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# Lesson-2

## MAGNETICS EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

Oersted in 1820 by observing the deflection of compass needle when it is brought near a current carrying
conductor discovered that a current carrying conductor produces magnetic field in space surrounding it. This
field is described by vector B called magnetic induction, flux density or simply field vector with units Wb/m2
or tesla. In case of current carrying conductor it is computed either with the help of Biot-Savart law or
Ampere’s law.

Biot Savart law is magnetic analogue of Coulomb’s law while Ampere’s law is analogous to Gauss’s law.

BIOT-SAVART LAW
This law provides a method for calculating the magnetic induction at any point in space around a conductor
carrying a current. If a small element of length dl of a long conductor carries a current I, the magnetic field
or magnetic induction dB at any point P at a distance r is given by Biot-Savart law as

 μ  I dl  r
dB   0  ·
 4π  r3
Here r is the position vector of the point P from the centre of the element of length dl. If  is the angle which
OP makes with the length of small element of the conductor, the magnitude of magnetic induction is given by

 0  I dl ( r sin θ) 
| dB | = 4   ( dl × r = dl r sin )
 r3 
I
 0  I dl (sin θ) 
| dB | = 4  
 r2  
dl   P
O r
where 0 is the permeability of free space and

0
 10  7 Weber/ampere/metre
4
The direction of dB is perpendicular to the plane of line tangential to the current element dl and radius
vector r which joins dl to P.

The total magnetic induction for the conductor, B  dB . The unit of magnetic induction B is

Weber/metre2 or tesla.

## 1 Tesla = 1 Weber / metre2 = 1 Newton / ampere metre.

The magnetic intensity H at any point in the magnetic field is related to the magnetic induction as
B
H or B =  H

where  is permeability of the medium. The unit of magnetic intensity H is ampere / metre.

## Maxwell’s Cork Screw Rule: If a right handed cork screw is

rotated so that its tip moves in the direction of flow of current
through the conductor, then the direction of rotation of the head of
the screw gives the direction of magnetic lines of force.
Right Hand Rule :If the conductor is held in the right hand such
that the thumb points in the direction of the current, the direction
in which the fingers curl gives the direction of the magnetic field.

## APPLICATIONS OF BIOT-SAVART LAW

1. Magnetic Induction due to Long Straight Current Carrying Conductor : Consider
the current I flowing through a long current carrying conductor. If a small element CD of the conductor
has a length dl, then the field dB at P due to this conductor is given by Biot-Savart law as :
 0 I dl sin 
| dB | =
4x 2

where x is the distance between the current element CD and point P and  is the angle between CD
and line joining it with the point P. The total magnetic field B is given by

 0 I dl sin 
B  dB   4 x 2
C

E
D
DE d
If DE is  CD, then in  CDE, sin  = x
CD

DE O
r
dl = P
sin 
0 I DE sin   DE
B=  sin   2
 0 
4 x 4 x2

DE
As CPD = d = or DE = xd
x

r 1 cos 
Also in OPD,  cos  or 
x x r
0 I x d  I cos  d
B=  2
 0 
4 x 4 r

0 I
B=
4r  cos  d  ...(i)

The magnetic induction for different lengths of conductors can be found from equation (i) as follows :

(i) A conductor of infinite length : In this case,  varies from  to  2 , when point P lies on
2
the middle point of conductor,
π
2
 I 0I
B 0  cos  d 
4r π
2 r
2

## (ii) A conductor of finite length : If the conductor subtends

an angle 1 above horizontal line OP and 2 below OP for
finite length EF of the conductor,
1
0 I 0 I  I
B
4r  cos  d = 4 r
 

sin  12  0 [sin 1  sin  2 ]
4 r
2

## (iii) At the end of a conductor of infinite length : Here 2 is 0 angle 1 is /2,

π
2
 I 0 I
B 0  cos  d 
4r 0
4r

(iv) At one end of a conductor of finite length : Angle 2 is 0 and angle 1 =

0 I  0 I sin 
 B  4r  cos  d  4r
0

## (v) If point P lies along length of the conductor, then B at P is zero.

2. Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Current Carrying Circular Coil : If a current I is flowing in a
circular coil of radius R and centre O, then the strength of the magnetic field dB due to an element AC
of length dl at the circumference of the coil at a point P on its axis at a distance r is given by Biot-
Savart Law as :

0  I dl  r 
dB   3
 where r is
4  r  dl C Y
A dB
r
a vector from OC to P. R P X
O x
The direction of dB at P is perpendicular to the line
joining P to AC. As the angle between dl and r is 90º, dB
dB can be resolved into one rectangular compound
dB cos  along PY and another rectangular component
dB sin along PX.
As there is a symmetrical element A' C' on the lowest portion of the coil which will have field dB of
equal to magnitude at P which can be resolved into a rectangular component dB cos  along PY' and
a rectangular component dB sin  along PX, As the components of field along PY and PY' are equal
in magnitude and opposite in direction, these cancel each other for all such symmetrical elements. The
resultant field B is therefore along the axis of the coil and it is given by :
0 I dl
|B | =  dB sin   4  r2
sin 

R  ·I ·R
As sin   , | B | 0 3  dl
r 4r

 0 I R  2 R 0 I R 2
 B =
4r 3
=
2 r3
  dl  2R 
0 I R 2
B= 3
2( R 2  x 2 ) 2

## (i) If the coil has n turns of the coil,

0n I R 2
|B|  3
2( R 2  x 2 ) 2

0n I R 2
(ii) The field at centre of the coil with x equal to zero = B0 =
2 R3
0n I
B0 
2R

0 n I R 2
2 2
(iii) If the point P is at a very large distance from the coil and x >> R , Bx =
2 x3
If A is area of one turn of the coil, A = R2
0n I A
 Bx 
2 x 3
A circular loop carrying current behaves like a magnetic dipole placed along the axis of the coil.

S N

If the current in one of the faces appears flowing in clockwise direction, it behaves as a south pole and
if the same face is observed from the opposite side, the current flows on this face in an anticlockwise
direction which behaves as a north pole.

3. Magnetic Field Due to Circular arc: Consider a current I flowing through a circular arc wire of
radius r. The magnetic field dB produced by the current I through element dl at point C from Biot
Savart law is :

   I dl
 I dl r sin   
  I | dl  r |   0 
| dB |  0     2     0 I dl r
4  r
3
 4  r 3  4r 2 

  C

 
 dl  r  dl  r  sin 
 2
0 I 0 I  
The magnetic induction B due to circular arc =  dl   r  0 
4r 2 4r 2
4r
For semicircular loop  = 

0 I
 B=
4r

The direction of B in case of circular current carrying conductors or current carrying closed loop can
be calculated as follows:

If the direction of current coincides with the direction of the curl of fingers of right hand, the stretched
thumb points in the direction of field inside loop.

## 4. Magnetic Field Inside a Current Carrying Solenoid :

S N
A large number of turns of insulated wire can be wound in
the form of helix on a long cylindrical frame which is known
as a solenoid. When a current is passed through such a
solenoid, the magnetic field is produced inside as well as
outside the solenoid.

Biot-Savart law can be used to calculate the magnetic field at any point due to the current flowing in a
solenoid. If a current I is flowing in a solenoid of n turns, then the magnetic field dB produced by this
current at a point P on the axis, due to the current through the portion of the solenoid lying between
angle  and  + d w.r.t. axis PD, is obtained by using Biot-Savart Law. Consider an element AB of
coil of width dx located at a distance x from the point where the magnetic field due to solenoid is to be
measured. Let n be number of turns per unit length.
 The magnetic field dB at point P due to elementary coil is

 0 Nir 2  0 n dx ir 2
dB = 3
 3 dx
2 (r 2  r 2 ) 2
2 (r 2  x 2 ) 2
C A B D
 
where total number of turns, N = ndx for the element. r
  O
X
In OPB, x = r cot , dx = – r cosec2  P

##  0 nir 2 ( rcosec 2 / d)

 dB = 3 x
2( r 2  x 2 cot 2 ) 2

 0 nir 3 cosec 2  d
=–
2r 3 cosec 3 

 0 n i sin  d 
=–
2
If the ends of the solenoid D and C subtend angles 1 and 2 with respect to the positive direction PX
of the axis of the solenoid, then the net magnetic field at P on the axis due to the solenoid is
θ1
0n I 0 n I θ1
B  dB  
2  sin  d  2
cos θ2
θ2

0n I
|B| 
2

cos 1  cos  2 
If the solenoid is of infinite length, 1 = 0, 2 = 180º
0n I 2 0 n I
 B
2

1  (1) 
2
  0n I

The magnetic field at the end of last turn for 1 = 90º and 2 = 180 is given by
0 n I  nI
B
2

0  ( 1)  0
2

The magnetic field at the end of the first turn for 1 = 0 and 2 = 90 is
0n I  nI
B
2

1 0  0
2

## FORCE ON A CHARGED PARTICLE IN MAGNETIC FIELD

If a particle of charge q travels with a velocity v in a uniform magnetic field B, it experiences a force F called
as the Lorentz force given by

F = q(v × B)

| F | = q vB sin 
Y
The direction of F is perpendicular to that of v and B. Thus if
v
the magnetic field is acting along y-axis on charge +q moving B

## with velocity v in x–y plane making an angle  with the direction 

of B, the charged particle experiences a Lorentz Force F along +q
z axis which is mutually perpendicular to B and v. O X

F F = q (v × B)
B Z
q v sin 

## If q = 1 coulomb, v = 1 m/s sin  = 1 for  = 90º, F = 1 Newton

 B = 1 Testla = 1 Weber / m2
Thus 1 tesla is defined as the unit of magnetic field strength in S.I. units which when acting on one coulomb
of charge moving with a velocity of 1 m/s at right angles to the magnetic field deflects it with a force of 1
newton in a direction perpendicular to that of field and velocity vectors. C.G.S. unit of magnetic field strength
or magnetic induction is 1 gauss or 1 Oersted.
1 gauss = 1 oersted = 10–4 tesla.
Trajectory of a charged particle in a Magnetic Field
(i) If the direction of v of charged particle is parallel
( = 0) or antiparallel ( = 180º) to B, F = 0, the
trajectory of a particle is a straight line.

## (ii) If v is perpendicular to B i.e. = 90º, F = Bqv and the

direction of this maximum force is always
perpendicular to v. The trajectory of the charged
particle is a circular path.
(iii) If the particle makes an angle  with the field which lies between 0º and 90º, the particle moves
in a helix due to the component v sin  which is perpendicular to B and makes the charged
particle move along a circular path whereas the component v cos , which is parallel to B,
makes it move along a straight line with the result that the charged particle moves along a helical
path due to the superposition of two motions.

If a particle of mass m and charge q moves in a magnetic field B with speed v in a circular path,
the magnetic force provides the centripetal force.
m v2 v Bq
Bqv = or ω  
r r m
Bq 2 m
Frequency f = , time period = T = Bq
2m
T is independent of v.
If a particle with charge q moves with a speed v where both the electric field E and magnetic
field B are present, the resultant force F is given by
F = q(E + v × B)

Force on a current Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field: Through experiments Ampere established
that when a current element of length dl is placed in magnetic field B, it experiences a force
Y
dF = I dl × B, where I is current through the element
B
If dl and B are inclined at an angle  with each other,
I X
| dF | = BIdl sin .
O
If B is uniform over the length of the conductor, L

F = I (|L × B|) F
 |F| = BIL sin 
Z
where L is the length of the conductor. The direction of force (which is given by Fleming’s left hand
rule) is always perpendicular to the plane containing the conductor and the magnetic field.
Fleming’s Left Hand Rule: If the left hand is stretched in such
a manner that the thumb and the first two fingers of the left hand Force
are stretched mutually perpendicular to each other and if the first
finger is pointed in the direction of the field and the second (middle) Field
finger is pointed in the direction of the current, then the direction
of thumb gives the direction of force. Current

Magnetic Force between Two Long Parallel Current Carrying Conductors: Any current carrying
conductor produces a magnetic field around it. If another current carrying conductor is placed near the first
one, the second conductor will experience a force due to magnetic field produced by the first conductor.
Similarly, the first conductor will experience a force due to the magnetic field produced by the second
conductor. Thus both current carrying conductors exert force on each other due to the effects of their
magnetic fields. The conductors attract each other if their currents are in the same direction and these repel
each other if their currents are in opposite direction.

I1
I1 I2

F F
P F

B2

If there are two long parallel straight current carrying conductors P and Q placed at a distance r from each
other in the plane of the paper so that the respective currents I1 and I2 are flowing through these.

 0 I1
The magnetic field B1 at Q due to conductor P = B1 =
2 r
The direction of B1 is perpendicular to Q and  plane of paper inside.
The force acting per unit length of conductor is

0  I1I 2 
F2    N/m
2  r 

Similarly the force acting per unit length F1 on conductor P due to the current I2 is

0  I1 I 2 
F1    N/m
2  r 

 The magnetic force F between two parallel current carrying conductors per unit length is

0  I1 I 2 
F   N/m
2  r 

## If r = 1m, I1 = I2 = 1 ampere, F = 2 × 10–7 N.

 One ampere is defined as that steady current which when flowing through each of two infinitely long
straight parallel wires placed 1 m apart in vacuum produces a force of 2 × 10–7 N per metre of length
experienced by each wire.

## Effect of Magnetic Field on a Current Loop : Consider a

rectangular loop PQRS having N turns, length l, breadth b and
area A placed in a uniform magnetic field B in such a way that the

normal to the coil subtends an angle  to the direction of B when a P

current I flows through the loop clockwise. Q B
l i
The sides PQ and RS are perpendicular to the field and equal and I
S
opposite forces of magnitude IlB act upwards and downwards
b R
respectively. An equal and opposite force acts on sides
QR & PS towards right and left of coil.
The resultant force is zero but the resultant torque is not zero.

The forces on sides PQ and RS produce a torque due to a single turn which is given by

##  = IlbB sin  = I AB sin  ( A = l × b)

If there are N turns of similar loops in the coil,  = INAB sin  = MB sin .
Where M = NIA
When  = 0º, = 0 when the plane of the coil is perpendicular to the field.  is maximum when  = 90º, the
plane of the coil is parallel to the field i.e.  = INAB
Magnetic Dipole Moment : Comparing the above result with the torque experience by a bar magnet of
magnetic moment M, placed in a magnetic field B ( = M × B), we conclue that a current carrying loop
behaves like a bar magnet of magnetic moment IA, where A is the area of the loop. For a current carrying
coil of N turns, the corresponding magnetic moment will be NIA.
The unit of magnetic moment is ampere.metre2. M

## The potential energy U of a magnetic dipole placed in a magnetic dipole is

U = – MB cos  or U = – M · B

The magnetic field B at a large distance x on the axis of a dipole of magnetic moment M is
0  2 M 
B = 4  3 
 x 
The magnetic field B at a large distance x on the equatorial line of a dipole of magnetic moment M is
0  M 
B = 4  3 
x 
Regarding the force on current carrying conductor in magnetic field there are some important points given
below:
1. As the force BI dL sin  is not a function of position r, the magnetic force on a current element
is non-central (a central force is of the form F = Kf (r)nr)
2. The force dF is always perpendicular to both B and I dL though B and I dL may or may not be
perpendicular to each other.
3. In case of current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field force acting,

## and as for a conductor  dL represents the vector sum

of all the length elements from initial to final point, which × × B ×
in accordance with the law of vector addition is equal to
the length vector L joining initial to final point, so a current-
carrying conductor of any arbitrary shape in a uniform × × ×
field experiences a force
L
F = I  dL   B = IL × B
 A
  × × ×
where L is the length vector joining initial and final points
F = I L × B
of the conductor as shown in the figure.
4. If the current-carrying conductor in the form of a loop of any arbitrary shape is placed in a
uniform field,
× × ×

F = I dL  B  I dL  B  
and as for a closed loop, the vector sum of dL is always
× × ×
zero.

So, F = 0 [as  dL = 0] × × ×
i.e., the net magnetic force on a current loop in a uniform
F  I  dL   B  0

magnetic field is always zero as shown in figure.  
Here it must be kept in mind that in this situation different parts of the loop may experience
elemental force due to which the loop may be under tension or may experience a torque as
shown below:

× × ×

Fin
I dF = 0
× × × B
dF = 0
Fout

× × ×
F=0 F=0
=0 0
Current loop in a uniform feild

## 5. If a current-carrying conductor is situated in a non-uniform field, its different elements will

experiements different forces; so in this situation,
FR  0 but  may or may not be zero.
If the conductor is free to move, it translates with or without rotation as shown below
A A
× × ×
D

× × × FR

FR
dF dF C
× × × C
D I

× × ×
B B
FR  0 FR  0
=0 0
Loop in the field of current carrying wire AB A current carrying rod in the field of wire AB

## 6. In case of a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field if the conductor experience a force

and is free to move, work will be done and hence its kinetic energy will change,

## i.e., W = KE with W =  F · ds .

(Though F = i (B × dl) but real energy is supplied by battery as magnetic force does no work)

## MOVING COIL GALVANOMETER

It is based on the principle that when a current carrying coil is placed in a uniform magnetic field, it experiences
a force and a torque is produced which deflects the coil according to Fleming’s left hand rule and the current
through the coil is proportional to the deflection of the coil. In a moving coil galvanometer, the coil is suspended
between the curved pole pieces of a horse-shoe type magnet. The pole pieces are made cylindrical and a soft
iron cylindrical core is placed within the coil without touching it which makes the field radial. In such a field,
the plane of the coil is always parallel to the field such that the normal to the coil subtends an angle  equal
to 90º with the direction of B. The torque  deflecting the coil is given by
 = NBIA

Scale

IL S
N CO
RE
CO
Magnet

As the coil deflects, a restoring torque is produced either in the suspension fibre or the spring, to which the
pointer is attached. If  is the angle of twist, the restoring torque = C, where C is the restoring torque per
unit twist. In equilibrium position, NBIA = C.
 C 
I    θ  Kθ
 NBA 
C
Where = K is a constant of the galvanometer. As the current is directly proportional to the deflection
NBA
, the scale of the galvanometer can be calibrated to detect as well as measure small amounts of currents in
milliamperes (mA) or in microamperes ( A).

A galvanometer is said to be sensitive if it gives a large deflection for a small current. The current sensitivity
of a galvanometer is the deflection of galvanometer per unit current. It is given by

 NBA

I C

## Voltage sensitivity of a galvanometer is deflection of galvanometer per unit voltage. It is given by

   NBA
 or 
V RI V CR

A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter by using a low resistance wire (shunt) in parallel with the
galvanometer.
I Rg
In figure, for potential difference V, galvanometer G of resistance Rg Ig

## and capable of measuring a smaller current Ig can be converted into G

an ammeter capable of measuring a large current I by connecting a
small resistance Rs in parallel called as the shunt
resistance such that Rs

Ig
Rs   Rg
I  Ig

Also, such a galvanometer can be converted into a voltmeter of range V volts by connecting a high resistance
R in series whose value is given by
Rg R

G
V
R   Rg
Ig
V
A B
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex.1 A current of one ampere is flowing along the sides of an equilateral triangle of side 4.5 × 10–2 m. Find
the magnetic field at the centroid of the triangle.
P

Sol.: Consider an equilateral triangle PQR of each side d. The magnetic field B
I I
at the centroid O due to current I flowing along one side of the triangle is
O
d
 I(sin 1  sin  2 ) d
B  0
4 r 1 2

where OA = r Q d A R
I
 The resultant magnetic field B at O due to all sides of the triangle is
3 0 I (sin 1  sin  2 )
| B |
4d
For all the sides of PQR, 1 = 2 = 60º, I = 1 A
d 4.5  10 2
OA = r = 2 cot 60  m
2 3

3  10 7  1  2 3  2 3 

 |B| = 
4.5  10  2  2 
 

= 4 × 10–5 Tesla.

Ex.2 The centres of two similar coils P and Q having same number of turns are located at coordinates
(0.4, 0) m and (0, 0.3) m such that the plane of coils are perpendicular to X and Y axes respectively.
The areas of cross sections of coils P and Q are in the ratio 4 : 3. The coil P has 16 A current in
clockwise direction and the coil Q has 9 3 A current in anticlockwise direction as seen from the
origin. A small compass needle is placed at the origin. Find the deflection of the needle assuming the
earth’s magnetic field negligible and the radii of the coils very small as compared to their distances
from the origin. (Take radius of ring is small)

## Sol.: The magnetic field B on the axis of a current carrying coil Y

of radius r and N number of turns at a distance x from the
centre of coil is given by
Q
 0 NI r 2  0 NI(r 2 )
B= 3 = 3
2( r 2  x 2 ) 2
2( r 2  x 2 ) 2

BP P
0 N I A O X
B= 2 2 3
2 ( r  x ) 2

BQ
where A = area of coil and I = current
0 N I A
When r << x, B=
2x 3
0 N I P A P
Magnetic field at O due to coil P = BP = along OX
2x 3

0 N I Q A Q
Magnetic field at O due to coil Q = BQ = along OY'
2y 3
where IP , AP and IQ, AQ are respective currents and areas of coils P and Q respectively.
If the compass needle makes an angle  with x-axis, (magnetic needle aligns itself along the direction
of net magentic field)

BQ  I Q   A Q   x 3 
tan       
 I P   A P   y 
3
BP

3
9 3 3  0 .4 
=      3
16 4  0.3 

  = 60º

Ex.3. A solenoid of length 0.4 m and diameter 0.6 m consists of a single layer of 1000 turns of fine wire
carrying a current of 5.0 milliampere. Find the magnetic field on the axis at the middle and at the ends
of a solenoid.

Sol. The magnetic field B inside a current carrying solenoid at any point O lying on the axis is given by

0 n I
B= (cos 1  cos  2 )
2

where n is the number of turns per unit length and I is the current and 1 and 2 are angles subtended
by the ends of solenoid with respect to the positive direction of x-axis.

0.2
At the middle of the solenoid O, cos 1 =  0.5547
(0.3) 2  (0.2) 2

 At O, B=
2  0.4

## = 8.7 × 10–6 tesla

0.4
At one end of the solenoid, cos 1   0.8
(0.3) 2  (0.2) 2

2 = 90°  cos 2 = 0
0.4m
2
1

## 4  10 7  1000  5  103  0.8

 At A, B=
2  0.4
= 6.28 × 10–6 tesla
Ex.4. A proton of mass 1.6 ×10–27 kg and charge 1.6 × 10–19 C enters a region of uniform magnetic field
of strength 1 tesla along the direction shown in the figure such that its speed is 107 m/s.
(i) If the magnetic field is directed along the inward
normal to the plane of the paper and the particle × ×
leaves the region of the field at the point F, find the  × ×
F × ×
distance EF and the angle.
E × ×
(ii) If the direction of the magnetic field is along the × ×
45º × ×
outward normal to the plane of the paper, find the
time spent by the particle in the region of magnetic
field after entering at E.
Sol. (i) If the direction of the magnetic field is directed along the inward normal to the plane of the
paper, the path of the particle is an arc of a circle of radius R = OE = OF.
EF = 2R sin 45º. B
× ×
mv 2 mv 90º F× ×
As  Bqv, R =
R Bq R × ×
O ×C ×
1.6  10 27  10 7
=  0 .1 m
R
× ×
1  1.6  10  9
90º × ×
1 E× ×
A 
 EF = 2 × 0.1 × = 0.141 m,  = 45°
2

(ii) If the direction of the magnetic field is directed along the outward normal to the paper, the path
ECH of the particle in the region of magnetic field will be a circular one with radius R and
centre at O.
In the figure, EOH = 90° F

R 3R E
 Length of arc = ECH = 2R – 
2 2 45º
A O C
 Time spent by the particle along the arc ECH in
45º
3R
the magnetic field = H
2v
3  3.14  0.1
= = 4.71 × 10–8 sec.
2 10 7
Ex.5. A beam of protons having a velocity of 4 × 105 metres per second enters a uniform magnetic field of
0.3 tesla at an angle of 60º to the magnetic field. Find the radius of the helical path taken by the
proton beam. Find the time period of rotation and pitch of the helix.
Sol. The component of velocity v of protons parallel to the magnetic field = v = v cos 60
1
= 4 × 105 ×
= 2×105 m/s
2
3
The component of velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field = v= v sin 60 = 4 × 105 ×
2
= 3.464 × 105 m/s
m v v
Radius of the helix = R = v
qB
1.67  10 27  3.464  10 5
=
1.6  10 19  0.3 60°
B
v| | = v cos 60°
= 1.2 × 10–2 m = 1.2 cm

2m
The time period of rotation = T = qB

## 2  3.14  1.67  10 27

T= = 2.185 × 10–7 sec.
1.6  10 19  0.3

## Pitch of the helix = v× T = 2 × 105 × 2.185 × 10–7 = 4.37 × 10–2 m

Ex.6. A wire ABCDEF (with each side of length L) is bent as shown in the figure and is carrying current
I in a uniform magnetic induction B parallel to the y-axis. What is force experienced by wire.
z
D

E I
F
C
y

B A
x
Sol. If Point A is joined to point F by conducting wire, it becomes a closed loop. No force acts on closed
loop when placed in uniform magnetic field,
z
 FABCDEFA = 0 D
If F1 is force on given network and F2 on wire AF
 F1 + F2 = 0 E I
F
C
where y
| F2 | = BIL along negative z-axis
B A
 | F1 | = BIL along positive z-axis.
x
Ex.7. A charge Q is spread uniformly over an insulated ring of radius R. What is the magnetic moment of
the ring if it is rotated with an angular velocity  with respect to the normal axis.
Sol. A charge in motion constitutes current. Every element of this ring carrying a charge dq produces
current = dq × frequency with which it goes round the loop. Therefore, charge on element dl of the
ring is,

Q
dq = · dl
2 R

## Current due to circular motion of this charge

 Q  
dI =  2 R · dl    2 
   
Q dl
Magnetic moment, dM = (dI)A = · R 2
4 2 R
QR
 M=
4  dl
1
= QR2
2
Alternatively, a charge Q going round a loop with angular velocity  is equivalent to a current
 
I = Q  2 
 
  1
The magnetic moment of the loop = IA = Q ·  2  · R2 = QR2.
  2

Ex.8. What is the value of shunt which passes 10% of the main current through a galvanometer of
99 ohm?
Sol. As shunt is a small resistance S in parallel with a galvanometer (of resistance G) as shown in figure.
(I – IG)S = IGG (I – IG)
IG G
i.e., S = (I I ) S
G

 10 
And as here, G = 99  and IG =  100  I = 0.1 I G
  I IG
0.1 I  99 0.1
S = (I 0.1 I)  0.9  99 = 111 

Ex.9. If a shunt of value (1/n) times the galvanometer resistance is applied to a moving coil galvanometer,
by what factor will its current sensitivity will change?
Sol. If  and  are the deflections in a galvanometer and ‘shunted galvanometer’ due to current I,
flowing through them, then

 
CS = and CS =
I I
Now as in case of moving coil galvanometer
(I – IG)
deflection is proportional to the current
passing through the galvanometer. S

 I G 

 I G G
I IG
 1  IG  I (A) (B)
So, CS = = I I   G CS
I   I

## And as in case of a shunted galvanometer with S = (G/n)

G 1
(I – IG) = IGG i.e., IG = (1  n)
n

CS
So, CS = (1  n)

Ex.10. Two long parallel wires carrying currents 2.5 A and 1 A directed into the plane of the paper are held
at P and Q respectively such that these are perpendicular to the plane of the paper. The points P and
Q are located at a distance of 5 metres and 2 metres respectively from a collinear point R as shown
in the figure.
(i) An electron moving with a velocity of 4 × 105 m/s along the positive x - direction experiences
a force of magnitude 3.2 × 10–20 N at the point R. Find the value of I

Y
P QI R
I1 × × 2
2.5A 2m X
5m

(ii) Find all the positions at which a third long parallel wire carrying a current of magnitude 2.5 A
must be placed so that the magnetic induction at R is zero.
Sol.: (i) The magnetic field induction at point R due to current in wires P and Q = B = B1 + B2

 0 I1
where B1 = along negative Y-axis (magnetic field due to P)
2r1

0 I 2
B2 = along negative Y-axis (magnetic field due to Q)
2r2

  0 I1  I 
 B=   0 2  along negative Y-axis.
 2r1 2r2 

 2 .5 I
or B = – 2 × 10–7  5  2  j
 

= – 10–7 [I + 1] j
As F = qv × B = (–1.6 ×10–19) [(4 × 105)i × {–10–7 (I +1) j}]

##  F = 6.4 × 10–21 (I +1) = 3.2 × 10–20N or I +1 = 5, I = 4A.

(ii) The third wire can be placed on either side of R to produce a field (by passing current in
opposite directions) which will neutralise the magnetic fields of the first two currents, then

 0  I1 I2 I 
B = B1 + B2 + B3 =    3  0
2   r1 r2 x

##  x = ± 1m from R along X-axis.

Ex.11. Find the magnetic induction at point O if the wires carrying a current I has shapes as shown in
Figures (a), (b) and (c). The linear parts of the wires are very long and the curved part is a semicircular
Z Z
Z
2 2
R 2 R
R
Y Y
O Y O
1 O
3 1 1
3 3

X X X
(a) (b) (c)
0 I
Sol.: The magnetic field due to linear part =
4R
0 I
The magnetic field due to semicircular part =
4R
(a) The magnetic induction at point O = B0 = B1 + B2 + B3
0 I  I  I
 B0 = ( k )  0 (  i )  0 ( k )
4 R 4R 4 R
0 I
= 
4 R

i  2k . 
0I
 Magnitude of magnetic induction = | B0 | =
4 R

4  2 
1
2

## (b) Magnetic induction at O = B0 = B1 + B2 + B3

0 I  I  I
B0 = (k )  0 (i )  0 ( i )
4 R 4R 4 R
0 I
= 
4 R

(  1)i  k 
 | B0 | =
0 I
4 R

1  (   1) 2 
1
2
(c) Magnetic induction at O = B0 = B1 + B2 + B3
0 I 3 0 I  I
B0 = ( k )  ( i )  0 (  j)
4 R 8R 4 R

 0 I  3 
=   i  j  k
4 R  2 
1
2
 0 I  2  3  
2

| B0 | = (1)     (1) 2 
4 R   2  
 

 | B0 | =
0 I
8 R

8  9 2  1
2

Ex.12. Two parallel horizontal conductors are suspended each by light vertical threads 0.75 m long. Each
conductor has a mass of 40 gm per metre. These conductors are separated by 5 mm when there is
no current flowing in the wires. If equal amount of current is passed through each of the wires, these
conductors are separated by 1.5 cm. Find the value and direction of the current.

Sol. In order that these conductors are repelled, the currents should flow in opposite directions in these
wires. Let each vertical threads be deflected through an equal angle  due to symmetry.
The force of repulsion experienced per unit length of either conductor (F) is given by

 0 I 
F =  2d  I
 

F = magnetic field due to one conductor on the other × current flowing through the other conductor.
Where the current through each conductor is I and d is separation between them. Each conductor
has this force F, tension T in the threa and weight acting as shown in the diagram.
For equilibrium, T cos  = mg, T sin  = F, where m is the mass per unit length of the conductor.

F  0  2 I2 0 I 2
 tan  = = =
mg 4  d  mg 2dmg  
T
T
0.5 102 
0.75m

As angle  is small, tan   sin  =
0.75 F
F
4  d  mg  sin  d  m  g  sin  0.5cm
 I2 = =
0  2 10 7  2 mg 1.5cm mg

## 1 .5  10 2  40  10  3  9 .8  0 .5  10  2 1.5  40  0.5  9.8

= = = 196
10  7  2  0 .75 1 .5

 I = 14 ampere

Ex.13. A small horizontal wire AB, which is free to move in a vertical plane and carries a current of 20 A,
is in equilibrium at a height of 0.01 m over another parallel long wire CD, which is fixed in a horizontal
plane and carries a steady current of 30 A. Show that when AB is slightly depressed and released,
it executes S.H.M. Find the period of oscillations.
Sol. The magnetic force on AB is upwards and is repulsive in nature. If I1 and I2 are currents between
 0  I1 I 2 
two wires separated by distance h, the force F per unit length, F = 2  h 
 
F
A 20A

^
B

h mg
C D

30A
In equilibrium, the weight mg of upper wire is balanced by the magnetic force F.

0  I1 I 2 
 2   = mg (where m is mass of unit length of rod AB)
 h 

Let the wire AB be depressed vertically downwards through a distance y, the repulsion will increase
as h–y < h and the wire will tend to go back to its original position when it is released. The net force
F' is, therefore, given by

 0 I1 I 2  1   h  mgy
– F' =    mg = mg    mg 
2  h  y 
h y h y

mgy
or restoring force F' = 
(h  y )

 mg 
For small displacements, y <<h, F' =    y   ky
 h 

As F' is proportional to displacement y and is opposite to it, the upper wire will execute S.H.M. with force
constant k = mg/h.
2  3.14
 Time period of oscillation = T = 2π m  2π h  2π 0.01 =  0.2 second.
k g 9. 8 31.3

Ex.14. Three infinitely long thin wires, each carrying current I in the same direction, are in the x–y plane of
a gravity free space. The central wire is along the y-axis while the other two are along x = +d and
x = –d,

(i) Find the locus for points for which the magnetic field B is zero.
(ii) If the central wire is displaced along the z direction by a small amount and released, show that
it will execute simple harmonic motion. If the linear density of wire is , find the frequency of
oscillation.
Sol. (i) Consider three wires A, B and C each carrying a current I. Let P be point at a distant x from
O where the resultant magnetic field BP is zero.
 0 I 0 I 0 I 
 BP =  2x  2(d  x)  2(d  x )  k   0 y
  A B C
1 1 1
  0 I I I
x dx dx

1 2x d d
 2 2 2
2 or 3x = d or x = ,  P
x d x 3 3 x
–d O x +d
 The locus of points for which the magnetic field
d d
is zero are the lines x =  and x =  .
3 3

## (ii) When the central wire is displaced along the

z direction, the forces on it due to other two
wires will be F' each and the resultant force
F = 2F' sin  where OCB  OAB   A d O d C
x
 
 0 I2 l   z 
 F = – 2  

z
2 2 2 2  F
 2 d  x   d  z  F

 0 I2 l 
B
0 I2 l   z ( z << d)
=   z ~  z
( d 2  z 2 )  d2 
 

This force is directly proportional to the displacement z and is directed towards the mean
position. The central wire will execute S.H.M.

0 I2 l
Force constant k =
d 2

## mass of length of the wire = m = l, where l is length of wire.

1 k 1 0 I 2 l
Frequency of oscillation, f = =
2 m 2 d 2  l

1 0 I2
 f =
2 d 2 

## Ex.15. A non-conducting sphere of radius R = 50 mm charged uniformly with surface density

 = 10.0 µC/m² rotates with an angular velocity  = 70 rad/s about the axis passing through its
centre. Find the magnetic induction at the centre of the sphere.

Sol. The sphere is non-conducting and hence the charge will be on the outer surface. A rotating charged
sphere will behave like a pile of current loops of varying radii. Consider a ring as shown in figure.
Area of the angular ring = (2  R sin ) × R d and area of this current loop = (R sin )2
charge area  surface charge density
The equivalent current due to ring element di = 
time time

2 R 2 sin  d 
= = R²  sin  d
(2 / )
Magnetic induction at the centre O due to the ring
  0 di 
dA =  
3  Area of the curren loop
 2 R 
 0 di
dB = (R2sin2 )
2 R 3

0 sin 2  R
=  di 
2 R d

0 sin 2  R sin 
= × R2 sin  d × d
2 R 
O
0
= R sin3 d
2

0 3
 B =
2 
R sin  d = 0R
0

Ex.16. A direct current flowing through the winding of a long cylindrical solenoid of radius R produces in it
a uniform magnetic field of induction B. An electron falls into the solenoid along the radius between
its turn (at right angles to the solenoid axis) at a velocity. v. After a certain time the electron is
deflected by magnetic field and leaves the solenoid. Calculate the time during which the electron
moves in the solenoid.

## Sol. The magnetic induction of the solenoid is directed along

its axis. So, the Lorentz force (F = ev B) on the electron
at any time will be in a plane perpendicular to solenoid
axis. The trajectory of the electron in the solenoid will be
an arc of the circle. The radius r given by

mv 2 mv
evB = or r  ......... (i)
r eB

## The trajectory of the electron is shown in the figure.

In the figure, OA and OC are tangents to the electron
trajectory at points A and C. Let AOC be 
From figure AOO = 1/2 AOC
 R
 tan  ........(ii)
2 r
From equations (i) and (ii)
 e BR 
 = 2 tan–1   .......(iii)
 mv 
The magnitude of velocity remains unchanged over the entire trajectory because the Lorentz force
is perpendicular to the velocity at any instant. Thus the transit time t given by

r m 2m  e BR 
t=   = tan 1  
v eB eB  mv 

Ex.17. A pair of parallel horizontal conducting rails of negligible resistance shorted at one end is fixed on a
table. The distance between the rails is L. A conducting massless rod of resistance R can slide on
the rails frictionlessly. The rod is tied to a massless string which passes over a pullely fixed to the
edge of the table. A mass m, tied to the other end of string, hangs vertically. A constant magnetic
field B exists perpendicular to the table. If the system is released from rest, calculate.

R
L

## (a) the terminal velocity achieved by the rod

(b) the acceleration of the mass at the instant when the velocity of rod is half the terminal velocity.

## Sol. (a) When terminal velocity is achieved

T = i BL = mg (where i is induced current)
Induced emf
| e | = LvTB sin 90° = LvTB
L vT B
 i=
R
where vT is terminal velocity. iBL T
T
2 2
B L vT
  mg
R
mg
mg R
 vT  2 2 ..... (i)
B L
(b) Let the block have velocity v at any time t before it achieves the terminal velocity. Acceleration
of block.
mg  T mg  iBL
a  (T = iLB because rod is massless)
m m
mg  (B2 L2 v / R)

m
vT
When v , then
2

mg  B 2 L2 (vT / 2 R)
a
m

B 2 L2 ( mg R/B 2 L2 R) g g
g g 
2m 2 2

Ex.18. A small charged ball having mass m and charged q is suspended from a rigid support by means of
an inextensible thread of length l. It is made to rotate on a horizontal circular path in a uniform time
independent magnetic field of induction B which is directed upward. The time period of revolution of
the ball is T. If the thread is always stretched, calculate the radius of circular path on which the ball
moves.

Sol. The moving charge experiences a force in the magnetic field B. This force provides the centripetal
force that keeps the ball in a circular orbit.
The force acting on the ball are shown in the figure.
P
For circular horizntal path, T cos  = mg ..... (i) Y 

## and T sin  – q v B = (mv²/r) ......(ii) T

l B
From equation (ii) l

T cos  
 mg  r
  sin  – q B r  = mr ² qvB
q T sin 
 cos  
mg
[ v = r  and T = mg/cos  from (i)]
From figure,

r (l 2  r 2 )
sin   and cos  
t l

mgr 1 2 qB
 – q B r = mr ² or  
(l 2  r 2 ) (l 2  r 2 ) g mg

(1 / ) 2
or (l² – r²) =
[( / g )  ( qB / mg )]2

(T' / 2) 2
or (l² – r²) =
[(2 / g T' )  (qB / mg )]2

1
 (T' / 2) 2 2
 r  l 2  
 {(2 / g T' )  q( B / mg )}2 
Ex.19. A uniform; constant magnetic field B is directed at an
Y
angle of 45° to the x axis in x – y plane. PQRS is a
S I0
rigid square wire frame carrying a steady current I0, R
with its centre at the origin O. At time
t = 0, the frame is at rest in the position shown in the O
X
figure, with its side parallel to x and y axes. Each side
of the frame is of mass M and length L. P Q
(i) What is the torque  about O acting on the frame
due to magnetic field?
(ii) Find the angle by which the frame rotates under the action of this torque in a short interval of
time t, and the axis about which this rotation occurs. (t is so short that any variation in the
torque during this interval may be neglected).
Given: the moment of inertia of the frame about an axis through its centre perpendicular to its plane
4 2
is mL .
3
Sol. (i) B = B (cos 45 i +sin 45 j) and A = L² k
Now  = M × B where M = I0A
     = I0 [L² k × B (cos 45 i + sin 45 j)]
= I0L²B [cos 45° j + sin 45° (–i)]
I 0 L2 B
= (–i + j)
2
(i  j)
(ii) Axis of rotation is along unit vector i.e., the frame will experience a torque about axis
2
S Q in its plane and magnitude of torque  = I0 L²B
Applying the theorem of perpendicular axes, the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation
1 4  2
SQ=  ML2   ML2
2 3  3
  = I
τ
 Angular acceleration =
I
I 0 L2 B (i  j) 3 I0 B 3I B
or  2
  ( i  j), | α | 0
2 / 3 ML 2 2 2M 2M

1 2
Using  = t + t
2
for small t,  can be assumed to be constant
1 3 I0B 3 I0B
 =  t² = (t)²
2 2M 4M
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1. Two circular coils P and Q are made from similar wires but radius of Q is twice that of P. What should
be the value of potential difference across them so that the magnetic induction at their centre may be
the same?
(a) Vq = 2 Vp (b) Vq = 3VP (c) Vq = 4Vp (d) Vq = 1/4 Vp

2. The radius of the circular path or helical path followed by the test change q0 moving in magnetic field
B with velocity v is

## m v sin  m v cos  mv m v tan 

(a) q0 B
(b) q0 B
(c) q B (d) q0 B
0

3. An electron accelerated through a potential difference V enters into a uniform transverse magnetic
field and experiences a force F. If the accelerating potential is increased to 2 V, the electron in the
same magnetic field will experience a force :
(a) F (b) F/2 (c) 2F (d) 2F

4. A charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field penetrates a layer of lead and loses one half of
its kinetic energy. The ratio of radius of curvature to the original radius is
1 1
(a) 2 (b) 2 (c) (d)
2 2
5. Two straight long conductors AOB and COD are perpendicular to each other and carry currents i1 and
i2. The magnitude of the magnetic induction at a point P at a distance d from the point O in a direction
perpendicular to the plane ABCD is
0 0
(a) 2 d (i1  i2 ) (b) 4 d (i1  i2 )

 0 2 2 1/2 0  i1i2 
(c) (i  i ) (d) 2 d  
2 d 1 2  i1  i2 

6. A current of 10 amp. is flowing in a wire of length 1.5 metre. A force of 15 newton acts on it when it
is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 2 tesla. The angle between the magnetic field and the direction
of current is
(a) 30º (b) 45º (c) 60º (d) 90º

7. A particle carrying a charge equal to 100 times the charge on an electron is rotating per second in a
circular path of radius 0.8 m. The value of the magnetic field produced at the centre will be (0 =
permeability constant).
(a) 10–7/0 (b) 10–17 0 (c) 10–6 /0 C (d) 10–7 0

## 8. The magnetic field at the centre O of the circular portion of

4Amp. O
the current carrying wire of radius 3 cm is
/2
(a) (8/3) × 10–5 T (b) (8/3) × 10–4 T
B D
(c) 2 × 10–5 T (d) 2 × 10–4 T
A E
9. A long wire carries a current of 20 A along the axis of a solenoid. The field due to the solenoid is 4 mT.
the resultant field at a point 3 mm from the solenoid axis is
(a) 1.33 m T (b) 4.2 mT (c) 2.1 m T (d) 8.4 m T

10. A circular current carrying coil has a radius R. The distance from the centre of the coil on the axis
where the magnetic induction will be (1/8)th of its value at the centre of the coil is
(a) R 3 (b) 2 R 3 (c) R / 3 (d) 2 R / 3

11. A proton moving with a constant velocity passes through a region of space without any change in its
velocity. If E and B represent the electric and magnetic fields respectively, identify wrong statement
(a) E = 0, B = 0 (b) E = 0, B  0 (c) E  0, B = 0 (d) E  0, B 0

12. An electron is moving in a circle of radius r in a uniform magnetic field B. Suddenly the field is reduced
to B/2. The radius of the circle now becomes
(a) r/2 (b) r/4 (c) 2 r (d) 4 r

13. A proton and an -particle, moving with the same kinetic energy, enters a uniform magnetic field
normally. The radii of their circular paths will be in the ratio
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 4 : 1

14. A beam of electrons is accelerated through a potential difference V. It is then passed normally through
a uniform magnetic field where it moves in a circle of radius r. It would have moved in a circle of radius
2r if it were initially accelerated through a potential difference
(a) 2V (b) 2V (c) 2 2 V (d) 4V

15. A proton and an -particle, accelerated through the same potential difference, enter a region of uniform
magnetic field normally. If the radius of the proton orbit is 10 cm then the radius of of the -orbit is
(a) 10 cm (b) 10 2 cm (c) 20 cm (d) 5 2 cm

16. Two particles X and Y having equal charge, after being accelerated through the same potential difference,
enter a region of uniform magnetic field and describe circular paths of radii R1 and R2 respectively.
The ratio of the mass of X to that of Y is
(a) (R1 / R2)1/2 (b) R2 / R1 (c) (R1 / R2)2 (d) R1 / R2

17. A particle of charge +q and mass m moving under the influence of a uniform electric field Ei and a
uniform magnetic field B k follows a trajectory from P to Q as shown in the figure. The velocities at P
and Q are v i and –2v j. Which of the following statements is incorrect
 m v2  E
3   y
(a) E  P v
4  qa  B
 

3  m v 3 
(b) Rate of work done by the electric field at P is
4  a 
Q
x
(c) Rate of work done by the electric field at P is zero 2a 2v
(d) Rate of work done by both the fields at Q is zero
18. A horizontal wire of length 10 cm and mass 0.3 g carries a current of 5 A. The magnitude of the
magnetic field which can support the weight of the wire is (g = 10 m/s2)
(a) 3 × 10–3 T (b) 6 × 10–3 T (c) 3 × 10–4 T (d) 6 × 10–4 T

19. A 2 MeV proton (mass = 1.6 × 10–27 kg) is moving perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of 2.5 T.
The magnetic force on the proton is
(a) 2.5 × 10–10 N (b) 8 × 10–11 N (c) 2.5 × 10–11 N (d) 8 × 10–12 N

## 20. A portion of a long straight wire, carrying a current I,

is bent in the form of a semicircle of radius r as shown
r
in the figure. The magnetic field at the centre O of I

## the semicircle, in tesla, is O

I I I I
(a) 10
7
(b) (c)  107 (d)
r r r 2r

## 21. A long straight conductor, carrying a current I, is bent into

the shape shown in the figure. The radius of the circular r

## loop is r. The magnetic field at the centre of the loop is

I
0 I  1 1  0 I  1 1 
(a) 2r    into the page (b) 2r    out of the page
   

0 I  1  0 I  1 
1 1
(c) 2r    into the page (d) 2r    out of the page

22. A rectangular loop carrying a current i is situated near a long straight wire such that the wire is parallel
to one of the sides of the loop and is in the plane of the loop. If a steady current I is established in the
wire as shown in the figure, the loop will
i
(a) rotate about an axis parallel to the wire
(b) move away from the wire I
(c) move towards the wire
(d) remain stationary

23. A square coil of side a carries a current I. The magnetic field at the centre of the coil is
0 I 2 0 I
(a) (b)
a a
a I O
0 I 2 2 0 I
(c) 2 a (d)
a

24. A circular current -carrying coil has a radius R. The distance from the centre of the coil, on the axis,
where B will be 1/8th of its value at the centre of the coil is
2R
(a) R / 3 (b) 3R (c) 2 3 R (d)
3
25. In a figure AB is a long straight wire carrying a current B C D
1cm
9cm
of 20 A and CDFG is a rectangular loop of size 20 cm
× 9 cm carrying a current of 10 A. The edge CG is
20A 10A 20cm
parallel to AB, at a distance of 1 cm from it. The
force exerted on the loop by the magnetic field of the
wire is A G F
–4 –4
(a) 3.6 × 10 N towards left (b) 3.6 × 10 N towards right
–4
(c) 7.2 × 10 N towards right (d) 7.2 × 10–4 N towards left

26. In the figure x, y and z are long straight wires. The magnetic force on 25 cm length of y is
(a) 2 × 10–4 N towards right (b) 4 × 10–4 N towards right
(c) 2 × 10–4 N towards left (d) 4 × 10–4 N towards left
x y z

30A
10A 20A

3cm 10cm

27. A current of I ampere flows in a wire forming a circular arc of radius r metres subtending an angle 
at the centre as shown. The magnetic field at the centre O in tesla is

 0 I  0 I  0 I  0 I
(a) (b) (c) (d)
4r 2r 2r 4r

## 28. In the given loop, the magnetic field at the centre O is

I O r2
r1

0 I  r1  r2  0 I  r1  r2 
(a)   out of the page (b)   into the page
4  r1r2  4  r1r2 

0 I  r1  r2  0 I  r1  r2 
(c)   out of the page (d)   out of the page
4  r1r2  2  r1 r2 
29. A proton and an -particle enter a uniform magnetic field perpendicularly, with the same speed. If the
proton takes 25 microseconds to make 5 revolutions, the periodic time for the -particle would be
(a) 50 s (b) 25 s (c) 10 s (d) 5 s

30. A proton, a deuteron and an -particle, having the same kinetic energy, are moving in circular trajectories
in a constant magnetic field. If rp, rd and r denote, respectively, the radii of the trajectories of these
particles, then

## MORE THAN ONE CORRECT CHOICE

31. Velocity and acceleration vector of a charged particle moving in a magnetic field at some instant are
 
v  3iˆ  4ˆj and a  2iˆ  xjˆ . Select the correct alternatives

(a) x = –1.5
R
(b) x = 3 Q
O
(c) magnetic field is along z-direction
(d) kinetic energy of the particle is constant

32. A nonconducting disc having uniform positive charge Q, is rotating about its vertical axis passing
through its centre of mass with uniform angular velocity . The magnetic field at the center of the disc
is
 0 Q
(a) directed horizontally (b) having magnitude
4R
 0 Q
(c) directed vertically (d) having magnitude
2R

## 33. Magnitude of magnetic field at the centre O due to

(a) wire 1 is zero (b) wire 2 and wire 3 is zero
(c) wire 4 is zero (d) wire 1 and wire 3 = wire 2 and wire 4

34. A particle of charge +q and mass m moving under the influence of a uniform electric field Eiˆ and a
uniform magnetic field Bkˆ follows a trajectory from P to Q as shown in figure. The velocities at P and
Q are viˆ and 2v . Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
y E
3  mv2 
(a) E 
4  qa  P v
B

a
3  mv3 
(b) rate of work done by the electric field at P is 4  a  Q x
  2v
2a
(c) rate of work done by the electric field at P is zero
(d) rate of work done by both the fields at Q is zero.
35 A steady current is set up in a network composed of wires of equal resistances as shown in fig.A and
B. What is the magneitc field at the centre P in each case?
B B C

A D
A P C P
E F
H
D G
( ) ( )
(A) (B)
(a) it is Zero in case (A) (b) it is Zero in case (B)
(c) it is not Zero in case (A) (d) it is not Zero in case (B)

36. A charged particle is projected in a plane perpendicular to uniform magnetic field. The areal velocity
(area swept per unit time) of the particle is
(a) directly proportional to kinetic energy of particle
(b) directly proportional to momentum of the particle
(c) inversely proportional to magnetic field strength
(d) inversely proportional to charge on particle

37. A proton moving with a constant velocity passes through region of space without any change in its
velocity. If E and B represent the electric and magnetic fields respectively, this region of space may
have
(a) E = 0, B = 0 (b) E = 0, B  0 (c) E  0, B = 0 (d) E  0, B  0

38. Two long conducting wires carrying equal currents are placed
parallel to the z-axis. A charged particle is made to move in
y
a circular path of radius a with centre of the path at point
(0, 2a) in clockwise direction. During the course of motion,
(0,2a)
it passes through four points P, Q, R and S having coordinates
(0, a), (–a, 2a), (0, 3a) and (a, 2a) respectively. The magnitude
× O × x
of force exerted on the particle by the magnetic field created (–a, 0) (a, 0)

## by the wires is maximum when it passes through point –

(a) P (b) Q (c) R (d) SD
39. A practice of charge q and mass m enters normally (at point
v
P) in a region of magnetic field with speed v. It comes out
Q
normally from Q after time T as shown in figure. The ×××××××
×××××××××××
magnetic field B is present only in the region of radius R ××××××××××××××
× × × × × × × × × × ×B× × × ×
and is uniform. Initial and final velocities are along radial v
××××××××××××××××
××××××××××××××××
P ××××××××××××××××
direction and they are perpendicular to each other. For this ××××××××××××××××
R
×××××××××××××××
to happen, ×××××××××××××
×××××××××××
which of the following expression(s) is/are correct – ××××××

mv R m
(a) B  (b) T  (c) T (d) None of these
qR 2v 2qB

## 40. A battery is connected between two points A and B on the

circumference of a uniform conducting ring of radius r and
resistance R as shown in figure. One of the arc AB of the
ring subtends an angle  at the centre. What is the value of
the magnetic field at the centre due to the current in the
ring?
(a) it is Zero always (b) it is non zero always
(c) magnetic field depends on  (d) magnetic field does not depend on 
MISCELLANEOUS ASSIGNMENT
Comprehension-1
Magnetic field intensity (B) due to current carrying conductor can be calculated by use of Biot-savart
 0 Idl  r
law. which is dB = , where dB is magnetic field due current element Idl at a position r
4 r 3
from current element. For straight wire carrying current magneticfield at a distance R from wire is
0 I 0 I
B= (sin  + sin ) and magnetic field due to a circular arc at its centre is B = . where
4 R 4 R
 angle of circular arc at centre, R is radius of circular arc.

R
I 
I  O R  P

## 1. The magnetic field at C due to curved part is

0 I 0 I
(a) , directed into the plane of the paper (b) , directed towards you
6a 6a
0 I 0 I
(c) , directed towards you (d) , directed up the plane of the paper
3a 3a

2. A wire loop carrying a current I is shown in figure. The magnetic field induction at C due to straight
part is

30 I
(a) , directed up the plane of the paper
2a
0 I a
(b) , directed into the plane of the paper
120°

6a I I C
0 I a
(c) , directed towards you
6a

0 I  3 1
   towards you
(d) 2a   3 

## 3. The net magnetic field at C due to the current carrying loop is

(a) zero
0 I
(b)
a
0 I
(c)
9a

0 I  3 1
   , directed into the plane of the paper
(d) 2a   3 

Comprehension-2

A current carrying coil behave like short magnet whose magnetic dipole moment M = n I A. Where
direction of M is taken along the direction of magnetic field on its axis and n is no of turms A is area
of coil and I is current flowing through coil. When such a coil is put in magnetic field (B) magnetic
torque () acts over it as  = M × B and potential energy in of the current loop in the magnetic field
is u = – M · B.

4. A current of 3 A is flowing in a plane circular coil of radius 4 cm and having 20 turns. The coil is
placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.5 Wb m–2. Then, the dipole moment of the coil is
(a) 3000 A m2 (b) 0.3 A m2 (c) 75 A m2 (d) 1.88 × 10–2 A m2

5. A current of 3 A is flowing in a plane circular coil of radius 4 cm and having 20 turns. The coil is
placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.5 Wb m–2. Then, the P.E. of the magnetic dipole in the position
of stable equilibrium is
(a) –1500 J (b) –9.4 mJ (c) +0.15 J (d) +1500 J

6. In above question, to hold the current-carrying coil with normal to its plane making an angle of 90°
with the direction of magnetic induction, the necessary torque is
(a) 1500 Nm (b) 9.4 × 10–3 Nm (c) 15 Nm (d) 150 Nm

7. Column II gives force expression for current carrying wire shown in column I match them correctly.
Column I Column II

A. (p) 2BiR

B. (q) zero

C. (r) BiR

D. (s) 2BiR
8. Column II gives value of magnetic field due to coaxial cable consists of an inner wire of radius a
surrounded by an outer shell of inner and outer radii b and c respectively. The inner wire carries an
current i0 and outer shell carries an equal current in opposite direction, at a distance x from axis for
position given in column I match them correctly
Column I Column II

0 i0 (c 2  x 2 )
A. x<a (p)
2 x (c 2  b2 )

## B. a<x<b (q) zero

0 i 0 x
C. b<x<c (r)
2 a 2

0 i 0
D. x>c (s)
2 x

9. A particle moves in a circular path of diameter 1.0 m under the action of magnetic field of 0.40 Tesla.
An electric field of 200 V/m makes the path of particle straight. The charge / mass ratio of the particle
is 0.5 n × 105 C/kg. Find the value of n.

10. A 1m long conducting wire is lying at right angles to the magnetic field. A force of 1 kg. wt is acting on
it in a magnetic field of 0.98 Tesla. The current flowing in it is 5n Ampere. Find the value of n.

11. A current is flowing in a circular conductor of radius r. It is lying in a uniform magnetic field B such that
its plane is normal to it. What will be magnetic force acting on the loop.

12. A cyclotron in which the magnetic flux density is 1.4 tesla is used to accelerate protons. With
0.3 n × 107 Hz frequency the electric field between the "dees" is reversed. Find the value of n.

## Given : mass of proton = 1.67 × 10–27 kg.

13. A uniform magnetic field of 1.5 T exists in a cylindrical region of radius 10.0 cm, its direction parallel to
the axis along east to west. A wire carrying current of 7.0 A in the north to south direction passes
through this region. of 0.7 n Newton force on the wire works if, the wire intersects the axis. Find the
value of n.

14. A 1.15 kg copper rod rests on two horizontal rails 95.0 cm apart and carries a current of 53.2 A from
one rail to the other. The coefficient of static friction is 0.58. The smallest magnetic field (not necessary
vertical) is 0.023 n T that would cause the bar to slide. Find the value of n.

15. Two circular coils are made of two identical wires of same length. If the number of turns of the two
coils are 4 and 2. Find out the ratio of magnetic induction at centres of them.

16. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a magnetic field B. If the intensity of the magnetic
field is doubled but the radius of the circular path is constant, then find how many times the kinetic
energy of the particle will be?
17. A 3.0 cm wire carrying a current of 10A is placed inside a solenoid perpendicular to its axis. The
magnetic field inside the solenoid is given to be 0.27 T. The magnetic force on the wire is 0.9 n × 10–2
N. Find the value of n.

18. The frequency of oscillating potential applied to the dees of a cyclotron is 8 × 106 Hz. The magnetic
field required to accelerated an -particle is 0.13 n T. Find the value of n. Given : mass of -particle =
6.645 × 10–27 kg.
PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS
1. A current I flows along the length of an infinitely long, straight, thin walled pipe. Then
(a) the magnetic field at all points inside the pipe is the same, but not zero
(b) the magnetic field at any point inside the pipe is zero
(c) the magnetic field is zero only on the axis of the pipe
(d) the magnetic field is different at different points inside the pipe.

2. An electron of mass me, initially at rest, moves through a certain distance in a uniform electric field in
time t1. A proton of mass mp, also, initially at rest, takes time t2 to move through an equal distance in this
uniform electric field. Neglecting the effect of gravity, the ratio of t2/t1 is nearly equal to
(a) 1 (b) (mp/me)1/2 (c) (me /mp )1/2 (d) 1836

3. A proton, a deuteron and an  particle having the same kinetic energy are moving in circular trajectories
in a constant magnetic field. If rp, rd and r denote respectively radii of the trajectories of these particles,
then
(a) r = rp < rd (b) r > rd > rp (c) r = rd > rp (d) rp = rd = r

4. A charged particle is released from rest in a region of steady and uniform electric and magnetic fields
which are parallel to each other. The particle will move in a
(a) straight line (b) circle (c) helix (d) cycloid
5. Two long parallel wires are at a distance 2d apart. They carry steady and equal currents flowing out of
the plane of the paper as shown. The variation of the magnetic field B along the line XX is given by

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

6. A non-planar loop of conducting wire carrying a current I is placed as shown in the figure. Each of the
straight section of the loop is of length 2a. The magnetic field due to this loop at the point P(a, 0, a)
points in the direction
1 1
(a) ( ˆj  kˆ) (b) (iˆ  ˆj  kˆ )
2 3
1 ˆ ˆ ˆ 1
(c) (i  j  k ) (d) (iˆ  kˆ)
3 2
7. A particle of mass m and charge q moves with a constant velocity v along the positive x direction. It
enters a region containing a uniform magnetic field B directed along the negative z-direction extending
from x = a to x = b. The minimum value of v required so that the particle can just enter the region
x > b is
(a) qbB/m (b) q(b – a)B/m (c) qaB/m (d) q(b + a)B/2m

8. A long straight wire of circular cross-section is made of a non-magnetic material. The wire is of
radius a. The wire carries a current I which is uniformly distributed over its cross-section. The energy
stored per unit length in the magnetic field contained within the wire is
0 I 2 0 I 2 0 I 2 0 I 2
(a) U = (b) U= (c) U = (d) U =
8 16 4 2

9. A bar magnet is falling towards a fixed closed conducting loop of radius r. At t = 2s, the possible
distance moved by the magnet towards the loop in metre is
(a) 18 (b) 21r (c) 21 (d) 20 C
B
10. An infinite current carrying wire passes through point O and
is perpendicular to the plane containing a current carrying loop
ABCD as shown in the figure. Choose the correct option (s). O O
(a) Net force on the loop is zero
(b) Net torque on the loop is zero A
(c) As seen from O, the loop rotates clockwise D
(d) As seen from O, the loop rotates anticlockwise

11. A magnetic field B  B0 ˆj exists in the region

a < x < 2a and B   B0 ˆj , in the region 2a < x < 3a,
where B0 is a positive constant. A positive point charge

moving with a velocity v  v0 iˆ, where v0 is a positive

## constant, enters the magnetic field at x = a.

The trajectory of the charge in this region can [IIT

2 0 0 7 ]

(q) (b)

(c) (d)
12. Statement-1: A vertical iron rod has a coil of wire wound over it at the bottom
end. An alternating current flows in the coil. The rod goes
through a conducting ring as shown in the figure. The ring can
float at a certain height above the coil.
because
Statement-2: In the above situation, a current is induced in the ring which
interacts with the horizontal component of the magnetic field to
produce an average force in the upward direction.
(a) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1
(b) Statement-1 and 2 is True; Statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-1
(c) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
(d) Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True

13. A particle of mass m and charge q, moving with velocity V enters Region II normal to the boundary as
shown in the figure. Region II has a uniform magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane of the paper.
The length of the Region II is l. Choose the correct choice(s).
Region I Region II Region III

(a) The particle enters Region III only if its velocity V  qlB
m V
(b) The particle enters Region III only if its velocity V 
qlB
m l
qlB
(c) Path length of the particle in Region II is maximum when velocity V 
m
(d) Time spent in Region II is same for any velocity V as long as the particle returns to Region I

14. STATEMENT-1: The sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer is increased by placing a suitable
magnetic material as a core inside the coil.
STATEMENT-2: Soft iron has a high magnetic permeability and cannot be easily magnetized or
demagnetized.
(a) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1
(b) Statement-1 and 2 is True; Statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-1
(c) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False

15. The figure shows certain wire segments joined together to form a coplanar loop. The loop is placed in
a perpendicular magnetic field in the direction going into the plane of the figure. The magnitude of the
field increases with time. I1 and I2 are the currents in the segments ab and cd. Then,
× c× × × d × ×
(a) I1 > I2
× a× × ×b × ×
(b) I1 < I2 × × × × × ×
(c) I1 is in the direction ba and I2 is in the direction cd × × × × × ×
× × × × × ×
(d) I1 is in the direction ab and I2 is in the direction dc
× × × × × ×
16. Two wires each carrying a steady current I are shown in four configurations in Column I. Some of the
resulting effects are described in Column II. Match the statements in Column I with the statements in
Column II and indicate your answer by darkening appropriate bubbles in the 4 × 4 matrix given in the
ORS.
Column I Column II

(A) Point P is situated (p) The magnetic fields (B) at P due to the

midway between the wires. currents in the wires are in the same direction
(B) Point P is situated at (q) The magnetic fields (B) at P due to the
the mid-point of the line joining currents in the wires are in opposite directions
the centres of the circular wires,
(C) Point P is situated at (r) There is no magnetic field at P.
the mid-point of the line
joining the centres of the
circular wires, which have
(D) Point P is situated at (s) The wires repel each other
the common center of the
wires

17. A steady current I goes through a wire loop PQR having shape of a right angle triangle with PQ = 3x,

 0 I 
PR = 4x and QR = 5x. If the magnitude of the magnetic field at P due to this loop is k  48 x  , find the
 

value of k.
18. A thin flexible wire of length L is connected to
two adjacent fixed points and carries a current I × × × × × × × ×
in the clockwise direction, as shown in the figure. × × × × × × × ×
When the system is put in a uniform magnetic × × × × × × × ×
field of strength B going into the plane of the paper, × × × × × × × ×
the wire takes the shape of a circle. The × × × × × × × ×
tension in the wire is [IIT 2010] × × × × × × × ×
IBL IBL IBL
(a) IBL (b) (c) (d)
 2 4
19. Your are given many resistances, capacitors and inductors. These are connected to a variable DC
voltage source (the first two circuits) or an AC voltage source of 50 Hz frequency (the next three
circuits) in different ways as shown in Column II. When a current I (steady state for DC or rms for
AC) flows through the circuit, the corresponding voltage V1 and V2, (indicated in circuits) are related
as shown in Column I. Match the two
V1 V2

6mH 3µF
A. I  0, V1 is proportional to I (p)
V
V1 V2

6mH
B. I  0, V2 > V1 (q)
V
V1 V2

6mH
C. V1 = 0, V2 = V (r)
V
V1 V2

6mH 3µF
D. I  0, V2 is proportional to I (s)
V
V1 V2

(t) 3µF

V
20. An electron and a proton are moving on straight parallel paths with same velocity. They enter a semi-
infinite region of uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the velocity. Which of the following statement
(s) is/are true?
(a) They will never come out of the magnetic field region
(b) They will come out travelling along parallel paths
(c) They will come out at the same time
(d) They will come out at different times.
Y
21. A long insulated copper wire is closely wound as a
spiral of N turns. The spiral has inner radius a and
outer radius b. The spiral lies in the X-Y plane and a
steady current I flows through the wire. The Z
I
component of the magnetic field at the centre of the a
spiral is b X

0 NI b 0 NI ba
(a) ln   (b) ln  
2(b  a)  a  2(b  a)  b  a 

0 NI  b  0 NI  b  a 
(c) ln   (d) ln  
2b a 2b ba
22. A long circular tube of length 10 m and radius 0.3 m carries a current
I along its curved surface as shown. A wire-loop of resistance 0.005
ohm and of radius 0.1 m is placed inside the tube with its axis coinciding
with the axis of the tube. The current varies as I  I 0 cos(300t ) where
I0 is constant. If the magnetic moment of I
the loop is N  o I o sin(300t ) , then N is
23. Consider the motion of a positive point charge in a region where there are simultaneous uniform electric
 
and magnetic fields E  Eo ˆj and B  Bo ˆj . At time t = 0, this charge has velocity v in the x - y plane,
making and angle  with the x-axis. Which of the following option (s) is(are) correct for time t > 0?
(a) If  = 0°, the charge moves in a circular path in the x–z plane
(b) If  = 0°, the charge undergoes helical motion with constant pitch along the y-axis.
(c) If  = 10°, the charge undergoes helical motion with its pitch increasing with time, along the
y-axis.
(d) If  = 90°, the charge undergoes linear but accelerated motion along the y-axis.

## 24. A cylindrical cavity of diameter a exists inside a cylinder of diameter

2a as shown in the figure. Both the cylinder and the cavity are
infinitely long. A uniform current density J flows along the length. a
P O
If the magnitude of the magnetic field at the point P is given by
N
 o aJ , then the value of N is
12
2a

25. An infinitely long hollow conducting cylinder with inner radius R/2 and outer R carries a uniform

current density along its length. The magnitude of the magnetic field, | B | as a function of the radial
distance r from the axis is best represented by

|B | |B |
(a) (b)

R/2 R r R/2 R r

|B | |B |
(c) (d)

R/2 R r R/2 R r
y
26. A loop carrying current I lies in the x-y plane as shown in the
figure. The unit vector k̂ is coming out of the plane of the
a
paper. The magnetic moment of the current loop is
I
  2 ˆ
(a) a 2 Ikˆ (b)   1 a Ik
2  a
x

 
(c)    1 a 2 Ikˆ (d) (2  1) a 2 Ikˆ a
2 

27. A particle of mass M and positive charge Q, moving with a constant velocity 1  4iˆ ms 1 , enters a
region of uniform static magnetic field normal to the x-y plane. The region of the magnetic field extends
from x = 0 to x = L for all values of y. After passing through this region, the particle emerges on the

 
other side after 10 milliseconds with a velocity  2  2 3iˆ  ˆj ms . The correct statement (s) is
1

(are)
(a) The direction of the magnetic field is – z direction
(b) The direction of the magnetic field is +z direction
50M
(c) The magnitude of the magnetic field 3Q units
100M
(d) The magnitude of the magnetic field is 3Q units

28. A steady current I flows along an infinitely long hollow cylindrical conductor of radius R. This cylinder
is placed coaxially inside an infinite solenoid of radius 2R. The solenoid has n turns per unit length and
carries a steady current I. Consider a point P at a distance r from the common axis. The correct
statement(s) is/are
(a) In the region 0 < r < R, the magnetic field is non-zero
(b) In the region R < r < 2R, the magnetic field is along the common axis.
(c) In the region R < r < 2R, the magnetic field is tangential to the circle of radius r, centered on the
axis.
(d) In the region r > 2R, the magnetic field is non-zero.

29. Two parallel wires in the plane of the paper are distance X0 apart. A point charge is moving with speed
u between the wires in the same plane at a distance X1 from one of the wires. When the wires carry
current of magnitude I in the same direction, the radius of curvature of the path of the point charge is
R1. In contrast, if the currents I in the two wires have directions opposite to each other, the radius of
x0 R1
curvature of the path is R2. If x  3 , the value of R is
1 2

Comprehension
The figure shown a circular loop of radius a with two
Q S
long parallel wires (numbered 1 and 2) all in the plane d d
of the paper. The distance of each wire from the centre
of the loop is d. The loop and the wires are carrying wire 1 a wire 2
the same current I. The current in the loop is in the
counter clockwise direction if seen from above
P R
30. When d  a but wires are not touching the loop, it is found that the net magnetic field on the axis of the
loop is zero at a height h above the loop. In that case
(a) current in wire 1 and wire 2 is the direction PQ and RS, respectively and h  a
(b) current in wire 1 and wire 2 is the direction PQ and SR, respectively and h  a
(c) current in wire 1 and wire 2 is the direction PQ and SR, respectively and h  1.2 a
(d) current in wire 1 and wire 2 is the direction PQ and RS, respectively and h  1.2 a

31. Consider d >> a, and the loop is rotated about its diameter parallel to the wires by 30° from the position
shown in the figure. If the currents in the wires are in the opposite directions, the torque on the loop at
its new position will be (assume that the net field due to the wires is constant over the loop)

0 I 2 a2 0 I 2 a2 3 0 I 2 a 2 3 0 I 2 a 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
d 2d d 2d
DCE QUESTIONS

1. Two long straight wires are set parallel to each other. Each carries a current i in the same direction
and separation between them is 2r. Intensity or magnetic field midway between them is
(a) 0i/r (b) zero (c) 4 0 i/r (d) 0 i/4r

2. If a proton beam is passing with a velocity v through a cross field of electric field and magnetic field
and remains un-deflected, then what will be the velocity of -particles which will remain
undeflected
(a) E/B (b) 2E/B (c) 4E/B (d) none of these

## 3. Which of the following is diamagnetic?

(a) Aluminium (b) Quartz (c) Nickel (d) Bismuth

4. If horizontal and vertical components of earths magnetic field are equal, then angle of dip is
(a) 60° (b) 45° (c) 30° (d) 90°

## 5. If an observer is moving with respect to a stationary electron, then he observes

(a) only magnetic field (b) only electric field (c) both (a) & (b) (d) none of these

6. An -particle and a proton travel with same velocity in a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction
of their velocities, find the ratio of the radii of their circular path
(a) 4 : 1 (b) 1 : 4 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 1 : 2

## 7. What is the net force on the square coil 15 cm

(a) 25 × 10–7 N moving towards wire
(b) 25 × 10–7 N moving away from wire 2A 1A

## (d) 35 × 10–7 N moving away from wire

8. If m is magnetic moment and B is the magnetic field, then the torque is given by

|m |
(a) m ·B (b) (c) m B (d) | m | ·| B |
|B |

## 9. Radius of motion of a charged particle oscillating in a magnetic field is

mB mV mq qV
(a) q V (b) q B (c) (d)
VB mB

10. One proton beam enters a magnetic field of 10 –4 m/s normally, sp. charge = 10 11 C/kg,
velocity = 109 m/s. What is the radius of the circle described by it?
(a) 0.1 m (b) 100 m (c) 10 m (d) none of these

11. One electron is moving in electric and magnetic fields, it will gain energy from
(a) electric field (b) magnetic field
(c) both (a) & (b) (d) none of these

## 12. How does current flow in armature of D.C. generator

(a) pulsated curve (b) sine curve (c) constant (d) none of these

## 13. Two loops are connected in a circuit shown in the figure.

What is ratio of magnetic field at their centers. Assume the
loops to be perfectly circular neglecting the gap. 40 cm
O2
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 1 : 4
O1
(c) 4 : 1 10 cm

(d) 1 : 5
Note: Magnetic field at the centre of toroid is 0

## 14. Three wires are situated at the same distance. A current of 1 A, 2 A, 3 A

flows through these wires in the same direction. What is ratio of F1/F2 ?
Where F1 is force on 1 and F2 on 2.
1A 2A 3A
7 9
(a) (b) 1 (c) (d) none of these
8 8

15. In case of vibration magnetometer, two magnet are experimented I1 = I2, ML = 5p, M2 = 4p. They
are first joint N–N, S–S; then N–S, S–N, what will be the ratio of the time periods.
1 1 9 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
9 3 1 1

16. If a magnetic substance is kept in a magnetic field, then which of the following is thrown out
(a) Paramagnetic (b) Ferromagnetic
(c) Diamagnetic (d) Antiferromagnetic

17. What should be the current in a circular coil of radius 5 cm to annul BH = 5 × 10–5 T
(a) 0.4 A (b) 4 A (c) 40 A (d) 1 A
18. One charge is moving along a circle in a magnetic field B, mass = 105 kg, velocity = 1 m/s, Magnetic
field = 10–2 T, Q = 107 coulomb. What is the radius of its circular track?
(a) 1 m (b) 0.1 m (c) 10 m (d) none of these

## 19. Magnetic succeptibility of a diamagnetic substance

(a) decreases with temperature
(b) is not affected by temperature
(c) increases with temperature
(d) first increases then decreases with temperature

## 20. Magnetic force required to demagnetize the material

(a) retainity (b) coericity (c) energy loss (d) hysterisis

21. 10 A gives full deflection in an ammeter having a resistance of 1000 . What should be the shunt
(a) 1  (b) 5  (c) 10  (d) 1000 

MAINS QUESTIONS

1. A long wire carries a steady current. It is bent into a circle of one turn and the magnetic field at the
centre of the coil is B. It is then bent into a circular loop of n turns. The magnetic field at the centre
of the coil will be
(a) 2 n B (b) n 2 B (c) n B (d) 2 n2 B

2. The length of a magnet is large compared to its width and breadth. The time period of its oscillation
in a vibration magnetometer is 2 s. The magnet is cut along its length into three equal parts and these
parts are then placed on each other with their like poles together. The time period of this combination
will be

2 2
(a) 2 3 s (b) s (c) 2 s (d) s
3 3

## 3. The materials suitable for making electromagnets should have

(a) high retentivity and low coercivity (b) low retentivity and low coercivity
(c) high retentivity and high coercivity (d) low retentivity and high coercivity

4. A coil having n turns and resistance R is connected with a galvanometer of resistance 4R. This
combination is moved in time t seconds from a magnetic field W1 weber to W2 weber. The induced
current in the circuit is
(W2  W1 ) n(W2  W1 ) (W2  W1 ) n(W2  W1 )
(a)  (b)  (c)  (d) 
R nt 5R t 5 R nt Rt

5. One conducting U tube can slide inside another as shown in figure, maintaining electrical contacts
between the tubes. The magnetic field B is perpendicular to the plane of the figure. If each tube
moves towards the other at a constant speed V, then the X X X X X X
A B
emf induced in the circuit in terms of B, l and V where l is
X X
the width of each tube, will be v X v
X X X
(a) zero (b) 2BlV X

## (c) BlV (d) –BlV D CX

X X X X X

6. Two concentric coils each of radius equal to 2 cm are placed at right angles to each other. 3 ampere
and 4 ampere are the currents flowing in each coil respectively. The magnetic induction in Weber/m2
at the centre of the coils will be (0 = 4 × 10–7 Wb/A·m)
(a) 5 × 10–5 (b) 7 × 10–5 (c) 12 × 10–5 (d) 10–5

7. A current i ampere flows along an infinitely long straight thin walled tube, then the magnetic induction
at any point inside the tube is

 0 2i 2i
(a) · Tesla (b) zero (c) infinite (d) Tesla
4 r r

8. The magnetic field due to a current carrying circular loop of radius 3 cm at a point on the axis at a
distance of 4 cm from the centre is 54 µT. What will be its value at the centre of the loop?

## (a) 125 µT (b) 150 µT (c) 250 µT (d) 75 µT

9. In a uniform magnetic field of induction B a wire in the form of a semicircle of radius r rotates
about the diameter of the circle with an angular frequency . The axis of rotation is perpendicular to
the field. If the total resistance of the circuit is R the mean power generated per period of
rotation is

## ( Br) 2 ( Br 2 ) 2 Br 2  ( Br2 ) 2

(a) (b) (c) (d)
2R 8R 2R 8R

10. A metal conductor of length 1 m rotates vertically about one of its ends at angular velocity 5 radians
per second. If the horizontal component of earth’s magnetic field is 0.2 × 10–4 T, then the e.m.f.,
developed between the two ends of the conductor is
(a) 5 mV (b) 50 µV (c) 5 µV (d) 50 mV

11. Two thin, long, parallel wires, separated by a distance d carry a current of i A in the same direction.
They will
(a) attract each other with a force of 0i2/(2d2) (b) repel each other with a force of 0i2/(2d2)
(c) attract each other with a force of 0i2/(2d) (d) repel each other with a force of 0i2/(2d)

12. A charged particle of mass m and charge q travels on a circular path of radius r that is perpendicular
to a magnetic field B. The time taken by the particle to complete one revolution is

(a) (b) qB
(c) (d)
m B m

## 13. A magnetic needle is kept in a non-uniform magnetic field. It experiences

(a) a force and a torque (b) a force but not a torque
(c) a torque but not a force (d) neither a force nor a torque

14. A uniform electric field and a uniform magnetic field are acting the same direction in a certain region.
If an electron is projected along the direction of the fields with a certain velocity then
(a) it will turn towards right of direction of motion
(b) it will turn towards left of direction of motion
(c) its velocity will decrease
(d) its velocity will increase

## 15. Needles N1 , N 2 and N 3 are made of a ferromagnetic, a paramagnetic and a diamagnetic, a

paramagnetic and a diamagnetic substance respectively. A magnet when brought close to them will
(a) attract N1 and N2 strongly but repel N3
(b) attract N1 strongly, N2 weakly and repel N3 weakly
(c) attract N1 strongly, but repel N2 and N3 weakly
(d) attract all three of them

16. In a region, steady and uniform electric and magnetic fields are present. These two fields are parallel
to each other. A charged particle is released from rest in this region. The path of the particle will be
a
(a) helix (b) straight line (c) ellipse (d) circle

17. Two identical conducting wires AOB and COD are placed at right angles to each other. The wire
AOB carries an electric current I1 and COD carries a current I2. The magnetic field on a point lying
at a distance d from O, in a direction perpendicular to the plane of wires AOB and COD, will be
given by
1/ 2
0 0 0  I1  I 2  0 1/ 2
(a) ( I1  I 2 ) (b)  I12  I 22  (c)   (d)  I12  I 22 
2d 2d 2  d  2d

18. An ideal coil of 10 H is connected in series with a resistance of 5  and a battery of 5 V. 2 seconds
after the connection is made, the current flowing in amperes in the circu
(a) e –1 (b) (1 – e–1) (c) (1 – e) (d) e

19. A long straight wire of radius a carries a steady current i. The current is uniformly distributed across
its cross section. The ratio of the magnetic field at a/2 and 2a is
(a) 1 (b) 1/2 (c) 1/4 (d) 4

20. A current I flows along the length of an infinitely long, straight, thin walled pipe. Then
(a) the magnetic field at any point inside the pipe is zero
(b) the magnetic field at all points inside the pipe is the same, but not zero
(c) the magnetic field is zero only on the axis of the pipe
(d) the magnetic field is different at different points inside the pipe

21. Relative permittivity and permeability of a material are r and r, respectively. Which of the following
values of these quantities are allowed for a diamagnetic material ?
(a) r = 1.5, r = 0.5 (b) r = 0.5, r = 0.5 (c) r = 1.5, r = 1.5 (d) r = 0.5, r = 1.5

22. A horizontal overhead powerline is at a height of 4 m from the ground and carries a current of 100 A
from east to west. The magnetic field directly below it on the ground is (0 = 4 × 10–7 T mA–1)
(a) 5 × 10–6 T northward (b) 5 × 10–6 T southward
(c) 2.5 × 10–7 T northward (d) 2.5 × 10–7 southward

23. Two coaxial solenoids are made by winding thin insulated wire over a pipe of cross-sectional area
A = 10 cm2 and length = 20 cm. If one of the solenoids has 300 turns and the other 400 turns, their
mutual inductance is (0 = 4p × 10–7 T m A–1)
(a) 4.8 × 10–4 H (b) 4.8 × 10–5 H (c) 2.4 × 10–4 H (d) 2.4 × 10–5 H
Directions: Question number 24 and 25 are based on the following paragraph:
A current loop ABCD is held fixed on the plane of the paper B
as shown in the figure. The arcs BC (radius = b) and DA a A
(radius = a) of the loop are joined by two straight wires
AB and CD. A steady current I is flowing in the loop. Angle I1 30° I
O
made by AB and CD at the origin O is 30°. Another straight
thin wire with steady current I1 following out of the plane b D
of the paper is kept at the origin. C

24. The magnitude of the magnetic field (B) due to the loop ABCD at the origin (O) is :
 0 I (b  a) 0 I  b  a 
(a) (b)
24ab 4  ab 
0 I
(c) 2(b  a)   / 3(a  b (d) zero
4

## 25. Due to the presence of the current I1 at the origin:

(a) The forces on AD and BC are zero
I1 I
(b) The magnitude of the net force on the loop is given by  0 [2(b  a)   / 3(a  b)]
4
 0 I I1
(c) The magnitude of the net force on the loop is given by (b  a)
24ab
(d) The force on AB and DC are zero

26. Two long conductors, separated by a distance d carry current I1 and I2 in the same direction. They
exert a force F on each other. Now the current in one of them is increased to two times and its
direction is reversed. The distance is also increased to 3 d. The new value of the force between
them is
2F F F
(a)  (b) (c) –2F (d) 
3 3 3
27. A moving coil galvanometer has 150 equal divisions. Its current sensitivity is 10 divisions per milliampere
and voltage sensitivity is 2 divisions per millivolt. In order that each division reads 1 volt, the resistance
in ohms needed to be connected in series with the coil will be
(a) 99995 (b) 9995 (c) 103 (d) 105

28. A charged particle moves through a magnetic field perpendicular to its direction. Then
(a) both, momentum and kinetic energy of the particle are constant
(b) kinetic energy changes but the momentum is constant
(c) the momentum changes but the kinetic energy is constant
(d) both momentum and kinetic energy of the particle are not constant

29. Two long parallel wires are at a distance 2d apart. They carry steady equal currents flowing out of
the plane of the paper as shown. The variation of the magnetic field B along the line XX is given by

B B

(a) X (b) X

d d d d

B B

(c) X (d) X

d d d d

30. A rectangular loop has a sliding connector PQ of length l and resistance R  and it is moving with a
speed v as shown. The set-up is placed in a uniform magnetic field going into the plane of the paper.
The three currents I1, I2 and I are [
Bl v
(a) I1 = I2 = I =
R
P
Bl v Bl v
(b) I1 = I2 ,I=
6R 3R l
Bl v 2 Bl v v
(c) I1 = – I2 = ,I= .
R R
I I2
Bl v 2 Bl v
(d) I1 = I2 = ,I= I1 Q
3R 3R

31. A current I flows in an infinitely long wire with cross section in the form of a semicircular ring of

o I o I o I o I
(a) (b) (c) 2 R (d) 4 R
2 R 2 2 R

## 32. If a wire is stretched to make it 0.1% longer, its resistance will

(a) increase by 0.05% (b) increase by 0.2%
(c) decrease by 0.2% (d) decrease by 0.05%
 
33. An electromagnetic wave in vacuum has the electric and magnetic fields E and B , which are always

perpendicular to each other. The direction of polarization is given by X and that of wave propagation

by k . Then
         
(a) X || B and k || B E (b) X || E and k || E B
         
(c) X || B and k || E B (d) X || E and k || B E

34. A coil is suspended in a uniform magnetic field, with the plane of the coil parallel to the magnetic
lines of force. When a current is passed through the coil it starts oscillating, it is very difficult to stop.
But if an aluminium plate is placed near to the coil, it stops. This is due to
(a) development of air current when the plate is placed.
(b) induction of electrical charge on the plate
(c) shielding of magnetic lines of force as aluminium is a paramagnetic material.
(d) electromagnetic induction in the aluminium plate giving rise to electromagnetic damping.

35. A charge Q is uniformly distributed over the surface of non-conducting disc of radius R. The disc
rotates about an axis perpendicular to its plane and passing through its centre with an angular velocity
. As a result of this rotation a magnetic field of induction B is obtained at the centre of the disc. If
we keep both the amount of charge placed on the disc and its angular velocity to be constant and
vary the radius of the disc then the variation of the magnetic induction at the centre of the disc will
be represented by the figure:
B B B B

## (a) (b) (c) (d)

R R R R

36. Proton, Deutoron and alpha particle of the same kinetic energy are moving in circular trajectories in
a constant magnetic field. The radii of proton, deuteron and alpha particle are respectively rp, rd and
r. Which one of the following relations is correct?
(a) r = rp = rd (b) r = rp < rd (c) r > rd > rp (d) r = rd > rp

37. The question has Statement I and statement II. Of the four choices given after the statements,
choose the one that best describes the two statements.
Statement-I: Higher the range, greater is the resistance of ammeter.
Statement-II: To increase the range of ammeter, additional shunt needs to be used across it.
(a) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is false.
(b) Statement-I is false, Statement-II is true.
(c) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is true, Statement-II is a correct explanation of Statement-I
(d) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is true, Statement-II is not a correct explanation of Statement-I
38. A circular loop of radius 0.3 cm lies parallel to a much bigger circular loop of radius 20 cm. The centre
of the small loop is on the axis of the bigger loop. The distance between their centres is 15 cm. If a
current of 2.0 A flows through the smaller loop, then the flux linked with bigger loop is

(a) 3.3 × 10–11 weber (b) 6.6 × 10–9 weber (c) 9.1 × 10–11 weber (d) 6 × 10–11 weber

39. Two short bar magnets of length 1 cm each have magnetic moments 1.20 Am2 and 1.00 Am2 respectively.
They are placed on a horizontal table parallel to each other with their N poles pointing towards the
South. They have a common magnetic equator and are separated by a distance of 20.0 cm. The value
of the resultant horizontal magnetic induction at the mid-point O of the line joining their centres is closed
to (Horizontal component of earth’s magnetic induction is 3.6 × 10–5 Wb/m2)
(a) 3.50 × 10–4 Wb/m2 (b) 5.80 × 10–4 Wb/m2 (c) 3.6 × 10–5 Wb/m2 (d) 2.56×10–4 Wb/m2

40. The magnetic field in a travelling electromagnetic wave has a peak value of 20 nT. The peak value of
electric field strength is
(a) 9 V/m (b) 12 V/m (c) 3 V/m (d) 6 V/m

## 41. A conductor lies along the z-axis at –1.5  z < 1.5 m

and carries a fixed current of 10.0 A in aˆ z direction

(see figure). For a field B  3.0  104 e 0.2 x aˆ y T , find
the power required to move the conductor at constant
speed to x = 2.0 m, y = 0 m in 5 × 10–3 s. Assume
parallel motion along the x-axis.
(a) 14.85 W (b) 29.7 W (c) 1.57 W (d) 2.97 W

42. The coercivity of a small magnet where the ferromagnet gets demagnetized is 3 × 103 Am–1. The
current required to be passed in a solenoid of length 10 cm and number of turns 100, so that the magnet
gets demagnetized when inside the solenoid is
(a) 3 A (b) 6 A (c) 30 mA (d) 60 mA
BASIC PROBLEMS
1. A current I equal to 2 ampere circulates in a round thin wire loop of radius r = 100 mm. Find the
magnetic induction
(a) at the centre of the loop
(b) at a point on the axis of the loop at a distance x = 100 mm from its centre

2. Find the magnetic induction at the point O if a wire carrying current I has the shape shown in figure
(a, b). The radius of the curved part of the wire is R and the linear parts may be assumed to be very
long.

3. A particle of mass 9 × 10–31 kg and negative charge of 1.6 × 10–19 coulomb is projected horizontally
with a velocity of 106 m/sec into a region between two infinite horizontal parallel plates of metal. The
distance between the plates is 0.3 cm and the particle enters 0.1 cm below the top plate. The top and
bottom plates are connected respectively to the positive and negative terminals of a 30 volt battery.
Find the components of the velocity just before the particle hits one of the plates.

4. A non-relativistic proton beam passed without deviation through a region of space where there are
mutually perpendicular uniform electric and magnetic fields with E = 120 kV/m and B = 50 mT. Then
the beam strikes a ground target. Find the force with which the beam acts on the target if the beam
current is equal to 0.8 mA.

5. Two long parallel wires of zero resistance are connected to each other by a battery of 1.0 V. The
separation between the wires is 0.5 m. A metallic bar, which is perpendicular to the wires and of
resistance 10, moves on these wires when a magnetic field of 0.02 Tesla is acting perpendicular to
the plane containing the bar and the wires. Find the steady state velocity of the bar. If the mass of the
bar is 0.002 kg, find its velocity as a function of time.

6. A galvanometer having 30 divisions has a current sensitivity of 20 A/ division. It has a resistance of
25 ohm. How will you convert in into an ammeter measuring upto 1 ampere? How will you now
convert this ammeter into a voltmeter reading upto 1 volt?

7. Two straight infinitely long and thin parallel wires are spaced 0.1 m apart and carry a current of
10 ampere each. Find the magnetic field at a point distant 0.1 m from both wires in the two cases when
the currents are in the
(a) same and (b) opposite directions.
8. In the Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the electron circulates around the nucleus in the path of radius
5.1 × 10–11 m at a frequency of 6.8 × 1015 rev/s.
(a) Calculate the magnetic induction B at the centre of the orbit.
(b) What is the equivalent dipole moment?

9. The wire loop PQRSP formed by joining two semi-circular wires of radii R1 and R2 carries a current
I as shown in Fig. What is the magnetic induction at the centre O and magnetic moment of the loop in
cases (A) and (B)?

l
R1
R2
O
S R R2 P
R1 Q
S R O Q P
l
(A) (B)
10. A loop of flexible conducting wire of length 0.5 m lies in a magnetic field of 1.0 Tesla perpendicular to
the plane of the loop. Calculate the ten sion developed in the wire if the current is of 1.57 ampere.

11. A coil in the shape of an equilateral triangle of side 0.02 m is suspended from a vertex such that it is
hanging in a vertical plane between the pole pieces of a permanent magnet producing a horizontal
magnetic field of 5 × 10–2 T. Find the couple acting on the coil when a current of 0.1 ampere is passed
through it and the magnetic field is parallel to its plane.

## 12. The magnetic field existing in a region is given by

  x 
B  B0  1  k
 l
A square loop of edge l and carrying a current i, is placed with its edges parallel to the X – Y axes.
Find the magnitude of the net magnetic force experienced by the loop

## 13. A narrow beam of singly charged carbon ions, moving at a

constant velocity of 6.0 × 104 m/s, is sent perpendicularly in
a rectangular region having uniform magnetic field B = 0.5
T. It is found that two beams emerge from the field in the × × ×
× × ×
backward direction, the separations from the incident beam
× × ×
being 3.0 cm and 3.5 cm. Identify the isotopes present in × × ×
the ion beam. Take the mass of an ion = A(1.6 × 10–27) kg, × × ×
where A is the mass number. × × ×

## 14. A battery is connected between two points A and B on the l

A l1
circumference of a uniform conducting ring of radius r and
resistance R as shown in Fig. One of the arcs AB of the
r  B
ring subtends an angle  at the centre. What is the value of l2
O
the magnetic field at the centre due to the current in the
ring?
(A)
15. A solenoid of length 0.4 m and having 500 turns of wire carries a current of 3 ampere. A thin coil
having 10 turns of wire and of radius 0.01 m carries a current of 0.4 ampere. Calculate the torque
required to hold the coil in the middle of the solenoid with its axis perpendicular to the axis of the
solenoid.

16. An electron beam passes through a magnetic field of 2 × 10 –3 Wb/m2 and an electric field of
3.4 × 104 V/m, both acting simultaneously. If the path of electrons remains undeflected, calculate the
speed of the electrons. If the electric field is removed, what will be the radius of the electron path
[me = 9.1 × 10–31 kg]?

## 17. A pair of stationary and infinitely long bent wires are

y 
placed in the xy plane as shown in figure. The wires
carry currents of i = 10 A each as shown. The segments i
i L R O Q i
L and M are along the x-axis. The segments P and Q x
P S M
are parallel to the y-axis such that OS = OR = 0.02 m. i

## Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic induction –

at the origin O.

18. Calculate the magnetic induction at the centre of a rectangular frame of wire carrying a current I. The
length of any diagonal of the rectangular frame is d and the acute angle between its diagonals is .

## 19. In figure, MN is a very long wire which carries a current I1 along

the x-axi white PQ is a straight segment of another wire lying Q
along the y-axis and carrying a current I2. The strength PQ = L
I2
and OP = d, with OP  MN. Calculate the magnitude and direction y
P
of I1
x
(a) the force F experienced by PQ and M O N

## (b) the torque experienced by PQ about the axis MN.

20. A parallel plate capacitor having plate area equal to A and the separation between the plates equal to
d, is placed in a stream of conducting liquid with resistivity . The liquid moves with constant velocity
v parallel to the plates of capacitor. The complete system is placed in a uniform magnetic field of
induction B, which is parallel to the plates of capacitor and perpendicular to direction of motion of
liquid. The plates of capacitor are joined by some external resistance R. Calculate the amount of
power generated in that resistance.
1. An - particle is describing a circle of radius 0.45 metre in a field of magnetic induction of
1.2 weber / metre2. The mass of a-particle is 6.8 × 10–27 kg and its charge is twice the charge of
electron i.e. 3.2 × 10–19 coulomb.
(a) Find its speed, frequency of rotation and kinetic energy.
(b) What potential difference is required to accelerate the particle to give this much energy to it?

2. A charge of 1 Coulomb is placed at one end of a non-conducting rod of length 0.6 m. The rod is rotated
in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis passing through the other end of the rod with angular frequency
104  radian / sec. Find the magnetic field at a point on the axis of rotation at a distance of 0.8m from
the centre of the path. × × × ×
× × × ×
3. An -particle is accelerated by a potential difference of × × × ×
104 V. Find the change in its direction of motion, if it enters × × ×
normally in a region of thickness 0.1 m having transverse +q 
× × × ×
magnetic induction of 0.1 Tesla. (mass of  - particle
= 6.4 × 10–27 kg).
0.1m

4. There is a constant homogeneous electric field of 100 V / m within the region x = 0 and x = 0.167 m
pointing along x direction. There is a constant homogeneous magnetic field B within the region
x = 1.67 m and x = 0.334 m pointing along the z-direction. A proton at rest at the origin (x = 0, y = 0) is
released. Find the minimum strength of the magnetic field B, so that the proton is detected back at
x = 0, y = 0.167 m. (mass of the proton = 1.67 × 10–27 kg)

## 5. An electron gun G emits electrons of energy 2keV travelling

in the positive x-direction. The electrons are required to hit
the spot S, where GS = 0.1 m, and the line GS makes an S
angle of 60º with the x-axis as shown in the figure. A uniform B
magnetic field B parallel to GS exists in the region outside B
the electron gun. Find the minimum value of B needed to 60º v
x
G
make the electron hit S.

6. A particle of mass 1 × 10 –26 kg and charge + 1.6 × 10–19 C travelling with a velocity 1.28 × 106 m/s in
the +x direction enters a region in which a uniform electric field E and a uniform magnetic field B are
present such that Ex = Ey = 0, Ez = – 102.4 kV/m and Bx = Bz = 0, By = 8 × 10–2 Wb /m2. The particle
enters the region at the origin at time t = 0. Determine the location (x, y and z-coordinates) of the
particle at t = 5 × 10–6 s. If the electric field is switched off at this instant (with magnetic field still
present), what will be the position of the particle at t = 7.45 × 10–6 s?
7. Two long straight parallel wires are 2 m apart, perpendicular
×
to the plane of the paper (see figure). The wire A carries a A
current of 9.6 A, directed into the plane of the paper. The 1 .6
m
wire B carries a current such that the magnetic field of
2m
induction at the point P, at a distance of 10/11 m from the
S
wire B, is zero. Find : m
1.2
(a) The magnitude and direction of the current in B. B
10 m
(b) The magnitude of the magnetic field of induction at the point S.
11
(c) The force per unit length on the wire B. P

8. Two circular coils each of 100 turns are held such that one lies in the vertical plane and the other in the
horizontal plane with their centres coinciding. The radii of the vertical and horizontal coils are respectively
20 cm and 30 cm. If the directions of the currents in them are such that the earth’s magnetic field at the
centre of the coils is exactly neutralised, calculate the currents in each coil [H= 27.8 A/m angle of dip
= 30º]

## 9. Two circular rings each of radius a are joined together such

that their planes are perpendicular to each other as shown
in the figure. The resistance of each half part of the ring is 1

## indicated. A very small loop of mass m and radius r carrying 1

m I0
a current I0 is placed in the plane of the papers at the r
1
common centre of the rings. The loop can freely rotate about 2
any of its diametric axes If the loop is slightly displaced, + –
find the time period of its oscillations. E=2V

10. Consider a nonconducting plate of radius r and mass m which has a charge q distributed uniformly
over it. The plate is rotated about its axis with an angular speed . Show that the magnetic moment µ
q
and the angular momentum l of the plate are related as µ =  l.
2m

11. A current i flows in a long straight wire with cross-section having the form of a thin half ring of radius
R as shown in figure. Find the induction of magnetic field at the point O.

R O
 
 
 

12. A straight segment OC (of length L metre) of a circuit
carrying a current I amp. is placed along the
X-axis. Two infinitely long straight wires A and B, each Y
extending from Z = –  to + , are fixed at
×B
y = –a metre and y = + a metre respectively as shown in the a
figure. If the wires A and B each carry a current I amp into O L C
X
the plane of the paper, obtain the expression for the force –a I
Z
acting on the segment OC. What will be the force on OC if ×A
the current in the wire B is reversed.

13. A long straight wire is coplaner with a current carrying circular loop of radius R as shown in figure.
Current flowing through wire and the loop is I 0 and I respectively. If distance between centre of loop
and wire is r = 2 R, calculate force of attraction between the wire and the loop.
r

R I
I0

## 14. Figure shows a wooden cylinder of mass m = 0.25 kg, radius

R and length l = 0.1 m with N = 10 turns of wire wrapped b

## around it longitudinally, so that the plane of the coil contains c

the axis of the cylinder. What is the least current through
the loop that will prevent the cylinder from rolling down a 10 cm

## plane whose surface is inclined at an angle  to the horizontal,

a
in the presence of a vertical magnetic field of 0.5 Wb m–2, 30°
5 cm
if the plane of windings is parallel to the inclined plane? d
  
15. A hypothetical magnetic field existing in a region is given by B  B 0er , where e r denotes the unit
vector along the radial direction. A circular loop of radius a, carrying a current i, is placed with its plane
parallel to the X-Y plane and the centre at (0, 0, d). Find the magnitude of the magnetic force acting on
the loop.

16. Electrons are observed to be ejected in various directions with negligible speed from a negative plate of
a parallel plate capacitor when the plates is illuminated by light of a certain wavelength (photoelectric
effect). The plates are separated by a distance d and a potential difference V is maintained between
them. Show that none of these electrons will reach the positive plate if a magnetic field is applied at
1/ 2
 2m V 
right angles to the electric field and the magnetic induction has a value B >  
2  where m and e
 ed 
are the electron mass and charge respectively.
17. A beam of charged particles, having kinetic energy 103 eV, contains masses 8 × 10–27 Kg and 1.6 × 10–26 Kg
emerge from the end of an acceleration tube. There is plate at a distance 10–2m from the end of the
tube and placed perpendicular to the beam. Calculate the magnitude of the smallest magnetic field
which can prevent the beam from striking the plate.

18. A metal wire of mass m slides without friction on two rails spaced at a distance L apart. The track lies
in a vertical uniform field of induction B. A constant current I flows along one rail across the wire and
back down the other rail. Find the velocity (speed and direction) of the wire as a function of time
assuming it to be at rest initially.

19. Two parallel rails separated by a distance of 2 × 10–2 meter, are laid in north-south direction. On these
rails is kept a metal cylinder of mass 4.0 × 10–2 kg A battery is connected to the rails with its positive
terminal joined to the rail on the eastern side. The battery sends a current of 3.0 amp to the cylinder. If
a uniform magnetic field of 1.2 Tesla directed upward be there, then find the magnitude and direction
of the magnetic force imposed on the cylinder. What would be the acceleration produced in the cylinder?
Friction is negligible.
Objective Questions
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (c)
6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (a)
11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (b)
16. (c) 17. (c) 18. (b) 19. (d) 20. (a)
21. (c) 22. (c) 23. (d) 24. (b) 25. (d)
26. (b) 27. (a) 28. (b) 29. (c) 30. (a)
31. (a,c,d) 32. (c,d) 33. (a,b,c,d) 34. (a,b,d) 35. (a,b)
36. (a,c,d) 37. (a,d) 38. (b,d) 39. (a,b,c) 40. (a,d)

Miscellaneous Assignment
1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (b)
6. (b) 7. A-(q); B-(p); C-(q); D-(p) 8. A-(r); B-(r); C-(p); D-(q)
9. (5) 10. (2) 11. (0) 12. (7) 13. (3)
14. (5) 15. (4) 16. (4) 17. (9) 18. (8)

## Previous Year Questions

1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (b)
6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (a,c)
11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (a,c,d) 14. (c) 15. (d)
16. A-(q),(r); B-(p); C-(q),(r); D-(q) 17. 7. 18. (c)
19. A-(r),(s),(t);B-(q),(r),(s),(t); C-(p),(q); D-(r),(s),(t) 20. (b,d) 21. (a)
22. (6) 23. (c,d) 24. (5) 25. (c) 26. (b)
27. (a,c) 28. (a,d) 29. (3) 30. (c) 31. (b)
DCE QUESTIONS
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (b)
6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (b)
11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (a) 14. (a) 15. (b)
16. (c) 17. (b) 18. (a) 19. (a) 20. (b)
21. (b)
MAINS QUESTIONS
1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (b)
6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (b)
11. (c) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (c) 15. (b)
16. (b) 17. (d) 18. (b) 19. (a) 20. (a)
21. (a) 22. (b) 23. (c) 24. (a) 25. (a)
26. (a) 27. (b) 28. (c) 29. (c) 30. (d)
31. (a) 32. (b) 33. (b) 34. (d) 35. (a)
36. (b) 37. (b) 38. (c) 39. (d) 40. (d)
41. (d) 42. (a)
Basic Problems
1. (a) 1.256 × 10–5 Tesla,
0 I 0 I 3   I
2. (a) (b) 1   (b) 4.44 × 10–6 Tesla (c) 0 (2  )
4R 4R  2 4R
6 6
3. vH = 10 m/s, vV = 1.88 × 10 m/s 4. 2.04 × 10–5 N
5. 100 m/s, v = 0.5 t 6. 1.5 × 10–2 , 0.985 
7. (a) 3.46 × 10–5 T (b) 2 × 10–5 T 8. 13.4 Wb/m2, 8.88 × 10–24 Am2
0 I  1 1  0 I  1 1 
9. (A) B =  
4  R1 R2  out of page (B) B = 4  R1 R2  into page,

 I (R 22  R 12 ) I ( R12  R22 )
M= into page M= into page
2 2

## 10. 0.125 N 11. 5  3  10 7 Nm 12. i B0 l 13. C12 and C14

14. Zero 15. 6 × 10–6 N.m 16. 1.7 × 107 m/s, 4.83 cm
17. 1 Gauss 18. (40)/d sin 

 0 I1 I 2 d  L (B2 v 2 d 2 R)
19. F = log  ,  =  0 I1 I 2 L 20.
4  d  2 [ R  (d / A)]2

1. 2.6 × 107 m/s, 9.2 × 106/s, 14 MeV 2. 1.13 × 10–3 Tesla, 2.26 × 10–3 Tesla
3. 30º 4. 7.07 × 10–3 Tesla
5. 4.7 × 10–3 T 6. (6.4, 0, 0), (6.4, 0, 2)
–6 –6
7. (a) 3 A out of plane, (b) 1.3 × 10 Tesla, (c) 2.88 × 10 N/m towards P

8  2 ma
8. IV = 0.111 A, IH = 0.0963 A 9.
0 I0

 0i  0 I 2  L2  a 2  ˆ
11. 12. ln  2  ( k )
2 R 2  a 

 2 
13. µ0 I0 I   1 14. 4.9 A
 3 

2a 2 i B0
15. 16.
a2  d 2

Bi L
17. 2 tesla 18. v = t along the rails to the left.
m
19. 7.2 × 10–2N, 1.8 m/sec2