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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background Of The Study

Language is an important tools of communication process in daily

activities for human lifes to interact and show theirs feelings or ideas. Human

languages produce a message which has thought, suggestion, idea, comment and

opinion inside from sender to receiver and giving a feedback as a reponse to

communication each other. By using language, people can effectively and

effeciency to share their experience or information to others.

In this era globalization, English is an important foreign language used by

international peoples to speak as connecting communication each other towards

nessecary lives. It used and learned by many countries as of international

communication and it has a great function in many aspect of activities such as

commerce, business, trade and education. In English language skills, there are

fours skills to be mastered. They are Listening, Reading, Speaking, and Writing.

Writing is the last part of the language skills beside listening, speaking and

reading, must be taught maximally by the teacher to the student. Students must

have competency to develop writing skills, it means they have to be able to

convey their feelings, thought, and ideas to communicate each other. So, it

demands Indonesian students to be able to master English in order to compete

with others. Therefore, English must be taught and learnt at school as academic

purpose in higher education.

Writing is one of language skills aspect that has activities in written form

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to communicate with non-verbal communication through process of thinking,

ideas, and skills expression in writing skills. As one of an essential to connect

communicate within peoples as written language, peoples should be construct

their ideas perfectly and understanding able to catch the meaning it.Writing is an

essential important in academic process purposes for students to achieve

competence ability to construct a produce and organizing ideas directly become

product. According to Nunan state that writing is the process of thinking to invent

ideas, thinking about how to express into good writing, and arranging the ideas

into statement and paragraph clearly.1

In the objective English subject on curriculum 2013 for Junior High

Schools it is mentioned that students are quire to be able write some kind of genre

in writing, they are narrative, recount, procedure, and descriptive text. Based on

the explanation above, the narrative text is one of writing genre that must be

mastered by students in learning English. However, not all students were able to

write narrative text properly and know about understanding in the narrative text.

The result of the pre-observation which had been conducted in SMP Amal

Luhur Medan found that students have some difficulties to write a narrative text.

Begin of fundamental problem of students still confused and don’t understand

how to make a text especially in narrative text. It causes they difficult to convey

their ideas in writing and don’t have enough basic knowledge such lacks of

vocabularies and tense. Many students have lack of interest and motivation in

writing narrative text. Lacking of media learning is one of factors the students

seemed boring and it made them could not develop their knowledge and ability to

1 Nunan, D (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. New York: The


McGraw Hill.p.88
3

learn English especially in writing narrative text. Teaching English especially

writing skill should be distributed to the students by using many creative

techniques. Through that way, the students will be interested in studying English.

The students needed creative media to increase their motivation and

grades. The teachers should be able to use some media of teaching. Media is a tool

for teaching and learning process. Media in language teaching can be classified

into three groups, they are: audio visual, visual, and audio. According to

Shabiralyani et.al state that media visual aids are those devices which are used in

classrooms to encourage students learning process and make it easier and

interesting.2

There are several kinds of media visual aids, one of them which is comic

strip. Manga comic strips is interesting media used in Englsih learning process to

improve students’participation and theirs interest in writing ability.Therefore, it is

necessary to have an interesting, easy to understand, students get actives, and not

boring media that can foster their creative ideas in learning process. Through

manga comic strips in English subject make studentsfeel something new and

different from what they usually get in their class.

The researcher chose Manga Strips as a technique to improve students’

skills inwriting narrative text of the eighth grade students in SMP Amal Luhur

Medan. Manga Strips were chosen because manga is popular comic japan among

young, which contain some pictures and some dialogues which are put into

several panels, so that the picture can stimulate the students’ interest and find out

2 Ghulam Shabiralyani et.al. (2015), Impact of Visual Aids in Enhancing the


Learning Process Case Research: District Dera Ghazi Khan. Journal of Education and
Practice. Vol.6, No.19.p.226
4

the ideas and inspiration about what they are going to write easily.

Based on the explanation above. This research conducted in entitle:

“Improving Students’ Skills In Writing Narrative Text Through Manga Strips at

SMP Amal Luhur Medan In Academic Years 2018/2019”

B. Identification Of The Study

Based on the stated background of study, several problems can be

identified as follows:

1. Students still confused and don’t understand how to make a text especially in

narrative text.

2. Students have lack of interest and motivationinwriting narrative text activities.

3. Lacking of media learning is one of factors the students seemed boring and it

made them could not develop their knowledge and ability to learn English

especially in writing narrative text.

C. Limitation Of The Study

Basedon previously explanation in the background of study and

identification of the problem, researcher covering all things of the problems

within limited in the study. The research is only focus on specific one that is

improving students’ skills in writing narrative text through manga strips at grade

VIII of SMP Amal Luhur Medan.

D. Formulation Of The Problem

Based on what has been mentioned earlier in the identification of the study
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and based on the focus of study the problem is formulated as follows:

1. How can Manga Strip get able to improve students skills in writing narattive

text of the eight grade students of SMP Amal Luhur Medan in the academic

year 2018/2019?

2. How does the Manga Strips improve students skills in writing recount text of

the eighth grade students of SMP Amal Luhur Medan in the academic year

2018/2019?

E. Objective Of The Study

The objective of the study based on the formulation of the study as follow:

1. To find out the improvement of Manga strip towards students skill in writing

narrative text at grade VIII SMP Amal Luhur Medan in academic 2018/2019.

2. To know Manga strip improve students skills in writing narrative text at grade

VIII SMP Amal Luhur Medan, in academic 2018/2019.

F. Significance Of The Study

The findings of this study are expected to be useful theoretical and practical

perspectives:

1. Theoretically

The result of this study can be useful information to support the way of

teaching learning writing, especially in narrative texts.

2. Practically

a. For the students, this study can be useful for students in learning English
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to improve their writing skills and can make them understand well in how

to write narrative texts.

b. For the teacher, as a reference to improve his/her technique in teaching

learning writing and to find the most appropriate for improving student’s

skills in writing narrative texts.

c. For other researchers, the result of this study will present useful

information and can give general knowledge to improve student’s skills in

writing narrative text.


CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Theoritical Review

1. The Nature of Writing

a. Definition of Writing

In the holy Al-Qur’an, writing skill is important to should be learned and

way of study. There is verse that state the existence of writing that be stated in Al-

Qur’an that is surah Al-Qalam:1



The meaning: “ Nun. By the pen and what they inscribed”

Reviewed from the content of the verse has the meaning that ‫ ﷲ‬SWT

swears two things namelypen and what is written. This verse explains that

encouraging people to learn and write. The sheets do not work if they are not

written. In surah al-Qamar: 53



”The meaning: “ and every small and great (thing) is inscribed

This verse explains that writing is important. In learning from early age

to adulthood requires writing and in small to large business writing must also

be done in academic activities and daily activities with a pen as a writing

tool.

In that verseAl-Qur’an, it has been taught that writing is important to


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encourage people to learn and bind the knowledge in writing starting from small

and large things. Writing requires knowledge and processes such as the use of

language, context and appropiate use of rheotical forms it.

According to Oshima and Hogue states that writing particulary in

academic is not easy.3 It is important to know that writing is a process, not a

product. It means that writing takes study and practice to develop it, not only

stuck in a one stop action, and must be produce creative act, it is always possible

to be reviewed and revised many times. According to Brown said that writing skill

is a writtenproduct which is completed after the process of thinking,

planning,drafting, also revising.4It’s mean that writing exactly needed a process to

make a best product, started consider some aspect content and organization to

fulfill appropriate use rheotical forms of discourse.

In addition, Harmer statethat writing is the only skill that can produce a

real product that canbe touched, be read, and can be kept for long time.5 In

writing, people must do a correct way to avoide confusion and misinterpretation

for readers.

3 Oshima and Hogue. (2007). Introduction Writing Academic (3rd.ed). United


State of America: Addison Wesley Publishing Company.p.5
4Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to
Language Pedagogy 2nd Edition. New York: Pearson Education.p.335
5Harmer, J. (2004). How to Teach Writing. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.p7
9

Writing is a process of critical thinking and ideas to produce a language

and means used to communication in writen text. As stated by Nunan defines that

theactivities of writing focus more on the act of inventing ideas, thinkingabout

how to express and organize them into statements andparagraphs that enable a

reader in understanding the ideas of thewritten work.6

b. Characteristics of Written Language

According to Brown state that there are seven characteristics of written

language as described below7:

1) Permanence

When written down and delivered are final to intended audience, most

significant contributor is writing operation. The students written work must to

revise and refine before final submitting product by teachers helps.

2) Production time

Using a good time to developing efficient process writing is needed by

students to make writing achieve because in educational context to provided

the time written work is usually limited.

3) Distance

Writers problem face is anticipating their audience. Writers need to be able to

predict the audience general knowledge to targeting audience about how

writers language will be interpreted.

4) Orthography

6Nunan, D. (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. New York: The


McGraw Hill.p.88
7 Brown, H. Douglas. (2001). Teaching by Principles: and Interactive Approach
to Language Pedagogy. New York: A Pearson Education Company.p.341-342
10

To mastering of the mechanics of English writing for students are difficult,

moreover are non native language, students must be reading and writing first

to know alphabetic, symbols, and produces a system in language.

5) Complexity

Writers must learn how to remove redundancy, how to combine sentences,

how to make a references to other elements in a text, how to create syntactic

and lexical variety, and much more.

6) Vocabulary

In written language places vocabulary use is heavier than speaking. Good

writers have to learn English vocabulary to produce wirtten text more the

richness.

7) Formality

For students, the most difficult and complex conventios occur rules of wiritng

in academic writing where students have to learn how to describe, explain,

compare, contrast, illustrate, defend, critize, and argue to creating written

language.

c. Micro and Macroskill Writing

In writing, there are some considered aspect of writing competence namely

micro skills and macro skill writing. According to Brown state that has several

aspect to be used as measurement to students’ writing competence.8 Those skills

are described as follow:

1) Microskill

a) Produce graphemes and orthographic patterns of English.

8 Brown, H. Douglas. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom


practices. White Plains, New York: Pearson Education.p.220-221
11

b) Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.

c) Produce an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order

patterns.

d) Use acceptable grammatical systems (e.g., tense, agreement, pluralization),

patterns, and rules.

e) Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.

f) Use cohesive devices in written discourse.

2) Macroskill

a) Use the rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse.

b) Appropriately accomplish the communicative functions of written texts

according to form and purpose.

c) Convey links and connections between events, and communicate such

relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given

information, generalization, and exemplification.

d) Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing.

e) Correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the written

text.

f) Develop and use a battery of writing strategies, such as accurately

assessing the audience's interpretation, using prewriting devices, writing

with fluency in the first drafts, using paraphrases and synonyms, soliciting

peer and instructor feedback, and using feedback for revising and editing.

In conclusion the microskill focus on the writing mechanical apply and the

pattern of word, such as cohesive devices, tenses, etc. Meanwhile the macroskill
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covers wider of writing areas, more mastery in responsive ans extensive writing

such as use rhetorical forms, the communicative functions as connect as forms and

purpose, the main idea, the supporting idea of a text, information, generalization,

the literal and implied meaning writing, references, and writing strategies.

Therefore, based on the micro and macro skills had determined, writing

activity and process required to sucessful in writing competene. It is aim helping

for students needed to construct their ideas effectively and making easier to guide

them write various of text.

d. Writing Process

According to Richards and Renandya, those are planning, drafting,

revising, and editing.9

1) Planning

Planning is an activity pre-writing in the classroom that encourages students to

write. It stimulates thoughts for getting started idea through using kinds of

generating ideas such brainstroming, clustering, and etc, to brings students

idea into writing.

2) Drafting

Generating ideas for first writing is drafting as a process of planning stage.

The students can focused fluency of writing and not preoccupied with

grammatical in the draft.

3) Revising

The students can revise and reexamine their texts to know how effectively the

content have communicated with meaning to the reader. Revising is not only

9 Richards and Renandya. (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching: An


Antology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.p316-317
13

checking for language errors. It is done to improve global content and the

organisation of ideas so that the students’ intent is made clearer to the reader.

4) Editing

Students can prepare the final draft for evaluation by teacher. This stage their

final draft should be edit for some aspect errors such grammar, spelling,

punctuation, diction, sentence structure, and accuracy of supportive textual

material.

The students are not always to expected to know where their work errors

or how to know what are mistakes and correct, but editing is process of writing to

make theirs works able to know their ability is completely acceptable.

According to Harmer state that the task of teacher writing proposes had

done before, during and after the process of writing they are (1) demonstrating,

(2) motivating and provoking, (3) supporting, (4) responding and (5) evaluating.10

In demonstrating as the first task teacher do in the process of writing. The

teacher introduces to students underatsanding within writing conventions and

genre constraits in specific types of writing, in here teachers have to able to draw

these features to their attention.

The second task teacher do in the process of writing after demonstrating is

motivating and provoking. In motivation and provoking, where the teacher can

help by provoking the studenst into having ideas, enthuasing them with the value

of the task, and persuading them what fun it can be. For several students writing

is big problem, because there isn’t motivation into theirselves do writing, and

students writers often find ‘lost for words’ epecially in creative writing task. This

10 Harmer, Jeremy. (2004). How to Teach Writing. Essex: Pearson Education


Limited.p.41
14

situation can be solved with teacher asking to students and walk around calss with

prepared suggestions and when students get stuck they can immediately get help

rather that having to think of ideas.

The third task teacher’s role as motivator and provoker is that of

supporting. Students need a lot of help and reassurance once with the means to

carry them out. Teachers extremely supportive when students are writing in the

process always available. Otherwise, students sometimes face bored and lacking

motivation in the process of writing. In this situation, the teacher must be ready to

take a amusing and engaging ways to getting students be interest and comfortable

with writing activity.

After the students finished task of writing, the teacher performed of four

task is responding. In responding, the teacher react to how students’ writing work.

It is react to the content and construction with giving suggestion to respond

students work or feedback as responding students finished product.

Have a completly the task , the teacher evaluating students’ work, telling

them how well they are, to know what standart they have reached. It can be

students writing mistakes, what they wrote well, errors of writing, and grades

them. It will be kow progress of students writing so far.

2. Teaching Writing in English as a Foreign Language

a. Teaching Writing

According to Hyland states that there are some organizing in teaching


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writing to helpful understanding the complex reality of writing.11

1) Focus on Language Structures

In this way, writing directs attention to writing as a product and encourages a

focus on formal text units or grammatical features of text. And learning to

write in a foreign or second language mainly involves linguistic knowledge

and the vocabulary choices, syntactic patterns, and cohesive devices that

comprise the essential building block texts.

2) Focus on Text Functions

This focus has an important principle here is to relate structures meanings, and

making language use a criteria for teaching materials. This orientation is to

help students develop effective paragraphs through the creation of topic,

supporting, and transitions sentences, and to develop different types of

paragraphs.

3) Functions on Creative Expression

This focus here explained that writing is a way of sharing personal meanings

and writing courses emphasize the power of the individual to construct his or

her own views on a topic. This can help generate self-awareness of the writer’s

social position and literate possibilities as well as facilitate “clear thinking,

effective relating, and satisfying self-expression”.

4) Focus on Composing Processes

This focus explained that the writer as an independent producer of texts has

intoduces can be reviewed, evaluated, and revised, even before any text has

11 Ken Hyland. (2003). Second Language Writing. New York: Cambridge of


University Press.p.2
16

been produced at all, but it goes further to address the issue of what teachers

should do to help learners perform a writing task.

5) Focus on Content

This focus explained that writing teaching is in reference to substantive

content: what students are required to write about. The students get select a set

of topic or themes of interest that establish a coherence and and purpose for

the course or that set out the sequence of key areas of subject matter that

students will address.

6) Focus on Context of Writing

This focus has orientation that context of writing instruction consider subject

content, composing processes and textual forms to be learnerd for students to

know patterns of writing language use accomplish coherent, purposeful prose.

b. Principles of Teaching Writing

As a teachers to teach writing is not easy as it seems. There are problems

occur towards students in the class had impact to teacher teach. Therefore, the

teachers should have a some techniques to help students understanding in process

of writing. According to Brown stated that there are some principles for designing

wiritng techniques.12 They are:

1) Incorporate practices of “good” writers

The goal writing for writers do is technique to writing practice. Good writers

must focus on a main idea in writing, know gauge his orh her audience, spend

quality planning to write, easily let his or her first ideas flow onto paper,

follow a general organizational, utilize feedback in writing, not wedded

12Brown, H. Douglas. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom


practices. White Plains, New York: Pearson Education. p. 345-346
17

surface structures, revising work efficiently, and patienly to revisions as

needed.

2) Balance process and product

Make sure a students are carefully led through appropriate a process

composing product, because writing is usually composing process and

requires multiple drafts before created procudt.

3) Account for cultural/ literary backgrounds

Teacher must be using a familiar English language to teach for students as non

native, try to help students to understand, and bring them to the use acceptable

English.

4) Connect reading and writing

Students learn by observing or reading the writtenn word. In reading, students

get learnt variaety types of text, can know important insight how they should

write well and what subject matter become the topic.

5) Provide as much authentic wiritng as possible

Sharing writing with other students in the class is one way to add authenticity.

Writing for display is authentic to get clear of audience convey the meaning.

6) Frame your techniques in terms of prewriting, drafting, and revising stages.

Process writing in prewiritng generate of ideas include reading, skimming and

scanning, reference, brainstroming, listing, clustering, discussing topic,

instructor question and probes, and freewriting. In drfating and revising are

the core of process wiritng include technique freewriting, “optimal”

monitoring of wiritng, peer-reviewing, feedback, editing grammatical errors,

final check error, and proofreading.


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c. Types of Writing Performance

There are four categories of written performance according to Brown

stated that capture and range about writing production are considered. Each

category resembles the categories defined for the other three skills, but these

catehories reflect into the uniqueness of the skill area.13

1) Imitative

The students must know a basic of writing concept such letters, words,

punctuation, and brief of sentences to produce written language.

2) Intensive (controlled)

The students next with context are fundamentals of imitative writing skills

such vocabulary, idioms, and correct grammaticalin producing of a sentence.

This context is importance in determining correctness and appropriateness in

writing skills.

3) Responsive.

In here, the students require learned a perform context writing level, such

connecting sentences into a paragraph and creating two or three paragraphs,

make a outline and some genres of writing like brief narratives and

descriptions, short reports, lab reports, and etc. The students also mastered of

sentence-level grammar to focused on the written text.

4) Extensive.

The students will be into aextensive writing or high level implies to make a

context of writing more successful. In here students can write for all purposes

up to the length of an essay, a term paper, a major research project report, or

13Brown, H. Douglas. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom


practices. White Plains, New York: Pearson Education.p.220-221
19

even a thesis. The students also focus on achieving a purpose, ideas,

grammatical, syntactic and lexical variety, to make a fmal.

c. The Roles of Teaching Writing

In teaching writing, the teacher need to deploy important roles when

students are asked to write. Acording to Harmer stated that the teacher has the

important roles as follows14:

1) Motivator

The teacher has principal roles that is motivate the students when they do

writing task. The teacher can motivated to them that creating, generating,

persuading, and encouraging of ideas in writing are usefulness to make as

much efforts as posiible for maximum benefit in writing activity. The teacher

also get buildto students perception that learn writing are easily and enjoying.

2) Resource

In here, the teacher should be ready to supply information and language to

give to the students need. The teacher should ensure to tell students that

teachers are available and ready to look at their works as advising to students.

3) Feedback provide

The teachers should be giving feedback s a response on writing tasks to

students Teachers should give a respond positively, encouragingly to the

content students have written.

Writing is crucial aspect skills to be mastered by learners. Its’ become

14 Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex:


Pearson
Education Ltd.p.261
20

teachers has responsibility to teaching writing well to learners. Moreover, English

as a foreign language so learners studying. According to Harmer stated that there

are fours reasons for teaching writing to students of English as a foreign language

which has importantly do by English teacher.15

a) Refinforcement

Students more acquire languages in a purely oral, but most of them more

greatly seeing the language written down. The visual demonstration of

language needed construct students understanding how it all fits and aid to

commiting new language shortly after they have studied it.

b) Language development

The actual process of writing can help the students learn through construct

theirs proper written texts by ongoing learning experience process writing.

c) Language style

Many students need time to think to produce language, it may take a little

longer. Writing is appropriate for students need slower way to produce

language.

d) Writing as a skill

The important of reason for teaching writing is basic language skills besides

writing. students need to know how to write letters, put written reports, reply

advertisement, write using electronic media, and know some writing’s special

conventions.

Writing become a difficult skill to learners because there are roles of

writing must to convey. Teacher needs helping students to have a confident selves

15 Harmer, J. (2001). How to Teach English: An Introduction to the Practice of


English Language Teaching. Malaysia: Longman.p.79-80
21

to try a good writing form, eventhought many students from non-English

Speaking Countries who cannot write well. So, teachers should be preparing

teaching wiritng an communicating in the class to them.

d. Writing Approach Process

According to Brown state that there are writing approach process in

learning teaching writing, they are16:

1) focus on the process of writing that leads to the final written products

2) help student writers to understand their own composing process

3) help them to build repertoires of strategies for prewriting, drafting, and

rewriting

4) give students time to write and rewrite,

5) let students discover what they want to say as they write

6) give students feedback throughout the composing process (not just on the final

product) as they attempt to bring their expression closer and closer to intention

7) include individual conferences between teacher and student during the process

of composition.

2. Media In Teaching English Language

To improve teaching learning process effectively in writing skills between

teacher and students intensively needed. Media is visual aids which is can brought

students interest into the classroom for teachers help to do his or her job better.

According to Donn stated that visual aids has various media to teach in the

classroom, divided into such groups as wall charts, book illustration, realia
16Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach Language
Pedagogy 2nd Edition. New York: Pearson Education.
22

models, puppets, map, film, comic strip, moving film, television.17

There are at least three functions that move together in existence media18.

1) Stimulation function

In the stage of teaching process, stimulation function can arouses students

interest to learn and find out more everything that is on the media.

2) Mediation of function

In this view, media as mediatior or intermediary between teacher and student

to easier understanding each other in teaching process. In this things, the

media as a bridges to communication between teachers and students.

a) Information function

In the stage of teaching process, communication is needed to make teacher

explanation wants to convey to students literary. By the presence of media,

students can capture information or the explanation needed or what the

teacher wants to convey. These cassifications are natural and often helpful,

media of visual aids is needed to give a significant in the teaching learning

process. One of way to help the students be better in capture knowlede by

media visual aids, that is comic strip of classifying visual aids which may

help students to understand material of leanring process especially in

narrative text be better, andmore imaginatively in the classroom.

17 Donn Byrne. (1980). English Teaching Perspectives, New York: Longman.


p.121
1813Nunan Mahnun. (2012). MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN (Kajian terhadap
Langkah-langkah Pemilihan Media dan Implementasinya dalam Pembelajaran). Jurnal
Pemikiran Islam. Vol. 37.p.27
23

b) Manga Strip

Manga refers to popular ofJapanese comic books. Manga originated in

Japan which have expanded and become globalized popular cultures

among young adults in Asian, America, and Europe. Manga were directly

has impact to share elements of Japanese popular culture which has been

assimilated by other cultures. In Japan, manga usually published with

series and able to printed several hunderd pages long include many topic

of story inside.

A Stated by Zanettin in Furuhata that they usually have some kinds of

genres covered in Japanese comics include fictional genres such as adventure,

horror, romance, humor, science fiction and non-fictional genres such as essay,

biography, journalism, and so on.19 Manga has many characters, topic, subject,

and costums. The target of manga readers usually classyfing by age range and

backgrounds.

Manga comic strip will be helpful to students interest and regarded a

potential material in teaching process in generating ideas and finding words for

theirs writing narrative text.Manga strip can stimulate students ideas to create a

inspiration about what they are going to write. Manga strip more popular and

accessible to addopted in teaching writing process.

Students center needed material and method instruction to apply teaching

process effectively. By using Manga strip as media visual aids is necessary in

learning process to improve theirs writing skill especially in narrative text.

19 Hamako Furuhata-Turner. (2013). Use of Comics Manga as a Learning Tool


to Teach Translation of Japanese .The Journal of Language Teaching and Learning,
Vol.2. P.72
24

3. Narrative Texts

a. Definition of Narrative Text

According to Pardyono in Purba state that narrative text is a kind of text

that exactly to tell the activities or events in the past, that show problematic

experience and resolution means to amuse oftentimes meant to give moral lesson

to the readers.20 Narrative is the most common of writing because the writer just

tells his/her story without any purposes. Narrative places acts in times and tells

what happened according to natural time sequence.

According to Knapp and Watkins stated that there are General Elements of

Narrative Text, they are21 :

1) Theme is a main topic that the writer going to write about.

2) Plot is a meaningful and dramatic series of events that form the story.

3) Characterization is the way the writers make and describes all characters in the

story. A narrative writing reveals character through action.

4) Conflicts is the problem in the story.

5) Setting is the information about when and where the events of the story take

place.

6) Point of view is the way of establishing the person and position of the writers.

If the writers uses “I” and “We” it means that the writer writesin the person

20 Rodearta Purba. (2018). Improving the Achievement on Writing Narrative Text


through Discussion Starter Story Technique. Advances in Language and Literary Studies.
Vol.9.p.29
21 Knapp and Watkin. (2005), Genre, Text, Grammar: Technologies for Teaching
and Assessing Writing. Sydney: University of New South Walas Press.p.4
25

point of view, while the uses “He” and “She” it means that the writer in the

third person point of view.

7) Sequencing is a sequencing of events in time, an obvious and effective way to

narrate it is in chronological order.

According to Knapp and Watkins stated that the generecic structure of

narrative text are22:

1) Abstract

The abstract in narratives function as a generic indicator which signals that a

story is about to be told and establishes the point of the text. so abstract is

thematic prediction of what the text is going to be about.

2) Orientation

The purpose of orientation is to orient the listener with respect to place, time

and behavioral situation.

3) Complication

Complication is the main section of a narrative. It present sequenced events

which culminate in a crisis problem. This complication is realized in simple

past mental, material process, individualized participants.

4) Evaluation

The purpose of evaluation is to reveal the attitude of the narrator towards the

narrative.

5) Resolution

Resolution shows how crisis / complication is resolved. The mental, verbal,

material, simple past processes are used in this stage.

22Ibid.p.104
26

According to Pardosi Narrative writing has some grammatical features that

can be a guide to write a narrative writing, namely23:

1) Focus on specific and usually individualized participants.

2) Use of material process, verbal process relational process, and material

process.

3) Use of temporal conjunction and temporal circumstance.

4) Use of Past tense

B. Previous Study

1. Composing this research, are some previous researches related to study to

become composing this proposal. The researcher conducted, first by Unik

Fadillatus Salimah (2017). Improving Students SkillsIn Writing Recount

Text By Using Manga Strips. The subject of this research is students of

VIII B class of SMP Muhammadiyah 1 Gatak in academic year 2016/2017

and subject of the research consist of 26 students. The study showed that

manga strips helped students to improve writing comprehension.

Moreover, using manga strips in apply teaching learning the students also

eagerly learnt in joyful situation.The result of the classroom action

research conducted in two cycles showed that the improvement of

students’ writing recount text can be seen from the improvement of the

mean score of pre-test, first post-test and second post-test. The pre-test

23Pardosi, Putri Sri R. (2012). Improving Students’ Achievement in Writing


Narrative Text by using Think Pair-Share Startegy. Unpublished thesis. Medan State
Univeristy of Medan, 10-40.
27

mean score was 53.92 increasing to 61.80 in the first post-test and

increasing to 65.16 in the final pos-test.The collecting data using test and

observations .The result of research state in Cycle I got 73% and Cycle II

got 92.3%.

2. The second research conducted by Afiyusma Harwiningsih (2014). Using

Comic Strips To ImplementationThe Eight Grade Students’Narrative

Writing Ability In SMP Negeri 1 Pandak. The study showed that there was

significantimprovement after the actions were implemented. The students

could generate ideas easily and they could write narrative texts in the

correct form. The subjects of the research were26 students of VIII G class.

The data collected were in the form of qualitative dataand supported by

quantitative data. The qualitative data were gained fromobservation and

interviews, while the quantitative data were gained from tests.There were

two tests in this research namely Pre-test and Post-test.The result of the

research showed that the use of Comic Strips gavesignificant improvement

to the students’ narrative writing ability. The students’mean score was 1.5

on Content aspect, 1.461 on Organization aspect, 1.192 onLanguage Use

aspect, 1.23 on Vocabulary aspect, and 1.384 on Mechanic aspectin the

Pre-test, while in the Post-test, the students’ mean score was 3.192

onContent aspect, 3.115 on Organization aspect, 3.192 on Language Use

aspect,3.23 on Vocabulary aspect, and 3.346 on Mechanics aspect.

C. Conceptual Framework

Writing is one of aspect skills in English language which should be


28

mastered by learners who studying English language. Hence, in teaching learning

activity students must be contribute to the ability in English to influence their

competence. It is aimed that the students must be emphasized English learning

process it will be developed theirs writing skills perception.

Although writing skills has a significant role in the process, students

writing skill is still far from being satisfactory. These problems happen cause most

students still confused to understanding process of writing do, monotonous of

teaching learning, and uninterested in the teaching writing learning process.

Therefore, to overcome this situation, the use of teaching technique which

can prompt students to writing is needed to develop their competence. The

researcher decided to Manga strips as one of teaching technique to be solution

towards those problems. Based on previous study by used Manga strip can

improve students writing achievement in learning process.

Manga strip is very useful to develop students writing skills. In using

manga strip student writing will be interesed, and the material focused to generate

ideas what they write. Manga strip conduct to students stimulate more active and

involve competence theirselves It is solution for students motivated and keep

control their attitude do in teaching learning process.

Then within using Manga strip in writing narrative text it will be break of

monotonous of teaching and learning process usually in class. Students can

understanding to convey how to make a text completely in narrative text. Manga

strip is a way of learning process which make students participately explore ideas

and help them.

Beside it, Manga strip can be used to improve students language use, and
29

vocabulary. They can take and choice words it more acceptable to fulfill according

them. In this stage, grammar also being exercise to encourage students writing

product was excellent design.

To conclude, in this research study, manga strip is used in teaching

learning processto solving include all of those problems. This is kind of effective

media to improve students interest in writing process might be helpful.

D. Hypothesis

Based on from formulation of problem, and conceptual framework then

the hypothesis in this research is: “The implementation of Manga strips can

improve students skills in writing narrative text of eight grade school at SMP

Amal Luhur Medan”.


CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Types of Research

This study is classified into action research. According to Burns states that

definitons of action research is reflective practice to identify a problematic

situation that undertaken by partipants who the teacher as researcher to see gaps

between situation hapenning in teaching process to bring out even better

improvement in practice.24

This research was supported by quantitative data and qualitative data. The

quantitaive data were through gained by a test. Meanwhile, the qualitative data

were through gained by interviews and observations. This research aimed to

implement an action in improving students skills in writting narrative text into

Grade VIII at SMP Amal Luhur Medan in the academic 2018/2019 by Manga

Strip.

B. Place and Time of Reseacrh

This action research was located in SMP Amal Luhur Medan. The reseacrh

was conducted in Class VIII 1 SMP Amal Luhur Medan in the second semester

academic year of 2018/2019 of .The action was conducted from March until April

2019. The reseacrher carried out the actions based on the school schedule,

especially the English schedule of VIII 1 class of SMP Amal Luhur Medan.

24 Anne Burns. (2010). Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching.


A Guide for Practitioners. New York: Routledge.p.2
31

C. Subject of Reseacrh

The subject of the research was the eight grade students of SMP Amal

Luhur Medan,especially in class VIII 1 which consisted of 30 students. The object

of the reseacrh was in English language especially Narrative Text.

D. Procedure of Research

This research follows the steps of action research designed by Kemmis


25
and McTaggart in Burns. The steps of the research are represented based on the

following chart:

Figure 1: Model action research by Kemmis and McTaggart

1. Cyle I

25Ibid.p.8
32

The procedure of action research in the first cycle are shown as follows:

a. Planning

In this phase, the problems had been identify and refers to solve

problems. In this phase, everything needed was prepared related to the action

by some preparations in planning phase were:

1) Preparing a Lesson Plan with narrative text material.

2) Preparing media used in learning process about narrative text

3) Preparing observation sheet which was used to know the overall

condition of the class during teaching learning process.

4) Preparing writing narrative text task for students

b. Action

The planning was systematically arrenged and next to in the action play.

In this stage, the collaborators giving a benefit suggestion and criticized to

researcher. The action was conducted flexibly to see the possible changes

happened found. The activities in the cycle I can be seen as follow:

1) Pre Activity

a) The teacher gives apperception to students before the learning begins

by: 1) the teacher greets students with a tone of enthusiasm and joy

(greetings), and 2) the teacher checks or checks the attendance of

students before the activity begins.

b) The teacher provides motivation to students by asking a number of

questions about previous learning related to narrative text material.

c) The teacher conveys the learning objectives that will be achieved after

students learn the learning material that will be taught by the teacher.
33

2) Main Activity

a) Before the teacher explains the material to be taught, the teacher gives

the opportunity for students to arrange their seats by making groups of

4-5 students.

b) The teacher explains and tells the Manga strip media to students.

c) The teacher provides an explanation of narrative text material so that

students can understand it well.

d) The teacher explains and discusses narrative text material using Manga

comic strip media.

e) The teacher provides an opportunity for students to ask about unclear

learning material.

f) The teacher assigns the task of identifying the generic structure and

write narrative text to each student in the group to discuss with the

group.

g) The teacher provides opportunities for students to ask about difficulties

with the material.

h) The teacher asks one of the students to read the results of the narrative

text material.

3) Closing Activity

a) The teacher and students together conclude the subject matter that has

been learned.

b) The teacher provides an opportunity for students to do the assignments

given by the teacher.

At the end of this action a learning outcome test is carried out to determine
34

the extent to which students' ability to understand the material that has been

taught after students are given the action of learning using the Manga strip

media.

c. Observation

Observations carried out include the implementation of the

learning action steps taken during the teaching and learning activities. The

observed activities include the activities of the teacher in learning. This

observation aims to determine the suitability of the action with the plan

that has been prepared and to determine the extent to which the action can

produce changes that are in accordance with the desired. This observation

is to see whether the conditions of teaching and learning in the classroom

have been carried out in accordance with the plans that have been

prepared.

d. Reflection

At this point,the reflection was made by all involved members of

the research. The successful actions then were continued in the teaching

and learning process. Actually, unsuccessful actions were modified into

the better ones.

E. Technique of Collecting Data

There are some collecting data to seeing result of students learning by

Manga strip media in Narrative texts material. The researcher do collecting data

by using instruments of research, as follows:


35

1. Observation

According to Arikunto state that observation is an activity carried out through

vision, smell, hearing, touch, and taste26. Observations do to observed of all

activities and changes that occur at the time of action. Observations sheet

carried out in the form of observing all the teaching learning process activities

and aims to determine the changes that occur during the action.

2. Test

One technique used to determine students' abilities in learning is a test. In this

study, pre-test and post-test were used as research instruments to determine the

extent of students' abilities in the learning process.

3. Interview

According to Koshy states that the main purpose of conducting interviews is

to gather responses whichare richer and more informative than questionnaire

data.27As stated by Arikunto that in terms of implementation, the interviews

were divided into free, guided and free-guided interviews.28The researcher

using guided interview to bring out the complete and detailed questions that

have been made by the interviewer with unstructured interview guidelines.

26Suharsimi Arikunto. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik.


Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Thirteen Edition. p.156
27 Valsa Koshy. (2005). Action Research for Improving Practice A Practical
Guide. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.p. 92
28 Suharsimi Arikunto. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik.
Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Thirteen Edition. p.154
36

F. Scoring the Test

According to Hughes stated that there are five points for assessment writing,

they are:

Writing Scoring Rubic

Table: Writing Rubic Assesment by Anderson in Hughes (2003)

Score Level Criteria


Grammar 6 Few, (if any) noticeable errors of grammar

or word order.
5 Some errors of grammar or word order

which do not, however, interfere with

comprehension.
4 Errors of grammar of word order fairly

frequent; occasional re-reading necessary

for full comprehension.


3 Errors of grammar or word order frequent;

efforts of interpretation sometimes

required on reader’s part.


2 Errors of grammar or word order very

frequents; reader often has to rely on own

interpretation
1 Errors of grammar or word order so severe

as to make comprehension

virtually impossible.
Score Level Criteria
Vocabulary 6 The use of vocabulary and idiom is

appropriate and related to the context;

expression of ideas is delivered. Few (if


37

any) errors of words choice.


5 Occasionally uses inappropriate terms or

relies on circumlocutions; expression of

ideas hardly impaired


4 Uses wrong or inappropriate words fairly

frequently; expression of ideas may be

limited because of inadequate vocabulary.


3 Limited vocabulary and frequent errors

clearly hinder expression of ideas.


2 Vocabulary so limited and so frequently

misused that reader must often rely on

interpretation
1 Vocabulary limitations so extreme as to

make comprehension virtually impossible.


Score Level Criteria
Mechanics 6 Few (if any) noticeable lapses in

punctuation or spelling.
5 Occasional lapses in punctuation or

spellings which do not, however, interfere

with comprehension.
4 Errors in punctuation or spelling fairly

frequent, occasional re-reading necessary

for full comprehension


3 Frequent errors in spelling or punctuation;

lead sometimes to obscurity.


2 Errors in spelling or punctuation so

frequent that reader must often rely on

own interpretation. Interpretation


1 Errors in spelling or punctuation so severe

as to make comprehension virtually.


38

Score Level Criteria


Fluency 6 Choice of structures and vocabulary

consistently appropriate.
5 Occasional lack of consistency in choice

of structures and vocabulary which does

not, however, impair overall ease of

communication.
4 Patchy with some structures or vocabulary

items noticeably inappropriate to general

style.
3 Structures and vocabulary items

sometimes not only inappropriate but also

misused; little sense of ease of

communication
2 Communication often impaired by

completely inappropriate or misused

structures or vocabulary items.


1 A hotchpotch of half learned misused

structures and vocabulary items

rendering communication almost

impossible.
Score Level Criteria
Form 6 Highly organized; clear progression of

ideas well-linked.
5 Material well-organized; links could

occasionally be clearer but communication

not impaired.
4 Some lack of organization; re-reading

required for clarification ideas


39

3 Little or no attempt at connectivity though

reader can deduce some organization.


2 Individual ideas may be clearer, but very

difficult to deduce connection between

them.
1 Lack of organization so severe that

communication is seriously impaired.29

G. Technique Analyzing The Data

In this clasrroom action research, the researcher collected qualitative data

and quantitative data. According to Koshy stated that quantitative data can be

measured and represented by numbers. When a researcher handles large amounts

of data – for example a large number of questionnaires, surveys, tests results. But

it is likely that an action researcher would predominantly be working within a

qualitative paradigm as the data may be more in the form of transcripts,

descriptions and documents for analysis.30 The quantitative data result will be

analyzed within precentage descriptive. The qualitative data result will be

analyzed within observation.

As for calculating the percentage of individual completeness obtained by

each students using the formula:

R
P= × 100
T

Where:

P= The percentage of those who get the points up to 75.

29 Hughes, Artur. (2003. Testing for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge


University Press.p. 91-93
30 Valsa Koshy. (2005). Action Research for Improving Practice A Practical
Guide. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.p. 86
40

R = The number of the students who get the points up to 75.

T = The total number of the students.

for seeing result of the mean of students score the researcher using a formula:

X = Ʃx
N

X = The mean of the students.

Ʃx= Total Score

n= The number of the students.


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