rac{V_{min}}{I_{max}} = rac{96}{10} = 9.6 \; \Omega; [/math]

03) If the field current is reduced to zero the maximum power developed by alternator is

1.644 KW.

2.73 KW.

5.46 KW.

0.9103 KW.

[math] P_{max} = rac{V_t^2}{2} \left [ rac{1}{X_q} - \rac{1}{X_d} ight].

04) If dimension of all the parts of a synchorous generator and the number of field and armature turns are double,

then generated voltage will change by a factor of

1.

2.

4.

8.

Phase emf induced = 4.44 WfNphφ, where symbol having usual meaning. On doubling diameter and length of the machine, the pole face area

becomes four times the original area, air gap length doubles, thus, magnetic flux path reluctance becomes half of the original. Since field MMF

has also been doubled, the flux φ shall be four times the original value. Armature turns also have been developed. Hence, generated voltage will

change by a factor of 8.

05) Find the synchronous reactance of alternators in which a given field current of 200 A on short circuit and a

generated emf of 50 V on open circuit. Armature resistance is 0.1 ohm

0.23Ω.

0.25Ω.

0.5Ω.

1Ω.

Zs = 50/200 = 0.25 Ω.

06) For the above problem, find the induced voltage of an alternator of it is to deliver a load of 100 A at power

factor of 0.8 lagging with terminal voltage of 200 V.

220 V.

222 V.

225 V.

230 V.

IRa = 100 X 0.1 = 10 Volts IXs = 100 X 0.23 = 23 Volts. cosθ = 0.8, sinθ = 0.6

07) Voltage across the open circuited field termninals of a synchorous machine under slip test is

AC of supply frequency.

DC.

DC of slip frequency.

When the driving power from the prime mover driving the alternator is lost, but alternator remain connected to the supply network and the field

supply also remains, the alternator will behaves as a synchorous motor and will also continue to rotate the same direction.

08) Two single-phase alternators operating in parallel have induced EMFs on open circuit of 230∠0° and 230∠10°

volts and respective reactance of j2 Ω j3 Ω calculate the terminal voltage

150 V.

200 V.

223.V.

300 V.

E1 = 230∠0° Volts. E2 = 230∠10° Volts Z1 = j2 Ω Z2 = j3 Ω Z = 6 Ω

= 223.2∠-7.3° Volts.

09) In above questions, find the power delivered by each of the alternators to a load of impedance 6Ω(resistive)

100 W, 2000 W.

3190 W, 5040 W.

1000 W, 5040 W.

6000 W, 7000 W.

V = 223.2 ∠-7.3° Volts. I1 = 14.73∠-14° I2 = 22.63∠-3.4° P1 = VI1cosθ1 P2 = VI2cosθ2

10) Two 3-phase AC generators are such that one has twice the linear dimensions of the other. The field windings

of each are excited to give identical sinusoidal air-gap flux density waveform. Both have the same number of stator

slots and identical winding patterns. The conductor/slot in a big generator is K times that of the smaller one. The

value of K to get equal no load voltage at same frequency is

1/4.

1/2.

4.

8.

The area gap flux density waveform as a function of special angle¸ being the same, the bigger machine will give flux per pole = S2X θ. Where θ is

flux per pole in the smaller machine. Therefore, to get equal no-load voltage, the number of series turns in the bigger machine should be half of

that in the smaller one.

01) A 3-phase, alternator has generated emf per phase of 230 V with 10% 3 rd harmonic and 6% 5th harmonic

content. Calculate rms line voltage for star connection.

50 V.

100 V.

230.2 V.

399 V.

[math] herefore Emf \; per \; phsae = \sqrt{E_3^2 + E_5^2} = \sqrt{230^2 + 13.8^1} = 230.2 \; V [/math].

02) In above question, find rms line voltage for delta connection?

50 V.

100 V.

230.2 V.

399 V.

Since for delta connection, line emf is same as phase emf. So the rms value of line emf = 230.2 V.

03) Fifth harmonic component of the induced voltage in three phase AC generator can be eliminated by using a

winding pitch of

2 / 3.

4 / 5.

5 / 6.

6 / 7.

Coil span factor nth harmonic, Kc = cos( 0.5 X n X θ). Where θ is an angle by which the coil is short of the full pitch.

Those fifth harmonic component gets eliminated by using a coil pitch of (4 / 5).