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1460

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. P.AS-87, NO. 6 JUNE 1968

voltage, kV

current, A

interrupting MVA

Cable-to-Machine Hall

type

insulation direct burial run to dam

13.8

1200

500.

3-conductor

15 kV cross-line polyethylene

manufacturer

Kaiser Metals

conductor (armored)

#2/0 aluminum

approximate length, ft

3800

dam-to-machine hall manufacturer

General Electric

conductor (unarmored)

#1 copper

approximate length, ft

1300.

Load Centers in Machine Hall

manufacturer

Federal Pacific Electric

transformer

3-phase dry-type

rated kVA

2000

voltage

13 800-480/277

low-voltage circuit breakers

metalclad, drawout ACB.

Emergency Generator Set

manufacturer

solar

type

Gas turbine-driven

rated kW

750

voltage

480

speed, r/min

turbine

22 300

generator

1200

fuel

diesel oil.

Discussion

F. L. Lawton (Atlantic Tidal Power Programming Board, Halifax,

N. S., Canada): The author's interesting paper refers to the speci- fications for the generator windings expressing a preference for a bar- type winding to eliminate the possibility of turn-to-turn faults and simplify the protection system. It states that the price increase was too great to warrant this feature. It would be useful to know, on a percentage basis, the difference. The paper also refers to the outcome of stability studies, and the utilizationi of a high-speed generator dropping system, supervised by liine loading. Could the author indicate the nature of this system?

Manuscript received July 18, 1967.

Robert E. Mithoug: The price increase for a bar-type winding would have been approximately eight percent of the total contract

price.

The generator dropping scheme utilizes two overcurrent relays connected to measure the total load on the transmission lines be- tween Boundary and Spokane. One relay is set for 960 primary amperes and the other for 1200. Operation of either relay arms a control circuit such that operation of one of the fault relays protect- ing the Spokane lines will trip, in addition to the transmission line breaker, two or three generator breakers, depending on which load level had been reached prior to the fault. In either case, one generator is left in service. Thus, the appropriate amount of generation is dropped with the same speed required for fault clearing.

Manuscript received September 14, 1967.

Computer Representation of Excitation Systems

IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT

Abstract-The availability of large digital computers has per- mitted more extensive computation of power system stability, a sub- ject of increasingly greater importance. This paper suggests a

common nomenclature and control system representation of the

various excitation systems now available. It can be used to define input data requirements for computer programs, and can provide a

consistent format in which manufacturers can respond to requests for excitation system data to be used for system studies.

Paper 31 TP 67-424, recommended and approved by the Power

Group for presentation at

the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Portland, Ore., July 9-14, 1967.

Manuscript submitted April 7, 1967; made available for printing May 1, 1967.

Generation Committee of the IEEE Power

Members of the Working Group of the Excitation Systems Sub-

committee of the IEEE Power

Generation Committee are: R. R.

Bast, Chairman; A. Hauspurg, F. W. Keay, R. L. Krahn, P. R. H.

Landrieu, K. R. McClymont, A. S.

G. I. Stillman, M. Temoshok,

Rubenstein, J. W. Skooglund,

and H. S. Wilson.

INTRODUCTION

OWER system stability has been the subject of intensive

study in the United States and Canada since the 1920s and

1930s when the first large hydroelectric installations were being

developed. Long lines and relatively slow circuit breakers and

relay operation made transient stability a serious problem. Ana-

lytical studies generally considered no-control system response

and generators were represented as constant voltage behind

transient reactance. For many years, thisprocedure was followed

and machine swings were calculated step-by-step with an ac net-

work calculator.

The availability of large digital computers in the late 1950s permitted more rapid and economical computations, and many of

the ac network calculator functions were transferred to computer programs. Included were system load flow and transientstability.

The first digital programs merely performed the same functions

as the ac network calculator (constant voltage behind transient

IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT: COMPUTER REPRESENTATION OF EXCITATION SYSTEMS

1461

VT

ItsTR

OTHER

SIGNALS-

ISA

VR MIN

SKF

-I

+ sTF

E

T

Fig. 1. Type 1 excitation

system

representation, continuously

acting regulator and exciter.

VT

rVREF

OTHER

SIGNALS

_

KA

sKF

VR MdAX

VR MN

(1 # sTFIVo+sTF2)

SE zf(EFd

FD

Fig. 2. Type 2 excitation system representation, rotating rectifier system.

reactance), but did permit representation of more machines and large power networks. Additional development of digital programs in the 1960s then included the representation of machine control systems such as the speed governor and excitation systems. It is no longer neces- sary to assume a constant voltage behind a reactance and more realistic and accurate machine representations arenow available. A number of individuals and organizations worked concur- rently, but independently, to develop these programs. This re-

sulted in excitation system representations that are generally similar but with some significant differences. Fortunately, the

differences are primarily in the form of input data, rather than

controlsystem representation.

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a common nomenclature and control system representation of the various excitation sys-

tems now available. This can then be used to define input data

requirements for computer programs and provide a consistent format whereby manufacturers can respond to users' requests for excitation system data. It should be strongly emphasized that

the present discussion deals with the representation of excitation

systems solelyforsystem studies.

BASIC EXCITATION SYSTEM TYPES After considering the different types of excitation systems now in service in the United States and Canada and contemplated for the immediate future, the Working Group has defined four excitation system types to be used in computer representations (Figs. 1-4). These should be adequate to represent all modern sys-

tems. Some oldei systems must be approximated with one of the four types or it must be assumed that the machine has fixed exci-

tation. The symbols used in the four excitation system represen-

tations are listed in the Appendix.

Per UnitSystem

In the development of the excitation system block diagrams, it has been necessary to establish a per unit voltage base. For the

following discussion, one per unit generator voltage is defined as

rated voltage. One per unit exciter output voltage is that voltage required to produce rated generator voltage on the generator air

gap line.

Fig. 3. Type 3 excitation system representation, static with ter-

minal potential and current supplies.

VT-

,&VT;IQ,.V R z VR MAX

~~T AVTZ-KV,VR=VR MIN

IVWVTk<KV -VR V RH

AVT> 0.VH-

Ia <O.VRH

-

VR I+EX

-VR

KE + STE

Fig. 4. Type 4 excitation system

representation, noncontinuously

acting regulator. Note: VRH limited between VR mi and VR max.

Time constant of rheostat travel TRH.

Type I-Continuously Acting Regulator and Exciter

The excitation system designated type 1 is shown in Fig. 1. The type 1 excitation system is representative of the majority of modern systems now in service and presently being supplied. This

includes most continuously acting systems with rotating exciters

such as:

Allis Chalmers

General Electric

Westinghouse

Regulex regulator Amplidyne regulator

Alterrex

Alterrex-thyristor

Mag-A-Stat regulator

Brushless (1967 on)

Rototrol

Silverstat regulator

TRA regulator.

Fig. 1 shows the significant transfer functions which should be

included for satisfactory representation in computer studies.

Many other system types may be represented if excitation system

ceiling voltage is assumed to be independent of generator terminal conditions. The transfer functions and nomenclature of type 1 will be described in detail, referring to Fig. 1. VT is the generator termi- nal voltage applied to the regulator input. The first transfer func- tion is a simple time constant TR representing regulator input

filtering. For most systems, TR is very small and may be con- sidered to be zero.

The firstsumming point compares the regulatorreferencewith the output of the input filter to determine the voltage error input

to the regulator amplifier. Most computer programs do not require

an input of VREF, but rather internally calculate the proper value by assuming VT at t = 0 is at the proper value.

The second summing point combines voltage error input with

the excitation major damping loop signal.

The main regulator transfer function is represented as a gain

KA and a time constant TA. Following this, the maximum and minimum limits of the regulator are imposed so that large input

error signals cannot produce -a regulator output which exceeds

practical limits.

1462

The next summing point subtracts a signal which represents

the saturation function, SE = f(EFD), of the exciter. That is,

exciter output voltage (or generator field voltage EFD) is multi- plied by a nonlinear saturation function and subtracted from the regulator output signal. The resultant is applied to the exciter

transfer function 1/(KE + sTB).

When a self-excited shunt field is used, KE represents the set- ting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive feedback of exciter output.

To establish initial conditions, KE is often chosen such that it is equal in magnitude to the saturation function at the initial value of EFD. At this value, the shunt field exactly compensates for exciter saturation and no regulator output is required to es-

tablish the initial value of EFD. For those systems with a sepa-

rately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the exciter field and establish the initial value of EFD. Major loop damping is provided by the feedback transfer func-

tion sKF/(1 + STF) from exciter output EFD to the first summing

point. It should be emphasized that there is an interrelation between exciter ceiling EFD max, regulator ceiling VR max, exciter saturation SE, and KE. The following expression must be satisfied under

steady-stateconditions:

VR - (KE + SE)EFD = 0, EFD min< EFD < EFD max. (1)

(The sign of KE is negative for a self-excited shunt field.) At ceiling, or EFD = EFD max,

VR max - (KE + SE max)EFD max = 0.

(2)

KE is always specified, either as input data or program logic,

to permit automatic calculation. In addition, of the remaining three constants VR max, SE max, and EFD max, the specification of any two establishes the third. Since different programs may use different input data, care should be taken to make sure that (2) is satisfied.

For some systems employing noncommutating-type exciters,

the minimum value of EFD is zero and cannot be negative.

Saturation Function

The exciter saturation function SE is defined by the Working

Group as a multiplier of exciter output EFD to represent the

increase in exciter excitation requirements because of saturation. Fig. 5 illustrates the calculation of a particular value of SE. At a given exciter output voltage, the quantities A and B are defined as the exciter excitation to produce the output voltage on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve and air gap line, re-

spectively.

A AB

-

B

The exciter constant-resistance-load saturation curve has been

used in this definition of SE.

Different computer programs have represented exciter satura-

tion in different ways but, in general, the saturation function can

be defined by two points. To be consistent, the procedure sug- gested is to establish two voltages at which to specify SB and use them as data for computer input. The form of the saturation function is not defined here, but rather considered to be a part of the particular computer program used.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS, JUNE 1968

EFO D

5

UO

A

SEf(EFD) -

B

A

= B- -1

B EXOTER FIELD

A CURRENT

Fig. 5. Exciter saturation curves showing procedure for

calculating the saturation function SE.

It is suggested that SE be specified at the following voltages:

Voltage

EFD max

0.75 EFD max

Saturation

SE max

SE 0.75 max

Type iS-Controlled-Rectifier Systems with Terminal Potential

Supply Only

A special case of type 1 is a system employing an excitation

source from terminal voltage with controlled rectifiers only. A

system of this type responds quickly, but with ceiling voltage

proportional to generator terminal voltage. Referring to Fig. 1,

VR max is not assumed constant but rather is computed as a pro- portion of terminal voltage.

VY max = KpVT.

In general, the constants for this type of system are such that

KE = 1, TE = 0, and SE = 0.

Type 2Excitation System-Rotating RectifierSystem

The type 2 system, Fig. 2, applies for units with the major

damping loop input from the regulator output. An example is

the Westinghouse brushless system put into service up to and

including 1966. The transferfunction includesone additionaltime

constant to compensate for the exciter which is not included

within the damping loop. Other characteristics of type 2 systems are similar to type 1.

Type 3 Excitation System-Static with Terminal Potential and

Current Supplies

Some static systems cannot be represented by type 1 or 1S because generator terminal current is used with potential as the excitation source. An example of such a system is the General

Electric SCPT. The type 3 system has been developed to repre- sent this particular static system. The manufacturer should be contacted to establish the applicability of the type 3 representa-

tion to other excitation systems.

Fig. 3 gives the transfer functions making up a type 3 system. The regulator transfer functions are similar to type 1, up to and

including the regulator output limiter (VR ma-VR min). The fol-

IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT: CONIPUTER REPRESENTATION OF EXCITATION SYSTEMS

1463

combines the regulator output with the

signal representing the self-excitation from the generator termi- nals. Kp is the coefficient of the shunt excitation supply propor- tional to terminal voltage. Similarly, K, is the coefficient of the supply obtained from terminal current transformers. The multi- plier (MULT) accounts for the variation of self-excitation with change in the angular relation of field current IFD and self-excita- tionvoltage VTHEV- The VB max limiter sets the excitation system output to zero when A > 1, that is, when the field current exceeds the excitation output current. Excess generator field current bypasses the

lowing summing

point

excitation supply by

flowing through the output rectifier.

The transfer function 1/(KB+ sTE) represents the constants of the excitation transformer. Damping is provided by the feed-

back transferfunction sKF/(A + sTF)-

Type 4 Excitation System-Noncontinuously Acting The systems discussed previously are representative of the modern high-gain, fast-acting excitation sources. The type 4 system is used to represent other systems, in particular those that were used inmmediately before the development of the con-

tinuously actingexcitationsystems. Examples are:

General Electric

Westinghouse

GFA4 regulator

BJ30 regulator.

These systems respond at basically two different speeds, de- pending upon the magnitude of voltage error. For small errors, adjustment is made with a motor-operated rheostat. Larger

errors cause resistors to be quickly shorted or inserted and a

strong forcing signal applied to the exciter. Fig. 4 illustrates this action. The exciter representation is similar to the previously described systems except that no major

damping loop is represented. Depending upon the magnitude of voltage error AVT, different regulator modes are specified. If voltage error is larger than the fast raise/lower contact setting Kv (typically five percent),

VR max or VR min is applied

to the exciter, depending upon the sign

of the voltage error. For a voltage error less than Kv, the exciter input equals the rheostat setting VRH. The rheostat setting is adjusted up or down, depending upon the sign of the error. The time constant representing the slow adjustment of exciter field voltage is TRH.

Other Systems

Several excitation systems in use on older units and some

smaller-sized turbine generators currently being installed have not been discussed. They include some systems no longer in

manufacture. Because their use represents only a small fraction

of the generating capacity in service or being installed, no unique

excitation system type has been designated for their representa- tion. They can be represented by type 1 or type 4 systems with the proper choice of constants.

Other RegulatorInput Signals

In the last several years increased emphasis on the study of, and system design to improve, dynamic stability has resulted in

the use of other regulator input signals in addition to terminal

voltage. These signals are chosen to provide positive damping of

power system oscillations to improve generator stability and

damp tie line oscillations.

Some of these signals are: accelerating power, speed, frequency and rate-of-change of terminal voltage. When used, they are

added, at the voltage reference summing point, to the terminal

TABLE I TYPiCAL CONSTANTS OF EXCITATION SYSTEMS IN OPERATION

TODAY ON 3600-R/MIN

(Excitation system

STEAM TURBINE GENERATORS

voltage response ratio-0.5 p.u.)

Self-Excited

Exciters,

Commutator

or Silicon

Self-Excited

Commutator

Rotating

Rectifier

Symbol

Diode, with

Amplidyne

Voltage

Regulators

Exciter with

Mag-A-Stat

Voltage

Regulator

Exciter with

Static

Voltage

Regulator

0.0 to 0.06

0.0

0.0

KA

25* to 50*

400

0.05

400

TA

0.06 to 0.20

0.02

VR max

1.0

3.5

7.3

VR min

-1.0

-3.5

-7.3

KF

0.01

to 0.08

0.04

0.03

TF

0.35

to 1.0

1.0

1.0

KE

-0.05

-0.17

1.0

TE

0.5

0.95

0.8

SE max

0.267

0.95

0.86

SB 0.75 max

0.074

0.22

0.50

* For generators with open-circuit field time than four seconds.

constants greater

voltage error and are indicated in Figs. 1-3 as other signals.

Usually the stabilizing signal is inserted through a transfer func-

tion providing gain adjustment and a lead-lag compensation for phase shifting.

Since the use of stabilizing signals is still in the development

stage, the Working Group does not recommend a specific repre- sentation at this time.

TYPICAL EXCITATION SYSTEM CONSTANTS

Table I lists typical excitation system constants supplied to

the Working Group by manufacturers, current as of January

1967.

To obtain data for a specific generator, the manufacturer

should be contacted. It should be emphasized that the data of

Table I are generalized and do not necessarily represent any

specific generator.

It is not intended that the representations reflect the response of individual components comprising the excitation system or

that the data of Table I be used for confirmation of excitation system performance. When used as part of a system study, the

representations provide the proper response of the generator

excitationsystem.

Most generators operating in the United States have been

supplied by three manufacturers. The manufacturers have fur-

nished similar excitation systems but with sufficient differences

in design and operation to warrant individual numerical repre- sentations. Commutator exciters have been furnished with rotat-

ing-amplifier voltage regulators, with magnetic-amplifier voltage regulators, and with combinations of magnetic-amplifier and rotating-amplifier voltage regulators. Recent exciters utilizing

silicon diodes, in place of the commutator, have deviated more in design concepts. One design retains a self-excited exciter with

silicon diodes and a rotating amplifier regulator; another design

is a rotating-rectifier exciter with pilot-exciter supply to a con-

trolled-rectifier voltage regulator. There are slight differences in

operation design and in details that affect methods of representa-

tion. Table I provides a comparison of the numerical variations

that can be expected for similar equipments, due to the different

philosophies of representation.

1464

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. PAS-87, NO. 6, JUNE 1968

Differences may be observed in the variety of time constants,

gains, and feedback. The large differences are due to methods of

representation and of the per unit systems used. Each of the typical systems illustrated has been provided for similar applica- tions and designed to existing industry standards.

The purpose of Table I is to indicate that even though the block

K*

Kp

KV

SE

T1A

diagram representations of the various excitation systems and the

TE

identification of the various portions of the diagrams are the

1TF

same, there is a marked difference in the numbers that represent

TF1, TF2

the actual systems. Each is correct if consistency is maintained in the per unit system and the constants of the overall regulator-

TR

exciter system.

TRH

EFD

IFD

IT

KA

KE

APPENDIX

NOMENCLATURE

exciter output voltage (applied to generatorfield)

generator field current

generator terminal current

regulator

gain

exciter constant related to self-excited field

VR

VR max

VR min

VREF

VTH

VTHEV

AVT

regulator stabilizing circuit gain

current circuit gain of type 3 system potential circuit gain of type IS or type 3 system fast raise/lower contact setting, type 4 system

exciter saturation function regulator amplifier time constant

exciter time constant regulator stabilizing circuit time constant regulator stabilizing circuittime constants (rotating rectifiersystem) regulator input filter time constant rheostat time constant, type 4 system regulator output voltage maximum value of VR minimum value of VR regulator reference voltage setting field rheostat setting generator terminal voltage voltage obtained by vector sum of potential and

current signals, type 3 system

generator terminal voltage error.

Experience with High-Speed Rectifier

Excitation Systems

KENNETH R. McCLYMONT, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, GERALD MANCHUR, MEMBER, IEEE,

R. JOHN ROSS, MEMBER, IEEE, AND RONALD J. WILSON, MEMBER, IEEE

Abstract-Excitation systems which utilize controlled rectifiers

supplied directly from the generator terminals for the main exciter are in service at four remote generating stations. Due to the nature

of the power system, these excitation systems were designed to withstand high ac overvoltages and to provide simultaneous control of a number of parallel generators. Experience in testing and operat- ing these excitation systems is described.

INTRODUCTION

the last six years, Ontario Hydro has installed 550

MW of hydro generation located within 50 miles of James

Bay on the Moose River system in Northern Ontario. This gene-

ration is incorporated into the main system over a single-circuit

500-kV transmission line. Seven of the ten generators on this

system have been providedwith excitersutilizing controlled rec- tifiers. This type of excitation system can provide a decided im-

provement in steady-state and transient stability limits because

of its ability to change generator field voltage nearly instan-

taneously.

jr W ITHIN

Paper 31 TP 67-19, recommended and approved by the Power

Group for presentation

Meeting, New York, N. Y., January 29-

February 3, 1967. Manuscript submitted November 1, 1966; made

available forprinting August 16, 1967.

Generation Committee of the IEEE Power

at the IEEE Winter Power

The authors are with the

Hydro-Electric Power Commission of

Ontario, Toronto, Ont., Canada.

The seven generators are located in four separate generating stations and the excitation equipment has been provided by three

manufacturers. One type of exciter employs single-anode mer- cury-arc rectifiers (ignitrons), two use multi-anode mercury-arc rectifiers, and the fourthuses silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs).

Three excitation systems were placed in service in 1963, two in 1965, and two in 1966.

The paper proceeds as follows:

1) A brief description of the Moose River generation is given

to provide a background for the special problems associated with

theseexcitation systems. 2) The main features of the excitation systems using mercury-

arc rectifiers and the major differences between these and a type using SCRs are described. 3) Special requirements for withstanding overvoltages and

lineenergization areoutlined.

4) Excitation system response and the telephone influence

factor as obtained from test results are presented.

5) Maintenance requirements and forced outage experience

are outlined.

MOOSE RIVER GENERATION

Ontario Hydro's generation on the Moose River system is

located about 450 miles north of the system load center at Toronto and about 50 miles south of James Bay. This generation