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Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics

Introduction: The Understanding of Culture, Society, and Politics

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Gender)

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Socioeconomic Class)

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Ethnicity)

 Cultural Variation and Social Differences (Religion)

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Exceptionality/Non-Exceptionality)

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Nationality)

 Social, Political, and Cultural Behavior and Phenomena

 Social, Political, and Cultural Change

 The Study of Culture, Society, and Politics

Defining Culture and Society: The Perspectives of Anthropology and Sociology

 Anthropological and Sociological Perspectives on Culture and Society

 Aspects of Culture and Society I (Dynamic, Flexible, & Adaptive; and Shared & Contested)

 Aspects of Culture and Society II (Learned Through Socialization/Enculturation and


Transmitted Through Socialization/Enculturation)

 Aspects of Culture and Society III (Patterned Social Interaction, Integrated and at Times
Unstable, Requires Language, and Other Forms of Communication)

 Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

 Forms of Tangible and Intangible Heritage

Human Biocultural and Social Evolution

Biological Evolution of Man


Cultural Evolution of Man

Sociopolitical Evolution of Man: Neolithic Revolution

Sociopolitical Evolution of Man: Early Civilizations and the Rise of States

Sociopolitical Evolution of Man: Democratization

Importance of Artifacts in Interpreting Social, Cultural, Political, and Economic Processes

Becoming a Member of Society

Enculturation/Socialization: Identity Formation (Identities, Disciplines, and Aspirations)

Enculturation/Socialization: Norms and Values

Enculturation/Socialization: Statuses and Roles

Conformity and Deviance: Social Control

Conformity and Deviance: Forms of Deviance

Human Dignity and Rights

The Common Good

Organization in Society

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Kinship by Blood

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Kinship by Marriage


Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Kinship by Ritual

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Family and the Household

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Politics of Kinship

Cultural, Social, and Political Institutions

Social Organizations: Groups within Society (Primary and Secondary)

Social Organizations: In-group and Out-Group

Social Organizations: Reference Groups

Social Organizations: Networks

Social and Political Structures: Political Organizations

Social and Political Structures: Authority and Legitimacy

Economic Institutions: Reciprocity

Economic Institutions: Transfers

Economic Institutions: Redistribution

Economic Institutions: Market Transactions

Economic Institutions: Markets and State

Nonstate Institutions: Banks and Corporations

Nonstate Institutions: Cooperatives and Trade Unions


Nonstate Institutions: Transnational Advocacy Groups

Nonstate Institutions: Development Agencies

Nonstate Institutions: International Organizations

Education: Functions in Society

Religion and Belief Systems: Animism

Religion and Belief Systems: Monotheism and Polytheism

Religion and Belief Systems: Institutionalized Religions

Religion and Belief Systems: Separation of Church and State

Health: Culture-Specific Syndromes and Illnesses

Health: Diagnosis, Prevention, and Healing

Health as a Human Right

Social and Political Stratification

Social Desirables

Social Mobility Systems

Social Inequalities

Global Inequalities

Cultural, Social, and Political Change


Sources of Cultural, Social, and Political Change: Innovation
10

Sources of Cultural, Social, and Political Change: Diffusion

Sources of Cultural, Social, and Political Change: Acculturation and Assimilation

Sources of Cultural, Social, and Political Change: Social Contradictions and Tensions

Human Adaptation and Social Change

Global Warming and Climate Change

Transnational Migration and Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs)

Response to Change: Inclusive Citizenship and Participatory Governance

Response to Change: New Forms of Media and Social Networking

Response to Change: Social Movements

Introduction: The Understanding of Culture, Society, and Politics

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Gender)

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Socioeconomic Class)

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Ethnicity)

 Cultural Variation and Social Differences (Religion)

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Exceptionality/Non-Exceptionality)

 Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Nationality)

 Social, Political, and Cultural Behavior and Phenomena


 Social, Political, and Cultural Change

 The Study of Culture, Society, and Politics

Defining Culture and Society: The Perspectives of Anthropology and Sociology

Human Biocultural and Social Evolution

Becoming a Member of Society

Organization in Society

Cultural, Social, and Political Institutions

Social and Political Stratification

Cultural, Social, and Political Change

Human Adaptation and Social Change

Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Gender)


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

Objective
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to discuss gender roles in Philippine
society from pre-colonial to the present era.

How do gender roles vary across cultures according to a particular culture’s beliefs and
expectations concerning men and women’s roles?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Gender and Gender Roles
People play different roles in society depending on age and occupation. There are jobs
that require a specific gender to perform tasks while other jobs are open to both men
and women.

Gender
 Gender refers to social, cultural, and psychological characteristics or traits
related to males and females based on certain social contexts.
 It is different from sex, which refers to the biological characteristics that
distinguish a male from a female.
 Thus, sex makes a person male or female, while gender makes a person
masculine or feminine.
Gender Roles

 Gender roles refer to attitudes and behaviors that the society expects a person to
exhibit based on his or her sex.
 For example, in traditional Philippine society, women are expected to be plain
housewives and take care of their children, while men are expected to be
professionals and provide the needs of their family.
 Another example is that society expects women to be more emotional and
sensitive while men are expected to be strong and capable of doing things that
women cannot do.
Gender Roles in Pre-colonial Philippine Society
In pre-colonial Philippines, males and females enjoyed the same rights and privileges.
Different social functions were assigned to different members of society. There were
functions that were specifically given to males, females, or both.

Aside from being a priestess, the babaylan was also considered a healer, an adviser,
and a seer.

Gender Roles in Philippine Society During the Colonial Period


Gender roles during the colonial period changed drastically. Women were restrained
from other activities outside their homes, while men were given more social functions.
These roles also changed as the Philippines was occupied by new colonizers.

 With the coming of the Spaniards and the introduction of Catholicism,


the babaylan lost their role in the religious life of the community. This role was
taken over by Catholic priests. Women were relegated to doing household
chores and taking care of children. More often than not, young women were not
sent to school but instead trained to be good wives and mothers for their future
families. Some women were also forced to marry for economic and political gain.
 During the American period, women had more freedom in society. They were
allowed to study and work in any field they wanted. They also adopted American
values. Men and women became equal in the sense that it became acceptable
for both genders to have jobs and be educated.
 Although men and women were able to maintain their status in society during
the Japanese period, women were usually kept inside their houses to protect
them from abusive Japanese soldiers. Men also became busy defending the
country, with most of them serving as soldiers.

Gender Roles in Current Philippine Society


At present, Philippine society is more open to allowing both men and women to perform
different tasks not based solely on gender, but on an individual’s capabilities and
strengths. For example, fields like engineering, architecture, and medicine, which are
often associated with men, have long been open to women. Likewise, there are also lots
of male teachers, nurses,chefs, and hairdressers nowadays.

Explore!
What are your hobbies? Do you have a hobby that is typically done by the opposite
sex? What do people say about your "unusual" hobby?

Try it!
Ask five of your friends about their dream jobs. Does any of these jobs tend to be
associated with men or women? What do you think about your friends’ dream jobs?

What do you think?


Is it proper to limit a person’s choices based on his or her gender? Why or why not?

Tips
Gender is a set of characteristics that pertains to a person’s masculinity or femininity
while biology determines sex. For example, a man is male because he has male sex
organs. He, however, can be considered effeminate because the things he likes are
often associated with women.

Keypoints
 Gender refers to social, cultural, and psychological characteristics or traits
related to males and females based on certain social contexts.
 Gender roles refer to attitudes and behaviors that the society expects a person
to exhibit based on his or her sex.
 In pre-colonial Philippines, males and females enjoyed the same rights and
privileges. Different social functions were assigned to different members of
society. There were functions that were specifically given to males, females, or
both.
 Gender roles during the colonial period changed drastically. Women were
restrained from other activities outside their homes, while men were given more
social functions. These roles also changed as the Philippines was occupied
by new colonizers.
 The present Filipino society has become more open in allowing people of
different genders to do things not based on their sex but based on their
capabilities.

What refers to social, cultural, and psychological characteristics or traits related to males and
females based on certain social contexts?

What is the set of behaviors that the society expects from a person based on his or her sex?

Who performed spiritual and social rituals during the pre-colonial period?

The babaylan lost her position in society upon the arrival of the Spaniards. Which among the
following functions of the babaylan was taken over by Catholic priests?

What concept expects women to be sensitive and emotional?

What concept says that women are capable of bearing children?

Which statement is true?

Andrea wants to be an engineer when she grows up. When she was younger, she used to play with
her brother’s toy robots and cars. Her mother, however, told her that she can only play with dolls
because she is a girl.
Which among the following concepts apply in this situation?

Patrick is being bullied in school for being more feminine than other boys his age. His classmates tell
him that boys should not act like girls because it is what is expected by society.

What is shown in this situation?

Why is gender discrimination a problem in society?

Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Socioeconomic Class)


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

Objective
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to define and discuss the different
socioeconomic classes that exist in Philippine society.

 What are the different socioeconomic classes in the Philippines?


 How did these socioeconomic classes change through time?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Socioeconomic Classes during the Pre-Colonial Period


Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, the community was called a barangay. It was
headed by a datu or rajah. Our ancestors were divided into three different
groups−−maharlika, timawa, and alipin.

Maharlika (Leaders and Royals)

 first social class


 composed of community leaders (datu) and their families
 also called the group of the maginoo, raha, or gat

Timawa (Freemen)

 second or “middle” social class


 composed of all freemen living in the barangay
 consisted of workers, warriors, merchants, and others who were not under debt bondage
 had their own properties such as houses and pieces of land to cultivate

Alipin (Slaves)

 third class
 served another person or family as payment for debt
 became slaves when their families lost to a war with another
 were not bound to their masters for life
 could go back to their previous status as soon as they pay off their debts, or if they marry
a maharlika, who will then pay for their debt
 had two kinds−−aliping saguiguilid and aliping namamahay

Aliping Namamahay

 had their own properties such as houses or pieces of land


 often from the timawa class and became slaves because of debt or as punishment for a
wrongdoing
 could go back to being part of the timawa class once they pay off their debt

Aliping saguiguilid

 did not have the right to own any property


 often came from a family of slaves or were captives in war
 could also be sold or exchanged for goods or other slaves

Socioeconomic Classes during the Spanish Colonial Period


Upon the coming of the Spaniards, Philippine society changed and a new set of
socioeconomic classes was created. During this period, the people were divided based
on their ancestry—peninsulares, insulares, mestizo, and indio.

Peninsulares

 Spaniards in the Philippines who were born in Spain


 came from the word “peninsula,” which was in direct reference to the Spanish peninsula

Insulares

 Spaniards who were of Spanish descent but were born in the Philippines
 came from the word “insular,” which means "from the islands"

Mestizos

 those of mixed ancestry


 usually children of Spanish and Chinese couples or of Spanish and indio couples
 had economic and political power because of their mixed heritage

Indios

 consisted of the natives


 the lowest class in society
 were stripped of their rights and freedom
 were forced to bow down to Spanish colonizers
This kind of system lasted for hundreds of years, until the time when
some insulares and mestizos were able to gain some form of power. In the 19th
century, the so-called “middle class” emerged—the principalia and the ilustrados.

Principalia

 consisted of native leaders in the government and their families


 were often educated and served as gobernadorcillo (town mayor) or cabeza de
barangay (barangay leader)

Ilustrados

 the children of the principalia who usually studied in Europe


 consisted mostly of the popular artists and scholars of the period, including Jose Rizal

Modern Socioeconomic Classes


Socioeconomic classes changed when the Philippines gained independence from
Spain. The Americans introduced democracy and did not impose any form of
socioeconomic class in the country.

At present, a person’s position in society is based mainly on his or her family’s


economic status. Social stratification or the division of society based on occupation,
income, wealth, or power is simpler at present than in the past.

In 1987, the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) divided the population
into high-income, middle-income, and low-income classes.

High-income Class

 people earning an average of PhP 200,000 per month


 the “rich” class that accounts for merely one percent of the country’s total population

Middle-income Class

 people earning an average of PhP 36,000 per month


 consists of professionals and small-scale entrepreneurs

Low-income Class

 people earning less than PhP 10,000 per month


 consists of laborers and minimum wage earners

Social Mobility
Unlike in other societies where persons born into a specific class have no choice but to
die as part of the same class, people in the Philippines usually have the opportunity to
transfer from a lower socioeconomic class to a higher one.
This process, called social mobility, is:

 the movement of people or families within or between different levels in society, and
 the opportunity to transfer from a lower socioeconomic class to a higher one possibly
through education or marriage.

Explore!
Have you ever wondered why young children are often asked what they want to be
when they grow up? Most children choose to be doctors, engineers, lawyers, or any
high-earning profession that often comes from long years of education. In some cases,
students will choose their college degrees based solely on their socioeconomic
capabilities.

Try it!
Research more about your community, and compare it to other communities in your city
or province. If possible, ask local leaders for basic information about the budget and
spending of your barangay. Compare your data with those of your classmates'. Note the
differences in budget and spending in each barangay. What may have caused the
differences you noted? Where did each barangay focus its spending?

What do you call Spaniards who were born in Spain and went to the Philippines?

What is the movement of people or families within or between different levels in the society?

What do you call the pre-colonial social class composed of leaders and their families?

What is the difference between a peninsulares and an insulares?

Which of the following can make social mobility in the Philippines possible?

Bulan belongs to a family of warriors. When his barangay was attacked by a rival clan, his family
was captured and was brought to the rival's community.

In what pre-colonial class will Bulan and his family belong in after their capture?

Jona's father is a teacher who earns PhP 25,000 per month, while her mother is an office clerk who
earns PhP 22,000 per month.

In which modern socioeconomic class does Jona's family belong?

Pedro was born into a low-income family. Despite their family situation, his parents still sent him to
school to have a better chance in life.
Which among the following applies to Pedro’s social mobility?

Juan’s father is a Spaniard, while his mother is of Chinese ancestry. He married the daughter of a
Spanish general to gain political and economic power.

In which class will his children belong?

Which among the following statements applies to social mobility at present?

Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Ethnicity)


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

Objective
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to define and discuss different concepts
and issues regarding ethnicity and ethnic groups in the Philippines.

 What is ethnicity?
 What is race and how is it related to ethnicity?
 What are the issues regarding ethnicity?
 What are the ethnic groups in the Philippines?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Ethnicity and Race
Every society consists of people from different families, ethnic groups, and races. This
makes society very diverse and unique.

Ethnicity

 Ethnicity refers to a group of people, also called the ethnic group, who have a
common or shared culture, language, history, religion, and tradition.
 Here, people are divided into groups based on different social factors.

Examples: Filipinos, Malays, Anglo-Saxons, and Muslims.

Race

 Race refers to a group of people that shares the same physical attributes, such as skin
color, height, and facial features.
 People are grouped into different races based on their physical appearance.
 Human beings are classified into three major races−−Caucasoid, Mongoloid,
and Negroid.
 These classifications are based on the color of the skin, the shape of the face and eyes,
texture of the hair, and other prominent physical features.

Two people belonging to the same race may be part of different ethnic groups. For
example, Asians belong to the Mongoloid race but consists of different ethnic groups
like the Japanese, the Chinese, and the Malays. They all share the same physical
features but have different cultures, histories, and languages.

Ethnolinguistic Groups in the Philippines

There are more than 180 ethnic or ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines, which are
based on the language each group uses.

 There are eight major ethnolinguistic groups in the country:


1. Ilokano,
2. Kapampangan,
3. Pangasinense,
4. Tagalog,
5. Bikolano,
6. Ilonggo,
7. Cebuano, and
8. Waray.
 Other smaller ethnolinguistic groups are
the Ibanag, Ivatan, Sambal, Subanon, Maguindanaoan, and Zamboangueño.

There are also indigenous groups in the country that may belong to the same
ethnolingguistic groups, but have different cultures or traditions. Some of them are
the Mangyans of Mindoro, the Igorots of the Mountain Province, and the Moros of
Mindanao.

Issues About Race and Ethnicity


Ethnicity and race are categories that divide people based on their social affinities or
physical similarities. However, differences in ethnicity and race make some people
believe that one ethnic group is superior than others. This belief creates discrimination
and prejudice against people from minorities who are perceived to be of “inferior”
ethnicity or race.

There are different types of discrimination against one’s ethnicity or race.

Racism

 Racism is discrimination or prejudice based on one’s race.


 In the 1970s, white Americans (Caucasoids) discriminated black Americans (Negroids)
who were descendants of immigrants from African countries.

Ethnocentricism

 Ethnocentrism is discrimination or prejudice based on one’s culture.


 Recently, Muslim extremists discriminate Christians and non-Muslims in Muslim
countries because of their religion.
 In the Philippines, Muslims experience prejudice and discrimination in Christian-
dominated regions like Metro Manila. Because of the ongoing conflict in Mindanao
between the government and Islamic militants, Christians tend to think that all Muslims
are terrorists.
 On the other hand, some Christians and ethnic groups are discriminated and prejudiced
against in Muslim-dominated areas.

Discrimination against one’s race or culture may cause crimes against it.

Genocide

 Genocide is the elimination of a group of people from the same race, ethnic group,
religion, or nation.
 It is an extreme action against people from another ethnicity or race.
 The Holocaust during the World War II, executed by the Nazis of Germany led by Adolf
Hitler, killed millions of Jews all over Europe.

Ethnic cleansing

 Ethnic cleansing is the harassment, rape, or forced migration of an ethnic group to


banish them from a certain area or territory.
 This happens in certain areas in Africa.
Explore!
Research about your family. Look into the ethnicity of your parents as well as your
grandparents. Is there anyone from your family who is part of a different race or ethnic
group? If so, how did your parents introduce you to the different cultures and languages
of your family?

Try it!
Pick five of your classmates or friends and ask them about Philippine languages that
they know. Ask them to share a characteristic or practice that distinguishes their ethnic
group from other groups.

What do you think?


In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of being ethnocentric?

Keypoints
 Ethnicity refers to a group of people, also called the ethnic group, who have a
common culture, language, history, religion, and tradition.
 People from the same ethnic group share a
common culture, language, religion, belief, and tradition.
 There are more than 180 ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
 Race refers to a group of people that shares the same physical attributes, such
as skin color, height, and facial features.
 Racism is prejudice or discrimination against people of other races with the idea
that one’s race is superior than others'.
 Ethnocentrism is similar to racism, but it discriminates based on differences in
culture.
 Ethnocentrism and racism may lead to genocide or ethnic cleansing which are
crimes against a specific ethnic group or race.

What is the category of people with shared cultural attributes?

What is the category of people who share the same physical characteristics?

What is the discrimination or prejudice against another’s race?

Adolf Hitler persecuted the Jews based on their religion. They were considered a minority in
Germany at the time.
Which among the following concepts was described in the example above?

Pol Pot, who led Cambodia in the 1970s, created a peasant society by forcing all whom he
considered as “enemies"−−the intellectuals and people living in the cities−−to go back to the
provinces and work on farms. Around 2 million people died of starvation, fatigue, and execution.

Which among the following concepts apply in this example?

Some indigenous people in the Philippines, like the Lumads of Mindanao, are forced to leave their
homes due to militarization and, in some cases, commercialization of their lands.

Which among the following concepts apply in this example?

Lolita is Tagalog. Her favorite food is fried pork chop. She hates her cousin, Ainah, who is Muslim,
because she does not eat pork.

What concept is shown in this example?

Joaquin is Spanish. He was born in Spain and was brought by his parents to the Philippines. His
parents forbade him to play with Ramon, an Filipino, and Mei, a Chinese, because they are not
Spanish.

What concept is shown in this example?


Which among the following statements are true for both ethnocentrism and racism?

Cultural Variation and Social Differences (Religion)


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain religion as a form of cultural variation,


 describe the diversity of religions in the world and in the Philippines, and
 analyze issues regarding religion in the world and in the Philippines.

 How is cultural variation explained in terms of religion?


 What are the existing religions in the world and in the Philippines?
 What are the issues surrounding differences in religion?

Find out the answers in this lesson!


Learn about it!
Religion as a Cultural Variation
 We live in a world with varying and diverse cultures.
 Cultural variation or differences take many forms within and among societies,
one of which is religion.
 Religion can be defined as a set of practices and behaviors that relate to a
group of people's belief in a god or a group of gods.
 Sociologists studying religion consider it a part of society's culture.
 In most cases, religion not only affects a person's belief, but one's way of life.
Variety of Religion
 There are many religions around the world.
 Among the major religions in the world
are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism, and Buddhism.
 Each of these religions has its own set of beliefs and practices that must be
followed by its believers.
 In a society, several religions may exist, and since religion affects an individual’s
way of life, we can observe cultural variations in the form of different religions.
Religion in the Philippines
 The Philippines is a secular country, which means that the government does not
prescribe a specific set of activities or laws based on religion. A citizen's right to
choose his or her own religion is protected by the Philippine Constitution.
 In the Philippines, the majority of the population are Christians, with a certain
portion of the population practicing Islam, particularly in the southern part of the
country.
 Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism are also practiced by a small number of
inhabitants in the archipelago.
 Different religions are being practiced in Philippine society today. This variation in
religion is a product of the evolution of Philippine society across time.
Understanding Cultural Variation in the Form of Religion
 Cultural variations do exist as exemplified through different religions in the world,
more so in Philippine society.
 For example, Christians and Muslims believe in one God, Hindus believe in many
gods, and Buddhists do not.
 The sets of practices and beliefs of a particular religion influence the behavior of
its followers and their interaction with other members of society.
Issues Surrounding Differences in Religion
Because people have different religions, issues and conflicts between religious groups
or denominations cannot be prevented.

Problems or Conflicts

 Since differences in religion do not only mean worshipping different gods, conflicts
sometimes arise between believers.
 Some believers of a particular religion feel like they are being marginalized, while some
feel like those following other religions are taking advantage of their number.
 It may be easy to be swayed by religious differences and start a conflict. A believer or
follower of a particular religion may offend a follower of another religion if he or she
imposes his or her religious beliefs or practices.
 In history, bloody wars happened because of religious differences, and unfortunately,
conflicts continue until now due to varying religions.

Solutions or Actions

 To prevent conflicts, the Philippine government, for example, started recognizing some
of the special days celebrated by different religions.
 Employees are not required to work during Holy Week, when Catholics commemorate
the suffering and death of Jesus Christ.
 The start and end of the Ramadan are also considered holidays, just like when the
Chinese celebrate the start of their new year.
 This way, the government allows followers of different religions to attend to their religious
obligations without work getting in the way.
 To those conflicts brought about by differences in religion, the key word is respect. This
entails a conscious effort to acquire cultural knowledge and understand which this
course is mainly about.

Keypoints
 Cultural variation takes many forms, one of which is religion.
 Religion is a set of practices and behaviors that relate to a group of people's belief in a
god or group of gods.
 Among the major religions in the world are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism,
and Buddhism.
 In the Philippines, the majority of the population are Christians, with a certain portion
of the population practicing Islam, particularly in the southern part of the country, while
some inhabitants practice Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism.
 Protestants also believe in Jesus Christ, but they do not share the same practices as
Catholicism.
 The Philippine government started to recognize special days in different religions to
give believers freedom to practice their own religions.
 Despite being largely Catholic, the Philippines remains a secular country. A citizen's
right to choose his or her own religion is protected by the Philippine Constitution.
 Many conflicts happened because of cultural variations such as differences in religion.
 Recognizing cultural variations and showing respect to different religions can help
avoid conflict.
 Respect can effectively be achieved through the conscious effort of acquiring cultural
knowledge and understanding.

What do you call the set of practices and behavior that relate to a group of people's belief in a god or
group of gods?

Filipinos have the freedom to choose their own religion. What does this make the Philippines?
Before the 16th century, our ancestors believed in animism. According to this belief, what do plants,
animals, and inanimate objects have?

What do you call the product of incorporating pre-Hispanic beliefs and practices into Roman
Catholicism?

How do sociologists study religion as a form of cultural variation?

Anne is a Protestant while her friend, Marie, is a Catholic. Sometimes, while doing their homework in
Marie's house, Anne makes fun of the fact that Catholics have images of saints in their houses.

What should Marie do about this problem?

Amarah is a Muslim who studies in a public school. Her parents forbade her to make friends with
Christians because they are afraid that she will be bullied. She, however, has Christian friends, and
they understand her religion because of what they learned in class.

What should Amarah do about this problem?

Bob went to Saudi Arabia for a vacation. He saw a lot of women wearing hijabs and made fun of
them. He also kept looking for pork when eating in restaurants.

If you are Bob's companion, what should you do?

You studied about terrorism in one of your classes in school. It was mentioned that some terrorist
groups are doing terrible acts to protect Islam from Christians. Some of your classmates started
calling your Muslim classmate a "terrorist" behind his back.

What should you do to stop your classmates from bullying your Muslim classmate?

If you are living in an area of conflict where members of two different religions are fighting each
other, what can you do to resolve the issues that led to their conflict?

Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Exceptionality/Non-Exceptionality)


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 describe exceptionality and non-exceptionality as a form of social category or


one’s source of identity,
 explain the characteristics that make a person “exceptional,”
 discuss the challenges and problems affecting exceptional people, and
 suggest solutions to the problems.
 What makes a person exceptional?
 How similar/different are they from “non-exceptional” people?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Exceptionality and the Exceptional People
People have different characteristics, needs, desires, lifestyles, and challenges.
However, there are people who, from one reason or another, are described or
categorized by the society as exceptional.

What do the words "gifted," "disabled," "challenged," or "different" mean to you? How
does society influence your knowledge and attitudes toward people with such labels and
differences?

Exceptionality

 a quality or a characteristic of a person that makes him or her different from an


established norm in a society
 various physical and mental interference or problems that affect a person and which
makes it difficult for him or her to function properly in society

Exceptional People

 differ from societal and community standards of normalcy


 have learning or behavioral problems and physical and sensory disabilities
 are intellectually gifted

The characteristics that make a person exceptional may have been acquired from birth,
through a medical condition, or through an accident.

Exceptional People: Challenges and Problems


Exceptional people, the disabled, or the intellectually gifted, encounter challenges and
issues in dealing with other members of the society.
Here are some common problems and challenges that exceptional people experience.

Overcoming Challenges and Problems


In the Philippines, despite the passage of Republic Act 7277 or the Magna Carta for
People with Disabilities (PWDs) in 1991, there are still significant barriers that keep
exceptional people from fully participating in society−−including the stigma surrounding
disability and society’s poor understanding of the abilities and aspirations of exceptional
people. However, the government, private sectors, media, and some concerned groups
have been working together to solve these existing problems.

Here are some ways on how both private and public sectors have been helping them.

The picture below shows the International Symbol of Access (ISA). It is found in
locations or spots that are designated for all persons with disabilities.

Explore!
Aside from those already mentioned, what other rights and privileges do PWDs enjoy?

Try it!
Take note of areas where you see the ISA in malls and public transportations. Compare
the number of these spots to the number of PWDs in the Philippines. Are there enough
areas reserved for them in the country?

What do you think?


Research on some notable persons with disabilities who made a difference in the world.
What do you think made their achievements unique? What do their accomplishments
say about a person’s “disability”?

Keypoints
 Society categorizes people based on their characteristics, needs, desires,
lifestyles, and challenges.
 Exceptionality refers to a characteristic of a person that makes him or her
different from the established norms in society.
 Exceptional people are individuals who differ from societal and community
standards of normalcy.
 Some of the problems and challenges that the exceptional people experience
are discrimination, limited access to educational opportunities,
and isolation from society.
 Philippine Republic Act 7277 gives special rights and privileges to persons with
disabilities (PWDs).
 The Internationl Symbol of Access (ISA) is placed in all areas that are
reserved for PWDs, regardless of their disability.
 By law, all public schools in the Philippines are mandated to offer special
education classes for all students with physical or learning disabilities.

Who categorizes people based on their characteristics, needs, desires, lifestyles, and challenges?

What do you call the characteristic or quality of a person that makes him or her different from
established norms in society?

What does the International Symbol of Accessibility (ISA) signify?

Who among the following students has shown exceptional abilities?

Mang Pepe, a bus company owner, is against the Magna Carta for Disabled Persons. He
intentionally did not put any ISA inside his buses.

Which of the following provisions of Republic Act 7277 did Mang Pepe violate?
Your family is going to the mall. You noticed your father parking in the space reserved for PWDs
despite the fact that nobody in your family is considered exceptional.
What would you do?

Anne, who lost her ability to speak after she got sick when she was a child, was denied employment
as a dishwasher in a fast food chain. Which of the following provisions of Republic Act 7277 was
violated by the fast food chain?

Why does the government give PWDs special privileges?

You know a person who is dyslexic. His parents do not know about it. His performance in school has
been affected by this condition.

What are you supposed to do to help him?


Andy is a police officer. He sees a blind woman in the same spot every day, begging for money. One
day, he saw a group of men taking the beggar and bringing her to a different area to beg.

What is Andy supposed to do to help the blind woman?

Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Nationality)


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define nationality as a concept in cultural variation and social differences,


 explain different concepts regarding nationality, and
 discuss issues regarding nationality and statelessness.
 What is nationality and how is it related to nation and citizenship?
 What does Philippine law say about Filipino nationality?
 How does the United Nations Organization resolve issues regarding the right to
have a nationality?
 What is statelessness? What happens to a stateless person?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Nation, Nationality, and Citizenship
The line of distinction between the terms "nation" and "nationality" is quite thin. Most of
the time, "nationality" and "citizenship" are used interchangeably. However, it is
important to note that these words do not mean the same thing and actually pertain to
different concepts.
Nation
A nation is a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture,
language, and economic life through inhabiting a particular country or territory.

Example:

The United Kingdom is a country inhabited mainly by people of four nations: English,
Irish, Scottish, and Welsh.

A nation emphasizes a particular group of people, and a country emphasizes the


physical dimensions and boundaries of a geographical area. On the other hand,
a state is a self-governing legal and political entity.

Nationality
 It is a person’s instinctive membership to a specific nation or country.
 It can be acquired by an individual from the country where he or she was born
(jus soli).
 It can be acquired by an individual through his or her parents (jus sanguinis)
 An individual is a national of a particular country by birth. Nationality is acquired
through inheritance from his or her parents.
 People with the same nationality often share the same language, culture,
territory, and in some cases, ancestry. They share the same rights and are
protected by the same laws.
Citizenship
 It is a person’s legal and political status in a city or state, which means that an
individual has been registered with the government in some country.
 An individual becomes a citizen of a country only when he or she is accepted into
that country’s political framework through legal terms.
Examples:

 An individual born in the Philippines has a Filipino nationality. He may, however,


apply for citizenship in another country, should he wish to (e.g. a Filipino national
applying for citizenship in Mexico).
 Some people from European Union member countries may have European
citizenships that are different from their nationalities (e.g. an Italian national who
is registered as a German citizen).
 No one will be able to change his nationality, but one can have a different
citizenship.
Filipino Nationality
 The Philippine Nationality Law is based on the principles of jus sanguinis or
"right of blood." Therefore, anyone with a parent who is a citizen or national of
the Republic of the Philippines can acquire Philippine citizenship. This is the
primary method of acquiring citizenship.
 For people born in the Philippines to non-Filipino parents, the Administrative
Naturalization Law of 2000 (R.A. 9139) provides an avenue for administrative
naturalization.
Issues Regarding Nationality and Statelessness
What are some issues concerning nationality and statelessness?

Right to a Nationality

 Every person has a right to a nationality.


 The right to a nationality is a fundamental human right. It is an individual’s right to
acquire, change, or retain his or her nationality. Thus, a country’s law cannot deprive a
person the right to gain a nationality, in case he or she loses it.

Statelessness

 People who do not have a nationality are considered as stateless people.


 According to Article 1 of the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless
Persons of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), "a
stateless person is someone who is not considered as a national by any State
under the operation of its law."
 Most stateless people are considered "refugees," while others lose their
nationalities due to war or conflict, or if their country is annexed by another
country and loses its sovereignty.
Case Study: Statelessness in Sabah
Most Filipinos living in Sabah, Malaysia are considered "stateless." Thus, they are not
recognized as people with a nationality. They do not belong to any country or nation.

Since Sabah is a contested territory between Malaysia and the Philippines, the people
in Sabah experience problems in securing their nationalities. Filipinos from nearby Sulu
and Tawi-tawi, even those who are born in Sabah, are not recognized by the Malaysian
government as Malaysians. They are also denied of their Filipino nationality since they
are not properly registered in the Philippines. As a result, they do not enjoy the rights
and privileges that citizens of either country enjoy.

This concern is also true in areas and territories under war and conflict.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) handles all issues
regarding refugees and stateless people. The role of UNHCR is to identify stateless
people and protect their rights, as well as prevent statelessness from happening all over
the world. They also aid stateless people in acquiring new citizenship in other countries.

Explore!
Do some research on the number of stateless people in the world, and list the reasons
why they are considered stateless. How do you think can other countries, like the
Philippines, help them in their plight?
Try it!
Look for a foreigner living in the Philippines or a Filipino residing in another country. Ask
them the same question: Do you want to be a Filipino citizen? Why or why not? You can
use social media to look for respondents.

What do you think?


Why do you think a lot of Filipinos migrate to other countries and give up their Filipino
citizenship?

Keypoints
 Nationality is the person’s automatic membership to a specific nation
while citizenship is a person’s political status in a city or state.
 No one will be able to change his or her nationality, but one can have a different
citizenship.
 Every person has a right to a nationality because it is a fundamental human
right.
 Statelessness is not having a nationality.
 The role of the UNHCR is to identify stateless people, protect their rights, prevent
statelessness from happening all over the world, and aid refugees in acquiring
new citizenship in other countries.
What do you call the person’s instinctive membership to a specific nation?

What does an individual who is not a national of any country experience?


What do you call a person’s legal and political status in a city or state?
Who among the following people can be considered "stateless"?
Which among the following statements is true about citizenship and nationality?
Some people, especially in developed countries, react negatively to the idea of adopting or
accepting refugees from war-torn areas because of the notion that they will cause problems to them.

If you are a resident of a developed country accepting refugees, how can you help others to think
positively about refugees?
Aliyah is the daughter of a family from Sabah. They are considered stateless, but since they have
some distant relatives in the Philippines, the government allowed them to be naturalized. As part of
the process, the government needs to talk to other people who know Aliyah and her family.

If you were one of Aliyah’s friends who will be interviewed by the government, what will you do so
that your friend can get her citizenship?
Amanda was born in the United States to Filipino parents. When she was five years old, her parents
sent her back to live with their family in the Philippines.

Which among the following statements is true about Amanda’s nationality?


Amanda was born in the United States to Filipino parents. When she was five years old, her parents
sent her back to live with their family in the Philippines.

Which among the following statements is true about Amanda’s nationality?


We often hear comments that some foreigners in the Philippines act more Filipino than the Filipinos
themselves, particularly in being disciplined and law-abiding.

Should they be given Filipino citizenship based on this alone?


Politicians running for national positions in the Philippines should be Filipino citizens. The law also
requires them to be residents of the country for a specific number of years.

Why are these prerequisites important?

Social, Political, and Cultural Behavior and Phenomena


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 recognize behavior and phenomena in society which are socially, politically, and
culturally significant, and
 demonstrate curiosity and open-mindedness to explore the origins and dynamics
of society, culture, and politics.
 How should members of society respond toward different social, political, and
cultural behavior and phenomena?
 What is the proper attitude toward different social, political, and cultural behavior
and phenomena?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Social Behavior and Phenomena
Social behavior and phenomena are broad and complicated sociological concepts.
These involve every event between at least two individuals and include all knowledge
and experiences a person acquires in the entirety of his or her lifetime.

Social phenomena are the individual, external, and social constructions that influence
a person’s life and development.
The table below shows some examples of social behavior and phenomena.

Political Behavior and Phenomena


In sociology, political behavior and phenomena include events through which
authority, governance, and public opinion are put into practice.

A political behavior of a person or a group may be influenced by their political views,


ideologies, and levels of political participation. An example of an act of political behavior
is the act of voting.

Political phenomena are not only limited to public offices as these also include how
institutions like schools, churches, or companies are ran and governed.

The table below shows some examples of political behavior and phenomena.
Cultural Behavior and Phenomena
Also known as the bandwagon effect, a cultural behavior is an event where certain
individuals behave a certain way merely because other persons do as well.

A cultural phenomenon happens when something or someone gains widespread


popularity. However, it is noteworthy that it is not the subject that is the cultural
phenomenon but rather the process of becoming famous.

The table below shows some examples of cultural behavior and phenomena.

Interactions within Society


Social, political, and cultural behaviors and phenomena in the society are results of
interactions within society. People talk and share stories. People share ways of living
among other things. People do things together and work for the attainment of the
common good and social order. These behaviors, be they usual or not, are natural
responses to changes and ideologies developing within society as a result of constant
interactions between its members.

Explore!
 How should a person show curiosity about social, cultural, and political
phenomena?
 Should people always be open to knowledge and experiences brought about by
social, cultural, and political behaviors? Explain your answer.

Try it!
Aside from what was mentioned in this lesson, identify other events and classify them
as either social, cultural, or political phenomena. Write at least two for each.

What do you think?


Is it possible for a person to gain knowledge and experiences without interacting with
other members of society? Explain your answer.

Keypoints
 Social phenomena are the individual, external, and social constructs that
influence a person’s life and development.
 Political behavior and phenomena include events through which authority,
governance, and public opinion are put into practice.
 Cultural behavior is emphasized when certain individuals behave a certain way
merely because other individuals do so as well.

Which phenomena are described by individual, external, and social constructs that influence a
person’s life and development?

What behavior includes events through which authority, governance, and public opinion are put into
practice?

What phenomenon refers to an event where certain individuals behave a certain way merely
because other persons do so as well?

Which of the following examples is a cultural phenomenon?

Which of the following examples is a political phenomenon?


Which action may be considered a social behavior?

Which is not a bandwagon phenomenon?

Which statement shows an accurate attitude towards social phenomena?

Which statements are true about interactions within society?

What benefits can we get from being aware of the different social, political, and cultural events within
society?

Social, Political, and Cultural Change


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

define and explain social, cultural, and political changes,


recognize common concerns or events within society on the phenomenon of
change,
 explain the concept of social and cultural change and highlight the mechanisms,
and
 analyze social, political, and cultural change within society.
How do changes in society take place?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Social and Cultural Changes
Social change is the transformation of social institutions over time. Cultural change,
on the other hand, is the transformation of culture or the way people live.

Communication

 Communication is a vital human process. Through communication, people


exchange information and thoughts.
 Nowadays, communication is made easier.
 Nowadays, people can share information in just a click. New media −−social
networking, text messaging, e-mail, and the like−−have defied time and distance.
 While it makes the world seem borderless, this form of communication may
produce individuals who lack the basic understanding of direct and personal
connections.
Transnational Families

 A transnational family is where one or both parents live and work in another
country while the children remain in their country of origin.
 While these families remain secured financially, their members are also exposed
to setbacks.
 Children who become overly unsupervised find themselves facing peer pressure,
too much independence, and lack of family orientation. These may result in
alcohol or drug abuse, unwanted pregnancy, mood swings, or early marriage.
Political Changes
Political change happens when the rulers of a country lose power or when the type of
governance in the country changes. Governance is the kind of system or ideology used
to express authority in a country. It may be a democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, and
others.

Local Public Services


Local public services are provided by the government to people living within its
jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing the provision of
services.

Youth Volunteerism
Volunteerism is the use or involvement of a volunteer or free labor in community
services.

Mechanisms of Changes
There are different mechanisms or tools involved in social and cultural changes.

Diffusion
Diffusion is the process through which the cultural traits of one society are borrowed,
transmitted, and adopted by another and considered as its own.

Examples:

 Migration
 Globalization
Invention
Invention is the process where new cultural elements are created to solve social and
cultural problems.

Example: Internet
Discovery
Discovery is the process where people recognize or gain a better understanding of
already existing elements present in the environment.

Example: Scientific research

Changes within Society


Change is said to be constant. It is inevitable. It is expected to happen. The big
question, however, is what makes it happen? Of course, there are many factors—social,
political, or cultural.

Along with time, persons, environments, and ideologies change. People move in and
move out. People live and die. People's stories and experiences change. People make
discoveries and innovations.

The environment changes as well—nature, water, earth, minerals, climate, seasons,


sources of raw materials, and energy.

New knowledge replaces old ones. Slavery has been banned. Civil rights were granted
to those who were once deprived of them. Same-sex marriage is on its way to
worldwide recognition. Nothing is permanent but change, so they say.

All these contribute significantly to changes people experience socially, politically, and
culturally.

Explore!
How should a person react to changes within society? Is it with acceptance or with
reservation? Explain your answer.

Try it!
Cite three societal changes. Cite one for each: social, political, and cultural changes.
Identify their positive and adverse effects.

Changes within Society

1.

2.

3.
What do you think?
Is change constant? If yes, what makes it consistent in society?

Keypoints
 Social change is the transformation of social institutions over time.
 Cultural change is the transformation of culture or the way people live.
 Political change happens when the rulers of a country lose power or when the
type of governance in the country changes.
 Diffusion is the process through which the cultural traits of one society are
borrowed, transmitted, and adopted by another and considered as its own.
 An invention is a process where new cultural elements are created to solve
social and cultural problems.
 Discovery is the process where people recognize or gain a better understanding
of already existing elements present in the environment.
 Changes are inevitable. Therefore, all changes−−socially, politically, and
culturally−−must be for the benefit of all.

What vital process enables people to exchange ideas and information?

What happens when the rulers of a country lose power or when the type of governance in the
country changes?

What is the process where new cultural elements are created to solve social and cultural problems?

Which societal event is a manifestation of a mechanism of diffusion?

Which societal event is a manifestation of a mechanism of invention?

Which of the following illustrates a transnational family?

Which statement talks about a political change?

What causes cultural change within society?

What statement negates the idea that change within society is constant?

What is an adverse effect of social, political, and cultural change within society?

The Study of Culture, Society, and Politics


INTRODUCTION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS
Objectives
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

 recognize the importance of the study of culture, society, and politics, and
 identify the subjects of inquiry and goals of anthropology, political science, and
sociology.

 What is the significance of having scientific knowledge about culture, society, and
politics?
 How do the disciplines of anthropology, political science, and politics help us
understand and make decisions in society?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


The Study of Culture, Society, and Politics
Culture is the focus of anthropology, society is for sociology, while politics is for
political science. These are disciplines of the social sciences.

The goal of having these disciplines is to prepare people for active and responsible civic
engagement through the development of critical thought. Exposure to these areas of
discipline exposes its learners to the following:

 social diversity and inequality,


 self-reflective knowledge and practice,
 appreciation of complexity, and
 advocacy for social change and order.

Anthropology
Anthropology is the study of humans and their society in the past and present. Dealing
with what makes us human, anthropology delves into objects and materials we have
created, our interconnectedness and adaptability with environment, our lifestyle, our
modes of communication, and our understanding of the world around us.
Goals of Anthropology

 to describe and analyze the biological evolution of mankind


 to describe and assess the cultural development of our species
 to explain and analyze present-day human cultural similarities and differences
 to describe and explain human biological diversity today

Sociology
Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions. This discipline
mainly focuses on society—its functions, its members, and its diversity.

Specifically, sociology tackles the basic unit of the society—the family, the functionality
and relevance of state as an important human institution, social issues on religion,
crime, race, social class, and the stability and instability of societies.
Goals of Sociology

 to guide in understanding intrapersonal factors


 to build a better understanding of mankind
 to aid in decision-making in the micro and macro level
 to gather systematic information from which to make a decision, provide insights
into what is going on in a situation, and present alternatives

Explore!
Why is it important for the study of culture, society, and politics to be included in the
school curriculum?

Try it!
Cite three practical situations where knowledge of anthropology, political science, and
sociology can be applied.

What do you think?


Which among the three social science disciplines is most relevant in your life?
Tips
 The study of culture, society, and politics will prepare people for active and responsible
civic engagement through the development of critical thought.
 Learning the areas of anthropology, sociology, and political science exposes its learners
to social diversity and inequality, self-reflective knowledge and practice, appreciation of
complexity, and advocacy for social change and order.

Keypoints
 Anthropology is a social science discipline that studies humans and their society in the
past and present.
 Political science is a social science discipline that deals with systems of government
and the analysis of political activity and political behavior.
 Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions.

What is the study of humans and their societies in the past and present?

What refers to the discipline involving the study of the social lives of people, groups, and societies?

Which of the following helps in understanding politics, political institutions and behavior, public
policy, and philosophical concepts, such as justice, equality, fairness, and liberty?

Which may be a subject of interest for a political scientist?

Which is a scope of sociology?

Which is not a scope of anthropology?

Which may be a subject of interest for a sociologist?

Why should people study political science?

What is the benefit of having a knowledge of the study of culture, society, and politics?

Which is not a goal of sociology?

Anthropological and Sociological Perspectives on Culture and Society


DEFINING CULTURE AND SOCIETY: THE PERSPECTIVES OF ANTHROPOLOGY
AND SOCIOLOGY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
 explain anthropological and sociological perspectives on culture and society, and
 describe society and culture as a complex whole.
 Why should people use different perspectives in recognizing the existence of
culture and society?
 Why is culture said to be a product of society?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Anthropology and Sociology
Humans are interesting subjects to study. The human story has a lot to say from their
way of living to the associations they form. The two interrelated scientific studies of
society colloquially known as the twin social sciences are anthropology and sociology.

Anthropology
 Anthropology is the study of people throughout the world, their evolutionary
history, how they behave, adapt to different environments, communicate, and
socialize with one another.
 Anthropology provides us with a big picture of what it means to be human.
 The study of anthropology is concerned with the biological features that make us
human (such as physiology, genetic makeup, nutritional history, and evolution)
and their social aspects (such as language, culture, politics, family, and religion).
Sociology
 Sociology is the study of human institutions and their relationships. This
discipline examines how human actions in modern societies are shaped by social
groups and by wider social, economic, and political pressures.
 Sociology’s subject matter is diverse, ranging from crime to religion, from the
family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared
beliefs of a common culture, and from social stability to radical change in whole
societies.

Anthropological and Sociological Perspectives on


Culture and Society
In sociology, society is the leading concept while culture is subordinate. In anthropology,
on the other hand, culture comes first as a subject matter followed by society.

Let us put the two concepts this way.


 When talking about culture, we are mostly talking about tangible factors which
include language, technology, and institutions−−like our churches, schools, or
houses.
 However, culture also has intangible aspects such as our values and behaviors.
It also includes norms, the standards or rules of acceptable behavior.
 Culture is what makes society a collective whole. It gives the community its form,
shape, and identity.
 A society, in terms of sociology, is a group of people living and interacting with
one another to create a culture. Its population is bound by a shared
culture−−beliefs, attitudes, languages, and institutions.

Society and Culture as a Complex Whole


Edward B. Tylor defined culture as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art,
belief, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a
member of society."

 With this premise, it can be said that culture is a product of society. These two
exist dependently on each other.
 Culture , just like every person in society, is susceptible to change or death.
 Society is not constant. Its members change from time to time. As a result,
culture changes along. New trends exist. New technologies are invented and
new means of interaction have been created.
 People evolve over time as a result of their exposure to renewed or changed
laws, values, and standards of society.

Explore!
Think about the different factors involved in shaping society and culture. How do they
affect continuous societal and cultural changes?
Try it!
Identify three societies or groups of people. Write at least three characteristics for each
group.

What do you think?


What is the dividing line between anthropology and sociology? Culture and society?

Keypoints
 Anthropology is the study of humans' evolutionary history and how people
behave, adjust, communicate, and socialize in different environments.
 Sociology is the study of human institutions and their interrelationships.
 Culture is a way of life of a group of people. It involves symbols, languages,
values, and norms.
 Society is a community or group of people joined together by sustained bonds
and interactions.

What is the study of how people behave, adapt to different environments, communicate, and
socialize with one another?

Which among the following is a community or group joined together by sustained bond and
interaction?

What is the set of learned behaviors and beliefs that characterize a people group?

What is society according to a sociological perspective?

Which statement does not adhere to an anthropological meaning of culture?

Which statement might be a source of interest for a sociologist?

Which of the following is not a manifestation of culture within society?

Why is the study of anthropology important in understanding culture and society?

Why is culture usually described as “the complex whole"?

What explains the constant changes in culture and society?


Aspects of Culture and Society I (Dynamic, Flexible, & Adaptive; and Shared &
Contested)
DEFINING CULTURE AND SOCIETY: THE PERSPECTIVES OF ANTHROPOLOGY
AND SOCIOLOGY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define society and culture,


 explain the relationship of culture and society,
 identify aspects of culture and society,
 prove that culture is dynamic, flexible and adaptive,
 prove that culture is shared and contested, and
 raise questions toward a holistic appreciation of cultures and societies.
 Is there something unique that only your family does?
 Do you practice a certain custom or celebrate a special feast in your province?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Culture and Society
Culture and society are two different concepts. Each has its own meaning and function.

Culture
 According to Edward B. Tylor, culture is "that complex whole which
encompasses beliefs, practices, values, attitudes, laws, norms, artifacts,
symbols, knowledge, and everything that a person learns and shares as a
member of society."
 Culture also encompasses social institutions like the family, church, school, and
government.
 Our culture defines who we are.
 Whatever it is that we do is part of our culture.
Society
 Society can be defined as the interaction among people where a common
culture can be shared.
 Society can also refer to people from a particular place that shares the same
culture.
 A common location may not just develop a common culture. It can also be
formed by gender, shared beliefs, values, norms, or activities.
For example, people from Bicol love spicy food while people from Iloilo are known to be
sweet and caring.
Can you identify a common cultural practice in your society?

The Relationship of Culture and Society


Culture and society are two closely related concepts. For culture to exist and to be
developed, it needs human interaction. It needs people to interact with one another, and
it needs people to practice it continuously. Without a society practicing their common
culture, the culture may cease to exist.

Culture is also essential to society because, without culture, society will be dull and will
not continue to thrive. A society without culture is like a body without a soul and vice
versa. Culture and society need each other so they can both develop and prosper.

Aspects of Culture: Dynamic, Flexible, and Adaptive


There are different aspects of culture like art, music, language, food, daily life, clothing,
and religion to name a few. These aspects of culture show us that culture
is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive.

Culture constantly changes and adapts to the current state of society. It continuously
restores itself whenever customs do not fit in the current situation anymore. It does not
remain stagnant.

Examples:

 In the aspect of music, we can see that music may change from time to time. The
traditional music during the 1920s was mostly jazz, ragtime, and broadway music
while the popular music during the 1970s was disco music.
 Because we are now more inclined to use computers and tablets especially when
playing games, some children are not able to play street games anymore. This
pushed some game developers to introduce Filipino street games as video
games.
 When it comes to language, we can also see how culture adapts to changing
times. We have already developed new words related to the internet like memes,
netizens, vines, and others.
Aspects of Culture: Shared and Contested
Culture is learned and acquired through different interactions with people. Culture is
a shared learning experience. Because culture constantly changes, we get to share the
learning process with other people.
If culture is learned and shared, it is also contested in various ways and situations.
Because of diversity, culture is subjected to debate and analysis.

Explore!
Observe your interaction with your classmates. Try to identify what common culture you
and your classmates share that made you become friends.

Try it!
Try to ask your parents about popular songs and dances during their teenage years.
Find out how different they are from yours and how much they have changed.

What do you think?


What do you think the Philippine culture will be twenty years from now?

Tips
 Our society needs to preserve and promulgate our indigenous culture so that we
can maintain our identity as a nation.
 Culture changes and adapts to current society, but that does not mean that our
traditional culture should be forgotten.
 Different cultures exist in the world, but there is no culture greater than another.
We should learn to accept our differences, help other cultures learn ours, and
learn other cultures as well.
 We should not judge the customs, norms, and beliefs of others because those
are part of their unique culture.

Keypoints
 Culture is a set of behaviors that we have absorbed. It is a set of characteristics
that help us relate and bond with other people.
 Society is a group of individuals coming from the same place and shares the
same culture.
 It is crucial to preserve and promulgate our culture and traditions if we want to
keep them alive. We are facing lots of changes, developments, and technological
advances today that we tend to forget to look back on our old culture and
traditions.
 Culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. It changes based on the current
situation of society. Culture continuously restores itself so it will remain relevant.
 Culture is best learned when it is shared. There are a lot of cultures that exists in
our world. We need to share our unique culture with others to get to know theirs
and also spread ours.
 While it is learned and shared, culture is also contested. Because of diversity,
culture is subject to debate and analysis.

What is the complex whole which encompasses beliefs, practices, values, norms, and everything
that a person learns and shares as a member of society?

What is defined as the interaction among people from the same territory who share the same
culture?

What institutions are encompassed by culture?

What will happen if society does not have any form of culture?

Which is the best example of a uniquely Filipino culture?

Which of the following best describes Filipinos?

What would happen if our culture is not dynamic and adaptive?

What is the relationship between the sharing of culture and its flexibility?

As a student, what can you do to help preserve our culture and traditions?

What assumptions can you conclude from this lesson?


Aspects of Culture and Society II (Learned Through Socialization/Enculturation and
Transmitted Through Socialization/Enculturation)
DEFINING CULTURE AND SOCIETY: THE PERSPECTIVES OF ANTHROPOLOGY
AND SOCIOLOGY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define socialization and enculturation,


 discuss the different agents of socialization,
 identify aspects of culture and society,
 prove that culture is learned and transmitted through socialization or
enculturation, and
 raise questions toward a holistic appreciation of cultures and societies.
Recall the very first person you interacted with. Do you think he or she affected the
development of your personality?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Review!
Aspects of Culture
There are different aspects of culture such as art, music, language, food, daily life,
clothing, and religion.

Dynamic, Flexible, and Adaptive


Culture constantly changes and adapts to the current state of society. It continuously
restores itself whenever customs do not fit in the current situation anymore. It does not
remain stagnant.

Shared and Contested


 Culture is learned and acquired through different interactions with people. Culture
is a shared learning experience. Because culture constantly changes, we get to
share the learning process with other people.
 If culture is learned and shared, it is also contested in different ways and
situations. Because of diversity, culture is always subjected to debate and
analysis.

Learn about it!


Socialization and Enculturation
Society is different from culture. Within a society are many diverse cultures. While the
members of society share many of the same expectations and experiences, the cultural
groups create some that differentiate them from others in the community.

Socialization
Socialization is the process through which people learn to understand societal norms
or expectations and societal values as members of society.

Enculturation
Enculturation is the process by which an individual adopts the behavior patterns of the
culture he or she is immersed in.

Agents of Socialization
There are different agents of socialization−−the family, community, mass media, and
religion.

Family
 The family is the first social group that we all have. It is considered as the most
important social group that a person has. It is also the principal agent of
socialization.
 We first start to learn things with the help of our parents and family. They are the
main source of our traits and behaviors, the values, norms or rules that we follow,
and the ideas we initially believe in.
Community
 Outside our homes, we get to interact with people and institutions from our
community. One them is the school. In schools, we become exposed to ideas,
values, norms, and behaviors that may be different from what we learn from our
family.
 We also get to interact with other people from our community who become our
peers. Research shows that since children and teenagers spend most of their
time with peers, peer groups can create youth sub-culture (Mondal, 2015).
 Our peers can also influence us with the different norms, values, and behaviors
that they got from their families.
Mass Media
 One of the biggest influences in our culture is mass media which come in the
form of television, movies, books, magazines, and social networking sites. Mass
media plays a major role in shaping the culture and behavior of an individual
(Mondal, 2015).
 Unfortunately, both good and bad behaviors can be learned through mass media.
It is important that the the youth remain supervised whenever they are accessing
all forms of media.
Religion
Another social agent is religion. Through the family, one is immediately exposed to the
teachings of religion. It helps shape and equip individuals with the attitudes and
behaviors that are deemed appropriate.

Aspects of Culture
We have learned that culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. It is also shared and
contested in various ways and situations.

Aside from these characteristics, there are also other aspects of culture as discussed
below.

Learned through Socialization or Enculturation


Socialization is an ongoing process of learning languages, behaviors, customs, values,
norms to acquire a personal identity. It helps us learn culture. Socialization also allows
us to interact with others and helps us develop the behaviors that we think are inborn or
part of human nature. It is an essential part of building our character and preserving,
spreading, and strengthening our culture.

Another way of learning other cultures is called enculturation. For example, your friend
migrated to America with her family. You noticed on her Facebook that after three
months of being in America, she started to act and look differently and she is using
some slang words you only hear Americans say. This is the process of enculturation.
Your friend is slowly starting to adapt to the American culture because it is necessary so
she would fit in.

Transmitted through Socialization or Enculturation


Culture can also be transmitted from one person to another, and even from one society
to another. One good example of this is the transmission of a culture of the Spanish to
the Filipinos during the Spanish colonization. The transfer of Spanish culture to the
Filipinos is done through both socialization and enculturation. We learned their culture
by socializing with them through the church and the schools they established.

Explore!
Do you notice that when you stay at one place for a period of time, you unknowingly
learn some of its culture?

For example, you went to Vigan during your summer break. After two weeks, you start
to understand their dialect, Ilocano, and speak a little of it. Can you explain why?
Try it!
Try observing a culture different from yours. Try exploring the culture of a classmate
that comes from a different province or has a different religion.

What do you think?


Do you think social media significantly affects and influences our culture nowadays?

Tips
 The people or groups you socialize with will greatly affect your behavior because
you learn most of it from them.
 Socialization begins during childhood, right after a person is born. The first group
that teaches about socialization is the family.
 Throughout your life, you will get to interact with a lot of different people from
different cultures. You will learn different behaviors, norms, or values from them.
It is up to you to identify what you will keep or practice and what you will reject.
 Not all acquired behaviors are helpful. Some learned behaviors can be
destructive in the long run.

Keypoints
 Enculturation is the process of adopting the behavior patterns of the culture in
which a person is immersed in.
 Socialization is an ongoing process of learning languages, behaviors, customs,
values, or norms to acquire a personal identity.
 There are different agents of socialization that aid in acquiring and learning a
specific culture. These include the family, school, peer groups, mass media,
and religion.
 Culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. It is also shared and contested in
various ways and situations.
 Culture is learned and transmitted through socialization and enculturation.

What is socialization?

Who is the primary agent of socialization?

What is the process through which we learn about the culture we live in?
Which is the best example for a positive behavior acquired from peer groups?

Which is not an example of behavior acquired from the family?

Which of the following best describes socialization?

What is the function of enculturation in helping us adapt to a new environment?

Based on a family’s behavior, a child has learned that it is okay to shout at someone older than him.
What could happen if he goes to school and learns that it is not the proper behavior?

What is the major takeaway from this lesson?

Aspects of Culture and Society III (Patterned Social Interaction, Integrated and at Times
Unstable, Requires Language, and Other Forms of Communication)
DEFINING CULTURE AND SOCIETY: THE PERSPECTIVES OF ANTHROPOLOGY
AND SOCIOLOGY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain the different patterns of social interaction,


 identify aspects of culture and society,
 prove that culture is a patterned social interaction, integrated and unstable, and
requires language for social interaction, and
 raise questions toward a holistic appreciation of cultures and societies.
How are your interactions influenced by culture?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Aspects of Culture
Culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive, may be shared and contested, and
transmitted through socialization and enculturation.

Dynamic, Flexible, and Adaptive


Culture constantly changes and adapts to the current state of society. It continuously
restores itself whenever customs do not fit in the current situation anymore. It does not
remain stagnant.
Shared and Contested
Culture is learned and acquired through different interactions with people. Culture is a
shared learning experience. Because culture constantly changes, we get to share the
learning process with other people. However, culture is also contested in different ways
and situations. Because of diversity, culture is always subjected to debate and analysis.

Learned through Socialization or Enculturation


Socialization is an ongoing process of learning languages, behaviors, customs, values,
norms, and others to acquire a personal identity. It helps us learn the culture.
Socialization also teaches us how to interact with other people and helps us develop the
behaviors that we think are inborn or part of human nature.

Transmitted through Socialization or Enculturation


Culture can also be transmitted from one person to another and even from one society
to another. One example of this at the micro level is the transmission of an old family
recipe from one generation to the next. This can be done through both socialization and
enculturation.

Aspects of Culture
We have learned that culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive, shared and contested in
various ways and situations, and learned and transmitted through socialization or
enculturation.

Let us continue to identify some aspects of culture.

Patterned Social Interaction


Socialization helps us acquire both good and bad parts of our culture. How do we
identify the good and the bad?

There are five patterns of social interaction−−exchange, cooperation, competition,


conflict, and coercion.
Exchange
Exchange or social exchange is the expectation that whenever we do something
good, we will receive something good in return (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). It
is the most basic pattern of socialization.

Example: You help your mother wash the dishes so that she will let you come to your
friend's sleepover.

Cooperation
Cooperation is when people or groups of people work together to achieve a common
goal. Cooperation is considered to be essential for human survival because, without
cooperation, social life would be unmanageable (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129).

Example: A husband and a wife should cooperate in raising their children. Without it,
their children will not grow up the way they want them to.

There are also negative social interactions that are necessary in order to develop and
sharpen behavior and culture.

Competition
Competition may be viewed as the opposite of cooperation. Instead of working
together towards a common goal, competing individuals or groups battle to achieve the
target that only one can have (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129).

Example: You studied and practiced hard and eventually won. Even if you had lost, at
least you were still able got to enhance your spelling skills.

Conflict
Conflict arises when people disobey rules, control a person by force, or hurt other
people just to achieve their goals. However, conflict is not always considered bad. The
existence of a conflict can strengthen the unity within a group because it is threatened
by an external factor (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129).

Example: You and your sibling fight over the TV almost every night, but when conflict
arises between you and your parents, you and your sibling team up.

Coercion
Coercion happens when there is a use of threat or force in persuading others. People
usually coerce other people when they cannot achieve their goals on their own.

Example: You force your brother to do your chores by threatening him that you will tell
your mother that he failed his exam.

Learn about it!


Requires Language for Social Interaction
In every interaction, language is the most important tool that is always used.

 Language is the transporter of a large part of our culture because some parts of
our culture are passed on through our mouths. There are no written records
(Young, 1930).
 We can do social interaction through the use of language.
 Language is not only restricted to verbal language. It is also used in non-verbal
communication or body language during interaction. For example, our first
interaction with a friend is usually with a smile. This shows that language,
whether verbal or non-verbal, can help us learn and acquire culture.
Integrated and at Times Unstable
The patterns of social interaction are connected to each other and may change from
time to time. The type of our social interaction may change. A simple social exchange
may lead to cooperation. A small competition may result in a big conflict.

Example: You and your sibling fight over little things almost every day. When you came
to school the next day, you saw your sibling being bullied by his classmates. You
immediately came to his aid, supported each other, and stopped the bullies. This
scenario shows that even if you and your sibling fight almost every day, you will still opt
to unite in times of need.

Explore!
Social interaction is a part of our everyday lives. Observe your activities for the day. You
will notice that in everything that you do, you get to interact with another person. Your
interaction varies from day to day. This shows how the patterns of social interaction are
integrated or connected with each other.

Try it!
Try staging a little competition among you and your friends. Observe everyone's
behavior while the game is ongoing. Also see if alliances will be formed along the way
or the initial competition will turn into cooperation or conflict.

What do you think?


How will culture prosper if language will cease to exist?

Tips
 Social exchange as a pattern of social interaction is not always active.
Sometimes, when we do harm to others, we already anticipate that they will do
something wrong to us in return.
 Competition is not always negative as well. There are also good games that push
us to do our best to win and, in the process, enhance our skills.
 Conflict may result in hostility between the conflicting parties, but may lead to
unity and cooperation among the members of the same group.
 Our social interactions are integrated so it varies depending on the situation. We
may be friendly and cooperative towards one person today, but this might
change when we feel threatened.

Keypoints
 Social interaction is the mutual influence of two or more people on each other’s
behavior.
 There are five patterns of social
interaction: exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict, and coercion.
 Exchange or social exchange is our expectation that whenever we do
something good, we will receive something good in return.
 Cooperation is when people or groups of people work together to achieve a
common goal.
 Competition is when individuals or groups battle to achieve the goal that only
one can have.
 Conflict arises when people disobey rules, control a person by force, or hurt
other people just to achieve their goals.
 Coercion happens when a person uses threats or force to persuade another
person.
 Language is an essential part of social interaction. Without language, we will find
it difficult to interact with other people.
 Some parts of the patterns of our social interaction are integrated. This
connection affects our behavior towards other people.
 Our social interactions are also unstable. It may change depending on the
situation we are in. We may be in conflict with one person today but may become
friendly with him or her in other situations.
 Culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive, shared and contested in various ways
and situations, learned and transmitted through socialization or enculturation,
patterned on social interactions, integrated and at times unstable, and requires
language for social interactions.

What is a social interaction?

What social pattern is essential to human survival?

What is the most basic pattern of socialization?


Which is the best example of a conflict?

Which is the best example of cooperation?

Which is the best example of coercion?

Which is the best example of exchange?

What is the function and importance of language in our culture?

What is the importance of the integration of the different patterns of social interaction?

How imperative is language in carrying or transferring our culture from one generation to another?

Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism


DEFINING CULTURE AND SOCIETY: THE PERSPECTIVES OF ANTHROPOLOGY
AND SOCIOLOGY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 discuss the differences of ethnocentrism and cultural relativism,


 explain why and how cultural relativism mitigates ethnocentrism, and
 explain the importance of cultural relativism in the proper understanding of cultures of
other societies.

 How should we view and understand different cultures?


 How can cultural relativism help us better understand and evaluate other cultures?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Ethnocentrism
People have a tendency to judge or evaluate other cultures in the context of their own
culture. Language, behavior, customs, or religion, which are understandably unique for
every culture are the common subjects of these judgments. Sociologically speaking, this
ideology or tendency is known as ethnocentrism.

Ethnocentrism is the idea that one’s own culture is above or superior than others'. It is
also the belief that one's own culture is the main standard by which other cultures may
be measured or understood. Ethnocentrism is failing or refusing to see the world and its
aspects in a wider or encompassing perspective. It may cause people to practice bias
and intolerance.

Seeing the belief and behavior of others which are different from yours as brutish,
confusing, or unbecoming is an ethnocentric thought or behavior. The tendency to be
avoidant, doubting, or questioning towards members of another culture is also a
manifestation of ethnocentrism.

Cultural Relativism
Not all people are ethnocentric. There are those who use wider perspectives in
associating their culture from another’s. There are people who accept and respect the
evident differences of members of the society. When people recognize that each culture
is naturally different from others, that is cultural relativism. Cultural relativism does not
mean that we should immediately accept and tolerate cultural differences. Instead, it
requires understanding the culture of other people in their own cultural context that is
free from another’s biases.

Cultural relativism is the idea that all norms, beliefs, and values are dependent on their
cultural context, and should be treated as such. According to Franz Boas (1887),
"...civilization is not something absolute, but ... is relative, and ... our ideas and
conceptions are true only so far as our civilization goes."

With cultural relativism, it is suggested that the way people live should be evaluated not
based on their own cultural context but on the social community the people themselves
inhabit. Cultural relativism means respect and tolerance.

In conducting their sociological studies, social scientists are recommended to practice


or show cultural relativism. There should be no reservations and blind opinions while
they are immersed in the community of their subjects. One may also practice this
concept by learning and recognizing that there are reasons or cultural significance of
why people of a certain community act and talk the way they do.

How Cultural Relativism Mitigates Ethnocentrism


It is believed that each person, in one way or another, possesses an ethnocentric
attitude or behavior. There is nothing wrong with having such because, unlike social
scientists or anthropologists, not all people are equipped with sufficient knowledge and
exposure to cultures across the globe, thus, the hardship in understanding and
tolerating others' acts and values. However, we also have to recognize that ethnocentric
behavior, if not controlled, may cause trouble to oneself, especially in this modern time
when everyone calls for social or cultural inclusion.

Historically, colonialism was justified by ethnocentrism. When Europeans reached the


areas populated by the natives whom they considered as uncivilized and savage, they
saw the promise to civilize and tame them through religion (Christianity) and
colonialism. Despite its advantages, we can say that the Age of Exploration changed
the course of world history in a way which deprived the conquered.
It is widely believed in the field of sociology that ethnocentric behavior may be mitigated
through the recognition and application of cultural relativism. A person can practice
cultural relativism by recognizing that culture shapes what is considered to be beautiful,
ugly, appealing, disgusting, virtuous, funny, and abhorrent, and that these should not be
the basis for evaluating other cultures. Cultural relativism shapes our understanding of
different issues in the society−−as to why certain religions believe in this and others do
not, or how come this group eats this type of dish, wears this weird clothing, sings and
dances along to music while others prefer not to. What we need is an open heart and an
unbiased and critical mind, exposure, education, and involvement in activities, and
programs supporting and recognizing the uniqueness and beauty of every culture for us
to truly grasp what cultural relativism means.

Explore!
What actions can social institutions present to promote cultural relativism and mitigate
ethnocentrism?

Try it!
Give three personal stories wherein you have shown or practiced ethnocentrism or
cultural relativism.

What do you think?


Is it possible for a society to have individuals who do not practice ethnocentrism?

Keypoints
 Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own culture is the main standard by which other
cultures may be measured. It is also the tendency to think of one’s culture as superior to
other cultures.
 Cultural relativism is the idea that all norms, beliefs, and values are dependent on their
cultural context, and should be treated as such. It calls for an unbiased evaluation and
understanding of other cultures.
 Recognizing and applying cultural relativism mitigates ethnocentrism.

What is the belief that one's own culture is the main standard by which other cultures may be
measured?

What refers to the idea that all norms, beliefs, and values are dependent on their cultural context,
and should be treated and understood objectively as such?
What is the idea that one’s own culture is above or superior to all others?

When Karlo visited a secluded area in Mindanao, he was surprised to witness the animal sacrifice
ritual of the natives. He, however, saw and analyzed the ritual as unique to their culture and was
done to appease their god. What was manifested through the act of Karlo?

Shane tells her classmate that her religious beliefs are correct while she discredits the validity of her
classmate’s religious beliefs. What is shown through Shane's claims?

In what statement is ethnocentrism manifested?

In what statement is cultural relativism manifested?

Why should people avoid ethnocentric behavior?

Which is is not associated with the existence of cultural relativism in society?

How can a person mitigate ethnocentric behavior through cultural relativism?

Forms of Tangible and Intangible Heritage


DEFINING CULTURE AND SOCIETY: THE PERSPECTIVES OF ANTHROPOLOGY
AND SOCIOLOGY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 identify forms of tangible and intangible heritage and the threats to these, and
 recognize the importance of tangible and intangible forms of heritage in writing
down our heritage and history.
What critical roles do tangible and intangible heritage play in the quest for knowing our
heritage?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Cultural Heritage
Legacy is what remains after one’s time. Handed down from one generation to another,
legacy magnifies one’s life and living. It is said that legacy is what cultural heritage is.
According to John Feather, cultural heritage is a human creation intended to inform.

Examples:

 architectures such as buildings, houses, and structures


 artifacts like books, documents, objects, images, clothing, accessories, and jars
 things that make people who they are, like oral stories, values, laws, norms, rituals, and
traditions

Cultural heritage helps historians and archaeologists understand and decipher the way
of living people of yesterday had. Through these objects, we are presented with facts
and figures which help us draw the landscape of the world as it once was.

Tangible and Intangible Heritage


Cultural heritage is a representation of the ways of living established by a society or a
group that is passed on from generation to generation. Cultural heritage can be
categorized as either tangible or intangible.

Tangible
Tangible means perceptible, touchable, concrete, or physical. A tangible heritage is a
physical artifact or object significant to the archaeology, architecture, science, or
technology of a specific culture.

Objects that can be stored are included in this category, such as:

 traditional clothing,
 utensils (e.g. beadwork, water vessels),
 vehicles (e.g. the ox wagon),
 documents (e.g. codes, laws, land titles, literature), and
 public works and architecture built and constructed by a cultural group (e.g. buildings,
historical places, monuments, temples, graves, roads, bridges).

Intangible Heritage
Intangible is the opposite of tangible. Unlike tangible heritage, an intangible heritage is
not a physical or concrete item. Intangible heritage is that which exists intellectually in
the culture.

Intangible heritage includes:

 songs,
 myths,
 beliefs,
 superstitions,
 oral poetry,
 stories, and
 various forms of traditional knowledge such as ethnobotanical knowledge.
Threats to Tangible and Intangible Heritage
There was a time in contemporary history when museums were in constant search and
in a hurry to look for historical materials to display. Due to the increase in demand for
cultural materials, opportunists saw this as an avenue to earn money. They invented
materials and claimed that these were excavated or unearthed and were once owned
by a cultural group.

 Documents whose authenticity are yet to be determined include the Hitler diaries,
crystal skulls of Mesoamerica (tangible), and the status or story of Saint Nicholas'
companion, Black Peter (intangible).
 Authenticity or truthfulness of origin, attributes, and intentions of cultural heritage
are one of the issues concerning the sources of our culture.
 Aside from authenticity issues, preservation, or the act of making a cultural
heritage last and exist, is also a primary concern.

Preservation of Cultural Heritage


In comparison to intangible heritage, tangible heritage possesses qualities and
properties which make it easier to recover and preserve. Despite this, it is noteworthy
that they remain susceptible to perishing over time especially if not given proper
attention.

The government should work on implementing and enriching existing national policies,
projects, training, and researches promoting the preservation of our cultural heritage. It
is true that intangible heritage is harder to preserve, but it should still be given equal
attention like what is given to tangible heritage.

Each nation should take part in maintaining cultural identity and making it a vital driving
force for social progress. This objective is cited in the Convention on the Protection of
the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

According to UNESCO, “heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today,
and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both
irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration.” Indeed, whatever we had yesterday is our
present, and whatever we make out of it will be the foundation of our future. We better
ensure that it is well taken care of.

Explore!
What actions can social institutions consider to preserve our tangible and intangible
heritage?
Try it!
Give three materials or specific samples of either tangible or intangible heritage. Give a
short background about each object.

What do you think?


“Without document or proof, there is no history.” Agree or disagree?

Keypoints
 Cultural heritage is a representation of the ways of living established by a
society or a group and passed on from generation to generation.
 Tangible heritage is a physical artifact or objects significant in the archaeology,
architecture, science, or technology of a particular culture. It includes buildings,
historic places, monuments, etc.
 Intangible heritage is that which exists intellectually in culture. It includes oral
traditions, social practices, performing arts, rituals, festive events, etc.
 Authenticity is the truthfulness of origin, attributes, and intentions of cultural
heritage.
 Preservation or the act of making a cultural heritage last and exist should be a
top priority of the government.

What is a representation of the ways of living established by a society or a group and passed on
from generation to generation?

What heritage refers to objects that can be stored such as traditional clothing, utensils, vehicles, or
documents?

In what type of heritage do songs, myths, beliefs, superstitions, oral poetry, and stories belong?

Which statement talks about an intangible heritage?

Which statement talks about a tangible heritage?

Which of the following can be categorized as a tangible heritage?

Which of the following falls under intangible heritage?

Which sentences are threats against cultural heritage?

What actions should be taken into consideration in promoting the preservation and recognition of
cultural heritage?
Why is the recognition and preservation of cultural heritage important in society?

Biological Evolution of Man


HUMAN BIOCULTURAL AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 trace the biological evolution of early to modern humans, and


 recognize national, local, and specialized museums, and archaeological and historical
sites as venues to appreciate and reflect on the complexities of biocultural and social
evolution as part of being and becoming human.

 What does the biological evolution of man refer to?


 How can we trace the biological evolution of early to modern humans?
 What physical and biological factors have greatly developed throughout the evolution of
the human species?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Biological Evolution of Man
The current biological makeup of humans has long and complex origins. The biological
evolution of man refers to the long evolutionary history of the human species from
primates to its current form, the Homo sapiens. Evolution is not an overnight
phenomenon. It took millions of years to end up with the specific set of biological traits
that humanity presently has. In this lesson, the origin, factors, and developments
involved in this evolutionary process will be discussed.

The Meaning and Significance of Human Evolution


Evolution is the process of developing physical and biological change in a species over
a period of time. Natural changes and events forced species to adapt to the
environment while some faced extinction for being unable to do so. In this case, modern
humans, belonging to the genus Homo, are seen as by-products of events and
processes that occurred in the past.

Human evolution, however, must not be seen as a linear process. Scientists argued that
human evolution developed much like the branches of a tree wherein each branch
extends into smaller, more specific stems. It just so happened that among all stems,
only one evolutionary profile—the current human being—was able to adapt and further
develop.

The Transition from Early to Modern Humans


The biological transition of humans from its earliest state to its current physical and
biological makeup took millions of years to complete. Despite this, scientists, through
the help of archaeological pieces of evidence and modern technology, were able to
identify and distinguish distinct transitional stages of human evolution. These stages are
described below.

The Significance of Artifactual Evidences in Understanding Evolution


Artifactual evidences are the only source of knowledge in understanding the lifestyle
and the developments that occurred in each transitional stage of human evolution. Early
human species were discovered through fossils which are remains preserved in rock.
Scientists study the structure, shape, and development of skeletal properties including
head shape and teeth to determine biological differences across early to modern
species.

Artifactual evidences can also include tools that are used for hunting and gathering or
symbolic writing found in caves. As mentioned previously, these were used by
the Homo erectus, though scientists are still hoping to find further evolutionary data on
other species. Below are some authentic examples of artifactual evidences that greatly
contributed in understanding human evolution.

 An antelope leg bone with cut marks was recently discovered in Africa. This prehistoric
tool served as evidence for early hunting practices and carnivorous diet among early
stone-tool making humans, the Oldowan hominin.
 A cave discovered in South Africa filled with carbonized leaves and grasses made
archaeologists believe that cooking food was practiced among early humans.

Appreciating the Past through the Present


It is important for modern humans to learn about their origins and developments.
Nowadays, technological advances has made delving into the past more accessible.
Interactive and national museums, for example, make great venues for learning more
about the prehistoric past. The great biological evolution that the human species has
been through is complex and developmental. As human beings, we are called to
understand and appreciate these advances.

Explore!
The development of humans have persisted for millions of years. These evolutionary
processes have been greatly influenced by natural phenomenon such as climate
change, natural disasters, or the development of other species. Through research,
explore how these natural phenomena might have affected human evolutionary
development.

Try it!
Visit the National Museum or any museum near your area of residence. Immerse
yourself in the archaeological findings featured in the museum. Since the museum has
several sections, it is highly recommended that you devote time to visit each area. Note
the differences in biological makeup and lifestyle of different human species featured at
the galleries.

What do you think?


Is there a possibility of finding evidence for a new human species that existed in the
past? Why? Why not?

Tips
 Human evolution always moves forward. It is unlikely that humans will regress in terms
of physical and biological makeup in the coming centuries.
 Note that before the existence of the genus Homo, the Australopithecines first emerged.
They are the earlier part of human evolutionary transition.

Keypoints
 Evolution is the process of developing physical and biological change in a species over
a period of time.
 Human evolution must not be seen as a linear process, but rather as branches wherein
each branch extends into smaller, more specific stems.
 The transition from early to modern humans included the Homo habilis, Homo erectus,
and Homo sapiens from the genus Homo.
 Fossils are artifactual remains that were preserved in rock.

Cultural Evolution of Man


HUMAN BIOCULTURAL AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain the concept of cultural evolution, and


 trace the cultural evolution of early to modern humans.

 What is cultural evolution?


 How can we trace the cultural evolution of early to modern humans?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Mobile phones are already part of our everyday lives. In a way, they represent
technological advancements due to constant changes in their key features.

This evolution and development of mobile phones only show how culture changes
through time. From the early writings of the cuneiform up to the present features of the
different units of smartphones and tablets, we can say that the way of life of people
constantly changes. This concept is called cultural evolution.

What is Cultural Evolution?


Cultural evolution explains the changes in the beliefs, knowledge, customs, skills,
attitudes, and languages of humans over time. It proposes that as humans transform
themselves, their culture becomes progressively complex due to social, environmental,
and biological factors.

The cultural evolution of early humans can be traced back to the beginning of the Stone
Age when they started creating and using tools made out of stones. This is the earliest
known period of human culture which started roughly 2-3 million years ago and ended
around 6000 and 3000 BCE. This period is also known as the prehistoric
period because writing was not yet invented during this time. It is divided into three
separate periods:

 Old Stone Age (Paleolithic),


 Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic), and
 New Stone Age (Neolithic).

Paleolithic Period
The Paleolithic period is the first phase of the Stone Age. This period started the
creation and use of crude stone tools which are the most primitive among the three
periods. The word "paleolithic" is derived from the Greek words palaios (old)
and lithos (stone) to collectively mean "old stone age."

The early humans who existed during this period showed their skills with fire and stones
that changed their diet and food consumption. Hunting and fishing were the primary
activities of the early humans during the Paleolithic period. They also had their religious
rituals based on nature and developed their own language based on sounds and hand
signals.

Mesolithic Period
The Mesolithic period is the second phase of the Stone Age. It was considered as the
transition period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. The word "mesolithic" is
derived from the Greek words mesos (middle) and lithos (stone) that collectively mean
"middle stone age."

Early humans during this period gradually domesticated plants and animals. They also
started to form their own settlements and communities. Hunting, fishing, and food
gathering were the primary activities of the early humans. They also started to use
microliths or smaller and more delicate stone tools.

Neolithic Period
The word "neolithic" was derived from the Ancient Greek words neos (new)
and lithos (stone) that collective translates to "new stone age."
The Neolithic period started during the last phase of the Stone Age and at this point,
modern humans started to exist. From being food gatherers, they became food
producers and introduced the concept of farming. They also became herders from being
hunters during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. They crafted better stone tools
and invented the axe. Pots and jars were evident during this period which served as
their food containers and storage. Modern humans also formed their permanent homes
and started to have their own tribes and villages.

Explore!
Based on the development of human culture during the Stone Age and the previous
lesson on biological evolution, who were the humans that existed during the Paleolithic,
Mesolithic, and Neolithic periods? What would be your justification or supporting
evidence that these humans existed during those periods?

Try it!
Make a table of the three periods of stone age and compare the different contributions
of each stage. Why do you think these periods are important in the study of the
evolution of human culture?

What do you think?


Following the timeline of the cultural evolution from the Paleolithic period up to the
Neolithic period, what do you think would be the next step of human development?

Keypoints
 Cultural evolution is the idea that the human culture such as beliefs, knowledge,
customs, skills, attitudes, and languages change over time.
 The Stone Age was the earliest period in the evolution of human culture when the early
humans started the use of weapons and tools made out of stones.
 The Paleolithic period was the first stage of the Stone Age. In this age, the early
humans began to use fire and stone tools. Hunting, fishing, and other practices such as
religious rituals based on nature and language based on sounds or hand signals also
emerged during this period.
 The Mesolithic period was the transition period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic
periods. It witnessed the gradual transformation of human culture such as the
domestication of plants and animals, formation of settlements and communities, and
food gathering.
 The Neolithic period was the last stage of the Stone age. This period was when
modern humans started to exist. Modern humans introduced farming, started herding
animals, and formed their permanent homes and settlements.

What do you call the process wherein notable changes are made to the culture of a society over a
period of time?

Which of the following periods refers to the time when humans began to cultivate crops and
domesticate animals?

In which period of the Stone Age were fire and stone tools initially used?

Which of the following is an invention of the early humans during the Paleolithic Period?

Why is the Stone Age described as the earliest period in the evolution of human culture?

Which of the following describes early hunting societies?

Which of the following statements describes culture?

The Neolithic period paved the way for which of the following events?

Based on the tools that existed during the Stone Age, which of these best describes the way of life of
the early humans?

Which of the following does not describe the progress of human culture through time?

Sociopolitical Evolution of Man: Neolithic Revolution


HUMAN BIOCULTURAL AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 trace the sociopolitical evolution of man from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering
to one of agriculture and settlement,
 discuss the implications of the Neolithic Revolution to the evolutionary process,
and
 explore the significance of human material remains and artifactual evidence in
interpreting cultural and sociopolitical processes.
From a prehistoric hunting and gathering society, modern society has indeed faced lots
of changes and development.

How is modern society able to achieve its current form from such simple beginnings?

Find the answer in this lesson!


Learn about it!
Nature has greatly influenced primal lifestyle. As such, developments in human life also
occurred in response to the natural environment. In this lesson, a significant era of
sociopolitical evolution will be tackled—the Neolithic Revolution.

The Neolithic Revolution


The Paleolithic period saw humans as hunter-gatherers in society. They were nomadic
people who could easily transfer from one area to another to hunt animals or gather
plants for consumption and survival. This had been the practice until around 12,000
BCE when humans started to domesticate animals and crops. This era of this newfound
lifestyle is called the Neolithic Revolution.

From hunter-gatherers or nomads, people became farmers through domestication, the


process of increasing human control in breeding animals or plants to regulate certain
traits that will make them useful for other human needs. The domestication of animals
and plants implied that humans stayed in a particular area to enable their resources to
grow and expand. Some plants and animals utilized for domestication included wheat,
barley, corn, nuts, cattle, goats, and sheep.

One of the first Neolithic societies recorded in existence was Mesopotamia, which is at
present, the country of Iraq. It was believed that it concurrently existed with other
Neolithic societies in China, the Americas, and Africa.

Implications of the Neolithic Revolution to the Evolutionary Process


The Neolithic Revolution facilitated an economic and societal shift that paved the way
for further developments in the early human lifestyle. As such, advances in different
aspects of human life started during this era.

Below are the implications of the Neolithic Revolution in sociopolitical, economic, and
human development.

Sociopolitical Development
 The Neolithic revolution paved the way for the creation of civilization through
permanent settlements dictated by reliable food supply.
 Development in domestication techniques and practices allow for a more
complex society and the possibility for urbanization.
 With the emergence of towns and cities came the birth of trade and
marketplaces. This led to the economy and a hierarchical society with public
leaders and castes.
 A form of social stratification was developed. This created the idea of inequality
and ideas of social power and influence.
Economic Developments
 Because of the domestication of crops and animals, abundant supplies of food
and resources were maintained.
 A selective breeding process of plants and animals that would allow for the
development of new species was introduced.
Biological Developments
 There was increase in lifespan and human population across civilizations.
 People learned to play different social roles apart from being farmers (e.g.
craftsman, priest, leader).
Evidence for the Existence of the Neolithic Revolution
Some artifactual pieces of evidence prove the existence and success of the Neolithic
revolution in influencing sociopolitical development.

Here are some actual evidences found to support the existence of this era.

 There were morphological changes among Neolithic people, including brain size
and mandible and simple dietary changes from solely eating plants to
consumption of meat.
 A subterranean structure in Abu-Hureyra, Syria was found to have been built
during the Neolithic Revolution and served as a communal storage facility.
 Paleolithic people have fairly healthy teeth, but during the Neolithic Revolution,
there was an increased caries rate. Neolithic teeth were also more worn down
and pitted, owing to hard inclusions from poorly grounded flour.
 Molleson (1994) has proven that there were changes in the bones of women that
were task-related and associated with cereal grinding.

Explore!
Agriculture considerably expanded throughout the Neolithic revolution. Because of this
era, domestication and pastoralism were discovered as sustainable ways of living.
Systems and tools were also developed. As such, civilization was formed.

In your perspective, what could have been the implication if the early humans did not
discover the method of domestication and farming?

Try it!
Using a video streaming website, watch videos that detail the Neolithic Revolution and
its significance in the development of societies. Try to note the significant implications
and contributions of the Neolithic Revolution to the present community and survival
practices.
What do you think?
Why is the Neolithic period called a revolution?

Tips
 The shift from a hunting-gathering society to the Neolithic Revolution occurred
gradually. It took thousands of years for this change to happen.
 If you look at a map of early civilizations under the Neolithic period, you will
notice that all early civilizations were situated near a body of water. This was
strategically done by early humans because bodies of water may also function as
a source of food and other resources.

Keypoints
 The Neolithic Revolution was a period where agriculture and farming became
prominent through plant and animal domestication.
 Domestication is the process of increasing human control in breeding animals
or plants to regulate certain traits that will make them useful for other human
needs.
 One of the first Neolithic societies recorded in existence was Mesopotamiawhich
is, at present, the country of Iraq.
 The Neolithic Revolution has sociopolitical, economic, and human
implications to the evolutionary process.
 A form of social stratification was developed. This created idea of inequality and
ideas of social power and influence.
 Many artifactual evidences prove the existence and success of the Neolithic
revolution in influencing sociopolitical development.

What was the period when agriculture and farming became prominent through plant and animal
domestication?

What is the process of increasing human control in breeding animals or plants to regulate certain
traits that will make them useful for other human needs?

Which among the following is the first civilization developed during the Neolithic Revolution?

Which of the following describes a nomad?

What may be a sociopolitical implication of the Neolithic Revolution?

Which of the following is not a property of domestication?


What contribution does a body of water have in a Neolithic civilization?

How is a hunting-gathering society different from a Neolithic society?

1. A hunting-gathering society used stone tools while a Neolithic society did not.
2. A Neolithic society consumed meat while a hunting-gathering society did not.

Which of the following correctly describes the Neolithic Revolution?

1. Agriculture was the main source of life.


2. Domesticated resources were only limited to sheep, cow, barley, and wheat.

How did the Neolithic Revolution contribute to human life?

1. It increased life span.


2. It increased human population.

Sociopolitical Evolution of Man: Early Civilizations and the Rise of States


HUMAN BIOCULTURAL AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 trace the sociopolitical evolution of man from the rise of civilizations to the
development of states,
 discuss the implications of the rise of civilizations and development of states to
human biocultural and social evolution, and
 explore the significance of human material remains and artifactual evidence in
interpreting cultural and social, including political and economic, processes.
From a hunting-gathering lifestyle to a Neolithic society, major changes took place in
terms of socioeconomic factors of early human life. Despite this already drastic
movement, human lifestyle continued to develop into more organized socioeconomic
and political systems.

 What factors contributed to these changes?


 How did these developments influence future sociopolitical movements and
policies?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


The Neolithic revolution, through the domestication of plants and animals, paved the
way for the beginnings of early civilizations like Mesopotamia. In this lesson, the
development and implications of these civilizations will be discussed and explained.

The Rise of Civilizations


Civilizations began to develop during the Neolithic period when the early humans
learned to settle in just one area to domesticate plants and animals for survival. The first
civilizations were found mostly in Asia, particularly in China and Mesopotamia, now Iraq.
The latter was part of the Fertile Crescent, an area in the ancient Middle East that is
believed to be the “cradle of civilization” and the birthplace of agriculture, urbanization,
writing, trade, and science due to its fertile land area. This area housed two bodies of
water, the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, which were also valuable resources for the
early civilizations.

During these periods, civilizations were mainly agrarian societies that treated both
genders equally as the first labor only involved farming, domestication, and harvesting.
Though this may be the case, social roles began to emerge, with some members of the
community becoming priests or priestesses, laborers, and farmers.

The Development of States


In Mesopotamia, in the region of Sumer in 4,000 BCE, two significant developments
took place that influenced the flow of the sociopolitical process of the early civilizations.

These were:

 the rise of states, and


 the invention of writing.
Historians believe that these developments occurred because of trades among different
regions. The early civilizations would have had some form of writing to document or
record traces of their products and deals.

During the Copper Age (5,900-3,200 BCE), the system of commerce grew with
prosperity, leading to the development of cities and changes in sociopolitical positions
with some civilizations promoting a kingship to replace priestly rule. This was done to
foresee the flow of trade and negotiations with other regions. This era gave rise to
numerous developments such as the invention of the wheel and the transition from the
use of stone tools to copper tools.

In 3,000-2,119 BCE, during the early Bronze Age, copper instruments were replaced
with bronze tools. Along with this, the rise of city-states continued to flourish, thereby
laying out a foundation for economic and political stability. As a result, more empires,
civilizations, and states began to rise and develop.

Implications of the Rise of Civilizations and States


The rise of civilizations and states led to urbanization, economic focus, political power,
and material development. These changes allowed both positive and negative
implications that directly affected future developments in the sociopolitical evolution of
men.

Below are some implications of the rise of civilizations and states.

 Warfare: Conflict and wars emerged among states as tension grew among them.
Soon, professional armies and weaponry began to make their appearance.
 Metalwork: A huge development in metalwork occurred along with the rise of
civilizations and states. During this time, people began to discover various raw
materials, such as iron, copper, and bronze for making tools and weapons.
 Political system: Because of economic factors such as trading, leadership
among city-states began to be more organized and developed. With the kingship
system replacing the priestly leaders, each state had its executive branch that
centralized decisions and communications with other states.
Evidence for the Existence of Civilizations and States
Artifactual evidence prove the existence and occurrence of early civilizations and states.

Here are some of the actual evidences found to support the existence of this era.

 In 1922, archaeologist Sir Leonard Wooley discovered the remains of two four-
wheeled wagons that dated back to the time of Mesopotamia.
 Excavations in the 1840s revealed human settlements in Mesopotamia during
10,000 BCE.

Explore!
The developments within the Fertile Crescent, specifically in Mesopotamia, generated
numerous contributions to contemporary lifestyle and practices. Because of this, the
early civilizations became an important aspect of history. It was during this period that
an organized sociopolitical and economic structure was established.

If you were an archaeologist, what aspect of the early civilizations would you prefer to
focus on?

Try it!
Using clay and other art materials, create your structure of the early civilizations and
states. You may choose one civilization (e.g. Mesopotamia) or one area of early life
(e.g. trading or farming). It is your prerogative to incorporate any structure that you think
might exist during the period. Use your learning in this lesson as a guide.

What do you think?


What form of sociopolitical development would have risen from the implications of the
rise of states and civilizations?

Tips
 Mesopotamia, in Greek, translates to “between two rivers”. This translation refers
to the rivers Tigris and Euphrates that surround the land.
 The Mesopotamian civilization existed even before the Egyptian civilization. After
the Middle Eastern civilization began, Egyptian civilization soon developed along
the Nile River.

Keypoints
 The first civilizations were found mostly in Asia, particularly
in China and Mesopotamia which is now Iraq.
 The Fertile Crescent is an area in the ancient Middle East that is believed to be
the “cradle of civilization” and the birthplace of agriculture, urbanization, writing,
trade, and science due to its fertile land area.
 In Mesopotamia, in the region of Sumer in 4,000 BCE, two important
developments took place that influenced the flow of the sociopolitical process of
the early civilizations. These were the rise of states and the invention of
writing.
 The implications of the rise of civilizations and states include warfare,
developments in metalwork, and changes in political systems.

What is the name of the area in the Middle East believed to be the "cradle of civilization"?

What is the Greek word that means “land between two rivers”?

Which country, at present, was once the location of Mesopotamia?

Which of the following is an important development that took place in Sumer in 4,000 BCE?

Why was the Fertile Crescent called as such?

Which of the following is not an implication of the development of states and early civilizations?

What valuable resource is evident among all early civilizations?

following options is true?

1. Sumer was a region of Mesopotamia.


2. Some civilizations in Asia simultaneously emerged along with Mesopotamia.

Which statement correctly describes the early civilizations?


1. It was in Egypt where the very first civilization emerged.
2. The Neolithic Revolution paved the way for the rise of the early civilizations.

Which is true about the development of tools during the rise of civilizations and states?

1. Stone tools were still used.


2. Bronze tools preceded copper tools.

Sociopolitical Evolution of Man: Democratization


HUMAN BIOCULTURAL AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain democratization as a sociopolitical evolution, and


 explore the significance of human material remains and artifactual evidence in
interpreting cultural, social, political, and economic processes.

 What is democratization?
 How did democratization start?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


The early civilizations created new environments, called city-states which introduced
new developments in various aspects of life. What outcomes have led to these
continuous progress and ventures?

The rise of civilizations and city-states paved the way for the introduction of new
developments during the Copper and Bronze Age. Now, we look at how those impacted
the following periods and developments.

Democracy and Democratization


Democratization refers to the spread or expansion of democracy.

Democracy means "rule by the people." The term comes from the Greek words demos,
which means "people," and kratos, which means "rule." While democracy is often traced
back to the Greeks, particularly the Athenian democracy during 5th century BCE, a form
of primitive democracy is said to have existed during the hunting and gathering period in
independent tribes.
The form of democracy during 500 BCE in city-states is said to be a form of direct
democracy where citizens participate directly in decision-making. On the other hand,
the evolved form of democracy−−**representative democracy**−−that became
widespread in nation-states is where officials are elected to represent a group of people.

Historical Path to a Democratic City-State


Agricultural developments in Asia and Africa eventually spread to the nearby
civilizations of Greece and Rome. Both Greeks and Romans adapted to the farming
culture developed by the Mesopotamians, even following the latter’s sociopolitical
structure of kingship. Eventually, they were able to engage in trade as their resources
highly developed and impacted socioeconomic growth.

Greece

 Societal status and groups began to develop:


o the king (bearing the highest position in all Greek city-states),
o the aristocracies and noblemen, then
o the farmers.
 Wars were already occurring between city-states, and tension grew between social
classes.
 Greek kings had growing ambitions to transform themselves into wealth-laden
rulers just like their predecessors from the Bronze Age.
 The need for power was not feasible as the primarily abundant metal during the
period was iron, a relatively cheaper metal compared to bronze. If the king
sought greater power, he would not be able to do so easily since weaponry and
machinery, primarily made of iron, were much cheaper, and could be afforded by
practically anyone within the city-state.
In 750 BC, with high tension and alarm over the intentions of the king, the noblemen
gathered together and ousted him, leading to a successful establishment of the first
republics.

The Beginnings of Democratization


The developments in the Greek city-states led to the birth of democracy and the rise of
democratization in societies.

Oligarchy

 Greek Kings were deposed by the noblemen.


 City-states began to change the form of leadership into oligarchy where rulers were
from aristocratic families.
 Because of inexpensive and accessible weaponry and the ongoing wars between city-
states, even ordinary people like the farmers learned to arm themselves and rebel
against drastic changes.
 The oligarchic government ruled in favor of the noblemen and aristocracies, so ordinary
people also used their collective power against an abusive government.
Tyranny

 Since there were few noble people in government, city-states, in effect, were ruled by a
tyrant, a positive term for a Greek leader that means “boss.”
 Tyrants became effective in ensuring fair treatment for both land owners and farmers.
 For some time, peace and equality emerged among social classes.
 In the second generation of tyrant rule, however, the son of a tyrant made some wrong
and abusive decisions that eventually lead to another revolution, ousting the tyrant rule.

Birth of Democracy

 Because of the tyrant's abuse of power, intelligent leaders of Greek city-states proposed
that power must be held by the common people.
 This led to the creation of a more broad-based constitution, eventually developing the
city-states to have a democratic setting.
 In 594 BCE, Solon gave Athens a new constitution. This event was considered as the
rise of democracy in Greece.

It should be noted, though, that not all Greek city-states followed this ruling, especially
the poorer, more backward areas. Still, the political change in Greece soon led Rome to
follow a democratic ruling thereafter.

Also, keep in mind that citizen participation in democratic decision-making during this
time was limited to males and therefore, did not encompass the total population.

Significance and Implications of Democratization


The development of democracy led to changes that greatly impacted the ordinary
people by reducing inequality and promoting fair treatment for all. The beginnings of
democratization in Greece laid a foundation for modern-day democracy.

Also, the establishment of a democratic government promoted more cultural and artistic
implications that eventually distinguished Greek and Roman civilizations from any other
ancient civilization.

Below are some artifactual evidences of the artistic and cultural implications of
democratization.

 Greek literature began its ascent as poet Homer created his epics, the Iliad and
theOdyssey.
 Stone temples that appeared as early as 600 BC were improved through classical Greek
structures upon the rise of democratization.

Explore!
Attaining democracy in Greek antiquity involved lots of shifts in leadership and political
functions like kingship, oligarchy, and tyranny. If you were living during this period,
which among these forms of leadership would you have preferred to be part of? Why?

Try it!
The rise of democracy led to numerous cultural and artistic reforms among Greeks and
Romans. Try to search videos or pictures of Greek and Roman art. Compare them and
cite commonalities and differences that you may observe.

What do you think?


The United States and the Philippines are democratic countries. How do you think
citizens from these countries still affect or influence the decision-making process that
involves the welfare of these nations?

Keypoints
 In Greece, societal status and groups began to develop with the king bearing the
highest position in all Greek city-states, followed by the aristocracies and noblemen,
then the farmers.
 In 750 BCE, with high tensions and alarm over the intentions of the king, the noblemen
collectively acted on ousting him, leading to a successful establishment of the first
republics.
 It was in 594 BCE when Solon gave Athens a new constitution. This event was
considered as the rise of democracy in Greece.
 The establishment of a democratic government had cultural and artistic implications.
 Wars and tensions across Greece and between city-states were one of the primary
factors in the rise of democracy.

Where did democracy begin?

What is the Greek word that means “common people”?

Which place eventually followed Greece’s democratic form of government?

Which of the following is an implication of democratization?

Arrange the following kinds of government as to how the Greek city-states developed their political
powers.

Who among the following states a democratic approach?

How is kingship different from oligarchy?


Which of the following is true?

1. It was in Athens where democracy officially emerged.


2. In Greece, iron was an expensive metal.

Which is true about the beginnings of democracy in Greece?

1. There were no more wars upon the establishment of democracy.


2. The kingship was thrown off by the intellectuals.

Which statement correctly describes democracy?

1. It originated from the ideas of Greek intellectuals.


2. It gave rise to creative developments in Greece.

Importance of Artifacts in Interpreting Social, Cultural, Political, and Economic


Processes
HUMAN BIOCULTURAL AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION

Objective
At the end of this lesson, you are expected to be able to explore the significance of
human material remains and artifactual evidence in interpreting cultural, social, political,
and economic processes.

In your home, you have probably seen objects belonging to your great-great
grandparents that were kept by your parents or other relatives. Like artifacts, these
objects help in describing or creating a picture of the past.

 What implications do these objects have at present


 What do they tell about the past?
 What role do artifactual pieces of evidence play in understanding early societies?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Artifacts
Archaeologists have discovered artifactual pieces of evidences even dating back to the
beginning of human evolution. As a result, present-day social and biological scientists
are able to open a window to what life was in the past. In this lesson, the significance
and value of artifacts in several aspects will be described and discussed.
Artifacts are objects made or modified by humans in the past. They are recovered after
a long time through archaeological endeavor or by chance. Apart from serving as
windows to the past, artifacts are also deemed significant because they are tangible or
authentic proof that a certain period in history actually occurred.

The Significance of Artifacts


Artifacts have significant contributions in interpreting social, cultural, political, and
economic processes that occurred in the past. Their existence proves and describes
these aspects thoroughly. The discovery of artifacts and the understanding of various
processes have provided a stable foundation for the socioeconomic, political, and
cultural growth that humans have come to recognize today.

Importance of Artifact Preservation


There are various reasons why artifacts must be preserved and taken care of. Below
are some of them.

 Artifacts are irreplaceable. Artifacts, being made hundreds, even thousands of years
ago, are very delicate objects that cannot be replaced by any available material in the
present time.
 Artifacts are keys to understanding the past. Practices that occurred in the past
would not have been known if not for the discovery of artifacts.
 Artifacts give people a sense of identity. Artifacts greatly describe culture and society.
They provide people with an opportunity to further understand their identities and
heritage, as well as some collective qualities that their culture may have.
 The past is yet to be fully discovered. Despite the seemingly great successes
archaeologists have made in recent years, there is still more to discover about history.
Treating artifacts like pieces of puzzles will eventually provide a general picture of the
past.

Present-day “Artifacts” for the Future


Many advances have already been made and discovered within this century. It is logical
to treat these discoveries as significant elements that can help shape the future. As
such, the technologies and developments that the world has today must also be well-
preserved. These must be treated with certainty that one day, these “artifacts” will be
discovered and be understood by future generations.

Explore!
Archaeologists hunt for artifacts for a period of months, some even extending up to
several years. They proceed with their digs with caution to eliminate the risk of
damaging any artifact they may find. If you were to place yourself in an archaeologist’s
shoes, would you be willing to sacrifice so much time and effort to know about the past?
Why? Why not?

Try it!
Create your own artifact by making a time capsule. Find a container that you can seal.
In this container, put anything you want that may have a significant value to you. You
may put in letters, pictures, or toys. Be sure to firmly seal the container once you are
done. Keep the container somewhere safe. Set a specific date in the future when you
will open your time capsule.

What do you think?


What could be the soci implications if no artifact was ever discovered?

Tips
 Artifacts may consist of any tangible object that was originally part of the distant past but
was recently discovered. They may include bones, fossils, tools, and a lot more.
 Archaeologists are responsible for digging out artifacts. Anthropologists study an area’s
culture. Together, they work to create a holistic picture and identity of a certain group.
Keypoints
 Artifacts are objects made or modified by humans in the past. They are recovered after
a long time through archaeological endeavor or by chance.
 Artifacts have implications in the understanding of social, cultural, economic, and
political processes.
 It is important to preserve artifacts because they are irreplaceable, help understand the
past, and give people a sense of identity.
 Present-day discoveries and technologies will one day be artifacts for the future
generation.

Which Philippine artifact is believed to be the vessel of the dead into the afterlife?

What are objects made or modified by humans in the past?

Which of the following is an artifact?

Whose code provided an overview of law and politics in the ancient world?

What is the main focus of an anthropologist’s work?

Who among the following is most probably an archaeologist?

What is the reason for preserving present discoveries and developments?

1. They are the artifacts of the future.


2. They are similar to artifacts found in the past.

What is the significance of discovering the cuneiform as an important part of trade?

Why is it important to preserve artifacts?

1. They serve as puzzle pieces that will eventually create a whole picture of the past.
2. They help identify the foundations for cultural, social, economic, and political processes that
we have at present.

Which of the following is true about artifacts?

1. They are replaceable.


2. They can only include bones, fossils, and tools.

Enculturation/Socialization: Identity Formation (Identities, Disciplines, and Aspirations)


BECOMING A MEMBER OF SOCIETY
Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define and explain the different concepts regarding enculturation and


socialization,
 discuss the development of one’s self and others as a product of enculturation
and socialization, and
 prove that identity, disciplines, and aspirations are necessary for the
development of personal and cultural identity.

 What does it mean to be a person?


 In a society where there are many cultures, how do you form your personal
identity?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Enculturation and Socialization
What is the difference between socialization and enculturation? How is enculturation
related to socialization?

Society is different from culture. There are many cultures within a society. While
members of society share many of the same expectations and experiences, the cultural
groups create ones that differentiate them from others in society.

Enculturation

 the process by which an individual adopts the behavior patterns of the culture in which a
person is immersed

Socialization
It is the process through which people learn to understand the societal norms,
expectations and values as members of society.

Study the chart that further explains the differences and relationships of socialization
and enculturation.
Identity Formation
Identity formation starts when one learns to socialize and be aware of the culture,
behaviors, language, morals, and norms of where he or she belongs in. However, as a
person grows, he or she learns to make his or her own set of beliefs, values, and
morals. This is how a person develops an identity. This is what makes a person different
from others.

Identity
Identity is what makes a person distinct from others. It is the total knowledge and
understanding of an individual about who he or she is.

Types of Identity

1. Personal

 the concept an individual develops about himself or herself


 the sense of oneself as a distinct or unique individual
 may depend on the age and circumstances of a person
Example: Rolen is an African girl. She is the most quiet student in her class. She
believes that time is gold, so spends her free time studying her lessons.

2. Cultural
 the identity of the culture to which a person belongs in
 the feeling or sense of belongingness to a group
 a collective sense of companionship that involves the same beliefs, interests, and
fundamental principles of living
Example: In the Philippines, the Agta tribe has been practicing a unique culture for
centuries. Old men wear the bahag, a unique style of clothing. They prefer to stay in the
forest than to stay in lowlands. They mainly look for natural food sources.

Study the chart that further explains the two types of identity.

Discipline
 a way of behaving that expresses a willingness to obey rules or laws
 behavior that is judged by how well a person follows a set of rules or orders
Kinds of Discipline
Discipline is categorized into different types.

1. Discipline of Nature or Reality

A person meets this kind of control every time he or she tries to do something. A person
learns to do things on his or her own without the supervision of others.

Example: Ryan rented a bicycle near his town. He does not know yet how to ride the
bike. He fell many times, but he did not stop trying. He was so motivated to learn how to
ride the bike that he tried to learn on his own, and eventually, he was able to ride it.

2. Discipline of Culture or Society

What this discipline instills in every culture is distinct, different, and unique. A person
learns according to what he sees in his society or his culture.

Example: Mika wears the trendiest dresses these days. She wears them so she can be
“in” with the latest social trends.

3. Discipline of Superior Force

This discipline is the opposite of the discipline of nature or reality. In this training, a
person learns through supervision and guidance.

Example: A single mother raised Patricia. Her mother always reminded her not to fall in
love because of her personal idea that men are cheaters. Even if Patricia does not know
how it feels to be brokenhearted, she does not entertain any suitor.

Development of Personal Identity and Aspirations


Personal identity develops in many ways, depending on preferred directions.
 It may be through enculturation and socialization.
 It may also come through observation of a role model.
 You tend to imitate a successful person that leads to changes in personality.
 Your personal identity may change and eventually, you may develop a clear sense of
yourself.

Aspiration is a strong desire and ambition with which someone is motivated to work
hard.

Example: Rico at 20 years old identified himself as a happy-go-lucky guy. He might


discover that, at 35 years old, he is a different person. Perhaps he is living a good life
with his family. He would like his children to have a comfortable life in the future.

Explore!
Observe the different political parties in our country. Can you describe the differences
between the Liberal Party (LP), the United Oppositions (UNO), and the People’s Reform
Party (PRP) in the context of different cultures?

Try it!
Ask two persons about their personal identity development and aspirations. Compare
them with yours.

What do you think?


Is there a difference between one’s thoughts or feelings and one’s behavior? When is it
enculturation? When is it socialization?

Keypoints
 Enculturation is the process by which an individual adopts the behavior patterns
of the culture in which an individual is immersed.
 Socialization is the process through which people learn to understand the
societal norms, expectations, and values as a member of the society.
 Identity formation starts when you learn to socialize and be aware of the
culture, behaviors, language, morals, and norms of where you belong in.
 Identity is the total knowledge and understanding of a person of who he or she
is.
 Discipline is the control that is gained by requiring that rules or orders be
obeyed and punishing bad behavior.
 Aspiration is a strong desire and ambition with which someone is motivated to
work hard.

What is the process by which an individual adopts the behavior patterns of a particular culture?

What is the process through which people get to understand the societal norms, expectations, and
values as members of society?

What is referred to as a strong desire and ambition by which someone is motivated to work hard?

The Japanese are known for being disciplined. Misha is Japanese, so her classmates assumed that
she is a disciplined person.

What type of identity is being described?


Michael wants to cross the street to catch the ball, but he feels hesitant because he knows his mom
will get mad if he does it.

What kind of discipline is shown?


Roy grew up, finished schooling, landed a job, got married, and became a parent. This development
is ideal as far as his society is concerned.

What kind of discipline did Roy portray?


Rosa left her son alone in the crib for her personal necessities. When she came back, she saw her
son trying to go down from the crib on his own.

What discipline does the second statement portray?


Which of the following responses is correct?

1. Culture and our personal identities are not static.


2. Personal identity develops over time and can change depending on the individual's chosen
direction.

Why is it important for a person to develop his or her identity?

Which of the following options is not a direct effect of a society of people with positive aspirations?

Enculturation/Socialization: Norms and Values


BECOMING A MEMBER OF SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define and explain different concepts of norms and values,


 discuss the relations and functions of norms and values, and
 prove that norms and values are essential factors in the development of one’s
self, others, and the community as a product of enculturation and socialization.
What characteristics should a person demonstrate to be considered as a useful member
of society?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Review!
Socialization and Enculturation
Society is different from culture. There are many cultures within a society. While
members of society share many of the same expectations and experiences, cultural
groups create ones that differentiate us from others in society.

Socialization
It is the process through which people learn to understand the societal norms,
expectations, and values as members of society.

Enculturation
It is the process by which an individual adopts the behavior patterns of the culture in
which a person is immersed in.
Learn about it!
For society to function well, it must be guided by cultural principles of behavior to
maintain stability, peace, and harmony. Every society has its set of accepted norms and
values of its culture that is socially accepted.

Norms
Norms are standards or sets of accepted behaviors that a person is expected to follow
or exemplify in the society where he or she belongs in. It pertains to specific guidelines
of conduct in society that guides its members on how to act in particular situations.

Classification of Norms

Norms can be classified in many ways. Norms are either formal or informal.

Norms are also categorized by their relative importance to society. This classification is
distinguished from the intensity of feelings they initiate and the consequences that flow
from violations of them.

Folkways

They are the customs of people that came from repetition and routines.

Examples:

 the practice of waiting in line


 courtesy to older people

Mores

 stricter than folkways


 determines what is the moral and ethical behavior
 dictates what is right and wrong
Examples:

 religious doctrines such as the prohibition of pre-marital sex


 the belief that forms of discrimination and suppression are unethical (e.g.racism
and sexism)
Taboos

 very strong negative norms


 strict prohibition of certain behaviors that society holds firmly
 violating it results in extreme disgust or expulsion from the group or society

Examples:

 cannibalism
 incest

Laws

 formally instituted by the government


 exist because its violation can result in injury or harm to other members of
society
 impose sanction on people who disobey the authority

Examples:

 curfews for minors


 laws against domestic violence
Values
Values refer to the abstract idea of people about what is necessary or worthwhile.
Values are general guidelines that are fundamental parts of our lives. They stand for the
things we believe in. Most of the values we have are learned from family, friends,
school, media, and other sources in society.

Classification of Values
Values can be classified into two types.

1. Individual Values

These values are those that are connected with the development of human personality.

Examples: honesty, loyalty, honor

2. Collective Values

These values are those that are connected with the development of unity in the
community or society.
Examples: equality, justice, solidarity

Relationship Between Norms and Values


Here are some significant relationships between norms and values.

Functions of Social Norms and Values


Values are general guidelines which govern our daily behavior. They are the guidelines
for our judgments, thereby playing a vital role in the maintenance of stability and
harmony in society.

Norms are specific guidelines which allow us to function or act appropriately in society.
They are a set of behaviors that is perceived to be acceptable to its members. Following
norms results in social order and gives a feeling of security, safety, and harmony.

Social norms and values perform the following primary functions:


Explore!
What are the norms that should be observed during class discussions and
examinations?

Try it!
Form a group composed of five persons. Discuss and decide on the top five critical
values that society must uphold based on the issues and challenges that the nation is
currently facing.

What do you think?


If a person leaves his present society and transfers to a new one, it is possible that his
personal values will also change?

Keypoints
 Norms are the standard or accepted behaviors that a person is expected to follow in
society. They are either formal or informal.
 Norms are also classified by their relative importance to society. They
are folkways, mores, taboos, and laws.
 Values may be explained as measures of goodness or desirability. They are
classified as either individual values or collective values.
 Values provide the justifications for accepting or rejecting specific norms.
 Norms and values are critical factors in the development of one’s self, others,
and the community as a product of enculturation and socialization.

What term refers to the standard of accepted behavior that a person is expected to follow in society?

What word refers to the general guidelines that is a fundamental part of our lives and stands for the
things we believe in?

What norm determines what is moral and ethical behavior?

Which of the following is not a collective value?

Richard raises his hand to take a turn speaking in a group.

What norm is being described?


Alija does not eat pork because the pig is considered unclean.
What norm is being described?
The signage reads: Vandalism is strictly prohibited.

What norm is being described?


You are seated in a bus. An old lady boarded the bus and stood in the aisle because all seats are
already taken.

What will you do?


Your classmate cheated during your midterm examination. He got caught by the teacher and was
reprimanded.

What value did your classmate fail to observe?

If values are the basis of our judgments, what do they imply?

Enculturation/Socialization: Statuses and Roles


BECOMING A MEMBER OF SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define and explain the different concepts regarding statuses and roles as part of
the social structure,
 identify statuses and roles played by oneself and others in the community, and
 evaluate the impact of the various statuses and roles of people for the attainment
of society's goals.
You have a friend named Paulene, a 30-year-old Filipino-Indian female from New Delhi.
She grew up in slum areas. Paulene knew at an early age that she wanted to be a
lawyer. She graduated from college with flying colors and was eventually accepted as a
scholar at a prestigious law school. Now, at the age of 30, she works as a lawyer in a
private company in the United Kingdom. It was there that she met her better half with
whom she has four children.

 Can you name Paulene’s roles and statuses?


 What typical roles and statuses do people play in society?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Socialization and Enculturation
Society is different from culture. There are many cultures within a society. While
members of society share many of the same expectations and experiences, cultural
groups create ones that differentiate us from others in society.

Socialization

It is the process through which people learn to understand the societal norms,
expectations, and values as members of society.

Enculturation

It is the process by which an individual adopts the behavior patterns of the culture in
which a person is immersed in.

Learn about it!


Statuses
Our society is guided by a network of similar statuses and roles that govern human
interactions that we call social structure. It also refers to the manner in which society is
arranged into predictable interactions.
Status

 describes the position an individual occupies in a particular setting, in a group, or


in society
 defines and clarifies the rights and obligations expected from a person

Example: a farm boy, a teacher, a human rights defender

Classifications of Statuses

There are three kinds of statuses.

1. Ascribed Status

 a position a person holds in a social system that one attains involuntarily or by


birth
 inherited and not based on the person’s abilities, accomplishments, or efforts
 can be rigid and unchanging since it is given to a person when he is born and is
often involuntary

Example: a Filipino national, a male or a female, a king or a queen, a son of a vendor,


a firstborn

2. Achieved Status

 a position one holds in a social system that one attains based on merit or effort
 acquired due to unique skills, knowledge, or abilities, and are based on
standards that can be controlled
 a position that has been earned or chosen and is mostly dictated by abilities,
skills, and life choices

Example: a student, an employee, a doctor, an artist

3. Master Status

 the greatest role in a person’s life that determines social identity and general
position in society
 can be based on any status, such as gender, ethnicity, economic status, religious
or spiritual tradition, employment status, or family responsibility such as a parent
or grandparent
 may come with a sense of prestige for some −the consensus from the
community around them that a status is to be desired

Example: a CEO, an activist, a Pope

The chart shows the differences among the three statuses.


Roles
 expectations that are set for a person given the status he or she occupies
 pertains to the norms, behaviors, values, and personal characteristics that are
attached to the status of the person
Examples:

 Status: student

Roles: attending classes, studying lessons, communicating with the teacher

 Status: teacher

Roles: teaching, giving feedback, assessing or evaluating the performance of the


students

 Status: call center agent

Roles: answering questions, solving problems, researching information

The chart below shows the different statuses and their corresponding roles.

Role Exit and Role Conflict


What are some issues concerning roles?

Role exit pertains to the course of disengaging a person from his or her role that is
essential to his or her self-identity.
Example: when a person retires from a long career and must shift from the role of an
employee with responsibilities to someone just living a comfortable life, or when an
individual becomes a parent and has to change their lifestyle.

Role conflict arises when incompatible expectations occur from two or more statuses
that a person is occupying. Performing the assigned role of one status makes it
challenging for the person to play the assigned role of another status.

Example: It is very challenging for a woman to be the best mother to her children and
the best employee to her company all at the same time.

The Impact of Statuses and Roles in Attaining Society’s Goals


As members of society, people acquire statuses and roles which are necessary for
socializing within their society. These statuses and roles are important elements in the
process of socialization because they serve as agents for the fulfillment of society’s
goals.

We are all encouraged to fulfill the roles of the statuses we are occupying at present
and in the future stages of our lives for us to be better members of the community.

Explore!
Think of your parents or your guardians. What are the multiple statuses they are
occupying at present and the roles attached to those statuses?

Try it!
List at least three (3) roles for each status.

 male or female
 police officer
 business tycoon

What do you think?


What do you think will happen to society if its members fail to fulfill the roles of their
respective statuses?

Keypoints
 Status refers to the particular position that a person occupies in a particular
scenario or setup.
 Roles refer to the norms, customs, values, and personal characteristics that are
attached to the status of the individual.
 Ascribed status is a position a person holds in a social system that one attains
involuntarily or by birth.
 Achieved status is an acquired position due to unique skills, knowledge, or
ability and are based on standards that can be controlled.
 Master status pertains to the status of the person which determines his or her
general position in society.
 Role conflict takes place when two or more statuses are incompatible.
 Role exit pertains to the course of disengagement of a person from his or her
role that is essential to his or her self-identity.

What describes the position a person occupies in a particular setting?

What is the set of norms, behavior, values, and personal characteristics attached to the status of a
person?

What pertains to the status of the person which determines his or her general position in society?

Dr. Mendoza is a school principal. He supervises the teachers, cooperates with the parents, and
manages the whole operation of the school.

What does the italicized sentence pertain to?


Jenny is a guidance counselor. She attends to the needs of students by counseling them and
guiding them in decision-making.

What does the italicized sentence pertain to?


A man is having a hard time balancing his time between his job as a manager and his
responsibilities as a father.

What is he experiencing?
Josh just graduated from college last week. He is still in the process of adjusting to life outside of the
university.

What is Josh experiencing?

How do statuses and roles guide human interactions?

What is the advantage of occupying multiple statuses in life?

Why are statuses and roles important in the process of enculturation and socialization?

Conformity and Deviance: Social Control


BECOMING A MEMBER OF SOCIETY
Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain the inevitable existence of conformity, deviance, and social control in the
social processes of our everyday lives,
 discuss the significant part or role of gossip, social ostracism, laws, and
punishments to social control,
 analyze the societal goals and socially acceptable means to survive,
 and discuss the consequences of defying and conforming to social order.
Suppose that in one exclusive school, it is the norm for students to be at their best
behavior at all times while inside the school premises. All students therefore
continuously make an effort to maintain their grace, poise, and good appearance in
order to avoid any sanctions.

Liz, a difficult and problematic student, transferred to the same school last year. In just
one year of stay, she was able to set up at least 5 pranks on her classmates and
teachers. Despite being punished for several times, she still cuts classes and comes to
school not wearing the prescribed uniform. There was also a time when she punched
two of the school's guards because they did not let her vandalize the principal's office.
Liz's classmates do not want to be friends with her because of her behavior. They call
her "Crazy Liz" behind her back.

Analyze the scenario.

 What qualities characterize conformity and deviance?


 How does deviance affect a person's social status?
 Will actions have an effect on social status if they were unintentional?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Conformity and Deviance
In our everyday lives, we notice that there are specific standards for our actions, simple
or complex, set by society. People tend to have different responses with these imagined
pressures depending on their upbringing, values, or ideals. These reactions are
called conformity and deviance.

Conformity

 is linked to the obedience of a person to the norms in order to be acceptable in a


particular society, group, or social setting
Example: The majority of the class members, through a group consensus, agreed to
accept the proposal.

Deviance

 is the non-conformity or violation of the standards of conduct, expectations, or norms of


a particular group or society

Example: There are power struggles among netizens who disagree on the re-
imposition of the death penalty.

Social Control
It is believed that society must have a social order to function smoothly. The social order
includes social standards, laws, rules, and norms which are set by society, whether they
are by the majority or by a hierarchy. Ideally, people must exhibit social order, but in
reality, no society succeeds in getting all its members to behave as expected all the
time. If social order is seen as the only way for communities to survive, they must have
ways of making people conform to social norms.

Social Control Theory


 This is based on the idea that a person's fundamental belief system, values,
morals, commitments, and relationships promote a protected environment.
 Oftentimes, individuals who have these beliefs and commitments have a level of
self-control over their actions.
 It examines or evaluates how society affects criminal behavior.
 It emphasizes the idea that when people are involved and in contact with their
community, they are less likely to perpetrate criminal acts.
Gossip, Social Ostracism, and Laws and Punishments
Failure to embrace the accepted norms and values of society or inability to perform the
roles of a person’s status may lead to consequences in the form of gossip, social
ostracism, and laws and punishments.

Gossip

 refers to the idle talk or rumors about the personal or private matters of others
 may lead to the discrediting of the reputation of the subject

Social Ostracism

 refers to the exclusion of an individual from being socially accepted


 includes the removal of social privileges and friendship with the general members of the
society
 a result of one's actions that give him or her an impression of not being a worthy
member of that society
Laws and Punishments
Laws refer to the set of rules by the government to regulate the way in which society
behaves.

Punishments pertain to the pain, penalty, or suffering that is imposed on a person who
violates a law.

People learn the mechanisms of social control through interactions with other people.
Couples who are expected to have a respectable family choose not to quarrel out loud
to avoid being talked about around their neighborhood.

An individual will conform with his peers to avoid social rejection or ostracism. To avoid
punishment, people must follow the law.

Social Processes and Relationships


The illustration below shows the social processes and relationships of deviance,
conformity, and social control.

In the given scenario earlier, the school was the representation of society −the
students were the conformists and Liz was the defiant one. The school had particular
rules and standard of behaving, and Liz's actions caused disturbance within the school.
They did not only cause chaos, but they also led Liz to be stigmatized.

Negative sanctions will be given to people who exhibit deviant acts, while effective
sanctions will be given to those who observe or conform.

Explore!
Bert is invited to an event that requires a particular costume. Not well-informed and not
so serious about it, he arrives with no costume at all.
Will Bert be criticized for not conforming to the required attire? Will he feel shy
throughout the event? How will Bert behave at the start of the event? Do you think this
deviant behavior will have a psychological effect on him?

Try it!
During recess or class break, try wearing your shirt differently −with its front
displayed at your back −and walk backwards as if it is your normal way of walking.
Expect students to stare at you, look confused, and talk about you.

What do you think?


Given the reality in this modern time, do you think that complete conformity to the rules,
laws, standards, and norms will result in social order and deviance will lead to chaos?
Why? Why not?

Tip
Note that deviant behavior is relative. A particular society may consider a certain
behavior deviant, but the same behavior may be acceptable in another society.

Keypoints
 Conformity is linked to the obedience of a person to the norms that are
acceptable in a particular society, group, or social setting.
 Deviance is the non-conformity or violation of the standards of conduct,
expectations, or norms of a particular group or society.
 Social control theory is based upon the idea that an individual's underlying
belief system, values, morals, commitments, and relationships foster a proper
environment.
 Social order is considered to be the only solution to achieve societal survival
and social control. Conformity is the only way to achieve this.
 Gossip, social rejection or ostracism, and laws and punishments are forms
of social pressures that contribute to the exhibition of social control.
 Deviance, conformity, and social control are always present in a given society
or group. These are not limited to a high number of people but to a group that is
capable of setting standards, rules and norms.

Which of the following defines conformity?

Which of the following defines deviance?


What does society need in order to survive?

Which of the following situations does not demonstrate social order?

Approval from your peers is an example of what concept?

In the current society, what components lead to social defiance?

What does a person exhibit when he or she violates social norms that offend a large number of
individuals who are in a position to influence social judgment?

A group of five friends attended an orientation by their prospective college organization. Four of
them wanted to join the club, but one of them does not want to because his parents restricted him.
However, because he does not want to be left out, he still signed up for membership.

What social control does the situation present?


Roman Catholic churches have a dress code that indicates which clothes are not allowed to be worn
when entering the church. This system includes wearing a dress above the knee, shorts, slippers,
sleeveless, and headwear. One beautiful day, four women entered the church.

Woman 1 wore shorts with a spaghetti strap as a top.

Woman 2 wore a t-shirt and pants.

Woman 3 a dress below the knee.

Woman 4 wore doll shoes.

Which person demonstrated deviance?


John, a high school sophomore, occasionally drinks a bottle of alcohol. His circle of friends do not
care. His parents, however, are very dismayed and punished him. John countered by sneaking a
drink of liquor whenever he can.

John's drinking is an illustration of what?

Conformity and Deviance: Forms of Deviance


BECOMING A MEMBER OF SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

 describe deviance as explained by the Structural Strain Theory, and


 identify the forms of deviance.

 What causes deviant responses or behaviors as explained by the Structural Strain


Theory?
 What are the different forms of deviance?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review
Conformity and Deviance
The concept of conformity is linked to the obedience of a person to the norms to be
acceptable in a particular society, group, or social setting.

Deviance, on the other hand, is the non-conformity or violation of the standards of


conduct, expectations, or norms of a particular group or society.

Note that deviant behavior is relative. A particular society may consider a certain
behavior deviant, but the same behavior may be acceptable in another society.

Learn about it!


Deviance as Explained by the Structural Strain Theory
The forms of deviance are the responses or adaptations by people in a society caused
by the imbalance or “strain” between the valued goals in the society and the legitimate
or acceptable means to achieve such goals. This idea is taken from the Structural
Strain Theory conceptualized by sociologist Robert K. Merton. Two variables taken into
account in this theory are valued goals and legitimate means to achieve goals.

Valued Goals
These are goals that are defined by society as valuable, or simply, the goals that are
typically pursued in a society.

Example: financial success

Legitimate Means to Achieve Goals


These are the acceptable ways people can do to achieve such valued goals in a
society.

Example: get a good education

Types of Adaptation
In our everyday lives, we would notice that there are actions considered to be legitimate
or acceptable for a particular society toward achieving valued goals.

While people usually conform to legitimate or acceptable means to achieve goals, there
are people who will not. One reason for this is because the legitimate means are just
not available for them, and so unequal opportunities exist to achieve these goals.
Merton identified five typologies of how people adapt to their value system or the goals-
means dynamics of their respective society.

These typologies are:

 conformity–accepts goals and the institutionalized, acceptable or legitimate means of


obtaining them,
 ritualism–rejects goals and accepts or adheres to institutionalized means of obtaining
them,
 retreatism–rejects both goals and means of obtaining them,
 rebellion–creates new goals and new means of obtaining them, and
 innovation–accepts goals and rejects institutionalized means of obtaining them.

Ritualism, retreatism, rebellion, and innovation are forms of deviance.

Forms of Deviance
Merton conceptualized four responses that are considered deviant and caused by a
strain or imbalance between valued goals and legitimate means in a particular society.

Ritualism
Ritualism is exhibited when someone rejects traditional cultural goals but still adheres
to the culturally approved methods or rules for making progress towards the same
goals.

Example: An employee still stays in his job even though he is aware that it is a dead-
end job. In ritualism, people experience feelings of despair and anomie (social
instability) that result to modification or abandonment of the idealized cultural goals, but
still persist at a ritualized, unfulfilling line of work.

Retreatism
Retreatism is the response that rejects or abandons both cultural goals and the
institutionalized or legitimate means for attaining them.

Example: Examples of people who exhibit retreatism are drug addicts and alcoholics.
The ultimate form of retreatism is suicide.

Innovation
Innovation entails the acceptance of the valued goal but the rejection of legitimate or
institutionalized means to achieve them (resorting to criminal or delinquent acts).

Example: An example of this is when a person wants a nice car but does not have
enough money, so he steals money from the bank. Some people may resort to stealing
or dealing drugs to achieve cultural goals.
Rebellion
Rebellion not only rejects the valued goals and the legitimate means of the established
society but also actively attempts to substitute new goals and means. This can be
applied to political deviants who attempt to modify the existing structure of society.

Example: Examples for this are neo-Nazis and other hate groups. The rebels will
publicly acknowledge their intention to change the norms and the social structure.

The table below summarizes Merton’s typology of individual adaptations.

Legend:

 "+" signifies acceptance


 "–" signifies rejection
 "+ and -" signifies rejection of prevailing goal or means and substitution of new goal or
means

Explore!
In the particular society that you live in, you can observe different people and groups
that exhibit any of the five types of adaptations or responses. Notice their way of
expressing their beliefs toward specific ideals, values, norms, or cultural goals and
categorize them according to their action or statement.

What do you think?


In today’s time, different ideologies, religions, cultures, and traditions have already
emerged and are recognized, resulting in a diverse society. Different needs and
expectations are expressed by groups and individuals according to their social status.
Given this situation, do you think that the presence of these five adaptations is
inevitable in a given society? Why or why not?
Tip
A person can exhibit different types of adaptations depending on the situation. He or
she might be a conformist in school, following all the rules, while also being an innovator
when it comes to his or her interests. A person’s response and adaptation is not always
linear. It clearly depends on how the person weighs the situation according to his or her
needs.

Keypoints
 Conformity is the obedience to the norms that make a person acceptable to a particular
society, group, or social setting.
 Deviance is the non-conformity or violation of the standards of conduct, expectations, or
norms of a group or society.
 Robert K. Merton developed the Structural Strain Theory to explore how people
respond to cultural values and how they are supposed to achieve them.
 There are five typologies of how people adapt to the value system of their respective
society and these are conformity, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion, and innovation.
 The four forms of deviance are ritualism, retreatism, rebellion, and innovation.
 A person’s response or adaptation is not always linear. It clearly depends on how the
person weighs the situation according to his or her needs.

What are the two main responses of an individual or group to real or imagined pressures including
the norms, standards, rules, and laws set by society?

What form of deviance rejects both cultural goals and institutionalized means and then replaces
them with new ones?

What form of deviance exhibits negative responses to both cultural goals and institutionalized means
of achieving the goal?

The cause of deviance can be traced to what?

According to the Structural Strain Theory, retreatists are likely to engage in what type of deviant
activity?

Which situation demonstrates the highest form or retreatism?

What does a person exhibit when he or she violates social norms that offend a large number of
people or people in a position to establish new set of ideals for the betterment of society?

The Ku Klux Klan is an example of which type of structural strain?

From a sociological standpoint, cannibalism exhibited by the rugby team who was stranded for
months in the Andes demonstrates that eating human flesh is
_.
The Roman Catholic church requires its members to attend the mass every Sunday. They have a
dress code that indicates which clothes are not allowed to be worn when entering the church. This
includes wearing a dress above the knee, shorts, slippers, sleeveless, and headwear. One Sunday,
four friends wearing (1) shorts with a spaghetti strap as a top, (2) t-shirt and pants, (3) dress below
the knee, and (4) doll shoes attended the mass in order to comply with the goal of attending the
mass every Sunday.

Which person demonstrates a deviant act of innovation?

Human Dignity and Rights


BECOMING A MEMBER OF SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define and explain human dignity and rights as part of everyone's freedom,
 discuss inclusive citizenship as it advocates policies promoting human rights, and
 help improve the protection of human dignity and rights.
It was on the 10th of December 1948 in Paris when the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights (UDHR) was proclaimed to have a common standard of achievement for all
peoples and all nations.

According to its Article 1:

“All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with
reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.”

Given these, why do you think some people are still repressed from these privileges
based on their race, citizenship, or color?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Human Dignity and Rights
As stated, “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” No color of
skin, physical disability, sexual orientation, or religious belief can stop anybody from
protecting his or her dignity and enjoying his or her rights as a person. Human dignity
and rights go together and are essential to the attainment of common interest.

Human Dignity
There are two ways to understand human dignity.
The religious aspect believes that humans have a unique place in the world and that
human life is sacred.

In moral, ethical, legal, and political discussions, human dignity is used to express
the idea that a being has an innate right to be valued, respected, and to receive ethical
treatment.

Human dignity

 an individual or group's sense of self-respect and worth, physical and


psychological integrity, and empowerment
 affirms that every person is worthy of respect; that our value as people should
never be debated
 means having a quality life and not experiencing oppression or manipulation
 is uplifted when people are granted with their rights
It is, therefore, true to say that any right safeguarded by the International Human Rights
Law is substantiated by the dignity of the human person.

Human Rights
 are rights inherent to all people, regardless of nationality, place of residence, sex,
national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status
 are the freedom and privileges that belong to every person in the world
 guarantees that all people shall be ensured to enjoy life, liberty, and security
Characteristics of Human Rights
Human rights are universal and inalienable, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated.

Universality and Inalienability


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

Indivisibility
Whether they relate to cultural, civil, economic, political, or social issues, human rights
are inherent to the dignity of every human person.

Interdependence and Interrelatedness


The fulfillment of one right often depends on, wholly or in part, the fulfillment of others.

Both human dignity and rights should not be taken away, but sadly, they are denied to
some people as manifested by poverty, illiteracy, crime, and discrimination in society.

Inclusive Citizenship
Inclusive citizenship is a governing policy that promotes human dignity and human
rights.

 It focuses on legal equality for each citizen directed at giving all citizens a strong
feeling that they are part of the overall society.
 Its policies include laws that provide non-segregated access to all citizens,
regardless of their race, gender, religious affiliation, and socioeconomic status.
 While a government cannot guarantee equality in all private organizations,
inclusive citizenship focuses on the legal rights of all individuals in cases where
the government determines their rights of inclusion.
 It establishes a governing foundation where it gives its citizens a sense of
security so that they will feel that their government hears and respects their
ideas.
 In return, people will be more inclined to voice out their grievances through
proper channels, such as petitioning a representative to investigate their
situation.
 Moreover, this right can motivate the citizens to participate in government
activities, raising voter turnout, civic participation, and serving in the military.
Under inclusive citizenship, there are rights that the government provides for its citizens.
Examples of these are the equal right to vote, equal right to serve in the military, same
right to marry, similar tax responsibilities, and equal right to represent others in the
government.

Citizens also have access to public funds, public organizations, and equal rights and
acceptance by national figures.

Protection of Human Dignity and Rights


Laws and declaration support the protection of human rights and the dignity of people.
The International Human Rights Law constitutes the basis of fundamental rights. With
this law, dignity is also protected. It must be respected, even where a right is restricted.
Conventions such as the 1997 European Union Convention for the Protection of Human
Rights and Dignity of the Human Being are also held to promote rights and dignity
through different fields.

Explore!
In our everyday lives, we can observe different people pursuing their rights as humans
and as citizens of the country. Not only government agencies, but also institutions and
organizations promote human rights through billboards, posters, television ads, and
even in outreach programs. Notice these channels in your everyday journey and you
can observe how people practice and advocate their rights.

 Since people have different race, citizenship, beliefs, and values, do you think an
individual or group practicing human rights and dignity would deprive another
person or group of their rights and dignity?
 If yes, how can we ensure complete observation of human rights and dignity?

Try it!
In today's society, human rights are more emphasized and practiced than before. Some
groups promote human rights in different ways. Examples of these are people who
initiate and participate in fun runs for a cause. Protesters are usually seen in open areas
or roads, calling the attention of our countrymen, or in front of government agencies. If
you encounter events like these, try to observe their effects on the audience. If they are
hazard free, try joining one.

What do you think?


Since the concept of dignity is said to be difficult to define, there are claims that it is a
meaningless slogan and a useless concept in bioethics. Moreover, there is considerable
overlap in the idea of personhood as to whether it is an innate quality of human beings
or something that is granted or attributed to a person.

Thus, according to some philosophers, this cues a few questions, like:

 Is dignity a property of a person or of the way others react to him?


 Can one's dignity be affected by the way one is treated?
 Can dignity be inviolable but at the same time something that can be lost or
destroyed?

Keypoints
 Human dignity in a religious sense believes that humans have a special place in
the world and that human life is sacred. In a moral, ethical, legal, and political
sense, it is used to express the idea that a being has an innate right to be valued,
respected, and to receive ethical treatment.
 Human rights are rights inherent to all people, regardless of nationality, place of
residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other
status. They are universal, inalienable, indivisible, interdependent, and
interrelated.
 Inclusive citizenship is a governing policy that focuses on legal equality for
each citizen.
 Human rights and dignity are protected and promoted through laws,
declarations, and conventions.

What is an individual or group's sense of self-respect and worth, physical and psychological integrity,
and empowerment?

What do you call the rights inherent to all people, regardless of nationality, place of residence, sex,
national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status?

What is the governing policy that promotes human dignity and human rights that focuses on legal
equality for each citizen?
What is exhibited when certain people are treated unfairly for reasons such as their nationality,
ethnicity, age, or gender?

In the definition of the Human Rights Act, who is supposed to be protected?

The right to respect for private life is extended to criminalizing private and consensual sexual activity
that implies what?

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations
General Assembly on December 10, 1948, after World War II.

What is the main reason for this declaration?


Lemar is walking in a wealthy area of Manila on his way to meet his friends. Many people are also
walking in the area. Suddenly, a police officer flashes his lights, pulls beside Lemar, asked where he
is going, and seeks his ID. Lemar suddenly becomes aware that he's the only African-American in
sight.

Why might the police officer stop to check Lemar and not someone else walking in the
neighborhood?
The Human Rights Act is made to regulate the relationship between individuals and public
authorities. However, some institutions are not considered as government agencies.

Which of the following is it?


Which option is correct?

1. All individuals are equal as human beings and under the inherent dignity of each human
person.
2. The fulfillment of the right to health may depend, in certain circumstances, on the realization
of the right to development, to education, or information.

The Common Good


BECOMING A MEMBER OF SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define and explain human rights, dignity, and the common good,
 discuss the role played by human rights to the attainment of the common good,
and
 help encourage the protection of human dignity, rights, and the common good.
In making a personal decision or a choice, do you think about how such decision would
benefit others? Why or why not?

Find out the answer in this lesson!


Review!
##Human Dignity

In a religious point of view, it is believed that humans have a unique place in the world,
and that human life is sacred. In the secular point of view, a human is seen as having
an innate right to be valued, respected, and to receive ethical treatment.

 Human dignity is an individual or group's sense of self-respect and worth,


physical and psychological integrity, and empowerment.
 It affirms that every person is worthy of respect. Our value as persons should
never be debated.
 It means having a quality life and not experiencing oppression or manipulation.
Human Rights
Human rights are rights inherent to all people, regardless of nationality, place of
residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status.
They are the freedoms and privileges that belong to every person in the world. All
people shall be ensured to enjoy life, liberty, and security.

Human rights are universal and inalienable, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated.

Universality and Inalienability: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity
and rights.

Indivisibility: Whether they relate to cultural, civil, economic, political or social issues,
human rights are inherent to the dignity of every human person.

Interdependence and Interrelatedness: The fulfillment of one right often depends on,
wholly or in part, the fulfillment of others.

Inclusive Citizenship
Inclusive citizenship is a governing policy that promotes human dignity and human
rights.

 It focuses on legal equality for each citizen and directed at giving all citizens a
strong feeling that they are a part of the overall society.
 Its policies include laws that provide non-segregated access to all citizens
regardless of their race, gender, religious affiliation, or socioeconomic status.
 It establishes a governing foundation where it gives its citizens a sense of
security so that the community feels like the government hears and respects its
ideas.
 Citizens are more inclined to voice their grievances through proper channels,
such as petitioning a representative to investigate their situations.
 Moreover, this right can motivate citizens to participate in the government by
raising voter turnout, civic participation, and greater willingness to serve in the
military.
Under inclusive citizenship, there are rights that the government provides for its citizens.
Examples of these are equal right to vote, equal right to serve in the military, same right
to marry, similar tax responsibilities, and equal right to represent others in the
government.

Citizens also have access to public funds, public organizations, equal rights, and
acceptance by national figures.

Learn about it!


The Common Good
The common good refers to:

 what is shared and advantageous for all or most members of a given society, and
 what is achieved by citizenship, be it collective action or active participation.
When dignity and rights are granted to people, the common good is achieved. It
happens when society benefits as a whole. The common good is reached when the
majority, a high number of individuals, or society as a whole benefits from a situation or
event.

The recognition of people's dignity and rights is the foundation of "freedom, peace, and
justice in the world," as stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.
The common good sustains order and happiness in the community. It is not hard to
achieve.

Protection of Human Dignity, Rights, and the Common


Good
Human dignity, rights, and the common good are not new concepts; neither are the
issues about their existence in society.

 Can they be granted?


 Can they be achieved?

Since ancient times, literature figures have given criticisms on issues of the existence
and absence of human rights, dignity, and the common good. Among the list are the
works of Aristotle, Rousseau, and Machiavelli. In modern times, not much has changed.
The same old questions and problems are asked, but the modern world continues to
work towards addressing such concerns.

International organizations and different countries pledged to the United Nations to


uphold human rights and dignity. If proven to disobey laws and rules, one has to be
punished in accordance with the law.

Ideally, the common good is protected when all people enjoy their rights and preserve
their dignity. For an individual, this means having freedom as a consumer, owner, and
citizen that also includes right to rest and leisure, equal access to public works and
services, freedom of association, religion, or speech and employment.

Explore!
Do you believe that laws and public works were built to function for the common good?
Why or why not?

Try it!
Enumerate three (3) situations or events you witnessed where the common good was
upheld.

What do you think?


Are the efforts of local and national government agencies on upholding the common
good sufficient to ensure its existence in society?

Key Points
 Human rights are rights inherent to all people, regardless of nationality, place of
residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other
status.
 Human dignity is a person's or group's sense of self-respect and worth, physical
and psychological integrity, and empowerment.
 The common good refers to what is shared and favorable for all or most
members of a given community. The common good is protected when each
person enjoys his or her rights and preserves his or her dignity.
 Inclusive citizenship is a governing policy that promotes human dignity and
human rights. This focuses on legal equality for each citizen, and is directed at
giving all citizens a strong feeling that they are part of the overall society.
What is the right inherent to all people, regardless of nationality, place of residence, gender, sex,
national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status?

What is an individual's or group's sense of self-respect and self-worth, physical and psychological
integrity, and empowerment?

What refers to something that is shared and favorable for all or most members of a given
community?

Which is a manifestation of the common good?

Which is a basic human right that every individual should enjoy?

Dina, after months of working as a teacher, is given a week of paid vacation in a place of her choice.

What is upheld when Dina was granted rest and leisure?


The Municipality of San Roque is an economically and socially stable town. In this town, people are
given opportunities to personal and professional growth. Everyone is given equal opportunity and fair
treatment.

What is achieved by this town?

When can it be said that common good is achieved in society?

What does the line “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” mean?

What is the importance of attaining and protecting the common good in society?

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Kinship by Blood


ORGANIZATION IN SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of the lesson you should be able to:

 define kinship and social network,


 explain the Filipino concept of kinship,
 discuss the concepts surrounding kinship by blood and descent, and
 trace your own ancestry by blood up to the third degree.
 How can you be sure that blood relates you to your ancestors?
 How do you draw the line between descent and ancestry?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


We do not live alone in society. From birth until death, we are surrounded by many
people. Most of these people are our relatives, friends, and neighbors, while some are
strangers. We are bound to all individuals who are related to us either by blood or by
descent.

Kinship Ties and Social Networks


The relations based on blood may be close or distant. The bond of blood which binds
people together in a group is called kinship.

 According to the Dictionary of Anthropology, kinship system involves socially


recognized relationships based on supposed and actual genealogical bonds.
These relationships are products of social interactions and are recognized by
society.
 In a broader sense, kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships
themselves and to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more
human cultures.
 Kinship or relationship can also refer to a principle by which people or groups of
individuals are organized into roles, social groups, categories, and genealogy
through kinship terminologies.
 On the other hand, a social network is a social structure made up of a set of
social actors (individuals or organizations), sets of a partner or dyadic ties, and
other social interactions between actors. It represents relationships and flows
between people, groups, and organizations.
The Filipino Concept of Kinship
 According to F. Landa Jocano, "Kinship characterizes the overall framework of
community relations as it enables Filipinos to map their relationships and be able
to work together harmoniously. It lies deep in the heart of every Filipino as it
forms the core of the Filipino social organization. It significantly influences the
formation, structure, and functions of institutions, relationships, and values of the
Filipinos."
 There is no generic Filipino term for kinship as each language group in the
country created its terminology, but the term kamag-anak or magkakamag-anak,
from the Tagalog-based language, is widely used.
 Kinship helps Filipino people in understanding their relationships with others and
be able to interact with each other with little or without any difficulty.
Kinship by Blood or Consanguineous Kinship
 The bond of blood is called consanguineous kinship. The consanguineous kin
is related through blood. The relationship between the parents and their kids, and
that among siblings, is consanguineous kinship.
 Thus, son and daughter, brother and sister, uncle and aunt, nephew and niece,
and cousins are consanguineous kin, that is, related through blood. With this
connection, it can be pointed out that blood bond may be actual as well as
supposed.
 In polyandrous tribes, the real father of a child is unknown. An adopted child is
treated as if it were one's own biological child. As a result, blood relationship may
be established not only on biological basis but also by social recognition.
Genogram

 A genogram is a graphical representation of one's family and its members' relationship


to one another.
 It is widely used in medicine, sociology, and genealogy to determine medical,
psychological, sociological, or historical patterns of health and behavior.

Below are the basic symbols used in making a genogram. You should know, however,
that more symbols are available to use for more complicated family relationships.
In making a genogram, make sure to note the following:

 children must be drawn from oldest to youngest and from left to right, respectively,
 one level or layer presents one generation, and
 the shapes corresponding to family members always represent sex, not gender.

Descent System
 A descent group is any social group wherein membership depends on a
common descent from a real or mythical ancestor. This system of acknowledged
social parentage, which varies per society, is where a person may claim kinship
ties with another.
 If there is no limitation on the recognition of kinship, everybody would be kin to
everyone else. But in most societies, some restrictions are imposed on the
perception of common ancestry so that an individual regards many of his
associates as not his kin.
 The importance of descent comes from its use as a means for one person to
assert rights, privileges, duties, and status with another person who may be
related to the first, either because one is an ancestor of the other or because the
two acknowledge common ancestors.
 Descent has limited influence when rights to succession, inheritance, or
residence follow kinship lines.
One method of limiting the recognition of kinship is to emphasize relationships through
one parent only. Such is called a unilineal kinship system. There are two types of this
system −patrilineal systems, in which relationships reckoned through the father
are emphasized, and matrilineal systems, in which relationships reckoned through the
mother are emphasized.

In a bilateral descent, all descendants of an ancestor enjoy membership of a common


descent group by any combination of male or female linkages.

See it!
A friend of your family visited your house and noticed that you have several medals and
trophies displayed in the living room. She exclaimed, "You have a very smart child!"

In what other way do your parents reaffirm your relation to them aside from using the
expression, "Nasa dugo eh" or "It runs in the blood"?

Try it!
Make a genogram of your family. Try to look over the net for more genogram symbols
that may describe any unique relationship within your family (e.g. engaged but not
married couple, adopted children, twins).
What do you think?
Have family and kinship always meant the same thing throughout history? Justify your
answer.

Keypoints
 Kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves and to
the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures.
 A social network is a social structure composed of a set of social actors
(individuals or organizations), sets of a partner or dyadic ties, and other social
interactions between actors.
 The bond of blood is called consanguineous kinship. The consanguineous kin
is related through blood.
 There is no generic Filipino term for kinship as each language group in the
country created its terminology but the term kamag-anak or magkakamag-anak,
from the Tagalog-based language, is widely used.
 A descent group is any social group wherein membership depends on a
common descent from a real or mythical ancestor.
 There are different descent kinship systems, such as unilineal (with two main
types—patrilineal and matrilineal) and bilateral kinships.

What refers to patterns of social relationships and the study of such patterns in one or more human
cultures?

What is the widely-used Tagalog term for the word kinship?

What refers to any social group where membership depends on a common relation with a real or
mythical ancestor?

Which statement shows the Filipino concept of kinship?

Which statements may be considered as practical implications of descent?

Which entry point is not a significant basis of kinship?

In a typical situation, who among the following are related to you by blood and descent?

What type of relationship based on blood is culturally recognized by all societies?

What assumptions can you make from kinship?

Which statement about kinship by blood and descent is correct?

1. Marriage creates a host of relationships which are called "consanguineous kin."


2. A lineage is a unilineal descent group in which members may rest either on patrilineal
descent or matrilineal descent.

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Kinship by Marriage


ORGANIZATION IN SOCIETY

Objective
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to define and explain the different concepts
of marriage and discuss how marriage becomes the formation of kinship ties and social
networks.

 What types of networks are formed through marriage?


 What are the different kinds of marriages and what causes their formation?
 What factors are to be considered for the residency of newlyweds?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Kinship Ties and Social Networks
 The relations based on blood may be close or distant. The bond of blood which
binds people together in a group is called kinship.
 According to the Dictionary of Anthropology, kinship system involves socially
recognized relationships based on genealogical bonds. These relationships are
the products of social interaction and are recognized by society.
 In a broader sense, kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships
themselves and to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more
human cultures.
 A social network is a social structure comprised of individuals joined by a
particular pattern of links or relations. Social networks are indicative of a person
or an organization's relations, membership, links, and connections. It is
noteworthy that these systems serve a role in the attainment of the goals of
society.
 Through networks serving as media for the spread and exchange of ideas,
people get connected, get updated, and become aware. Furthermore, social
networks act as social support systems that provide people information and
guidance in times of need.

Learn about it!


Kinship by Marriage
 Marriage is a formal and legal union of two people as partners in life. It is the
universal social institution that promotes procreation and establishes the bonds
that are the basis of the household, family, and kinship system.
 Marriage is a legally recognized social contract between two people, traditionally
based on a sexual relationship, and implying a permanence of the union. The
statuses the spouses acquire go through from institution to companionship that
may endure and sustain in their life cycle (Burgess and Locke, 1945). They play
complementary roles to meet their material, sexual, emotional, psychological,
and spiritual needs for their survival.
 Marriage gives the offspring a position in society as he or she may be
categorized as a legitimate son or daughter. It establishes continuing
connections between the kin of each party. It is always symbolically marked in
some way, usually a public ceremony.
Cross-cultural Marriage
A cross-cultural marriage is a marriage between two people from different cultures.

How does this happen? As they say, "Love is blind." It does not care about race, color,
or culture. We see more and more marriages of people from different cultures
nowadays.

In marrying a person from the same country, distinct differences in family life, values,
educational attainment, ideas, and ways of living already exist. By comparison, marrying
a person from a different country has even more differences.

Examples:

 A traditional Ifugao man is married to a liberated Catholic woman.


 A Japanese woman is married to an English man.
In a cross-cultural marriage, it is important to respect your spouse's native culture and
deal with your differences in a loving manner.

Here are some tips for avoiding challenges in cross-cultural marriage/relationships:

 embrace the opportunity,


 understand, respect, and compromise,
 get first-hand experience of each other's cultures,
 pass on both cultures to your children,
 think positively about your differences,
 maintain contact with family, and
 when possible, travel together.
Monogamy vs. Polygamy
By the number of spouses, a marriage can either be a monogamy or polygamy.
Post-marital Residency Rules
After marriage comes a new chapter in a couple's lives. One of the primary concerns
couples usually are faced with is where to live. Kinship system, economic concerns, and
personal factors are among the determining factors for residency among newlyweds.
Although not a cultural certainty especially in this modern age, newly married couples
opt to live with existing households than establish their own. Now, comes the
question: Whose family is favored or culturally prescribed?
Explore!
What are the personal and societal functions of marriage?
How does marriage extend one’s social networks?

Try it!
Find a newly-wed couple and ask them a few questions based on the lesson. Using the
table below and the ideas acquired from your interview, write the common problems and
possible solutions of a married life.

What do you think?


Which type of marriage is culturally significant or accepted in our society?
In your observations, which type of residency is usually practiced? Which is a practical
choice for you?

Keypoints
 Kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves and to
the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures.
 A social network is a social structure comprised of individuals joined by a
particular pattern of links or relations.
 Marriage is a formal and legal union of a man and a woman as partners in life.
 Cross-cultural marriage is a marriage between two people from different
cultures.
 Monogamy is a wedding between two individuals at a time.
 Polygamy is a common practice among Muslims. It is being married to many
spouses at a time.
 Post-marital residency or residence rules are rules or arrangements couples
usually consider following their wedding.

What is the formal and legal union of two people as spouses in life?

What is the relationship or connection formed through marriage, family, and other cultural
arrangements and serve as a foundation for the community?

What type of marriage is between two individuals at a time?

Who among the following partners practices a monogamous marriage?

Which statement describes a polygamous marriage?

In which statement can the patrilocal residency rule be applied?

In which statement is a neolocal residency rule observed?

Which is a social function of marriage?

1. It establishes the bonds that are the basis of household, family, and kinship systems.
2. It is a way to assert rights, privileges, duties, and statuses with another person.
What makes kinship by marriage a social network?

What is the significance of kinship by marriage in society?

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Kinship by Ritual


ORGANIZATION IN SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain the different concepts of kinship by ritual,


 discuss how relationship by ritual works as a social network, and
 recognize the importance of ritual kinship in society.
 What advantages does ritual kinship give to society?
 What goals of society are achieved through the realization of targets of a ritual
relationship?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Kinship Ties and Social Networks
 Kinship is a system of a culture of recognized family roles and relationships that
define the rights, obligations, and boundaries of the interactions of members of a
self-recognizing group.
 Kinship and family ties may be determined through genetic relationships,
adoption, or other ritualized behaviors such as marriage and household
economies.
 Kinship systems range in size from a single nuclear-family to tribal or inter-tribal
relationships.
 A social network is a social structure comprised of individuals joined together by
a particular pattern of links or relations. Social networks are indicative of a person
or an organization's relations, membership, links, and connections. It is
noteworthy that these systems serve a role in the attainment of the goals of
society.
 Through networks serving as media for the spread and exchange of ideas,
people get connected, get updated, and become aware. Furthermore, social
networks act as a social support system which provides people with information
and guidance in times of need.

Learn about it!


Kinship by Ritual
Anthropologist and ethnographers sometimes call kinship by ritual as fictive kinship. The
word means "fake" or "created by imagination." This type of kinship is not false, but it is
just that in this type of kinship, relationships among individuals are based neither on
blood ties nor by marriage.

 Kinship by ritual refers to relationships among individuals who recognize their


associations and obligations despite the absence of blood or marriage bonds.
Fictive kinship may tie people together in ties of affection, concern, obligation,
and responsibility. Examples include adopted or surrogate families, brotherhood,
sororities, or peer groups.
 Kinship by ritual function is used in fictive kinship links for non-kinship purposes.
Members of a brotherhood or fraternity consider each other as brothers despite
the absence of blood relations among them. Such act naturally builds a
harmonious relationship between them.
Look at the table below to know about some examples of ritual kinship.
Importance and Functions of Ritual Kinship in Society
Kinship by ritual is an essential social network for it is where a good relationship is built
and strengthened. It has positive contributions for shaping our old and new society.
Kinship by ritual, in its various forms, serve many functions in the community. It
reinforces affinity or relationships within society by providing a framework for social
interaction. Defined by acts of sharing and support, it testifies "friends as family."

Below are specific functions of the different types of ritual kinship.


Explore!
What makes kinship by ritual necessary in society?
Will society remain functional without the existence of ritual kinship?

Try it!
Give three examples of ritual kinship. Identify them according to type. Provide a brief
description of each.

What do you think?


Which is more important or necessary in the society: kinship by marriage or kinship by
ritual? Explain your answer.

Keypoints
 Kinship tie is a framework from which harmonious relationships within society
are built.
 A social network is a social structure comprised of individuals joined by a
particular pattern of links or relations.
 Kinship by ritual refers to relationships among people who recognize their
associations and obligations despite the absence of blood or marriage bonds.
 Compadrazgo is a religious rite of sponsorship in church ceremonies, such as
marriage, baptism, or confirmation.
 Blood brotherhood is a sociological custom where two biologically unrelated
persons or groups establish a close relationship through a variety of ceremonies
and methods of blood-letting.
 Adoption is the process wherein a non-kin is incorporated into the kin group
either traditionally or legally.

What refers to relationships among individuals who recognize associations and obligations despite
the absence of blood or marriage bonds?

Which among the following is a religious rite of sponsorship in church ceremonies?

Which type of kinship by ritual allows a non-kin to be incorporated into the kin group traditionally or
legally?

Which of the following scenarios manifests adoption?

Which of the following scenarios manifests adoption?


In which statement is the concept of compadrazgo applied?

Which is not an example of a kinship by ritual?

Which is not a social function of compadrazgo?

What makes adoption socially relevant?

Which are functions of a ritual kinship?

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Family and the Household


ORGANIZATION IN SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 trace kinship ties within the concept of family and household,


 differentiate family and household, and
 identify one’s type of family and household.

 What is a family?
 What is a household?
 How is family related to kinship ties and social networks?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Kinship and Family Dynamics
Kinship are social relationships derived from universal experiences of mating, birth,
and nurturance. Kinship means being related to others. Being related to other people is
something that is defined by culture and not necessarily determined by biological
relations.

A family is a socially recognized group, strengthened by the concept of kinship, where


people are connected by blood, marriage, or adoption, and where a caring relationship
mainly occurs. Although kin group and family are not one and the same, the family is
actually one of the strongest kinship ties in our society.

The family has a very important role in society.

 It forms an emotional connection among people and serves as an economic unit of


society.
 It is considered as the basic building block of society.
 It is the institution mostly responsible for the “achievement of adult satisfaction and
social integration.” (Ross and Sawhill, 1975)
 It is also responsible for the distribution of economic resources from those who earn
them in the marketplace to those who are dependent on those earnings. (Ross and
Sawhill, 1975)

Functions of Family
The family as a form of kinship serves very important functions in society.

 It is the smallest unit that cooperates in production and distribution.


 It enables and promotes socialization processes for the youth.
 It creates alliances with other family units.
 It regulates sexual behavior.
 It provides care and protection.
 It is the foundation of social placement and social status.
 It gives emotional support and affection.

Types or Forms of Family


A family can be classified based on birth, marriage, nature of residence, ancestry, size,
or nature of relations.

On the Basis of Birth

 family of orientation–the family into which a person is born and in which early
socialization takes place
 family of procreation–the family that is formed through marriage and by having or
adopting children.

On the Basis of Marriage

 polygynous family–a type of family consisting of one husband, and more than one wife,
and all the children born to all wives or adopted by each of them.; It is based on
polygynous marriage.
 polyandrous family–a type of family consisting of one wife and more than one
husband, and the children, either born or adopted by each one of them; It is based on
polyandrous marriage.
 monogamous family–the family consists of one husband and wife, including children,
and is based on monogamous marriage

On the Basis of the Nature of Residence

 family of matrilocal residence–a type of family where the wife remains in her mother’s
household after reaching maturity and brings her husband to live with her family after
marriage
 family of patrilocal residence–a type of family where the husband remains in his
father’s household while his wife leaves her family to move in with him
 family of changing residence– a type of family where the family stays in the husband’s
house for some time, and moves to wife’s house, stays there for a period of time, and
then moves back to the husband’s parents or starts living in another place

On the Basis of Ancestry or Descent

 matrilineal family–a type of family where the ancestry or descent is traced through the
female line or through the mother’s side
 patrilineal family–a type of family in which the authority is carried down the male line,
and descent is traced through the male line or the father’s side

On the basis of size or structure

 nuclear or the single-unit family–a type of family consisting of a husband, a wife, and
children (unmarried), naturally-conceived or adopted; It is the nucleus of family
structures. It is more or less an autonomous unit that is not under the control of adults or
elders of the family. It consists of two generations only. The adoptation of children legally
happen through an adoption process where the legal responsibilities and privileges of
being a parent or parents are transferred from the biological parents to adoptive parents.
 joint or extended family–a type of family that consists of three generations living
together under the same roof, and sharing the same kitchen or economic expenses; It
consists of three nuclear families living together. In this setup, aunts, uncles, and
grandparents may live in a family of parents and their children.
 reconstituted or blended family–a type of family that is formed out of another
relationship, otherwise known as a step-family

On the Basis of the Nature of Relations

 conjugal family–a type of family made up of adults among whom sexual relationships
exist; It refers to a family system of spouses and their dependent children. The emphasis
is placed on the marital relationship that exists between spouses.
 consanguine family–a type of family where blood relation exists, or those who are
consanguineal kin (e.g. a family consisting of parents and children, or siblings)

Kinship and Household Dynamics


A household is a residential unit or dwelling that carries out economic production and
consumption that coordinates work, inheritance, child rearing, and provision of shelter. It
is important to note that family and household are not one and the same.

A household may be made up of a person, or persons, who lives in a shared space or


dwelling. A household can be a family household or a non-family household. It would
mean that persons living in a household maybe related or unrelated.

Example of a non-family household: Two friends living in the same condominium unit
are considered a household.

There are different kinds of households:


 nuclear household–a domestic group that contains one adult couple that may or may
not have children,
 extended–a domestic group that contains more than one adult married couple, and
 single-person or single-parent–a domestic group that is composed of one adult
person that may or may not have children living with him or her.

Explore!
 How is the concept of family related to the concept of kinship?
 How do you identify your type of family and household?

Try it!
Try and trace your family kinship ties through proper agencies or online research. See
how far you can trace your family's roots.

What do you think?


Compare and contrast nuclear and extended families and households. What are the
advantages and disadvantages?

Keypoints
 A family is a socially recognized group that is strengthened by the concept of kinship
where people are connected by blood, marriage, or adoption.

 A household is a residential unit or dwelling that carries out economic production and
consumption that coordinates work, inheritance, child rearing, and provision of shelter.
 Family and household are not one and the same. A household may be a family
household or non-family household. It would mean that the people living in a household
may be related or unrelated.
 A household can be classified as a nuclear, extended, or single-person household.
What is a socially recognized group that is strengthened by the concept of kinship?

What is the residential unit or dwelling that carries out economic production and consumption that
coordinates work, inheritance, child rearing, and provision of shelter?

The Lopez family lives in a home with unmarried children, grandparents, aunties, and uncles.

The Lopez family is an example of which type of family?


Which of the following is not a function of the family?

Which of the following is not a type of family based on structure?

David and Risa are college classmates. They decided to live in the same apartment to share
expenses.

What assumption can you make from the scenario?


Maria is married to Mico. They have two sons and a daughter.

What type of family describes them?


Which of the following is true about family and household?

Which of the following is not true about kinship?

What can be said about the statements below?

1. A family consists of members related by blood or marriage. Adopted children are not
considered family members.
2. A family can be formed out of another relationship.

Kinship Ties and Social Networks: Politics of Kinship


ORGANIZATION IN SOCIETY

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain the concept of politics of kinship,


 discuss how politics of kinship affect the functions of society to people, and
 recognize the existence of issues arising from the politics of kinship.
 What caused the existence of politics of kinship?
 Is politics of kinship an advantage or disadvantage?
 How does the politics of kinship affect society?
Find out the answers in this lesson!
Review!
Kinship Ties and Social Networks
 Kinship is a system of a culture of recognized family roles and relationships that
define the rights, obligations, and boundaries of the interactions of members of a
self-recognizing group.
 Kinship and family ties may be determined by genetic relationships, adoption, or
other ritualized behaviors such as marriage and household economies.
 Kinship systems range in size from a single, nuclear family to tribal or inter-tribal
relationships.
 A social network is a social structure comprised of individuals joined by a
particular pattern of links or relations. Social networks are indicative of a person
or an organization's relations, membership, links, and connections. It is
noteworthy that these systems serve a role in the attainment of societal goals.
 Through networks serving as media for the spread and exchange of ideas,
people get connected, get updated, and become aware. Aside from that, social
networks act as social support systems which provide people with information
and guidance in times of need.

Learn about it!


Politics of Kinship
 The idea that "blood is thicker than water” and similar concepts apply to politics.
Kinship is the primary source of political support and action in small or even
bigger societies.
 Kinship alliances are naturally formed and traditionally remain a power bearer
that dominates Filipino culture.
 An explanation for this phenomenon would be the family orientation of the
Filipinos. For some reason, the obligation to one's kinship group compels one to
prioritize his or her family before the rest of society. This, from time immemorial,
has generated issues in power allocation in our community.
 Topics include political dynasty, padrino system, and the use of political power to
build business empires or personal gains.
Concepts of Power in Filipino Kinship Politics
Ideally, merit is the top qualification for any position of consideration, particularly in
politics.Certain circumstances resulting from the interplay of Filipino values, family, and
power have influenced codes of honor on selection processes.

Here's a list of some of Filipino values which have affected the way we make decisions
and view power.
Issues Concerning the Politics of Kinship
Kinship means family, which could mean the “world” to some people. Without a doubt,
we place the family first on our list of priorities, and there is nothing wrong with that, as
long as you do not put public interest at stake.

Here is a list of issues concerning the politics of kinship.

Explore!
What are the positive and negative effects of politics created by kinship?
How does kinship affect power allocation in Filipino society?
Try it!
Give at least one example for each Filipino value enumerated below:

 debt of gratitude (utang na loob)


 shame (hiya)
 the act of yielding to the majority of the kin group (pakikisama)
 competition for greater status (palakasan)

What do you think?


Is it possible for Philippine society to eliminate bad politics created by kinship?

Keypoints
 Kinship is a system of a culture of recognized family roles and relationships that
define the rights, obligations, and boundaries of an interactions of members of a
self-recognizing group.
 A social network is a social structure comprised of individuals joined by a
particular pattern of links or relations.
 A political dynasty is the concentration, consolidation, or continuation of public
office and political power by persons related to each other.
 Alliance is a relationship between people, groups, or states that have joined for
mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, regardless if explicit
agreement has been worked out amongst them.
 The padrino system is the practice, among those with power or influence, of
favoring relatives or friends.
 Political activism is the way people participate or get involved in various political
processes to promote, impend, and raise awareness of an issue.
 Utang na loob is a way of reciprocity of debt of gratitude to others within the
family circle or primary group.
 Hiya is the inability to say "no" to offers for the fear of what others will think, say,
and do.
 Pakikisama is characterized by togetherness and allegiance to your group with a
concern for what others feel.
 Palakasan is a system wherein those in power compete to obtain special
privileges and exemptions from regulations by bending the rules of law for their
kinship group.

Which Filipino value takes place when there is an exchange of goods and services between
individuals that belong to different groups?
What do you call the concentration, consolidation, or continuation of public office and political power
by persons related to each other?

What Filipino value is characterized by togetherness and allegiance to the group with a concern for
what others feel?

Which of the following is a manifestation of a padrino system?

Which statement describes political activism?

In which statement is hiya among Filipinos applied?

In which statement can pakikisama be observed?

What is said to be the cause of politics of kinship?

Which is not among the disadvantages of politics of kinship?

To avoid excessive influence of one’s kinship in politics, what should be considered for promotion,
selection, or election into power?

Social Organizations: Groups within Society (Primary and Secondary)


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain how society is organized,


 describe the organized nature of social life and rules governing behavior,
 define social organization and social groups, and
 differentiate primary and secondary groups in terms of their duties in society.
 How would you describe your relationship with your family?
 How would you describe your relationship with your classmates and teachers?
 What makes your relationship with your family members and school teachers
different from each other?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


How Society is Organized
People have organized themselves into groups with common rules of living. The
organization of such a group is called society. Different institutions are found in every
community, such as the family, kin relationships, childcare, and division of work based
on gender and age.

All societies, small or large, are organized around an uneven division of labor and
decision-making. Present societies are expected to provide protection, economic
security, law and order, and a sense of belonging to their members.

Societies usually adapt to changes around them, like in the environment or in


technology. Most changes happen slowly, but some significant events such as war or
revolution can completely transform societies.

The Threefold Nature of Social Life


Applying Goethe’s method to social life, Rudolf Steiner thought that if we apply the
phenomenological, participatory method to human social life as a multifaceted,
multilayered whole, we can distinguish three different spheres of activity:

1. cultural–everything involving the growth and expression of the human spirit: education,
art, science, religion, journalism, and publishing
2. legal or political–involving human rights and relationships between people and
organizations
3. economic–having to do with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and
services

Human society, Steiner claimed, will only flourish if these three spheres are recognized
and each is organized according to its own inherent principles, dynamics, and ideals.

Social Groups and Organizations


Sometimes, organization refers to associational groups. It includes corporations,
armies, schools, and banks. Society composes many of such organizations. A state is
considered as a political organization, or school may represent an educational
organization, and so on. They are all social organizations.

Organization is a state of being or a condition in which various institutions in society


are functioning by their recognized or implied purposes (Elliott and Merrill, 1950).

Social organization or social system refers to the interdependence of parts in groups.


These groups may differ in size and nature. It makes possible the complex activities
where members of a complex society participate in.

Learn about it!


Groups within Society
People do not live in isolation. They live in groups. Social groups consist of two or more
individuals who identify with one another and regularly interact as a result of shared
norms, values, and expectations. Being in a group entails realizations of activities and
events in one's life that help people build and define their stories, interests, and
contributions to society.

Different group categorization exists in society. Categories include primary and


secondary groups, in-groups and out-groups and reference groups.

Primary Group
First formulated by Charles Horton Cooley, the concept of a primary group is an
essential unit of social organization and social life. A primary group is characterized by
personal and lasting relationships with its members.

It has been identified that relationships in a primary type of team is unconditional and
not prearranged. Setting aside family relations, members of primary groups share lots of
things in common, like interests, stories, or personalities.

The best example of a primary group is the nuclear family. Relationships and
attachments organized in this group are permanent as one's identity, lifestyle, and
stories are tied to this group. A group of close friends is another example of this group.

The term 'primary' is used with these groups because they are the primary or main
source of socialization and relationships. Relationships in primary groups give us
security, love, and companionship. We also learn norms and values from our family and
friends that stay with us for most of our lives.
Learn about it!
Secondary Group
By contrast, secondary groups are formal, small or large, and usually short term.
These groups are typically found at work and school.

An example of this group is a political party organized to plan the best campaign for the
election. Members of the board meet infrequently and for only a short period. Team
members may have some similar interests, but the main purpose of the group is on the
task instead of the relationships.

Classroom and work environment are other examples of a secondary group.

Sometimes, secondary groups become informal, and members of the team get to know
each other well; however, even if their friendships exist in a limited time, they will not
necessarily remain close beyond.

Unlike the primary group, members play their roles in a secondary group based on
arranged and conditional contract. Members of this group need not to convene based
on shared interests or personalities.
Explore!
Why is having a companion, a partner, or a group important in our personal lives and
future careers?

Try it!
List three groups in campus and classify them as either a primary or secondary group.
Make some observations regarding their characteristics.

 name or description of the group


 characteristics
(members, regulations, nature of work, etc.)

What do you think?


Which type of group contributes more important roles in maintaining a balanced life and
orderliness in society? Why?

Keypoints
 People have organized themselves into groups with common rules of living. The
organization of such groups is called society.
 Applying Goethe’s method to social life, Rudolf Steiner concluded that if we apply
the phenomenological, participatory method to human social life as a
multifaceted, multilayered whole, we can distinguish three different spheres of
activity−−cultural, legal or political, and economic.
 Social organization or social system refers to the interdependence of parts in
groups. These groups may vary in size and nature.
 A social group consists of two or more people who regularly interact and share
a sense of unity and collective identity.
 Primary groups are groups that are tightly united, typically small scale, with
intimate relationships, and are usually long lasting.
 Secondary groups can be small or large, are mostly impersonal, and usually
short term. These groups are typically found at work or at school.

What is the collection of people who make interaction, communication, and relationships from
sharing similar characteristics and interests?

What is a state of being in which various institutions in society function based on their purposes?

What are formal, extensive, and impersonal groups of people joined together for the purpose of
accomplishing tasks?

Lea enjoys the company of her best friend Leilani, whom she has known since childhood.

What kind of group do Lea and Leilani have?


Nardo is a maintenance staff at an international company. As an employee, he has to abide by all
the rules and regulations of the company at all times.

What kind of group is shown in this situation?


Dina is excited to attend their family reunion next Sunday. At this event, she will surely be catching
up with her relatives whom she dearly misses.

What group is manifested in this scenario?


Romeo recently signed up for a three-day seminar-workshop where he is expected to learn about
being an effective teacher. He is also hoping to meet experienced teachers from different provinces
in the country.

What type of group is expected to form from the scenario?

What is the importance of a primary group in society?

Which is not a characteristic of the secondary group?

How do social groups contribute to maintaining peace and order in society?

Social Organizations: In-group and Out-Group


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 recognize the existence of in-groups and out-groups in one’s life and society,
 compare different social groups of a social organization according to their
manifest and latent functions, and
 discuss the issues surrounding in-groups and out-groups.
Is being a member of a particular group a matter of choice?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Review!
Social Groups and Organizations
Sometimes, 'organization' refers to associational groups. It includes corporations,
armies, schools, and banks. Society is composed of many such organizations. A state is
considered as a political organization and school may represent an educational
organization. They are all social organizations.

Organization is a state of being or a condition in which the various institutions in


society are functioning by their recognized or implied purposes. (Elliott and Merrill,
1950)

A social organization or social system refers to the interdependence of parts in


groups. These groups may differ in size and nature. It makes possible the complex
activities where members of a complex society participate in.

Learn about it!


Different Social Groups of Social Organization
Each community is made up of smaller groups and associations that are built on social
class, personal interest, or common goals.

The power elite is run by a small group representing the wealthiest, most powerful, and
most influential people in government, business, and the military.

Example:

A generous business person may make substantial contributions to a political


candidate.
Voluntary associations are groups that people choose to join, wherein members are
united by the pursuit of a common goal.

Example:

a parent-teacher association at a particular school

Formal organizations are secondary groups organized to achieve specific goals. Legal
organizations tend to be larger and more impersonal than voluntary associations.

Example:

A corporation is usually a formal organization. The very specific goal of most companies
is to increase profits.

Bureaucracy is a type of formal organization in which a rational approach is used to


handle large tasks. The bureaucratic organization is highly organized with a high degree
of formality in the way it operates.

Examples:

colleges and universities

Groups within Society


People do not live in isolation. They live in groups. Social groups consist of two or more
individuals who identify with one another and regularly interact as a result of shared
norms, values, and expectations. Being in a group entails realizations of activities and
events in one's life that help people build and define their stories, interests, and
contributions to society.

Different group categorization exists in society. Categories include primary and


secondary groups, in-group and out-group, and reference groups.

In-Group and Out-group


An in-group is an exclusive social group formed out of shared interest and identity. This
is the “we” group in society from which people’s loyalty is bestowed upon. This type of
group satisfies the old saying "birds of the same feather flock together.'' It is in this
group where people feel more comfortable and secured, with no threat, intimidation or
conflict of interest. Members of this group consist of those who share common
experiences or ideas in life.

Examples include friendship groups, families, and religious groups.

An out-group, on the other hand, is a social group associated with competition or


opposition as its nature is different from one’s own. This is the “they” of society, where a
person is not a part of or does not belong to the group. The formation of out-groups is
the result of perceived differences.

One’s out-group includes those groups one dislikes or disregards. It is also that group
where one does not feel happy personality-, interest-, or ability-wise.

It should be noted that out-groups should not be given negative connotation as they
only involve non-membership to a certain group. After all, people are created differently.
This should be celebrated in the same regard as we give to shared interests. People
should respect what others can and cannot do. That is the very purpose of recognizing
the existence of out-groups.

Issues Surrounding In-groups and Out-groups


In-groups and out-groups are formed as a result of the following:

Social groups, despite functioning actively in realizing tasks of society, draw a boundary
between people in the community. The concept of social group classification of in-
groups and out-groups brings defined and perceived differences to a different level.
Lack of sense of belongingness, isolation, rivalry, tension, and threat of violence may
result from well-defined in-groups and out-groups.

In-group favoritism happens when a person favors or offers special treatment to in-
group members over out-group members. This activity may disregard merit and result to
serious social situations such as corruption, crime, and padrino system.
Out-group homogeneity is the tendency of a person to classify those people who are
not in their in-group as being similar to one another. In short, people overgeneralize and
label out-groups in a negative manner.

Explore!
What are your in-groups and out-groups? How do you choose your in-groups? How do
you resolve conflicts with your out-groups?

Try it!
Write three measures or guidelines on how society and its people avoid the adverse
effects of the existence of in-groups and out-groups.

What do you think?


Without the boundaries caused by in-groups and out-groups, would the world be a
better place? Justify your answer.

Keypoints
 Social groups are a specified number of individuals formed to interact with one
another and other people outside the group based on the statuses and roles
assigned to them.
 There are different social forms of social organization. These include The power
elite, voluntary associations, formal organizations, and bureaucracy.
 An in-group is an exclusive social group formed out of shared interest and
identity.
 An out-group is a social group associated with competition or opposition as its
nature is different from one’s own.
 In-group favoritism happens when a person favors or offers special treatment
to in-group members over out-group members.
 Out-group homogeneity is the tendency of a person to classify people who are
not in their in-group as being similar to one another.

What is an exclusive social group formed out of shared interests and identity?

What is a social group associated with opposition based on its different nature?

What is the tendency of a person to classify those people who are not in their in-group as being
similar to one another?
Lee is a member of a church choir. He has established a good relationship with his co-members.

Which group category is Lee part of?


Arna is modest and is seen as a role model to many. She does not hang out with Teresa’s group
which is known for their indecent acts and bullying.

What group category is Teresa’s team to Arna’s social life?


A group of students did not vote for Andi as the vice president of their batch despite his qualification
for the position. They instead voted for Mark who is their friend.

What is manifested in the statement?


Roldan treats all Grade 11 students whom he is not friends with as intellectually-challenged people.

What is manifested by Roldan’s perspective about people who are not members of his in-group?

How are boundaries in society, as a result of in-groups and out-groups, formed?

Which best explains the existence of in-groups in society?

Which manifests proper behavior towards out-groups?

Social Organizations: Reference Groups


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

 explain how reference groups work in a person’s life and society, and
 recognize the different types of reference groups and how they apply to real life
situations.

 What is a role model for you?


 Who are your role models?
 How do they influence you in your daily life?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Objectives
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

 explain how reference groups work in a person’s life and society, and
 recognize the different types of reference groups and how they apply to real life
situations.

 What is a role model for you?


 Who are your role models?
 How do they influence you in your daily life?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Groups within Society
People do not live in isolation. They live in groups. Social groups consist of two or more
people who identify with one another and regularly interact as a result of shared norms,
values, and expectations. Being in a group entails realizations of activities and events in
one's life that help people build and define their stories, interests, and contributions to
society.

Different group categorization exists in society. Categories include primary and


secondary groups, in-groups and out-group, and reference groups.

Reference Groups and its Normative Functions


Reference Groups are groups that serve as our standards in setting and evaluating our
own behaviors and attitudes.

When reference groups serve a purpose of setting your norms and values, these
are normative reference groups. These groups directly influence the behavior of a
person, serving as a role model, standard, or base point.

Your immediate family and friends are considered a normative reference group. The
way they are is the way you are. Your mentors or celebrity idols also shape your
personality. In hopes of being identified with them, people opt to act, speak, dress, and
think the way they do.

Reference Groups and its Comparative Functions


Some reference groups exist to provide people with means of comparison for behavior,
style, and achievement. Such are comparative reference groups whose norms and
values serve as points of comparison for certain behaviors.

For body figure, teenagers look up to supermodels as references. For skills in


basketball, enthusiasts play by the rules of professional basketball players from the
NBA or PBA. To check whether he fares well in his exams, a student may compare his
score from that of his class's best students.
Group Influences
It is a natural response of people to socialize, build connections, and get influenced.
With either good or bad influence, our social groups or reference groups play vital roles
in shaping who we are and becoming who we want to be or what society wants us to
be.

Reference groups come in different forms and classifications.

Aspirational reference groups refers to people or groups of people with whom we


want to be compared with. Product advertisers and celebrities like athletes, movie stars,
or talk show hosts are fine examples of this reference group. People think that by
supporting their favorite celebrity, they become associated with them.

Associative reference groups refer to groups where we belong and take part in.
These people include our neighbors, coworkers, club members, or church members.
People have a tendency to confine with what is on trend in their immediate community.

Dissociative reference groups refers to groups that people have no interest in being
associated with. This group of people includes those with whom we share conflicts in
interest, attitude, or behavior.

Explore!
How do you show your support or associations to your reference groups? Do you do
what they do? Do you act, speak, and think the way they do? What benefits does
having reference groups give you?

Try it!
Give one reference group of yours for each type. Name the person or the group,
describe its nature, and state your reason for classifying them under such type.

What do you think?


How do reference groups change the way people think about themselves and others?

Keypoints
 Social groups consist of two or more people who identify with one another and
regularly interact.
 Reference groups serve as our standards in setting and evaluating our own
behaviors and attitudes.
 Normative reference groups set a person’s norms and values.
 Comparative reference groups are groups whose norms and values serve as a
point of comparison for certain behaviors.
 Aspirational reference groups are groups of people with whom we want to be
compared with.
 Associative reference groups are groups where we belong and take part in our
immediate life.
 Dissociative reference groups are groups people have no interest in being
associated with.

What group serves as our standard in setting and evaluating our own behaviors and attitudes?

Who is considered a member of a person’s normative reference group?

Which type of reference group is formed to provide people with a point of comparison for their
behaviors and achievements?

Michael is wearing the shoe brand which his basketball player idol is advertising.

What type of reference group is manifested?

Regine supports the political party which her civic organization is supporting.

What type of reference group is manifested?


Lani did not consider joining the dance club in her college years as she has no God-given talent in
dancing.

What type of reference group is manifested?

What is the importance of having a reference group?

Roldan enrolled in basic piano lessons this summer following the advice of his favorite music teacher
−his role model −to hone his skills.

What type of reference group is manifested?

Which best explains the existence of reference groups in society?


Which are good methods in selecting reference groups?

Social Organizations: Networks


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 discuss what a social network is and how it works, and


 recognize the role networks play in a person and in society.
What roles does social media play in your life?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Review!
Social Groups and Organizations
Sometimes, social organizations refer to associational groups. It includes corporations,
armies, schools, and banks. The society is composed of many such organizations. A
state is considered as a political organization and a school may represent an
educational organization. They are all social organizations.

Organization is a state of being or a condition in which the various institutions in


society are functioning by their recognized or implied purposes. (Elliott and Merrill,
1950)

Social organization or social system refers to the interdependence of parts in groups.


These groups may differ in size and nature. It makes possible the complex activities
where members of a complex society participate in.

Learn about it!


Groups Within Society and the Rise of Social Networks
A social group is a team of two or more individuals that are dependent on one another.
Its organization rests on the purpose of working and achieving the goals of society.
Humans are social beings whoa are constantly longing and needing association or
support.
Different group categorization exists in the society. Categories include primary and
secondary groups, in-group and out-group, and reference groups.

The existence of different social organizations in society and the connections or ties that
bind them together give rise to a social network.

Social Networks
A social network is a social structure comprised of individuals joined by a certain
pattern of links or relations. Social networks are indicative of a person or an
organization's relationships as either casual and informal or personal and intimate. This
is often regarded as individuals' basic tool to connect to society.

Designed to connect people and make the world seem borderless, social media
websites like Twitter or Facebook are social networks. In a click, updates about an
individual may reach his friends and friends of friends as well. People listed in your
phone book are your social networks. Membership to organizations or companies
guarantees a social network.

Ties and Nodes


As mentioned, social networks are composed of individuals and the connections or links
that bind them together. These components of a network are called 'nodes' and 'ties.'

The person or organization playing a part in a network is known as a node. On the


other hand, ties are the links or connections that bind individuals or organizations
together.

They may be weak or strong. Measured by strength, strong ties are the result of
intimate and personal links. Meanwhile, weak ties are connections caused by informal,
casual, and business-like relationships.

The Importance of Social Networks


Through networks, social linkages or connections are formed. It is important to note that
these networks serve a role in the attainment of the goals of society. Through networks,
people get connected, get updated, and become aware.

Networks are media for the spread and exchange of ideas. News awareness,
information relay, and rumors are good examples. Some people also use their networks
to obtain a position in a company, to make a business successful, or to earn a living.
Social networks undoubtedly serve as social support and provide people with
information or guidance in times of need.

Explore!
How do your social networks affect your personal life? Do they influence your values,
behaviors, and perspectives?
What makes social networks significant in society? How does their existence achieve
the goals of the community?

Try it!
Name at least three social networks you use. Write a short description for each. Include
their functions and significance in your life. Also identify the types of members for each
social network.

What do you think?


Can a person survive without the people with whom he or she has shared his or her life
with?

Can society survive without the existence of social networks?

Tip
In a social network, a node refers to the individual or organization playing a part in a
network. In a physical system, it is an active electronic device that is attached to a
network and is capable of creating, receiving, or transmitting information over a
communications channel.

Keypoints
 A social group is a team of two or more individuals who are dependent on one
another.
 A social network is a social structure comprised of individuals joined by a
particular pattern of links or relations.
 Nodes are the persons or organizations playing a part in a network.
 Ties are links or connections that bind individuals or organizations together.
 Through networks, people get connected, get updated, and become aware.

Which social structure is comprised of individuals joined by a particular pattern of links?

What refers to individuals or organizations playing a part in a network?

What refers to the links or connections that bind individuals or organizations together?
Which of the following does not show social networking?

Which statement does not support the idea that networks spread and a means of exchange of ideas
and influence?

Which statement shows a weak tie?

Which statement shows a strong tie?

Which of the following best defines a social group?

Why are social networks important to a person?

What is the significance of social networks in society?

Social and Political Structures: Political Organizations


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 discuss how political organizations operate as an entity which maintains societal


functions,
 recognize the differences among different types of political organizations, and
 analyze social and political structures.
 In a classroom setting, what are the functions of the elected class officers?
 Do you believe that their existence is needed for the maintenance of order in the
class?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Social and Political Structures
Social and political structures are both constructs formed as a result of large scale ties
and relations in society.

Social structure, in a general sense, refers to patterned institutions or groups in society


where people work, act, and live together.

Examples: Social class and social institutions like the government and legal
community, LGBT community, and professional community
The political structure, on the other hand, is used to call on the institutions and
political entity organized in agreement with regulations, laws, and norms of society or of
the entity itself. A society based on political structure may follow totalitarianism,
authoritarianism, or democracy.

The Need for Political Organizations


The need for social order, public affairs and functions, and conflict resolution are
perennial or inevitable. In this premise, the foundation goals of political organizations
are required.

Political organizations are entities in a society formed for administrative or political


functions. They refer to the scheme or design of power and authority in society. Political
organizations define the scope and limits of power.

Society, to achieve and maintain its goals and functions, needs an authority figure to set
social control and lead people. Issues like allocation of social and political roles, the
exercise of political power and authority, and resolutions for conflict and clash are
among the recurring problems every society faces.

The questions rest on who takes the lead in addressing such problems. On this ground
lies the need for political organizations. Serving as the authority, they set rules and roles
and direct actions to take.

Special interests of a particular group may also be addressed through political


organizations such as labor unions, political parties, interest or advocacy groups.

 Labor unions collaborate or negotiate with the company administration to raise


employee concerns regarding salary increase, benefits, and labor rights.
 Political parties are formed for staging interest in the government seat.
 Advocacy and interest groups are designed for campaigning the rights,
privileges, and concerns of a particular group of people in society. Such group of
people may not be represented in government

Learn about it!


Types of Political Organization
There are four recognized types of political organizations. They are bands, tribes,
chiefdoms, and states.

Band
The band is the most traditional and smallest type of political organization. Familial ties
connect a band. Politically independent, a band usually does not recognize the formal
government. There are no written codes or laws. There is no organized group of
leaders. This is the result of their tendency and nature of moving from one place to
another in search of food or shelter.

Tribes
Tribes are traditional societies comprised of people or group of people connected by
social, religious, ancestral, or cultural ties. Bigger than a band, tribes are usually settled
in one place and do not rely on hunting and gathering but on agriculture for subsistence.
Just like bands, tribes do not observe formal governments.

Bands and tribes are egalitarian societies. This means that they see people of the same
age and gender as equals. For instructions and decision, they rely on group consensus.

Chiefdom
Chiefdom, unlike tribal societies, is a permanent and formal government. Chiefdoms
are formal political organizations in a traditional society based on kinship or the
leadership of selected families.

State
A state is a formal political organization in a modern or industrial society regarded as an
organized community under a government. Characteristics of a state include owning a
certain territory, having a particular group of people to lead it, a group of people to take
administrative roles, and freedom from external or foreign control.

Explore!
Why does society need an authority figure?

What type of leadership or leaders should people have to achieve maximum success in
maintaining peace and order?

Try it!
Give at least three political organizations. Write their objectives and projects in society.

What do you think?


Imagine the world without political organizations. What do you see?

What can we expect from people or from a society which works and operates without
the supervision of a political organization?
Keypoints
 Social structure refers to patterned institutions or groups in society where
people work, act, and live together.
 Political structure is used to call the institutions and political entities organized
in accordance with regulations, laws, and norms of society or of the entities
themselves.
 Political organizations are entities in a society formed for administrative or
political functions.
 A band is a group of nomadic people connected by familial ties.
 Tribes are traditional societies comprised of people or groups of people
connected by social, religious, ancestral, or cultural ties.
 Chiefdoms are a formal political organization in a traditional society based on
kinship or the leadership of selected families.
 A state is a formal political organization in a modern or industrial society
regarded as an organized community under a government.

What institutions and political entities are organized in accordance with regulations, laws, and norms
of the society or of themselves?

Which refers to patterned institutions or groups in the society where people work, act, and live
together?

Which entity is formed for administrative or political functions?

People of a small group move from one town to another. To obtain food, they gather and hunt,
relying on what nature can give.

What type of political organization is described?

Living in tree houses on their isolated territory in the Indonesian Province of Papua, close to the
border with Papua New Guinea, the Korowai people practice shifting cultivation, a certain agricultural
method.

What type of political organization is apparent?


Before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, territories in the country were governed by
select elite families.

What type of political organization is described?


The Republic or France is a sovereign nation in Western Europe with an estimated population of 65
million in 2015.

What type of political organization is described?


What are the functions of political organizations in society?
Which is not true about the operation of political organizations?
Which of the following best describes the importance of social and political structures?
Social and Political Structures: Authority and Legitimacy
CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 enumerate and explain the three types of authority,


 discuss how power, authority, and legitimacy work as essential components of a
social and political structure, and
 analyze social and political structures.
 Are power and authority the same? Are authority and legitimacy different?
 How do these components work together in a social and political structure?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Social and Political Structures
Social and political structures are both constructs formed as a result of large-scale ties
and relations in society.

Social structure, in a general sense, refers to patterned institutions or groups in society


where people work, act, and live together.

Examples: Social class and social institutions like government and legal community,
LGBT community, and professional community

The political structure, on the other hand, are institutions and political entities
organized in agreement with regulations, laws, and norms of the society or of the
entities themselves. A society based on the political structure may follow totalitarianism,
authoritarianism, or democracy.

Learn about it!


Power
According to Thomas Hobbes, power is a natural inclination that is sought continuously
by individuals. In sociology and politics, power is the ability to get others to do things
even when they might not want to. Put into action either through coercion or persuasion,
power, in simpler terms, is the ability 'to do.' Power may be exercised through coercion
or the use of sanctions, punishment, or threat.
The presence of unlikely consequences may force people to do things. Sometimes, the
use of coercion is not necessary to get people to work. People may work freely and
willingly if persuasion, reason, and incentives or positive reinforcements are presented.
It is noteworthy that society works based on power. Ideally, though, a society imposing
its power without the use of coercion is most efficient.

States have power because they can make laws. The police enforces laws by the use of
force. If you disobey the law, you will be fined or jailed. However, we want to be able to
make a difference between cases in which it is right that the state has power, and cases
in which it is objectionable or wrong in some way. To make this distinction, the concepts
of authority and legitimacy is needed.

Authority
Authority is the right to command. Authority is observed when an individual has a
command to make a person do things. Such act is a response to that person’s
perceived power. This person can be your boss, your superiors, or those who hold high
positions in society.

Aside from what has been mentioned above, authority is shown when a person is an
expert in a particular matter. We ask engineers to make our buildings and structures
stand firm. We ask specialists for some health concerns. We ask teachers for learning
strategies.

To clarify the concept, take this example. Public officials are elected by the people and
are bestowed with rights to rule and exercise administrative roles based on existing
societal laws. Professionals, on the other hand, gain authority after effectively learning
through years of practice in their respective fields. Authority is more than power.
Authority is guaranteed by legitimacy or in a formal manner. Authority is the sum of
power and legitimacy.

Having all these things presented, authority is the quality of a person, institution, rule, or
order. It is also the right or control over giving commands, making verdicts, or enforcing
actions.

Legitimacy
Legitimacy gives form to authority. Together with power, legitimacy dresses authority. It
is said to be a symbol or representation–like professionals having their licenses,
employees wearing their uniforms, and laws being written as formal documents.

In the most basic sense, a state is said to be legitimate if it exists and operates
according to the law. If a government is legitimate, then in some way, the fact that it has
power is justified. If so, then we can argue that we ought to obey it. If power is
objectionable, then we do not tend to have an obligation to follow it.

Legitimacy is a belief that a rule, institution, or leader has the right to govern. Legitimacy
is the force that makes an action of a governing body necessary.
Three Types of Authority
According to the sociologist Max Weber, there is a category as to how authority is
legitimated as a belief system. These are traditional, charismatic, and rational.

Explore!
In your opinion, which type of authority or legitimated rule is more applicable and valid in
modern times?

Try it!
Give two evident examples (government, religious order, or scenario) for each type of
authority or legitimate rule.

 traditional
 charismatic
 rational

What do you think?


Why are authority and legitimacy vital components in acquiring and maintaining peace
and order in society?

Keypoints
 Power can be defined as the ability to get others to do things even when they
might not want to.
 Authority is the legitimate or socially approved use of power.
 Legitimacy is the right and acceptance of authority, usually a governing law or a
régime.
 Traditional authority is based on a system in which authority is legitimate
because it "has always existed."
 Charismatic authority rests on the unique qualities of a leader who shows that
he possesses the right to lead under magical powers, prophecies, heroism, etc.
 Rational authority is based on a system of rules that is applied administratively
and judicially per known principle.

What is the ability to get others to do things even when they might not want to?

What is the legitimate or socially approved use of power?

What refers to the right and acceptance of authority, usually a governing law or a régime?

Rachelle recently passed the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) board exams. For passing the board
exams, she is now entitled to receive her license and practice her craft.

What does a license represent?


For being elected by the people and following the rights and duties declared in existing laws, public
officials are seen publicly as a group of people whose orders should be followed.

What do civil servants have according to the scenario?


The United Kingdom is one among few states in the world that practice monarchy. Currently, their
monarch is Queen Elizabeth II. She inherited the throne after the death of her father in 1952.

What type of legal rule is manifested by the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom?
Jose Salcedo, who is known for his wit, ambition, vision and unique qualities as a leader and
speaker, persuaded some people to take part in his newly-founded religious group.

What type of legitimate rule is manifested in the scenario?

What did Hobbes mean when he said that "men seek power after power"?

Which of the following is not an importance of having an authority figure in society?

Why is authority considered the sum of power and legitimacy?

Economic Institutions: Reciprocity


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define and explain the functions of economic institutions,


 discuss the concepts of reciprocity in line with sociology and economics,
 analyze the activities of different economic institutions and their impacts on the
global community, and
 relate the practical application of reciprocity to one’s daily life.
If you have been given something, is it expected for you to return the favor? Why or why
not?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Economic Institutions
The term 'economic institutions' has a broad meaning. Let us find out.

The term 'economic institutions' refers to:

 a network of commercial organizations that determine how goods and services


are produced, generated, distributed, and purchased

Examples: producers, manufacturers, retailers, wholesalers, buyers


 the particular agencies or foundations devoted to the gathering or studying of
economic data, or authorized with the job of supplying goods and services that
are necessary to the economy of a country

Examples: the Philippine Bureau of Internal Revenue, the U.S. Federal Reserve,
the National Bureau of Economic Research
 the popular and thriving arrangements and structures that are part of culture or
society

Examples: competitive markets, the banking system, a system of property rights


Reciprocity
What is reciprocity?

In Sociology
It is defined as the a system of voluntary exchange among individuals based on the
understanding that the giving of favor by one will be reciprocated in the future either to
the giver or to someone else.

Example:

Filipinos practice utang na loob. This act is part of our culture. When a person shows
you an act of kindness, it is a must for Filipinos to return the favor.

In Economics
It is defined as an exchange of equal advantages.
Example:

Japan and Philippines made an economic agreement to remove traveling restrictions to


flourish the tourism of both countries.

Types of Reciprocity
What are the types of reciprocity?

Generalized
Generalized reciprocity is giving something without the anticipation of an instant return.

Example:

When a friend gave you a birthday gift, it is not expected that you will also give that
friend a gift in return on the same day, although it is anticipated that you will give him a
gift or token sometime in the future or when his birthday comes.

Balanced
Balanced reciprocity is giving out of something with the anticipation of immediate return.

Example:

When you get something from the store and walks out without paying for the goods, you
will be stopped by shop employees because you have not reciprocated with money the
goods that you picked from the store.

Negative
Negative reciprocity occurs when the exchange of something already involves taking
advantage of someone or the situation. Most of the time, this type of exchange involves
trickery, intimidation, or hard bargaining.

Example:

Province X has no source of electricity for a long time. X Electric Company made an
agreement with the officials of the province to provide them with power supply. In
exchange, the whole area should not entertain any other electric company to offer the
same services to them.

Economic Institutions, Reciprocity, and the Impacts


on the Global Community
We have learned in Chapter 2 that economic institutions involve activities such as
producing, generating, distributing, and purchasing goods and services. These activities
have an impact on the global community.
See the illustration below.

Legends:

 blue: economic institutions


 red: activities of economic institutions
 yellow: global community
The activities with economic institutions play vital roles in shaping and maintaining the
stability of world community. If one system fails to do its activity, there will be an
imbalance that will highly affect the whole community.

Practical Application
Reciprocity always necessitates adequacy of responses but does not mean that it
should be of the same amount or volume. More than economic gain, reciprocity is more
of a social benefit. We have to make use of this principle to bring us closer to our
neighbors, friends, family, and loved ones.

Explore!
Think of at least three scenarios or situations where generalized reciprocity can be
applied.

Try it!
Compare and contrast generalized from balanced reciprocity. Give examples for each.

What do you think?


How does negative reciprocity affect the activities of different economic institutions?
What do you think will be the impact of these on the global community?

Keypoints
 Generally, economic institutions refer to the network of commercial
organizations that determine how goods and services are produced, generated,
distributed, and purchased.
 In sociology, reciprocity is defined as the system of voluntary exchanges among
individuals based on the understanding that the giving of favor by one will be
reciprocated in the future either to the giver or to someone else.
 In economics, reciprocity is defined as an exchange of equal advantages.
 There are three types of reciprocity: general, balanced, and negative.
 The activities of economic institutions play vital roles in shaping and maintaining
the stability of the global community.
 More than economic gain, reciprocity is more of a social benefit.

What is the chain of giving, receiving, and repaying goods and services?

Which of the following reciprocity is defined as the exchange of equal advantages?

Which type of reciprocity refers to giving something without the anticipation of immediate return?

During the Christmas Party, Amaya gives an expensive present to her monito. The expectation that
she will be repaid is based on trust and social consequences.
What type of reciprocity is being described?
You are with a friend while shopping, and you treat him a cup of coffee. After a couple of weeks, the
two of you went shopping again and your friend, this time, bought you a cup coffee.

What type of reciprocity is shown?


A worker in a company is too kind and respectful towards his boss so that he can get a job
promotion.

Which type of reciprocity is being described?


A woman is buying vegetables from a market vendor. Upon receiving them, she immediately paid
the amount price of the vegetables to the market vendor.

Which type of reciprocity is described?


Your neighbor is about to migrate to Canada, and she desperately needs to sell her car before
leaving. It is almost new and costed her six hundred thousand pesos. You offered to buy it for just
three hundred thousand pesos. She accepted your offer because she had no other choice.

What type of reciprocity is evident?

When does reciprocity cause damage to friendship, family, society, or global community?

Before the invention of paper money, people used the barter system, a way of exchanging goods for
other goods.

What can be concluded from this statement?

Economic Institutions: Transfers


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain the concepts of transfer or transfer payment concerning economics, and


 analyze the level of activities of different economic institutions concerning
transfer and the impacts on the global economy.
 Are you aware of the different kinds of goods and services that private and
government sectors provide for the people?
 Does the present government provide more goods and services than it did in the
past?
 How does the government redistribute more income?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Economic Institutions
The term 'economic institutions' refers to:

 a network of commercial organizations that determine how goods and services


are produced, generated, distributed, and purchased

Examples: producers, manufacturers, retailers, wholesalers, buyers


 the particular agencies or foundations devoted to the gathering or studying of
economic data, or authorized with the job of supplying goods and services that
are necessary to the economy of a country

Examples: the Philippine Bureau of Internal Revenue, the U.S. Federal Reserve,
the National Bureau of Economic Research
 the popular and thriving arrangements and structures that are part of culture or
society

Examples: competitive markets, the banking system, a system of property rights

Learn about it!


The Functions of Economic Institutions
The economy of a particular country like the Philippines is composed of different
institutions that play a significant role in providing the needs of the people. These
institutions perform economic activities that start from production to distribution of goods
and services to the people.

Here are some of the functions of economic institutions in society:

 Enhance development through financial services


 Provide business opportunity to people by financing and loans
 Fund research projects aimed at improving the lives of the individuals in the
society
Transfers
In economics, transfer or transfer payment is a redistribution of income or resources
in the market system. It refers to payments or transactions where there is no value
added to the economy. There is no additional production of goods and services but just
a transfer of money from private hands to government.

Examples:

 Taxes
 Social security
 Private pension benefits
 Housing
 Health care
Transfer payments can originate from either government or business sources. Business
transfer payments include corporate gifts to non-profit institutions, payments for
personal injury, and taxes paid by domestic corporations to foreign governments. Far
more important, both, in terms and policy significance, are transfer payments originating
from government sources.

Learn about it!


How Transfers Work in the Government
The government as an economic institution also provides commercial goods to the
people in the form of public services and transfer payments.

In the Philippines, the government is allocating a huge amount of money to finance


different programs like education, infrastructures, health, and defense.

Among the government agencies that received the highest allocations are:

 the Department of Education (DepEd) with PhP 411.905 billion,


 the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) with PhP 384.287 billion,
and
 the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) with Php 124.229 billion
In the United States, transfers are payments made to individuals by the federal
government through different social benefit programs.

In Canada, transfers are payments made to all provinces and territories by the federal
government.

Economic Institutions, Transfers, and the Impact on the Global Economy


Transfer as an activity of every economic institution, such as the industry, finance, and
services, distribute part of their income or profit to provide essential services and
assistance to some segments of society, especially the underprivileged, to help uplift
their living conditions without expecting anything in return.

To help you analyze statement above, look at the diagram shown below:
In the circular flow of the economy, households and firms pay taxes to the government.
In return, the government distributes transfers in the form of services to the household
and subsidies to the firms.

The activities of the household, markets, businesses, government, or financial


institutions as economic systems have a great impact on the global economy because
they provide goods and services needed by people not only of a particular country but
also by the world community. The stability of a country's economy has a direct impact
on the global community for it determines its ability to provide the needs of its people. It
also contributes to the stability of the world.

Explore!
Imagine that the Philippine government is doing its job in solving the rampant problem
of smuggling. More taxes are collected, and local and foreign industries are protected.
In the end, more effective and efficient services are provided to the people. How do you
connect this scenario to the lesson?

Try it!
If you become a wealthy individual who is willing to share part of your fortune to others,
which among the basic needs (food, housing, education, health) will be your priority?
Justify your answer.

What do you think?


Why are there many Filipino families who still do not have access to essential goods
and services to support their everyday living?

Keypoints
 Economic institutions are sectors of the economy that provide goods and
services to the people.
 One of the activities of different economic institutions of a particular country is to
provide transfers.
 A transfer or transfer payment is a redistribution of income or resources in the
market system.
 The circular flow of economy helps explain the interrelationship of different
sectors of the economy.
 Government and private enterprises play major roles in the world economy.
 The activities of the economic institutions of a particular country have a great
impact on the global community.

What is being referred to as the redistribution of income or resources in the market system?

An individual or a family received goods and services from the government without having to give
anything in return.

What kind of activity is the government performing?

What economic institution provides public goods and services to people?

Which among the Philippine core departments or agencies received the highest amount of budget?

One of the functions of economic institutions in society is to enhance development through financial
services.

Which of the following institutions can provide this service?

Households and firms pay taxes to the government. What does the government provide in return?

One of the objectives of transfer payments is to provide essential services to people in order to uplift
their living conditions, especially the underprivileged.

Which of the following situations is the realization of this objective?


Broad categories of government spending through the annual budget include education,
infrastructure, national defense, health, and anti-poverty expenditures. Why do public sectors get
involved in these activities?

How do transfers, as one activity of the different economic institutions in society, contribute to uplift
the life of the people and, in turn, the development of the economy?

The global economy is affected by the activities of different economic institutions, specifically the
transfers and transfer payments.

Which of the following situations illustrate this?

Economic Institutions: Redistribution


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain the concepts of redistribution in relation to sociology, economics, and


politics;
 analyze the level of activities of different economic institutions concerning
redistribution and the impacts on global community; and
 recognize the various forms of redistribution in own community.
 What do you expect the government will do with the taxes they collect from the
people?
 In your church, in what programs or projects do you think they spend the
donations coming from the members?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Economic Institutions
The term 'economic institutions' refers to:

 a network of commercial organizations that determine how goods and services


are produced, generated, distributed, and purchased

Examples: producers, manufacturers, retailers, wholesalers, buyers


 the particular agencies or foundations devoted to the gathering or studying of
economic data, or authorized with the job of supplying goods and services that
are necessary to the economy of a country
Examples: the Philippine Bureau of Internal Revenue, the U.S. Federal Reserve,
the National Bureau of Economic Research
 the popular and thriving arrangements and structures that are part of culture or
society

Examples: competitive markets, the banking system, a system of property rights


Redistribution
What is redistribution? Why is it an important activity of societies? How do you compare
redistribution from reciprocity?

In relation to Sociology
Redistribution is an everyday activity of societies. Members of the society contribute
by giving their goods that would be collected by the head of the community followed by
a distribution of the goods among the members.

Example:

A) Church tithes

The church acts as the central organization that pools the goods donated by its
members in the form of tithes or donations. The church manages these tithes and
donations for the maintenance of the church itself and its projects and programs in
which most of the time, its members are the recipients. By that process, the tithes or
donations given by the members are being redistributed to them, especially the less
fortunate members.

B) Potlatch

It is a ceremonial distribution of property and gifts celebrated by most Pacific Northwest


tribes. In every celebration, each person invited to a potlatch receives a gift. Ceremonial
formalities were observed in the distribution of gifts or goods by the donor according to
the social rank or status of the recipients.

Potlatch in Relation to Economics

Traditionally, the potlatch is the economic system of the natives of South America.
Today, the potlatch is still evident in our economic system. How?

Example:

In our society today there are rival companies. Let us consider these companies as the
rival groups of Native Americans. Company A releases one product to the market; the
Company B will try to surpass that product by releasing their product better than the
product of the Company A.
In Relation to Economics
Redistribution refers to the collection of goods and services of people and groups to
be given by a central authority for allocation.

Example:
When the government collects taxes from its population, the government becomes the
centralized authority where all taxes are pooled and managed. The taxes that were
pooled will be returned to the people in the form of social services, welfare benefits,
infrastructures, and others which the government will spearhead.

In Relation to Politics
Redistribution is the process by which electoral districts are added, removed, or
changed. This process is a form of boundary delimitation that changes electoral district
boundaries, usually in response to census results. In democratic governments,
redistribution is required by law or constitution.

Example: In the United States, redistribution happens after each ten-year census. The
state legislature approves most states' legislative district redistributions. The highest
court rulings require that congressional districts have roughly equal populations.

The table shows a comparison between redistribution and reciprocity.

Economic Institutions, Redistribution, and their Impacts on the Global


Community
As we have learned in Chapter 3, redistribution refers to the collection of goods and
services of people and groups to be given by a central authority for allocation.
Both producers and consumers are economic institutions in which
the government or central authority collects taxes from them and allocates these
funds for projects which are also for the use of economic institutions. If one failed to do
his function, there would be dysfunction and economic imbalance in society.

Redistribution in the Family or Community


Redistribution is evident in our society. Family, as the smallest unit of society, performs
simple redistribution. The mother or father, as the head of the household, collects a part
of his or her children’s income and allocates it to food and pending bills. This serves as
the basis for sustained community efforts under a political leader.

Explore!
Think of ways on how redistribution is being effectively practiced in your family, school,
barangay, and municipality or city.

Try it!
Get a partner. Think of at least three situations where small-scale redistribution can
occur in the community.

What do you think?


How does redistribution contribute to the development of society?
Keypoints
 Economic institutions refer to the network of commercial organizations that
determine how goods and services are produced, generated, distributed, and
purchased.
 In sociology, redistribution is the system of exchange that involves the
centralized collection of products from members of a group followed by the
distribution of those goods among the members.
 In economics, redistribution refers to the collection of goods and services of
people and groups to be given by a central authority for allocation.
 In politics, redistribution is the process by which electoral districts are added,
removed, or changed.
 Potlatch is a ceremonial distribution of property and gifts by the donor according
to the social rank or status of the recipients.
 Taxation is the process where the government collects taxes from people to turn
into social services.
 Church tithes are the donations that are given to religious institutions to be used
for their programs and projects.
 A redistribution is a form of reciprocity. It differs from mere reciprocity, which is
a back-and-forth two-party exchange.
 The activities of the economic institutions play vital roles in shaping and
maintaining the stability of the global community.
 Family, as the smallest unit of society, performs redistribution.

What is the system of exchange which involves the collection of goods by a centralized authority to
be distributed among people?

What is the ceremonial feasts where possessions of people are given away to display prosperity,
kindness, and prestige?

What refers to donations to religious institutions for projects and developments?

Which of the following choices is not a form of redistribution?

The national government is conducting relief operations to those affected by the calamity in various
provinces. This is an example of
_.

John has been tasked to take charge of the food his friends brought for their night swimming. In this
scenario, John served as an/the
_.

If the transfer of the goods or services to people did not pass through a centralized authority or
person, can it be considered redistribution?

In what aspect are reciprocity and redistribution similar to each other?


Redistribution gives a sense of feeling that people in the community are taken care of.

What does the statement imply?

What does it mean when a government does not deliver back the taxes it collected from the people
in the form of social services and programs?

Economic Institutions: Market Transactions


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of the lesson, you are expected to:

 define market, market transactions, and market equilibrium,


 enumerate the different kinds of market structures and market transactions,
 demonstrate an understanding of market transactions as mechanism of distribution of
goods and services by making wise and informed decisions, and
 analyze economic organization and its impacts on the lives of people in society.

 What is a market?
 What is a market transaction?
 How do markets and market transactions affect the lives of people in a society?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Market
A market is a place or medium where buyers and sellers interact to transact economic
goods and services. The meaning of market is not limited to a certain place, location, or
geographic area; rather, it focuses on people who are willing and capable of buying or
selling goods and services.

In a capitalist economy, markets answer the three basic economic problems of: what to
produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.

Learn about it!


Market Structures
Market structure is the classification of a market with regard to key characteristics,
such as number of sellers and buyers, entry barriers to the market, the control and
determinant of pricing, and types of products in the market.

 A pure competition market is a market structure characterized by a large number of


sellers and buyers, homogenous products, and complete freedom of entry and exit of
market players.
 A monopoly is a market structure characterized by a single seller of a well-defined
product for which there is no available substitute and high barriers of entry of other
market players. The seller has complete control of the pricing of goods and services.
 Amonopolistic competition is a market structure characterized by a large number of
independent sellers, each producing a differentiated product in the market with a low
barrier to entry of other players.
 An oligopoly is a market in which only few sellers comprise the entire industry with a
relatively larger number of buyers. Sellers, therefore, have the power over the price of
products.
 Amonopsony is a market in which there is only one buyer.

Market Transactions
A market transaction is the exchange of goods and services through a market where
buyers and sellers agree on the price and quantity of goods and services to be bought
and sold in a specific place and time.

Market transactions taking place in the economy could be a tool in:

 measuring the total output of the economy or the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the
country thereby becoming one indicator of growth and development of a society, and
 providing the basic data that are used by economic planners and forecasters.

Types of Markets
There are different types of markets. Each one has unique characteristics and functions.

Physical Markets
This is a set up where buyers can physically meet the sellers and purchase the desired
merchandise from them in exchange for money.

Examples: shopping malls, department stores, retail stores

Non-Physical Markets or Virtual Markets


In such markets, buyers purchase goods and services through the internet. The buyers
and sellers do not meet or interact physically, but transact online instead.

Examples: Rediff shopping, eBay, Amazon

Auction Market
In an auction market, the seller sells his or her goods to the highest bidder.
Market for Intermediate Goods
Such markets sell raw materials (goods) required for the final production of other goods.

Black Market
This is a setup where illegal goods like drugs and weapons are sold.

Knowledge Market
This is a setup that deals with the exchange of information and knowledge-based
products.

Financial Market
This market deals with the exchange of liquid assets (money). Financial markets can be
further categorized into the following types:

 stock market–a form of market where sellers and buyers exchange shares
 bond market–a marketplace where buyers and sellers are engaged in the exchange of
debt securities, usually in the form of bonds.
 foreign exchange market–a market where parties are involved in the trading of
currency; In this market, also called currency market, one party exchanges one country’s
currency with an equivalent quantity of another.
 predictive market–a setup where the exchange of good or service takes place for future
use

Explore!
Imagine yourself in a street where lots of goods are being sold for lower prices. Will you
still buy these goods even though you are aware that these goods are most probably
counterfeit? Will you still be patronizing them?

Try it!
Make a simple business plan for a unique product to be sold in a monopolistic market.

What do you think?


How does the continuous decrease of the price of petroleum in the world market affect
the producer and seller of the product? Does it affect the world's economy as whole?
How?

Keypoints
 A market exists whenever there is an interaction between buyers and sellers.
 Market structures are mechanisms of the economy to answer the basic economic
problems of production, distribution, and consumption.
 Market equilibrium became the balancing force between demand and supply of goods
in the market.
 A market transaction occurs because of the exchanges of goods and services between
consumers and producers.

Where do buyers and sellers transact economic goods and services?

In what condition do the consumer and producer reach an agreement regarding the price and
quantity of goods and services to be bought and sold?

What is characterized by a single seller of a well-defined product for which there is no available
substitute?

In what way is market transaction very helpful to economic planners?

When market equilibrium is reached, who are in agreement regarding the price and number of goods
or services to be bought and sold?

When you want to engage in the exchange of debt securities, what type of market will you be
transacting with?

If you want to deal with the exchange of liquid assets, what market you will choose?

Why do markets exist?

How do market transactions of a particular country affect the world economy?

The amount of goods and services produced by the economy in a particular point in time determines
the kind and degree of market transactions that occurs in that economy, thereby also determining
the growth and development of that country which will affect the lives of the people.

What does this statement imply?

Economic Institutions: Markets and State


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 differentiate the role of markets and states in running the economy,


 determine the dividing line between markets and states, and
 discuss the four competing economic models and analyze their impact in the world
community.
 Why do many countries remain poor while others are rich?
 In our country, the rich become richer and the poor become poorer. Is there any
explanation for this?
 Who will take the lead to solve these problems?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Economic Institutions
The term 'economic institutions' refers to:

 a network of commercial organizations that determine how goods and services


are produced, generated, distributed, and purchased

Examples: producers, manufacturers, retailers, wholesalers, buyers


 the particular agencies or foundations devoted to the gathering or studying of
economic data, or authorized with the job of supplying goods and services that
are necessary to the economy of a country

Examples: the Philippine Bureau of Internal Revenue, the U.S. Federal Reserve,
the National Bureau of Economic Research
 the popular and thriving arrangements and structures that are part of culture or
society

Examples: competitive markets, the banking system, a system of property rights

Learn about it!


Markets and State
 A market is a place where buyers and sellers transact economic goods and
services. It is also a mechanism used by society for allocating and distributing the
goods and services produced.
 A state is a group of people, more or less numerous, with a definite geographical
area, with defined territorial boundaries, independent of external control, and
ruled by a government through laws where inhabitants have to conform by force
in the common interest. In economics, a state is always referred to as
the government.
 The market, as a mechanism used by different economic institutions in the
distribution of goods and services that the economy produced, always relies on
the very mechanism it uses −the price of the products. Meanwhile,
the state uses its inherent power and authority in allocating goods and services.
The Dividing Line Between Markets and States
 In the Philippines, some products are purely market-driven. with some products,
the government can intervene in production and pricing. An example of this are
utilities and selected essential services.
 In a global perspective, model market economies such as the United
States and Singapore are characterized by freedom of choice and enterprise,
private ownership of all economic resources, a prevalence of competition, and
the presence of market mechanism. While in a state-driven economy like China,
the government largely controls the industry.
The two mechanisms significantly differ in the way they allocate goods. In a market
economy, those who can afford the price of the product have more, while a state-run
economy has a principle of having something according to the need.

Competing Models of Economic Organization and Their Impacts on Global


Community
Market Economy Model
The market economy model of Taiwan, Korea, and Singapore prevails in the production
of goods, competitiveness, flexibility, and high growth rates that are manifested in the
economy. A high level of inequality prevails, resulting to a high incidence of poverty
among people, a problem in the environment, and vulnerability to financial crisis.

State Capitalist Model


The state capitalist model of Russia and China shows the power of government in the
production of goods but with passivity in social and environmental issues. High and
steady growth rate evident but a high level of inequality is also manifested.

Central Planning Model


The central planning model of North Korea dominates the entire economic activity of
production as well as the social context. This model wants to create a classless society.
In the long run, it is counter-productive, and lower growth rate or even economic
stagnation occurs.

Social Market Economic Model


The social market economic model of most European countries depends heavily on the
role of the market in the distribution and allocation of products. The economy and the
government is very active in providing social welfare to the people. This leads to
equality and harmony among people and government, but a high level of taxation is
evident.

Let us analyze these four competing economic models and their impacts on the global
community. It is notable that the government, private corporations, and multinational
companies have to join hands in uplifting the lives of the people, protecting and
preserving the environment, and creating a caring society so that this world would be a
better place to live in.
Explore!
Imagine yourself in North Korea as a travelling journalist-economist. What kind of story
will you be writing about the country?

Try it!
Based on this lesson, make a travelogue showing what countries you will be visiting
based on economic status or model.

What do you think?


There are fundamental standards or criteria in analyzing economic models as
suggested by some economists. These are:

 Is the living condition of people in society improved?


 Is the growth of economy aimed at raising the standard of living?
 Is the societal income equally distributed among members?
 Is there a guarantee that a standard of living is being maintained?
 Do established institutions respect human rights?
 Are there enough provisions for the education and health of the underprivileged?

Are these standards fit for the four competing models of economic organization? Why?
Why not?

Keypoints
 Economic institutions evolve to distribute efficiently and allocate goods and
service to members of society.
 A market is a place where buyers and sellers transact commercial goods and
services. It is also a mechanism used by society for allocating and distributing the
goods and services produced.
 The state, always referred to as the government, is a group of persons, more or
less numerous, with a definite geographical area, defined territorial boundaries,
independent of external control, and ruled by a government through laws where
inhabitants have to conform by force.
 In the Philippines, some products are purely market-driven. In some, the
government can intervene in production and pricing.
 In the United States, the model market economy is characterized by freedom of
choice and enterprise, private ownership of all economic resources and
prevalence of competition, while in China, the government largely controls the
industry.
 The four competing economic models that greatly affect the global community
are market economy model, state capitalist model, central planning model,
and social market economic model.

What is a group of persons that is ruled by a government through laws?

What is a mechanism used by society for allocating and distributing produced goods and services?

Which country largely controls its industries?

Which model dominates the entire economic activity of production as well as the social context?

What makes the Philippines a market-driven economy?

In what situation can a country have both a market-driven and state-controlled economy?

Which among the characteristics of a market economy model could be considered as its strength?

In a state capitalist model, what does it mean when the government has passivity towards social and
environmental issues?

Why is the central planning model considered as the best model in hindsight?

How could economic institutions and competing economic models be useful in influencing the lives
of people around the world?

Nonstate Institutions: Banks and Corporations


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

 define non-state institutions, banks, commercial banks, corporations, and articles of


incorporation,
 enumerate the different kinds of banks and non-banking institutions,
 analyze the role of banks and corporations in the economy of the country, and
 discuss the functions of banks and corporations in the economy.

 What are non-state institutions?


 How do non-state institutions such as banks and corporations affect society?

Find out the answers in this lesson!


Learn about it!
Non-state institutions
Non-state institutions refer to institutions that are organized by private individuals or
groups for the purpose of providing services to the members of society. These
institutions are not controlled by the government but are regulated through laws and
statutes of the state.

There are non-state institutions that play vital roles in the economy because they are
the ones providing the needs of the people that the government cannot provide.
However, a corresponding price or payment is needed in exchange for their services.

Typical examples are different kinds of financial institutions, specifically a bank, and
different kinds of business organizations, specifically a corporation.

Financial Institutions
Financial institutions are organizations that serve as bridges or intermediaries that
facilitate the flow of money in various transactions. This means that financial institutions
serve as links between the source of funds, the depositor, the fund user, and the
borrower.

Banks receive savings and deposits of their clients. These may be loaned out to
borrowers.

Example:

Juan dela Cruz has PhP 10,000.00, which he has saved from his salary as a manager.
He deposits it at Maharlika Bank, which offers a 2% interest per annum. This would
mean that if he does not withdraw any of his savings, he will get 10,000.00 + 2% =
10,200.00 after one year.

Now, Mr. Entrepreneur needs PhP 7,000.00 because he wants to put up a sari-sari
store. He borrows PhP 7,000.00 form Maharlika Bank.

Can you see the flow of money? Juan gets more than PhP 10,000.00 after a year. At
the same time, he is able to help Mr. Entrepreneur put up a business. These would not
have happened without the help of Mahalika Bank since Juan and Mr. Entrepreneur do
not know each other.

Banks started during the Renaissance period in Italy. The word 'bank' traces its origin
from the Old Italian word banca which means 'table' or 'bench,' and is where
transactions occurred at that time.
The role of a financial institution as a link in the transfer of money from the source to the
borrower is very important to our economy.

Banks provide safe-keeping place for money and valuables of individuals. They also
perform a role in settling payments and credit intermediation.

Banking Institutions
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas is known as the banks of all banks in the Philippines.
It is the bank responsible for the regulation, creation, and management of monetary
supply in the country.

These are the different types of banks:

 Commercial banks accept savings deposits, check deposits, and time deposits.
Examples of Philippine commercial banks are Bank of the Philippine
Islands and Metrobank.
 Thrift banks are categorized into stock savings and loan associations, savings and
mortgage banks, and private development banks. They consolidate the savings deposits
of their members into a fund from which their members can draw loans with interest.
They also accept deposits from the public and provide loans for small- and medium-
scale enterprises.
 Rural banks cater primarily to farmers and small business people, mostly in rural areas.

Corporations
A corporation is an organization of people legally bound by a charter to conduct some
type of business. It has a legal entity separate from its owners. The type of business
that a corporation wants to venture in depends on its articles of incorporation.

Articles of incorporation are written applications to the government requesting


permission to form a corporation. This will give the name, address, and type of business
for the corporation; the names of the officers, and the initial amount of money being put
into the business.

Alfred Chandler, a renowned business historian, explained how modern corporations


propelled the growth of modern economy and was fascinated on how the people that
make up large corporations managed to "coordinate complex production processes"
and "produce the wealth of the nations."

The following are the advantages of corporations as business organizations in the


economy:

 easy to raise funds–since the corporate form is the most effective for raising money
 limited liability–the concept that owners of the business are only responsible for its
debts up to the amount they invest in the business
 unlimited life–not ceasing to exist if a major stockholder dies
 specialized management–affording to have specialized managers to run the business
 shared risks–spreading business risks among many owners
The following are the disadvantages of corporations as business organizations in the
economy:

 difficult to start–needs government approval before starting the business


 less direct control–owners that are usually far from the day-to-day operation of the
business
 double taxation–corporate taxes that need to be paid by the corporation and the owner
who received dividends from the profit
 limited activities–limited activities by the article of incorporation

Explore
One of the hottest issues in the Philippine banking industry is the $81 million allegedly
stolen from the Bank of Bangladesh and laundered into the Philippines through the
banking system and casinos.

What do you think is the impact of this particular case to the Philippine banking industry
and to the whole Philippine economy? Are you in favor of the on-going investigation by
the Senate about the issue? Will you still trust our banks and big financial corporations?

Try it!
Put aside a portion of your weekly or monthly allowance in a bank. Document your
experience in opening your savings account.

What do you think?


Matthew, Mark, and John, being good buddies since high school, decided to put up a
corporation named MMJ Corp. The articles of incorporation state that they will be selling
beauty products. They borrowed money from the banks using their cars as collateral.
The first 3 years of operation became successful because they were able to dominate
the market.

As years passed, numerous competitions emerged, their sales gradually dropped, and
their profits are now dwindling and near bankruptcy. They are behind in loan payments,
owes money from suppliers, behind workers' compensations, and owes taxes to the
government.

It seems as if MMJ Corp. will go out of business. Matthew, Mark, and John are worried
that creditors will force them to turn over their personal savings and sell their cars to
have money to pay their business debt.
1. Can MMJ Corp. creditors force Matthew, Mark, and John to turn over their personal
savings and sell their cars to pay the debts? Why or why not?
2. Do you think it is fair to the three buddies? Do you think it is fair to the creditors? Explain.

Keypoints
 Non-state institutions refer to institutions that are organized by private individuals or
groups for the purpose of providing services to the members of society.
 Financial institutions are organizations that serve as bridges or intermediaries that
facilitate the flow of money.
 The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas is known as the banks of all banks in the Philippines.
 There are three kinds of banks: commercial banks, thrift banks, and rural banks.
 A corporation is an organization of people legally bound by a charter to conduct some
type of business.
 The advantages of corporations are: easy to raise funds, limited liability, specialized
management, and shared risks.
 The disadvantages of corporations are: difficult to start, less direct control, double
taxation, and limited activities.

What institutions are not controlled by the government or the state?

What is known as the bank of all banks in the Philippines?

What organization is legally bound by a charter to conduct a certain type of business?

Which of the following is not a function of a bank?

What is the primary function of a rural bank?

What does it mean when the corporation has unlimited life?

In what category of banks does a private development bank belong?

Which of the following is a primary reason why banks play significant roles in the country’s
economy?

Why is an article of incorporation important in the existence of a corporation?

Why are banks and corporations inseparable non-state institutions?

Nonstate Institutions: Cooperatives and Trade Unions


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
 define cooperatives and trade unions,
 explain the different types of cooperatives and examples of trade unions,
 enumerate the purposes of organizing cooperatives and trade unions, and
 discuss the functions of cooperatives and trade unions as non-state institutions
that promote self-help among people in society.

 Are there ways to improve the predicament of many low-income individuals who
continually struggle to meet their daily needs?
 Do people have the power to improve their lives through collective efforts?
 Is social justice attainable in this country?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Review!
Non-state Institutions
 Non-state institutions refer to systems that are organized by private individuals
or groups of people for the purpose of providing services to members of society.
The government does not control these institutions, but they are regulated by
laws and statutes of the state.
 Non-state institutions play vital roles in the economy because they are the ones
providing the special needs of the people that the government cannot easily give.
 Two crucial non-state institutions promote self-help and self-reliance among its
members and at the same time give leverage to people for development. These
are the cooperatives and trade unions.

Learn about it!


What are Cooperatives and Trade Unions?
A cooperative is a voluntary organization of people who have agreed to pool their
resources together to undertake an economic enterprise to meet their everyday needs.
A cooperative is something that they democratically manage, control, and share the
economic benefits by participation and patronage (Cooperative Development Authority,
CDA).

Trade unions or labor unions are voluntary associations of either employees,


employers, or independent workers to protect their interest and become an instrument
of defense against exploitation and maltreatment.

The commonalities of these two non-state institutions are the following:


 organized and formed by a group of people to protect their interest,
 promotes the common good among members, and
 voluntary in nature.
Below are the different types of cooperatives.

Here are some examples of trade unions.

Learn about it!


What are Cooperatives and Trade Unions?
A cooperative is a voluntary organization of people who have agreed to pool their
resources together to undertake an economic enterprise to meet their everyday needs.
A cooperative is something that they democratically manage, control, and share the
economic benefits by participation and patronage (Cooperative Development Authority,
CDA).

Trade unions or labor unions are voluntary associations of either employees,


employers, or independent workers to protect their interest and become an instrument
of defense against exploitation and maltreatment.

The commonalities of these two non-state institutions are the following:

 organized and formed by a group of people to protect their interest,


 promotes the common good among members, and
 voluntary in nature.
Below are the different types of cooperatives.
Here are some examples of trade unions.

The Differences Between Cooperatives and Trade


Unions
As to the Purpose:
As to Function:
Cooperatives and Trade Unions as Means of Promoting Self-help Towards
Economic Development
Cooperatives are self-help organizations presently utilized by the government as more
efficient tools for economic development. These are also business enterprises which
affiliates own, manage, and control following accepted democratic principles. Members
are not organized primarily for profit nor to serve other persons, but to address the
needs of their members. Memberships in cooperatives are voluntary and open to all
those who need their services. Members share economic benefits from unions in
proportion to the individual member's patronage of the business or enterprise.

Trade unions are always fighting for better wages by improving employees pay and
other benefits such as holiday entitlements.

Functions:

 Secure improvements in employees' working conditions, including hours of work,


health or safety at work, improving pensions, and industry injury benefits.
 Provide improved standards of living.
 Safeguard the interest of workers by encouraging firms to increase employee
participation in decision-making.
 Prevent employees from exploitation.
With trade union on a place, strikes can be avoided, thus resulting in stability and
growth of the firm. This promotes unity, spirit of self-reliance, and self-respect, and may
lead to economic development.

Explore!
Imagine a construction worker earning minimum wage with no additional benefits from
the employer, no security of tenure from his work, and can be terminated any time of the
day. What can cooperatives and trade unions do to improve his condition?

Try it!
Now, you are aware that cooperatives and trade unions are vital institutions in the
economy that foster self-help and self-reliance. Soon, if given a chance, what role do
you prefer to play, an employee or an employer? Why? How would you promote the
importance of cooperatives and trade unions?

What do you think?


We are aware that different kinds of cooperatives and trade unions were organized and
formed in various parts of the country, but still, some of their members are struggling
every day to meet their needs. What do you think is the reason why most cooperatives
and trade unions failed in fulfilling their functions? Are there external factors that
contribute to their failure? What do you think are these factors?

Keypoints
 Non-state institutions refer to institutions that are organized by private
individuals or groups of people for the purpose of providing services to the
members of society.
 A cooperative is a voluntary organization of persons who have agreed to pool
their resources together to undertake an economic enterprise to meet their
everyday needs.
 A trade union is a voluntary association of employees, employers, or
independent workers to protect their interest.
 The different types of cooperatives are consumer, credit, producer, marketing,
and service.
 Examples of trade unions are transport groups, workers welfare
organizations, and employers’ associations.
 The functions and purposes of organizing and establishing cooperatives and
trade unions are critical in promoting economic development.

What refers to a voluntary association of either employees, employer, or independent workers to


protect their interest and avoid maltreatment?

What type of cooperative procures and distributes commodities to members and non-members?

What is a voluntary organization of people who have agreed to pool their resources together in order
to undertake an economic plan?

How is a cooperative and trade union similar?

Every quarter of the year, the service cooperative is conducting a seminar about specialized
knowledge related to different fields of their members.

Which function of the cooperative is best described by the situation?

Which function of the trade union discusses with union officials the problems that affect workers?

What does a credit cooperative want to promote among its members?

Why are cooperatives paramount in the economic development of a particular country?

In what way do trade unions promote the interests of its members?

How do cooperatives and trade unions promote social justice in society?


Nonstate Institutions: Transnational Advocacy Groups
CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define transnational advocacy groups,


 explain the functions of transnational advocacy groups, and
 discuss the significance of transnational advocacy groups in society.
You may already know that non-state institutions exist to play its part in local and
international politics and policy-making.

Do you know the specific functions and roles these non-state institutions play in
society?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


There are numerous kinds of non-state institutions that play roles across macro-level
social concerns. One of these institutions is a transnational advocacy group which will
be discussed and elaborated in this lesson.

What are Transnational Advocacy Groups?


Transnational advocacy groups are networks, not bound by any national or
international border, that defends a cause or proposition. They are a group of people
from different walks of life who advocate for policy changes that are in line with their
interests and the interests of others.

Transnational advocacy groups are greatly established through interactive and


communicative networks across numerous countries that operate under the same
advocacy or principle. Though they may have little power in the traditional politics, they
have learned to appropriate their limited power in such a way that they can influence
social change and belief systems.

Learn about it!


What are Transnational Advocacy Groups?
Transnational advocacy groups use a variety of political tools to influence international
policy and practice. These tools are:
 information politics–the ability of groups to control or limit the release of
information so as to provide a realistic and broader picture of a certain issue;
Doing so does not necessarily guarantee a good image for the government.
 symbolic politics–linking past events to another in order to provide a possible
outcome for a similar, presently-occurring event.
 leverage politics–creating linkages with other groups to gain moral and financial
support in advocacy.
 accountability politics–monitoring the action of states to ensure their
commitment; The responsible state or company’s accountability on the matter
shall be made known to the public should any discrepancy between commitment
and result occur.
Transnational advocacy groups may be made up of non-government organizations
(NGOs), politicians, bureaucrats, or representatives from private corporations and
businesses.

Examples of Transnational Advocacy Groups


 International organizations for human rights (e.g. Center for Individual Rights)
 Non-government organizations for environmental welfare (e.g. Earth Rights
International)
 Groups advocating for women’s rights (e.g. International Women’s Tribune
Center)
Functions of Transnational Advocacy Groups
 They change political and policy-making focus: Issues raised by
transnational advocacy groups are actual issues of the common population.
Implicating moral and emotional forces, these groups refocus the most important
issues in society.
 They redefine issues: These groups, through wise use of information,
repackage issues into more general and unbiased forms. As such, positions on
various issues are influenced to change, with some being on the advocacy
networks’ favors.
 They reframe information: As mentioned, transnational advocacy groups
learned to control the flow of information to include unbiased and broader
pictures of existing issues. In doing so, a moral and emotional appeal will likely
influence people to raise their advocacy and concern for the phenomenon.
 They give a voice to the voiceless: Because of their moral and emotional
impact on the public, coupled with their advocacy for vulnerable groups,
transnational advocacy groups give the voiceless and vulnerable people a
chance to raise their concerns in the international scene.
Significance of Transnational Advocacy Groups in Society
Transnational advocacy groups have become the voice of the people in raising
important, realistic issues that a vast number of people are experiencing worldwide. In
society, these groups maintain considerable influence through information
dissemination—enough to shift the focus of states in dealing with more immediate
causes and concerns. As a result, transnational advocacy groups may change
international policy or practice to fit any raised concern or issue.
What makes transnational advocacy groups so important is their advocacy.

Explore!
Transnational advocacy groups have gained success because of their take on important
issues that are relevant in the international scene. Can you identify some of these
issues that may be advocated by such groups?

Try it!
Think of a cause that you are very much interested to advocate. Create a poster or
infographic that tells about your chosen advocacy. You may use actual drawing
materials or online software to create your poster. Be creative in making your poster.
Once finished, you may opt to upload your advocacy poster in any social media
platform.

What do you think?


How are transnational advocacy groups able to get control of information
dissemination?

Tips
 Transnational advocacy groups are made up of people with the same set of
advocacies and beliefs. Being part of support does not require any educational or
career accomplishment.
 Transnational advocacy groups may form networks that span across countries or
continents. This is the reason why they can easily involve themselves in tackling
international issues.

Keypoints
 Transnational advocacy groups are networks, not bound by any national or
international border; that defend a cause or proposition.
 Transnational advocacy groups make use of political tools such as information,
symbols, leverage, and accountability to ensure the success of their
advocacies.
 Transnational advocacy groups may be made up of non-government
organizations (NGOs), politicians, bureaucrats, or representatives from
private corporations and businesses.
 Transnational advocacy groups primarily utilize their ability to control information
in tackling international concerns and issues.
 What makes transnational advocacy groups so important is their advocacy.

What are free flowing and open relationships among knowledgeable and committed actors?

Which of the following do transnational advocacy groups use as a political tool?

Which of the following is an example of a transnational advocacy group?

How do transnational advocacy groups utilize leverage politics?

Which of the following is not a function of a transnational advocacy group?

How much power do transnational advocacy groups have over traditional politics?

Who among the following is most likely an advocate for a cause?

Which is correct about a transnational advocacy group?

1. It is made up of individuals from different social backgrounds.


2. It advocates two or more causes.
Which statement correctly describes a transnational advocacy group?

1. It cannot transcend borders.


2. Politicians may not be part of it.
What is being done when a transnational advocacy group controls information?

1. It provides a bigger picture of the issue.


2. It generates norms to be followed by advocates.

Nonstate Institutions: Development Agencies


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define development agencies,


 explain the significance of development agencies in society, and
 discuss the millennium development goals and the role of development agencies.
Some developed countries today were not what they used to be during the early to mid-
1900s. What form of assistance did these countries encounter that helped shape their
status today?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Review!
Non-state Institutions
 Non-state institutions refer to systems that are organized by private individuals
or groups of people for the purpose of providing services to members of society.
The government does not control these institutions, but they are regulated by
laws and statutes of the state.
 Non-state institutions play vital roles in the economy because they are the ones
providing some special needs of the people, something that the government
cannot easily do.

Learn about it!


Development is an issue that all nations face. While the state has always focused on
the matter, some non-state institutions also play a part in targeting specific aspects of
society for development.

What are Development Agencies?


Development agencies are local or international groups committed to pursuing specific
developmental agendas of the state. Initially seen as an immediate response to a
common emergency, the rise of such agencies began after the World War II when there
were war damage, industrial decline, and dereliction. Over time, development agencies
became popular methods of shaping economic strategies that can uplift the state. It is
reported that there are over 15,000 such organizations existing worldwide today.

These are the features and functions of a development agency:

 Economic roles: A development agency can take on entrepreneurial


approaches—mediating between the government and the market—especially
when such tasks are outside of government responsibility. As leverages are
formed, investment failures are avoided.
 Leadership roles: Development agencies set out long-term developmental
goals. As independent groups, their capability to shape goals and outcomes are
not influenced by electoral or political changes.
 Governance and coordination roles: Agencies coordinate with the state in the
attainment of developmental practices and methods. They help overcome the
jurisdiction of the public sector in making a sole decision on developmental goals.
 Implementation roles: A development agency can formulate its team to
facilitate attainment of a defined growth strategy. This team is focused on project
management, instrument development, and business or investor-facing services.
While development agencies exist to aid in the attainment of developmental goals, their
local and international functions are continuously updated and reinvented to suit the
needs of the state.

Examples of Development Agencies:

 International Development Organization


 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
 Overseas Development Institute
Significance of Development Agencies in Society
 Development agencies assist the government in attaining a well-developed
society through well-studied developmental strategies and policies.
 Development agencies exist to promote business efficiency and competitiveness
to increase economic growth and sustainable development.
 Development agencies actively provide avenues for honing employment
strategies and opportunities.
Millennium Development Goals and the Role of Development Agencies
In 2000, the United Nations (UN) sought measures to enhance human life by aiming to
attain eight developmental goals by the year 2015. The Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) project, as they are collectively called, called action and support from
nations and local and international development agencies to promote the following
causes by 2015:

1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger


2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Promote gender equality and empower women
4. Reduce child mortality
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership for development

The assistance provided by all agencies involved proved to be significant as the UN


was able to gather enough data to assess and address each MDG. However, according
to reports, further data are needed for a post-2015 development agenda that will be
tackled by the United Nations in the following years.

Explore!
Development agencies are not only limited to the local scene but also active in tackling
and addressing international policies and issues. Partnerships with such groups
continue to expand because of the seemingly successful businesses and
developmental strategies brought about by various groups on different issues.

In your perspective, what would occur if no development agencies existed to aid states?

Try it!
Read about the Millennium Development Goals and choose one of the eight major
issues tackled. Upon making your choice, try to find a movie or video clip that talks
about your chosen issue. You may watch more than one clip if you like. After watching,
try to reflect on the impact of such global concerns to your local community or country.

What do you think?


What development issues should development agencies prioritize to resolve?

Tips
 Development agencies are available and functional in any country, regardless of
that country's level of development. Wealthy and developed countries are no
exemption from needing the help of development agencies to reach their full
potentials.
 Development organizations may be based locally or abroad, and may tackle local
or international issues that are relevant to an individual nation or state.

Keypoints
 Development agencies are local or international groups committed to pursuing
specific developmental agendas of the state.
 Development agency has four functions and features,
namely: economic, leadership, governance and coordination,
and implementation.
 Development agencies assist the government in attaining a well-developed
society through well-studied developmental strategies and policies.
 The Millennium Development Goals project was created by the United Nations
in 2000 to address eight relevant issues and developmental challenges by 2015.

What are local or international groups committed to pursuing specific developmental agendas of the
state?

What was created in 2000 to address relevant issues and developmental challenges?
Which group led the Millennium Developmental Goals project?

How are development agencies initially perceived?

What role does a development agency have if it can take on entrepreneurial approaches?

Which of the following is not a part of the Millennium Development Goals?

Which is true about developmental goals?

Which is true about development agencies?

1. Their functions are limited to underdeveloped nations.


2. They are only based locally.
What is the status of development agencies at present?

1. At least 15,000 development agencies are existing worldwide today.


2. Their functions are continuously restructured and reorganized to fit the needs of the state.
Which is correct about the Millennium Development Goals?

1. Enough empirical data on the eight goals were determined.


2. A post-2015 agenda is set to be pursued following the commencement of the project.

Nonstate Institutions: International Organizations


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define international organizations,


 explain the functions of international organizations, and
 discuss the significance of international organizations in society.
You may be familiar with groups that are actively existing across various nations.
Seemingly, there is a headquarter in every country for such groups.

 What are these groups?


 What are the reasons they are situated across many countries?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Organizations that have branches in numerous countries are known as international
organizations. These organizations play a prominent role in facilitating global and
international changes and advocacies that demand the betterment of a certain cause. In
this lesson, you will learn more about international organizations and their contributions
to society.

What are International Organizations?


International Organizations are groups that promote voluntary cooperation among its
members. These started out during the rise of city-states in Greece, but significantly
emerged during the French Revolution. Further improvements on the purpose and
functions of international organizations were laid out during the early 19th century when
nations decided that such a group is needed to preserve the status quo and avoid inter-
and intra-state conflicts.

At present, international organizations may or may not be handled by the government. It


was reported that there are 6,000 non-government organizations compared to only 250
under the government.

International bureaucracies manage International Government Organizations (IGOs),


but authority remains ultimately in the state. IGOs work together with non-government
international organizations to successfully reach a common goal. However, note that in
this lesson, international organizations are only taken and discussed in the context of
non-state or non-government organizations.

What are International Organizations?


The following conditions should be met for one group to be called an international
organization:

 There must be membership from at least three states or nations.


 Activities must occur across several states.
 Members must have formally agreed to be part of the organization.
Apart from the abovementioned conditions, international organizations must also follow
the rules set by the International Law Commission to function legally as a recognized
international organization.

Examples of Non-Government International Organizations


 United Nations Environment Program
 European Union
 World Health Organization
Functions of International Organizations
 an acquaintance of information: International organizations have the capability
to access relevant information for a specific cause. They also have the capability
to monitor trends and progresses of longitudinal empirical researches.
 provide service and aid: These organizations, especially the bigger ones,
provide various types of services to people depending on the cause. For
example, an international organization tackling health may provide free vaccines
to a specific nation hit by a dangerous epidemic.
 provide avenues for communication: Being part of an international
organization means that members from different parts of the world get to easily
voice out their concerns to one another. This may lead to easier communication
and work flow.
 provide avenues for settling disputes: Because international organizations’
members continuously communicate with each other, disputes and
misunderstandings over certain issues and concerns may easily be resolved. As
such, organizations provide opportunities for communication through regular
meetings and updates.
Significance of International Organizations in Society
International organizations establish a connection to issues not only occurring in a
certain nation, but also across the organizations’ various locations. Because of this, an
international issue can be made into a cause.

People of different societies and nations—not limited to social class or status—are


made part of a global community that will aim to resolve, as one unified group, identified
international conflicts as well as provide outcomes suitable to address global issues
being tackled.

Explore!
Long-existing international groups have already made a name for themselves on the
world stage. With many issues and challenges to tackle, each international group had
made a specific focus on their cause, function, and existence.

If you were to put up your own international group, which countries would you choose to
put it up? What cause will you advocate?

Try it!
Get a piece of paper and list down all international groups that you are familiar with.
Take your time in doing so. Once finished, search online a list of other international
organizations you may not be familiar with.

What do you think?


How does an international organization operate if it is situated in different countries?

Tips
 International organizations may vary in size—dependent on the number of offices
and countries they partnered with. Some organizations are big, with
headquarters in more than 100 countries.
 International organizations, like development agencies, may also put a focus on
developed countries. While most international organizations’ agendas are
focused more on developing countries, the aim to target a rich and well-
developed country is also plausible.

Keypoints
 International Organizations are groups that promote voluntary cooperation
among its members.
 The following conditions should be met for one group to be called an
international organization: (1) there must be membership from at least three
states or nations, (2) activities must occur across several states, and (3)
members must have formally agreed to be part of the organization.
 Functions of international organizations include: an acquaintance of
information, provide service and aid, provide avenues for communication, and
provide avenues for settling disputes.
 International organizations establish a connection to issues not only occurring
in a certain nation but also across the organizations’ various locations. Because
of this, an international issue can be made into a cause.

What groups have branches in at least three countries and promote voluntary cooperation among
members?
Where did international organizations begin?
What is the governing body for the operations of international organizations?
Which of the following is true regarding membership in an international organization?
Which of the following is not a function of an international organization?
What is denoted by an international organization’s size?
What is one main requirement in putting up an international organization?
Which is true about an international organization?

1. The government may run it.


2. It is only based in developing countries.
Which is true regarding international organizations?

1. They can only focus on developing countries.


2. They always require government assistance.
Which statement correctly describes international organizations?

1. There are less non-government organizations than government-handled ones.


2. All organizations are big.
Education: Functions in Society
CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define education as a fundamental human right,


 explain the functions of education in society,
 evaluate the effect of education in one’s and society’s growth and development,
and
 help promote primary education as a human right.
“Education is a right for developed countries and a privilege for developing countries.”

 Why is education a right?


 What makes education important?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Education
Education is a fundamental human need by which human existence of striving and
developing depends on.

 Education is a fundamental right.


 Education is a process of learning.
If put together, the equation would be:

Education + Right = A right to an education.

When put into effect, education helps people acquire knowledge, skills, values, beliefs,
and habits to communicate better with himself or herself, society, and the world.

Formal and Non-formal Education


Formal education happens inside a classroom and facilitated by a professional
teacher. It is a classroom-based, structured, and sequentially graded system. It includes
primary, secondary, undergraduate, and graduate schools.

Non-formal education is any learning experience or training outside the organized


formal system. This type of teaching may include attending seminars, workshops, and
community-based sports program. Unlike formal education which is based on concrete
structure or curriculum, non-formal education follows less structured guidelines.
Functions of Education in Society
Education does not only serve an individual, but also the society where one belongs.
Formal or non-formal, it is an avenue where people acquire the knowledge needed in
dealing with the demands of daily living.

Here, people learn religion, philosophy, law, grammar, history, literature, arithmetic,
music, arts, and sciences. Through education, learners learn values desired to survive
and face challenges which happen on a regular basis.

Skills are also taught in school. Students are exposed to activities like singing, dancing,
encoding, selling, and other life skills. When all these are applied, people are led to
community-building.

Effects of Education in Society


Education contributes to the economic progress and social environment in a community
or society.

Self-actualization
Lifelong learning or education may lead a learner in attaining self-actualization. Self-
actualization, in Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, is considered as the highest
level of human need. It is becoming everything that one is capable of. Self-actualization
is manifested when individuals experience real and passionate joy and wonder.
Following these experiences of joy and wonder is people becoming exposed to
inspiration, power, or transformation.

Productive Citizenry
Education helps society produce informed, responsible, and capable citizens.
Productive citizens are those who work and maximize their potentials and skills. They
are those who contribute to the realization of individuals and collective success.

Primary Education as a Human Right


The right to education is a universal prerogative to education. Everyone has the right to
education. Regardless of your race, age, gender, ethnicity, disability or status, you are
entitled to enjoy this fundamental human right.

International Legal Basis


 The right to education is on Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights and Articles 13 and 14 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social,
and Cultural Rights.
 The right to education has been reaffirmed in the 1960 UNESCO Convention
against Discrimination in Education, the 1981 Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the 2006 Convention on the Rights
of Persons with Disabilities, and the African Charter on Human and Peoples'
Rights.
 In Europe, Article 2 of the first Protocol of 20 March 1952 to the European
Convention on Human Rights states that the right to education is "recognized as
a human right and is understood to establish an entitlement to education."
Fulfillment or Implementation
The 21st century has been a witness to the progress that global education underwent.
Presently, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, more than four out five can
read and write. Illiteracy, on the other hand, translates to 757 million adults and 115
million youth worldwide.

These trends of global and sustainable education and decreasing illiteracy figures are
the result of growing calls and programs for upholding education as a fundamental
human right. Despite the aforementioned, poverty, inaccessibility, and lack of political
initiative remain on the scene, and if left unresolved, might suppress future
improvements.

Explore!
Is attending class for five days in a week essential in your life? Why or why not?

Cite some daily experiences which prove that education is important in one’s life.

Try it!
Why is education important in your life? Write at least five reasons.

What do you think?


What is education’s biggest contribution to society’s growth and development?

Keypoints
 Education is a basic human right. It helps man acquire knowledge, skills, values,
beliefs, and habits to communicate better with himself, the society, and the world
leading to progress and development.
 Formal education is a classroom-based, structured and sequentially graded
system of education.
 Non-formal education is any learning experience or training outside the
organized formal system.
 Self-actualization is manifested when individuals experience real and
passionate joy and wonder.
 The productive citizenry is achieved through political, social, and economic
development.

What is the process of facilitating learning?

What is a classroom-based, structured, and sequentially graded system of education?

What refers to any educational activity which is not structured and takes place outside the formal
system?

Randy will attend a seminar about the effects of World War II in the Philippines next month.

What type of education is apparent?


Mary is in her seventh grade, attends classes daily, and works hard to get good grades in her eight
subjects.

What type of education is evident?

Who among the following can be considered a productive citizen?

Which of the following does not fall under formal and non-formal education?

In which statement is self-actualization manifested?

What do people earn through the fulfillment of their right to education?

Why is education a primary human right?

Religion and Belief Systems: Animism


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 recognize animism as an essential belief system, and


 recognize how animism is expressed in other religions of the world.

 What is animism?
 How did animism influence the growth and development of the major religions of the
world?

Find out the answers in this lesson!


Learn about it!
Animism and its Beliefs
Animism is the belief that all natural entities have spirits or souls. It views all things like
animals, plants, and inanimate objects as sacred life forms. In the ancient times, people
worshipped nature for adoration, blessings, thanksgiving, and protection. They prayed
for sustained abundant harvest, good health, good fortune, and peace in their
community.

Animism is an act of respect. In animism, all things are to be honored. Our human
ancestors displayed this through rites like offering sacrifices, dancing, and praying in
dedication to spirits, souls, nature, and even rivers, mountains, the sun, moon, and
stars.

Origin of Animism
Animism came from the Latin word anima which means 'breath', 'spirit', and 'life.'

It is widely believed that the inception of animism can be traced back to the ancient
times before organized religions were formed. Because of its primitive beginnings,
animism is regarded as the foundation of the spiritual life of all cultures. Due to its
unrecorded history, no one is credited as its founder.

Early inhabitants of traditional hunting-gathering, agricultural, or pastoral territories were


believed to have practiced animism. To name a few, Indonesia, China, Thailand,
Philippines, and other Southeast Asian territories were the cradles of animism in the
olden times. Before Christianity, ancient Filipinos worshipped spirits in nature to
appease them and to provide them with life-sustaining resources.

Animism: Religion or Belief System?


Animism is not like any of the major religions of the world. It has no worship site or
structure, unlike the mosques of Muslims or church of the Christians. It does not
possess scriptures like Qur’an of the Muslims or Bible of the Christians. It cannot
provide us with statistics about how much it is practiced now and then.

According to anthropologist E. B. Tylor, animism is a theory of religion and is not a type


of religion. Some academics argued that the use of this term to pertain to the
indigenous belief of existence of spirits in inanimate objects is no longer appropriate and
necessary. These reasons are why debates about its nature exist.

Religion is an organized system of beliefs and practices that explains the cause,
nature, and purpose of the universe. It involves societal organization and moral code
that governs human affairs and order of existence. For every religion, there is a belief
system. Belief systems are sets of principles that help interpret natural and
supernatural occurrences that affect lives.
No religion exists without a belief system. However, belief systems may exist with or
without religion or an organized entity.

Animism Today
Today, animism is not practiced in isolation but expressed in many forms and observed
in both modern and traditional settings. Manifested by their respect and worship rites for
natural elements, religions around the globe clearly apply teachings of the primitive
religion. Hinduism, Jainism, and Shintoism are some religions whose beliefs and
practices subscribes to that of animism's.

Shintoism, the native religion of Japan, worships the existence of natural objects such
as mountains, rivers, rocks, and trees.

Hinduism, which originated in India, believes that the earth is an expression of their
gods and therefore must be preserved and venerated.

Jainism, a traditional Indian religion, observes non-violence towards all creatures.

Explore!
What are your thoughts about animism? Do you find it worth applying in your life?

Try it!
Write four personal experiences or situations wherein your actions subscribed to the
teachings of animism.

What do you think?


How does respect for inanimate objects help people build a moral attitude?

Keypoints
 Animism is the belief that all natural entities have spirits or souls. It views all things, like
animals, plants, and inanimate objects, as sacred life forms.
 Religion is an organized system of beliefs and practices that explains the cause, nature,
and purpose of the universe. It involves societal organization and a moral code that
governs human affairs and order of existence.
 A belief system is a set of principles that helps interpret natural and supernatural
occurrences that affect lives.
 Shintoism is the native religion of Japan which worships the existence of natural objects
such as mountains, rivers, rocks, and trees.
 Hinduism is a religion that believes that the earth is an expression of their gods and
must therefore be preserved and venerated.
 Jainism is a traditional Indian religion known for observing non-violence towards all
creatures.
 Animism is not practiced in isolation but expressed in many forms and observed in both
modern and traditional settings.
 Early inhabitants of Indonesia, China, Thailand, and other rice-growing or agriculture-
based territories were believed to have practiced animism. People worship nature for
adoration, blessings, thanksgiving, and protection.

Which among the following religions observes non-violence against all creatures?

What is the belief that all natural entities have spirits or souls?

What is animism?

Which among the following religions believes that the earth is an expression of their gods?

Which is true about animism?

Who among the following expresses adherence to animistic beliefs?

Which is not a reason why animists worship nature?

Why is Shintoism said to adhere to animistic beliefs?

Why is the practice of animistic belief important?

Which statement is true about the origin of animism?

Religion and Belief Systems: Monotheism and Polytheism


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

 classify major religions of the world as either monotheism or polytheism, and


 discuss the differences between monotheism and polytheism.

 How does monotheism differ from polytheism?


 Which of the existing religions belong to monotheism? Which belong to polytheism?
Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Religion and Belief System
Religion is a set of beliefs and practices that provides its followers with an explanation
or narration of how the universe, nature, and existence works.

Every existing organized religion has its unique belief system. Belief systems are sets
of principles that help interpret natural and supernatural occurrences that affect lives.

Theism
Theism is a category of religion that means 'the belief in the existence of a god,
goddesses, or deities.' It comes from the Greek word theos, which means 'god.' Theism
is one of the principles that binds the belief system of religions of the world. In religion,
these deities and gods are supernatural beings who are believed to be sacred or divine
creators, rulers of the universe, and sources of ethical authority.

Under theism, a religion may be a form of monotheism or polytheism. In a polytheistic


religion, gods and goddesses are usually referred to as "deities" as opposed to the
usual term of "creator" or "supreme being" of monotheistic religions.

Monotheism
Monotheism is the belief that there is only one god to be worshiped as the supreme
being. The word 'monotheism' was derived from the Greek word monos, which means
'one', and theos which means 'god.'

The beginning of monotheistic religions can be traced back to ancient Egypt during the
rule of Pharaoh Akhenaton who propagated the belief in one god. The denial of
existence of other religions' gods is a feature of monotheism.

Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are organized religions known to be a form of


monotheism. Considered as the world’s largest religion with 2.4 billion
followers, Christianity is based upon the teachings of Jesus Christ who is believed to
be the Son of God and Savior of Humanity.

Judaism is a religion that started in West Asia and founded by Moses. Its beginning,
though, can be traced back to the time of Abraham. Jews believed in the existence of
only one god with whom they have a covenant.

Islam, just like Judaism and Christianity, is an Abrahamic and monotheistic religion that
follows the teachings of Qur’an, their sacred text, revealed by Allah to their prophet
Mohammad. It is the world’s second largest religion with 1.6 billion followers worldwide.
Polytheism
Polytheism is the worship of many gods. The word 'polytheism' was derived from the
Greek word poly, which means 'many,' and theos which means 'god.'

Polytheism has always been equated with pluralism as it engages and promotes
acceptance, diversity, and tolerance of differences. Polytheistic religions are known to
embrace the existence of the gods of other religions.

Hinduism is the best modern example of a form of polytheism, having known to


worship over 300 million gods. Started in India 400 years ago, it is the world’s oldest
existing religion.
Explore!
Try to make observations on the beliefs and practices of monotheistic and polytheistic
religions that exist in various countries, including ours. You may also check video
resources available online. Analyze your observations to have a deeper understanding
of monotheism and polytheism.

Try it!
Think of essential things you can learn from being a follower of monotheism or
polytheism. Write at least three (3) on the table.

What do you think?


 How does monotheism or polytheism affect the society where it is being practiced?
 In your opinion, is the number of gods one worships a measure of one’s faith?

Keypoints
 Religion is a set of beliefs and practices that provides its followers with an explanation
or narration of how the universe, nature, and existence works.
 Belief systems are set of principles that help interpret natural and supernatural
occurrences that affect lives.
 Theism is the belief in the existence of a god or gods. Theism is a category of religion,
and under it are monotheism and polytheism.
 Deities and gods are supernatural beings who are believed to be sacred, divine
creators and rulers of the universe, and sources of ethical authority.
 Monotheism is the belief that there is only one god to be worshiped as the supreme
being. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are examples of monotheistic religions.
 Polytheism is worshipping more than one god. Hinduism and Shinto are examples of
polytheistic religions.

What is the belief in the existence of a god or gods?

What pertains to worshipping more than one god?

What is the belief that there is only one god?

Which of the following adheres to a monotheistic religion?

Which is a polytheistic religion?

Which religion is a form of polytheism?

In which statement is not suggestive of theism?

What does polytheistic religion teach people?

What good do monotheistic and polytheistic religions bring to people?

How should people react to differences in religion or belief systems?

Religion and Belief Systems: Institutionalized Religions


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 define and explain institutionalized religion as part of the belief system,


 describe the similarities and differences among organized religions in the
Philippines, and
 analyze the roles an institutionalized religion plays in an individual and society.
In the Philippines, children are taught by their parents on what religion to write down in
any school form. They will often continue to declare their given religion until they fully
understand their beliefs.

What does the given scenario imply?

Find out the answer in this lesson!

Learn about it!


Religion and Belief Systems
Let us take the general and straightforward meaning of religion and belief system.

Belief System
 It is an ideology or set of principles that helps people to interpret everyday reality.
This ideology could be in the form of religion, philosophy, political affiliation, or
spirituality, among many others.
 It defines people's personal sense of "reality." Every person has a belief system
that he or she utilizes, and it is through this mechanism that he or she individually
"makes sense" of the world.
Religion
 It originated from the Latin word religo which means 'ritual' or 'good faith' and
from the Greek word threskeia which means 'to tie fast or bind together.'
 It focuses on the creator-creature relationship or connection. It revolves around
the thought of how the creator relates to his creation, especially humanity, and
how humanity ought to relate to the creator.
Religion is limitless and open. It is something that exists as time exists but, when
changed or tampered with or separated and ripped in different directions, becomes
an institutionalized religion.

Institutionalized Religion
 It is formed by a sect, meaning, it is closed but not limitless.
 It is also known as organized religion, a social institution established to express
people's belief in a divine power. Its beliefs, practices, and rules are formally
organized and codified.
Determined by their number of followers and believers, the Philippines' leading
institutionalized religions are Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, and Buddhism.

Each organized religion has its unique belief system.

Buddhism
Buddhists believe that all beings suffer, desire causes suffering, desires can be
overcome, and that enlightenment or ultimate reality may be achieved.

Islam
Muslims believe that there is only one god, Allah, and one prophet, Muhammad.

Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholics believe that both the Bible and sacred Roman Catholic tradition, such
as belief in the purgatory, prayers to saints, and worship of Mary are necessary.

Protestantism
Protestants believe in the sufficiency and authority of the Scripture for salvation.
Religious Rituals and Practices
What are some of the rituals and practices of different institutionalized religions?

Protestantism
Protestant churches' necessary rites are the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's
supper. The worship of images and statues is prohibited.

Roman Catholicism
The Catholic church has many rituals and practices like the holy mass, baptism,
confession, receiving communion, praying the rosary, and anointing of the sick. The
Mass is the most important ritual among Catholics because it seen as a celebration of
God's grace.

Islam
Islam's practices include daily confession of faith through prayers five times a day,
almsgiving, fasting on Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their
lifetime.

Buddhism
Buddhism rituals and practices include meditation, eating vegetarian meals, going for
refuge, offering homage or respect to the Buddha, making offerings, confession of
faults, calling on spiritual forces for support or protection, and a dedication of merit.

The Roles of Institutionalized Religions in Society


Institutionalized religions aim to provide people with answers to their questions about
life, nature, or existence. These social institutions gather people to have a common
system of symbols, beliefs, values, and practices. Organized religion is more than just
mere beliefs and practices. It is a socialization agent who helps a group to form a
particular identity of their own and gives people sense of belongingness. Religions
make people intact out of their similarities.

Religions may have differences in beliefs and practices, but they sure do share the
same goals of uniting people, and understanding existence.

Explore!
Many grown adults consistently institutionalize a particular religion despite being
agnostics or atheists. They consider themselves part of that religion simply because
their parents are, or because they are baptized into it. This is what happens when
religion has become established in society. Even when the fundamental beliefs in the
religion have faded, its numbers remain high as a result of people's habitual form-filling
behaviors.

What are your thoughts on these?


Try it!
Ask a friend whose religion is different from yours to invite you in to their religious
service. After attending, compare and contrast the beliefs and practices of your religion
and your friend's. List down at least three differences and similarities.

What do you think?


What do people get from being a part of a particular religion? Why does it matter in
people's lives?

Key Points
 Religion focuses on the creator-creature relationship or connection.
 A belief system is an ideology or set of principles that helps people to interpret
their everyday reality. This ideology could be in the form of religion, philosophy,
political affiliation, or spirituality.
 An institutionalized religion is a social institution established to express
people's belief in a divine power wherein beliefs, practices, and rules are formally
organized and codified.

What binds together the creator and his creations?

What is an ideology or set of principles that helps people to interpret their everyday reality?

Which social institution is established to express people’s belief in a divine power?

Allie prays five times in a day, specifically at dawn, midday, afternoon, sunset, and evening. Her
position is always directed at the Kaaba shrine in Mecca.

What is Abdul’s institutionalized religion?


Lucy believes that the saint can serve as the mediator between God and man.

In what religious institution does Lucy belong?


Norika is living a simple life away from worldly possessions. Aside from that, she also meditates on a
regular basis to free her mind of negative thoughts.

What may be Norika’s religious sect?


During the class debate, Raul firmly defends his side that the Bible is a complete compilation of
books and, if teachings are followed strictly, it is sufficient for one's salvation.

What group denomination does he belong to?

Why is religion important to people?


Which of the following statements is true?

1. Religion is universal.
2. Humans established institutionalized religions.
Which of the following statements is true?

1. Faith-based belief systems lack physical evidence.


2. Institutionalized religion is used to build an evidence-based belief system.

Religion and Belief Systems: Separation of Church and State


CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

 explain the concept of the separation of Church and State, and


 identify the manifestations of the separation of Church and State.

 How did the concept of the separation of Church and State come about?
 What are the manifestations of the separation of Church and State?

Find out the answers in this lesson!

Learn about it!


The Separation of Church and State
The church is a social institution composed of a group of people formed for religious
purposes. The state, on the other hand, is a community occupying a certain territory
occupied by a population of common origin that has its own government which is free
from foreign control.

The separation of church and state means freedom from each other. This principle
draws a line between these two institutions. The state has a freedom to conduct
activities, enact laws, or enforce rules and regulations without the church interfering. On
the other hand, the church can implement its ecclesiastical affairs without the influence
of the state. in other words, the government cannot support a religion, endorse religious
beliefs, or involve people to practice a specific faith.

Historical Background
In ancient history, leaders of early societies are deemed to have some form of divinity
that legitimized their rule. During this period, religion and state seems to be intertwined.
Later on, as religion and government became separate institutions (based on the history
of Europe and the Roman Catholic religion), frequent struggles of power between the
two could be seen, especially during the medieval period. It was during the period of
Reformation and Enlightenment that the modern concept of separation of church and
state began to take shape. Enlightenment philosophers such as Locke, Montesquieu,
and Voltaire tackled this concept and made numerous writings about religion and
government.

The Age of Enlightenment is said to be influential to the drafting of the Constitution of


the United States. The exact term “separation of church and state” was used by
Thomas Jefferson in 1802 in a letter addressed to the Baptists as he tried to explain to
them the First Amendment of the United States Constitution about the freedom to
exercise religion without the interference of the government.

In laying the foundation of a strong state, to avoid division in the society caused by
differences in religious beliefs, and to prevent the establishment of a national church,
United States forefathers considered the separation of the two societal institutions.

The Separation of Church and State Today


When it comes to the talk of the separation of church and state, the world is divided.

Following the principle that the government should not, in any way, form interaction with
a church, countries which adhere to the concept include the United States, Australia,
India, and South Korea. It is noteworthy that these countries practice the separation of
church and state differently or in varying degrees of separation.

As opposed to the concept, certain countries like Spain and Islamic states declare
official religion. Spain is officially a Roman Catholic state just like the Vatican, Monaco,
and Malta. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Libya, Pakistan declared Islam as a state religion.
Teaching and practicing ideas contrary to the national religion is considered illegal in
some countries. Such act can be seen as an anti-government behavior and may be a
basis for one’s imprisonment or death.

Learn about it!


The Separation of Church and State in the Philippines
In Article 2, Section 6 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution, the fundamental law of the
land, it is stated that the separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. In the
Constitution, the word “Church” refers to all kinds of faith and the word “State” refers to
our country, the Philippines. What does it mean to the country and to the Filipinos? See
diagram below.
Issues Regarding the Separation of Church and State
According to some, the existence of the concept of the separation of Church and State
is a myth. Questions still linger and remain unanswered. Is it not true that the United
States was founded as a Christian nation? Is it not true that Philippine politics influence
by how religious groups operate? Does this concept discriminate the religious
minorities?

Despite the existence of a wall that divides these institutions, it is important to keep in
mind that this wall is not hostile or discriminatory, at least in most countries. They are
just there to define limitations and set up order in society in order to avoid conflict of
interests.

Explore!
Cite events or instances wherein the principle of separation of church and state is
upheld or violated. What good does this principle bring to society?

Try it!
Are you for or against the separation of church and state? Cite your arguments.
What do you think?
What kind of society will we have if the separation of church and state is not
safeguarded by the 1987 Philippine Constitution?

Keypoints
 The church is a social institution composed of a group of people formed for religious
purposes.
 The state is a community occupying a certain population of common origin that has its
own government which is free of foreign control.
 The constitution is the fundamental law of the land.
 The separation of church and state is a principle based on the idea that the state has
freedom to conduct activities, enact laws, or enforce rules and regulations without the
Church interfering. On the other hand, the church can implement its ecclesiastical affairs
without the influence of the state.

What is composed of a group of people formed for religious purposes?

What is occupies a certain territory with a population that has its own government?

What is the fundamental law of the land?

What does the separation of church and state mean?

In Article 2, Section 6 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution, it is stated that the separation of church
and state shall be inviolable.

In the provision, what does the word “inviolable” mean?

What is the primary reason for applying the separation of church and state our country?

What does the statement, “The state shall have no official religion" mean?

In which statement is the principle of separation of church and state manifested?

Why is the separation of church and state deemed important in Philippine society?

Which statement contradicts the principle of the separation of church and state?