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EXPERIMENT 1 | HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

Chemical Formula H2O2

Synonyms oxygenated water; discovered by L.J. Tehran

Preparation 3BaO2.8H2O + 2H3PO4 —> Ba3(PO4)2 + 3H2O2 + 24H2O

3% H2O2 for Vincent’s stomatitis (“trench mouth” characterised by a progressive painful infection with
ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection
from the gums
Pharmacologic uses
Undiluted solution is used as a mouthwash; however, continued use may cause “hairy tongue” (hypertrophied
filiform papillae)

Chemical antidote for cyanide and phosphorous poisoning

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — evanescent blue color in the aqueous layer
— blue color in the ether layer
— K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 + 3H2O2 —> K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 7H2O + 3O2

2. — violet to a clear solution


— 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 + 5H2O2 —> K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 8H2O + 5O2

3. — formation of two layers, where the upper portion is cloudy and the lower portion is clear
— (NH4)2S + 4H2O2 —> (NH4)2SO4 + 4H2O
QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
1. Describe each type of stabilizers and give examples for each.
H2O2 contains chelants & sequestrants to minimize its decomposition under normal storage & handling conditions.
a. Acids
• H2O2 is unstable in alkaline pH
• Acids are employed to decrease the pH of the preparation to become stable.
• Examples: phenylphosphonic acids with stabiliser additives: stennates, nitrates, pyrophosphates
b. Complexing agents
• “chelating agents”
• compounds chelate trace amounts of polyvalent metals, making them unavailable to catalyse decomposition
• Example: EDTA
c. Adsorbents
• to remove impurities from hydrogen peroxide
• Examples: alumina, silica

2. What is the official amount of hydrogen peroxide per 100 ml of a solution as required by the USP?
• 2.5-3.5 grams of hydrogen peroxide in 100 ml

3. Explain “volume” as a method of expressing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide solution.


• “Volume strength” is the amount of oxygen gas which will be released if a particular amount of hydrogen peroxide is completely
broken down to oxygen and water.
• The stronger the solution, the more oxygen it can release so the higher volume strength and more oxygen it can release, the
faster the oxidation.
• Hence, 3% is 10-volume hydrogen peroxide, 6% is ______-volume hydrogen peroxide.
• The commercial preparation of the hydrogen peroxide solution is 30% based on its volume strength.

4. Enumerate storage requirements for the product synthesized.


• The temperature should be maintained at 25-35 degrees Celsius to avoid decompositions and explosions, since the following
reactions are considered to be exothermic:
• As a SOA, hydrogen peroxide:
★ decomposes violently into water and oxygen if heated (60-100 degrees Celsius)
★ deteriorates upon standing and also with contact with oxidising and reducing substances
★ evaporates rapidly when exposed to air at high temperature

5. What is an antiseptic? An antiseptic refers to any substance that inhibits the growth of microorganisms among living tissues.

6. Explain the mechanism of action of hydrogen peroxide as an antiseptic and give examples for its application.
• As an antiseptic, hydrogen peroxide works by the active liberation of oxygen when it comes in contact with organic materials
(pus, blood. The foaming caused by the liberation of oxygen mechanically cleanses wounds by dislodging fixed bacteria,
particles of dirt, etc.

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EXPERIMENT 2 | BORIC ACID

Chemical Formula H3BO3

Synonyms Sal Sedativum Hombergi, orthoboric acid, boracic acid, acidum boricum, borofax

Preparation Na2B4O7.10H2O + 2HCl —> 2NaCl + 4H3BO3 + 5H2O

Antiseptic
Antifungal
Pharmacologic uses
Emollient
Indicated for skin diseases (eczema, impetigo, erysipelas) and burns

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — It turns litmus paper from blue to red; red to red

2. — green-bordered flame

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. What are the 3 physical occurence of boric acid in the market?
• transparent, colorless, odorless, pearly scales having a smooth feel
• six-sided triclinic crystals
• white, odorless, bulky powder which is unctuous to touch

2. Using the descriptive terms to describe solubility (refer to USP) of a substance, express the solubility of boric acid.

• Boric acid is soluble in:


• 18 ml of water soluble
• 18 ml of alcohol ______________________________
• 04 ml of glycerin ______________________________
• 04 ml of boiling water ______________________________
• 06 ml of boiling alcohol ______________________________

3. How is boric acid assayed? What is the rationale for such procedure?
• Purpose: To determine the percentage of purity in a given amount of the boric acid
• Procedure: It is determined by the acid-base titration, i.e. direct titration method with 1N NaOH method.
• Rationale
• Boric acid is a weak acid and hence it cannot be determined quantitatively in an aqueous solution with standard NaOH
solution using visual indicator. However, it can be determined by titrating with standard NaOH solution in the presence of
polyhydric alcohols, such as glycerol or mannitol because glyceryl boric acid which is formed on treatment of boric acid
with glycerol. This glyceryl boric acid acts as a strong acid and can be titrated against a standard NaOH solution using a
visual indicator, phenolphthalein.

4. In what dosage forms is boric acid prepared? *Supplement the definitions


• dusting powders
• solution
• suppository
• ointment
• eyewash

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EXPERIMENT 3 | BORIC ACID SOLUTION

Synonyms Liquor Acidi Borici, Saturated Boric Acid Solution NF

Pharmacologic uses eyewash

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. Can you use this as an eyewash? Elaborate.
• Yes but precautionary measures must be observed.
• Unlike its other applications where it can be used undiluted, using it as an eyewash must be rendered diluted.
• NF Requirement: It should contain 1.9% boric acid and a pH slightly below 5.
• It must be diluted with an equal amount of strike distilled water. The dilution of the saturated solution, in addition to guarding
against the introduction of the crystals into the eye, also renders the solution approximately isotonic, thus minimising any
irritant effect due to a hypertonic solution.

2. Why is the ointment form not used anymore in the treatment of burns and diaper rash?
• Boric acid is poisonous and can be absorbed through the skin, especially, when it is applied to an open wound.
• While a small dose is not usually dangerous, it can build up in the body with repeated exposure, i.e. chronic poisoning.
• Some people are also allergic to boric acid and will experience skin reactions like swelling and redness when boric acid is
applied.

3. Enumerate the stepwise procedure in the proper application of an ophthalmic medication.

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EXPERIMENT 4 | SODIUM ACETATE

Chemical Formula CH3COONa.3H2O

Preparation 3Pb(C2H3O2)2.3H2O + 3Na2CO3.H2O + 7H2O —> (PbCO3)2Pb(OH)2 + 6NaC2H3O2.3H2O + CO2

Pharmaceutic Uses solubilizing agents

Pharmacologic uses diuretic

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — negative for Beilstein Test

2. — white granular ppt of calcium citrate settles out


— 2CH3COONa + H2SO4 —> 2CH3COOH + Na2SO4
— plastic balloon odor
— CH3COOH + C2H5OH catalyst: H2SO4 —> CH3COOC2H5 + H2O

2. — formation of deep red colored precipitate


— FeCl3 + 3CH3COONa —> (CH3COO)3Fe + 3NaCl
QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
1. Define efflorescence.
• Efflorescence is the loss of water (or a solvent) of crystallisation from a hydrated or solvated salt to the atmosphere on
exposure to air.

2. What is a diuretic?
• It refers to any substance that promotes the production of urine.
• Provide generic names and brand names of the following classes of diuretics.
✤ Loop diuretics — act on the Loop of Henle

✤ Thiazide diuretics — act on distal convoluted tubule

✤ Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors — act on proximal convoluted tubule

✤ Potassium-sparring diuretics — act on distal convoluted tubule

✤ Osmotic diuretics — act on collecting duct

3. Explain the mechanism of sodium acetate as a diuretic.


• The cation, Na+, of sodium acetate is introduced into the body fluids.
• When taken po, sodium acetate is easily oxidised in the tissues to sodium biacarbonate causing a hypertonic concentration of
the extracellular fluid and attracting water from cells to the ECF, hence, a “salt effect.”

4. Why is sodium acetate of particular value in cystitis?


• Cystitis is the inflammation of the bladder as a result of urine infection.
• Typical symptoms include
• burning sensation during urination, hematuria, turbidity of urine, acidity of urine
• flank pain (pain in lower abdominal area)
• fever
• When sodium acetate is taken po, it is readily converted to sodium bicarbonate.
• Such bicarbonate ion, lessens the acidity of urine since cystitis is associated with highly acid urine.

5. What is the purpose of combining sodium acetate with theophylline or theobromine?


• Sodium acetate + Theobromine
• hydrated mixture of theobromine sodium and sodium acetate
• NaAc solubilizes theobromine by forming a water-soluble double salt
• Use: effective diuretics in cardiac edemas (Dose = 0.5 grams)

• Sodium acetate + Theophylline


• hydrated mixture of theophylline sodium and sodium acetate
• NaAc solubilizes theophylline by forming a water-soluble double salt
• Use: diuretic (Dose = 0.2 grams)

6. What is the advantage of theobromine salt over the theophylline salt of sodium acetate?
• Although theophylline salts have better diuretic properties, theobromine salts exhibit a longer duration of action and less side
effects than theophylline salts.

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EXPERIMENT 5 | SODIUM CITRATE

Chemical Formula Na3C6H5O7.2H2O

Preparation 3NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7.H2O —> Na3C6H5O7.2H2O + 3CO2 + 2H2O

prevent discoloration of gycerites of phenol and tannic acid


buffering agent
Pharmaceutic Uses
emulsifier
flavoring agent

Pharmacologic uses Refer to Q4R No. 1

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — negative for Belistein Test

2. — white granular precipitate of calcium citrate settles out


— Na3C6H5O7 + CaCl2 —> Ca(CH3COO)3 + NaCl
— white precipitate
— Refer to Rogers p. 181 for equation

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. State the pharmacological action of sodium citrate when administered orally, parenterally and in-vitro.
• Orally
• oxidized in the tissues to sodium bicarbonate (not as rapid as acetates)
• used to relieve mild acidosis and promote a diuretic effect (Dose: 1 gram qid)
• salt available as disodium citrate has an analogous action with a more agreeable taste

• Parenterally
• used to shorten the coagulation time of blood
• used to accelerate the heart rate in hypokalemia

• In-vitro
• anticoagulant — due to inactivation of blood calcium as undissociated calcium citrate
• utilized in blood transfusions: 2.5% sodium citrate in 10-100ml of blood
• citrated blood is stored at body temperature and used ASAP

2. What is a sequestering agent?


• A sequestering agent removes a metal ion from a solution system by forming a complex ion.

• TYPES OF SEQUESTERING AGENTS


A. Inorganic polyphosphates
• best sequestering agents because it also aids in cleansing
• Limitation: hydrolyze at high temperature and lose their effectiveness
• Examples: sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate

B. Aminocarboxylic acids
• most used sequestering agents since it sequesters most metal ions & are very stable under alkaline conditions
• Example: EDTA

C. Organophosphonic acids
• effective but expensive SA
• Example: ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid

D. Oxalates and hydroxycarboxylic acids


• excellent for sequestering iron but not effective for calcium and magnesium
• Example: citrates

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EXPERIMENT 6 | EXSICCATED SODIUM PHOSPHATE

sodium phosphate — Na2HPO4.7H2O


Chemical Formula
exsiccated sodium phosphate — Na2HPO4

sodium phosphate — disodium hydrogen phosphate


Synonyms
exsiccated sodium phosphate — dried sodium phosphate, sodii phosphas exsiccatus

Uses Refer to Q4R No. 3-5.

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. Define exsiccation.
• Exsiccation (“dehydrate;” “dessicate;” “drying”) is a process that leads to the loss of moisture.

2. Why is high temperature to be avoided at the beginning of exsiccation?


• During exsiccation, a high temperature at the beginning is avoided because it causes the salt to dissolve in its own water of
hydration and it is then difficult to expel traces of water from the hard, caked residue left upon the evaporation of this solution.

3. What is the main use of the preparation?


• Exsiccated sodium phosphate, dried to constant weight at 110 degrees Celsius, is used in the preparation of Effervescent
Sodium Phosphate
• Effervescent Sodium Phosphate
• contains 20% exsiccated sodium phosphate + sodium bicarbonate + citric acid + tartaric acid
• used as a palatable laxative, the palatability being improved by the carbonation from the interaction of sodium
bicarbonate and the organicc acids
• Dose = 10 grams

4. What is the main use of sodium phosphate?


• It is used principally for its laxative properties.
• Dose = 2-4 grams of sodium phosphate in a glass of hot water, an hour before breakfast, usually results in a single soft stool
within an hour

5. Explain the mechanism of action of saline laxatives.


• MOA: Saline laxatives draw large amounts of water from the body into the intestines, which in turn increases the pressure on
the intestinal walls and stimulates the movement of bowel contents.
• Onset of action: laxative effect occurs from 1/2 to 3 hours following administration of saline laxatives
• Uses: rapidly evacuate bowels in cases of suspected poisoning or in preparation for intestinal exploration, i.e. endoscopic
examination
• Note: Use of saline laxatives is only recommended in situations when prompt emptying of the bowel is necessary. These are
not good laxatives to use for prolonged treatment of constipation because it increases the possibility of dehydration.
• Examples: magnesium sulfate, sodium phosphate, sodium biphosphate

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EXPERIMENT 7 | POTASSIUM ACETATE

Chemical Formula CH3COOK

Preparation CH2COOH + KHCO3 —> CH3COOK + CO2 + H2O

Diuretic
Pharmacologic uses Urinary alkalinizer
Systemic antacid or alkalizer (Dose = 1.5 gm)

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — negative for Beilstein’s test

2. — yields a positive result to all Tests for Acetate ion (Refer to Experiment No. 4)

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. Define deliquescence.
Deliquescence is a phenomenon characterised by the ability of solid substances, that when exposed to air, will tend to absorb
water and dissolve in it to form solutions.

2. Why is this drug not prescribed in a dry state?


Because its deliquescent property will cause instability, especially when it is exposed to air.

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EXPERIMENT 8 | POTASSIUM BITARTRATE

Chemical Formula KHC4H4O6

KNaC4H4O6.4H2O — Sal Polychrestum de Siegnette; Seignette Salt; Rochelle Salt; Potassium sodium tartrate
Synonyms KHC4H4O6 — cream of tartar
IUPAC name — 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid

Preparation KNaC4H4O6.4H2O + HC2H3O2 —> KHC4H4O6 + NaC2H3O2 + 4H2O

diuretic (Dose = 2-8 grams)


urinary acidifier (Dose = 2-8 grams)
Pharmacologic uses
saline laxative (Dose = 16-30 grams)
dusting powder in surgery — more bacteriostatic

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — ash like forming chars
2. — negative for Beilstein’s test
3. — silver mirror / metallic silver is deposited along the inner walls of the test tube
4. — rose-red color is formed; after heating, it becomes colorless
5. — purple/violet color of solution

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EXPERIMENT 9 | POTASSIUM NITRATE

Chemical Formula KNO3

Synonyms saltpeter, nitrate of ash, salitre

Preparation NaNO3 + KCl —> KNO3 + NaCl

diuretic
Pharmacologic uses
diaphoretic

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — negative for Beilstein’s Test

2. — “Brown Ring Test” — purple ring to brown ring at the junction


— FeSO4 + KNO3 + H2SO4 —> NO + Fe2(SO4)3 + H2O + KOH

3. — nitrates will not decolorize; nitrites will decolorize


QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
1. What is methemoglobinemia?
• Methemoglobinemia is also known as “Met-Hb.” It is characterised by the presence of a higher than the normal level of
methemoglobin in the blood. Methemoglobin is a form of Hb that does not bind to oxygen when its concentration is elevated in
the RBC.
• Normal methemoglobin levels = <1%

2. Why is potassium nitrate added to stramonium leaves? What is the use of this drug?
• Stramonium aka Jimson weed or James town weed
• from the dried leaf and flowering or fruiting tops with branches of Datura stramonium, Solanaceae
• used as an anticholinergic agent
• KNO3 is added to this product as it serves as an oxidizing agent to facilitate burning. Stramonium leaves are burned to
volatilize the alkaloid components to alleviate the paroxysms of asthma, as to be given in an average dose of 1 gram

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EXPERIMENT 10 | POTASSIUM CARBONATE

Chemical Formula K2CO3

Synonyms perlash, potash, salt of tartar

Preparation KC4H5O6 + KNO3 —> K2CO3 + HNO3 + CO2 + H2O

antacid
Pharmacologic uses
electrolyte replenisher

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — negative for Beilstein’s Test
2. — pink coloured solution
3. — effervescence
— K2CO3 + 2HCl —> 2KCl + CO2 + H2O
4. — white precipitate
— K2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 —> CaCO3 + KOH + H2O

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. What is the use of potassium carbonate in the ff preparations:
a. Cochineal solution
• produces hydroxyl ions necessary to form aluminium hydroxide (formation of aluminum lake)
b. Ferrous carbonate pills “Blaud’s pills”
• supplied the carbonate ion for FeCO2
c. Alkaline sulfur ointment
• At 10% concentration, it increases the amount of sulphide formed and increases the effectiveness of the sulfur
ointment.
d. Alkaline rhubarb elixir
• To neutralize the tannic acid in the rhubarb, thus reduce its astringent tendency

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EXPERIMENT 11 | POTASSIUM IODIDE

Chemical Formula KI

Preparation KI + I2 —> KI3

expectorant — Definition
Pharmacologic uses
antifungal

Pharmaceutic use solubilizing agent

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — soluble in 0.7cc of water
2. — formation of yellow precipitate of AgI
3. — formation of white precipitate

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. Give the composition of KI solution.
• Potassium Iodide Solution, NF XIII
• contains 100 grams of KI in each 100 ml of solution

2. What is the rationale behind the addition of sodium thiosulfate in potassium iodide solution?
• added in portions of 0.5 grams per 1000 ml to reduce any liberated free iodine to sodium iodide that may form when KI solution
stands for periods of time
• delaying mechanism and reduction of iodine

3. What is Lugol’s solution? Give the use and dose of the preparation.
• Strong Iodine Solution, USP XVIII
• 5 grams I + 10 grams KI
• USES — source of iodine / iodine replenisher, anti hyperthyroid agent
• DOSE — 0.1-3 ml daily

4. List common drugs containing potassium iodide. Indicate the use and brand name.
Research on this question :)

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EXPERIMENT 12 | POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

Chemical Formula KMNO4

Synonyms mineral chameleon

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
1. — dilute solutions of potassium permanganate appear to be lighter in color than the concentrated solutions
2. — decolorization of the solution

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. What precautions are to be observed when handling potassium permanganate?
• Observe proper handling of the compound as it may result to dangerous explosions when brought into contact with organic
or readily oxidizable substances.
• Harmful when swallowed, may cause irritation.
• Note that the compound leaves a brown stain on skin and nails, as well as the bath or vessel holding the solution.

2. Enumerate different dilutions of the compound and the corresponding condition where it is applied
• 1:5000 to 1:15000 — irrigation of urethra
• 1:100 to 1:10000 — local oxidative andti-infective action

3. What chemical properties of potassium permanganate are useful in medicine? Explain.


• Strong oxidising properties:
• antiseptic and antibacterial due to its oxidation of proteins and other bioorganic substances releasing oxygen which
serves as the effective agent
• fungicide
• Antidote for Strychnine poisoning

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EXPERIMENT 13 | SULFURATED POTASH

Chemical Formula

sulfurated potash — liver of sulfur


Synonyms
sublimed sulfur — flowers of sulfur

Preparation

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
Reading Assignment
1. —

2. —

QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH


1. Is sulfurated potash a true compound? identify its composition.
• Liver of sulfur is not a true compound. It refers to the alchemists’ name for a chemical mixture produced by eating potassium
carbonate with sulfur.
• Hence, it is a metastable mixture of potassium polysulfides and potassium sulfate (K2S, K2S2, K2S3, K2S4, K2S5, K2SO4)

2. Describe a freshly prepared sulfurated potash.


• irregular, liver-brown pieces when freshly prepared changing to a greenish-yellow
• decomposes upon exposure to air
• possesses an odor of H2S
• bitter, acrid, alkaline taste

3. Explain the mechanism of action of sulfurated potash as parasiticide in skin diseases.


• When applied to the skin, it dissolves the spiders and hair. After absorption, it may lead to the formation of sulf-hemoglobin.
Sulphides are mainly excreted as sulfates.
• Lotions of sulfurated potash are used in acne, eczema and other skin diseases.

4. What is Lotio Alba? How is it prepared?


• Lotio Alba or White Lotion
• Sulfide effect — for skin diseases
• ZInc ion — astringent properties
• It is prepared by adding the sulfurated potash slowly and with constant stirring filtered solution of zinc sulphate

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