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ASME NM.

1-2018

Thermoplastic
Piping Systems
ASME Standards for Nonmetallic
Pressure Piping Systems

A N A M E R I C A N N AT I O N A L STA N DA R D
ASME NM.1-2018

Thermoplastic
Piping Systems
ASME Standards for Nonmetallic
Pressure Piping Systems

AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Two Park Avenue • New York, NY • 10016 USA


x
Date of Issuance: May 31, 2019

The next edition of this Standard is scheduled for publication in 2020. This Standard will become effective 6 months after the
Date of Issuance.

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The American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

Copyright © 2019 by
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
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CONTENTS

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Committee Roster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Correspondence With the NPPS Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

Chapter 1 Scope and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


1-1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-2 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1-4 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1-5 Status of Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Chapter 2 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2-1 Design Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2-2 Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2-3 Pressure Design of Piping Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2-4 Other Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Chapter 3 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3-2 Materials and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3-3 Thermoplastic Composite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Chapter 4 Standards for Piping Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4-2 Reference Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Chapter 5 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5-2 Joining Thermoplastic Piping Components by Heat Fusion or Solvent-Cement Welding . . 33
5-3 Procedure Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5-4 Operator Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Chapter 6 Inspection, Examination, and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6-1 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6-2 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6-3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Chapter 7 Use of Metallic Piping Lined With Thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7-1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7-2 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7-3 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7-4 Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7-5 Fabrication and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7-6 Storage and Handling Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

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7-7 Inspection, Examination, and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Chapter 8 Multilayered Reinforced Thermoplastic Piping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8-1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8-2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8-3 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8-4 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
8-5 Examination, Inspection, and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Mandatory Appendices
I Fusing and Electrofusing of Polyamide-11 Thermoplastic Piping; and Fusing of
Polypropylene, Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride), and Polytetrafluoroethylene Plastic Liners of
Lined Steel Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
II Threaded Thermoplastic Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
III Acceptance Criteria for Thermoplastic Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
IV Stress Intensification Factors and Flexibility Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
V One-Piece Thermoplastic Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Nonmandatory Appendices
A Components for Thermoplastic Lap-Joint Flange Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 98
B Design Requirements for Buried Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 119
C Pressure Surge From Fluid Transient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 128
D Multilayered Reinforced Thermoplastic Piping System(s) Operation, Maintenance,
and Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 130

Figures
2-3.2.2-1 Nomenclature for 90-deg Mitered Elbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2-3.2.4-1 Tapered Transition Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7-4.4.4.4-1 Stress Range Factor, f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
I-7.7-1 Instruction on Preparing and Cutting Electrofusion Coupling for Crush Test . . . . . . . . . . 70
I-7.8-1 Joint Crush Specimens in Vise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
I-8.2-1 Polyethylene Pipe Butt-Fusion Joint O.D. Bead (Cross-Sectional View) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
I-9.1-1 Cross-Sectional View of PA-11 Butt-Fusion Bead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
I-9.2-1 Cross-Sectional View of an Electrofusion Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
I-9.2-2 Fit-Up Gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
I-9.3-1 Cross-Sectional View of a PP and PVDF Butt-Fusion Liner Bead Formed Against the Heater
Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
III-3-1 Solvent-Cement-Weld Shrink-Back Appearance (Cross-Sectional View) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
V-1.1-1 Socket Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
V-1.2-1 Threaded Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
V-2.3-1 One-Piece Thermoplastic Flange With Reinforcing Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
A-2.3-1 Contact Area Between Flange Adapter and Backup Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
A-2.3-2 Plate Flange Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
A-2.3-3 Convoluted Backup Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
A-4.3.1-1 Thermoplastic Flange Adapter —Typical for NPS (IPS) PE, PP, and PVDF Butt-Fused Lap-Joint
Flange Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
A-4.3.2-1 Typical ISO or DVS Metric Spigot Socket-Fusion Flange Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

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A-4.3.2-2 Typical ISO or DVS Metric Flange Adapters for Socket Fusing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
A-4.3.2-3 Special ISO or DVS Metric Butt-Fusion Flange Adapter for Higher-Pressure Connections . 112
A-5.2-1 Transistor Flange Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
A-5.2-2 Solid PVDF Flange and Backup Ring to Thermoplastic-Lined Metal Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
A-5.3-1 One-Piece Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
A-5.3-2 Flange Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
A-9.4-1 Drawings for Bolts With Nuts and Stud Bolts With Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Tables
1-4-1 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1-5-1 Status of Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2-3.2.2-1 Geometric Shape Rating (GSR) for HDPE Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2-3.2.2-2 Design Factor (DF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2-3.2.2-3 Pressure Rating (PR) at 23°C (73°F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4-2.1-1 Specifications and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4-2.1-2 Procurement Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5-3-1 Qualification for Thermoplastic Joining Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5-4-1 Qualification for Thermoplastic Fusion Equipment Operators, Welders, and Installers . . . 38
7-4.4.4.3-1 Increased Casting Quality Factor, Ec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7-4.4.4.3-2 Acceptance Levels for Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7-4.4.10-1 Working Pressures for Metallic Flanges and Fittings Lined With Thermoplastics . . . . . . . 51
I-8-1 Essential Variables for Heat-Fusing JPS for PA-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
I-8-2 Essential Variables for Electrofusion JPS for PA-11 Electrofusion Couplings . . . . . . . . . . . 72
I-8-3 Essential Variables for Heat Fusion JPS for PP, PVDF, and PTFE/PFA Liners . . . . . . . . . . 73
I-9.3-1 Steel Pipe Liner Thickness for PP, PVDF, and PTFE/PFA Liners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
II-1.3-1 Pressure Ratings for Molded PVC and CPVC Threaded Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
II-2.5.2-1 Pressure Ratings for Molded PVC and CPVC Field-Threaded Pipe Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
IV-1 Stress Intensification Factors, i, and Flexibility Factors, k, for High-Density Polyethylene . 90
A-2.1-1 NPS Backup Rings for Thermoplastic Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
A-2.1-2 Metric Backup Rings for Thermoplastic Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
A-2.4-1 Solvent-Cement-Weld Socket PVC and CPVC Lap-Joint Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
A-2.4-2 PVC and CPVC Spigot (Spig) Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
A-2.4-3 PVC and CPVC Threaded Lap-Joint Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
A-2.4-4 Steel Backup Rings for ABS Flange Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
A-3-1 Proof-Test Requirements for TLJF Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
A-4.4-1 Full-Face ABS Socket Flange Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
A-4.4-2 ABS Socket Flange Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
A-5.1-1 Acceptable Methods for Installing Thermoplastic Flange Adapters to Thermoplastic Pipe and
Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
A-7.2-1 Gasket Requirements for Thermoplastic Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
B-2.2.2.1-1 Soil Pressure Under H-20 Load Without Impact Factor (Flexible Pavement or Unpaved Roads) 121
B-2.2.2.1-2 Soil Pressure Under H-20 Load on Rigid Pavement With Impact Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
B-4.2.1-1 Typical Soil Unit Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
B-4.2.2-1 Eʹ Values for Typical Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
B-4.2.2-2 Eʹ Values per Depth of Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

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B-4.2.2-3 Native Soil Eʹ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
B-4.2.2-4 Soil Support Factor, FS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
C-2-1 Pipe Wall Flexibility Reduction Factors, ψc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

vi
FOREWORD

In 2011, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) established the Committee on Nonmetallic Pressure
Piping Systems (NPPS) to develop standards for the construction of nonmetallic pressure piping systems. This Commit-
tee’s goal was to specify construction1 requirements for nonmetallic piping and piping products; such requirements were
not adequately defined in existing standards.
Prior to the development of the ASME Standards for Nonmetallic Pressure Piping Systems, nonmetallic pressure piping
requirements were contained within several existing standards. The nonmetallic piping requirements of the ASME B31
Code for Pressure Piping varied across Sections, with some Sections having no requirements for nonmetallic components
at all. Other standards and codes, such as ASME RTP-1 and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Section X,
included requirements for reinforced thermoset plastic (RTP) corrosion-resistant equipment but not for piping and
piping components. ASME BPVC, Section III did have a few Code Cases that addressed requirements for some nonmetallic
piping and piping components, including those made from glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resin (FRP) and a few
thermoplastics, e.g., high density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). However, the scope of these Code
Cases was very limited, and in some cases the methodology was nearly 30 years old. The ASME NPPS Standards now serve
as a centralized location for NPPS requirements and are developed by committees whose members are experts in this
field. The NPPS Committee’s functions are to establish requirements related to pressure integrity for the construction of
nonmetallic pressure piping systems, and to interpret these requirements when questions arise regarding their intent.
This first edition of ASME NM.1 provides requirements for the construction of thermoplastic pressure piping systems.
This Standard addresses both pipe and piping components that are produced as standard products, and custom products
that are designed for a specific application.
ASME NM.1-2018 was approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) on July 27, 2018.

1
Construction, as used in this Foreword, is an all-inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, erection, examination, inspection, testing,
and overpressure protection.

vii
ASME NPPS COMMITTEE
Nonmetallic Pressure Piping Systems
(The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Standard.)

STANDARDS COMMITTEE OFFICERS


J. Eisenman, Chair
C. Henley, Vice Chair
C. Ramcharran, Secretary

STANDARDS COMMITTEE PERSONNEL


R. Appleby, ExxonMobil Pipeline Co. D. Keeler, Dow Chemical Co.
D. Burwell, Dudley Burwell Consulting W. Lundy, U.S. Coast Guard
M. Clark, Consultant (sponsored by NIBCO, Inc.) D. McGriff, ISCO Industries, Inc.
B. R. Colley, Ashland, LLC T. Musto, Sargent & Lundy, LLC
R. Davis, Ershigs, Inc. C. Ramcharran, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
J. Eisenman, Maverick Applied Science, Inc. C. W. Rowley, The Wesley Corp.
M. Engelkemier, Cargill L. Vetter, Sargent & Lundy, LLC
B. Hebb, RPS Composites, Inc. F. Volgstadt, Volgstadt & Associates, Inc.
C. Henley, Kiewit Engineering Group, Inc. V. D. Holohan, Contributing Member, U.S. Department of Transporta-
L. Hutton, Plasticwelding, LLC tion — Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

SUBCOMMITTEE ON THERMOPLASTIC PIPING (SC-THERMO)


D. McGriff, Chair, ISCO Industries, Inc. M. Lashley, Structural Integrity Associates
J. Wright, Vice Chair, Georg Fisher Central Plastics, LLC J. Leary, Widos, LLC
J. Oh, Secretary, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers M. McDaniel, Dow Chemical Co.
C. Ramcharran, Secretary, The American Society of Mechanical Engi- J. Roach, IPS Corp.
neers J. Sixsmith, Consultant
T. Adams, Jensen Hughes T. Tipton, IPF/Plasson
B. Allen, Crane Resistoflex L. Vetter, Sargent & Lundy, LLC
D. Burwell, Dudley Burwell Consulting F. Volgstadt, Volgstadt & Associates, Inc.
M. Clark, Consultant W. Weaver, LASCO Fittings, Inc.
J. M. Craig, Consultant T. Wraight, Spears Manufacturing Co.
C. Eastman, Kiewit Power Constructors C. Wright, Kiewit Power Constructors
S. S. Fong, Stone & Webster, a Westinghouse Electric Co. D. Yanik, Crane Resistoflex
L. Gill, Ipex USA, LLC D. R. Townley, Alternate, Lubrizol Advanced Materials
F. Hampton III, Lubrizol Advanced Materials V. D. Holohan, Contributing Member, U.S. Department of Transporta-
L. Hutton, Plasticwelding, LLC tion — Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
W. Jee, Sasol (USA) Corp. K. S. Lively, Contributing Member, Retired
J. Johnston, Jr., McElroy Manufacturing, Inc. A. Sakr, Contributing Member, Consultant
J. Kalnins, Crane Resistoflex A. Springer, Contributing Member, Big West Oil

viii
SC-THERMO SUBGROUP ON DESIGN
L. Vetter, Chair, Sargent & Lundy, LLC J. Leary, Widos, LLC
S. S. Fong, Vice Chair, Stone & Webster, a Westinghouse Electric Co. J. Sixsmith, Consultant
T. Adams, Jensen Hughes T. Tipton, IPF/Plasson
M. Clark, Consultant F. Volgstadt, Volgstadt & Associates, Inc.
A. Gambino, Asahi/America, Inc. W. Weaver, LASCO Fittings, Inc.
L. Gill, Ipex USA, LLC D. R. Townley, Alternate, Lubrizol Advanced Materials
F. Hampton III, Lubrizol Advanced Materials V. D. Holohan, Contributing Member, U.S. Department of Transporta-
L. Hutton, Plasticwelding, LLC tion — Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

SC-THERMO SUBGROUP ON DEFINITIONS


M. Clark, Chair, Consultant J. Kalnins, Crane Resistoflex
C. Eastman, Kiewit Power Constructors M. Lashley, Structural Integrity Associates
S. S. Fong, Stone & Webster, a Westinghouse Electric Co. D. McGriff, ISCO Industries, Inc.
A. Gambino, Asahi/America, Inc. L. Vetter, Sargent & Lundy, LLC
L. Gill, Ipex USA, LLC W. Weaver, LASCO Fittings, Inc.
L. Hutton, Plasticwelding, LLC J. Wright, Georg Fisher Central Plastics, LLC
W. Jee, Sasol (USA) Corp.

SC-THERMO SUBGROUP ON FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND ERECTION


C. Eastman, Chair, Kiewit Power Constructors J. Sixsmith, Consultant
D. McGriff, Vice Chair, ISCO Industries, Inc. T. Tipton, IPF/Plasson
M. Clark, Consultant F. Volgstadt, Volgstadt & Associates, Inc.
J. M. Craig, Consultant W. Weaver, LASCO Fittings, Inc.
A. Gambino, Asahi/America, Inc. D. Woods, Woods Scientific Consulting, LLC
L. Gill, Ipex USA, LLC T. Wraight, Spears Manufacturing Co.
F. Hampton III, Lubrizol Advanced Materials C. Wright, Kiewit Power Constructors
L. Hutton, Plasticwelding, LLC J. Wright, Georg Fisher Central Plastics, LLC
J. Leary, Widos, LLC D. R. Townley, Alternate, Lubrizol Advanced Materials
M. McDaniel, Dow Chemical Co. V. D. Holohan, Contributing Member, U.S. Department of Transporta-
G. Morgan, Viega, LLC tion — Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
J. Roach, IPS Corp.

SC-THERMO SUBGROUP ON INSPECTION, EXAMINATION, AND TESTING


M. Lashley, Chair, Structural Integrity Associates J. Roach, IPS Corp.
D. McGriff, Vice Chair, ISCO Industries, Inc. J. Sixsmith, Consultant
T. Adams, Jensen Hughes F. Volgstadt, Volgstadt & Associates, Inc.
C. Eastman, Kiewit Power Constructors W. Weaver, LASCO Fittings, Inc.
L. Gill, Ipex USA, LLC D. Woods, Woods Scientific Consulting, LLC
F. Hampton III, Lubrizol Advanced Materials T. Wraight, Spears Manufacturing Co.
L. Hutton, Plasticwelding, LLC C. Wright, Kiewit Power Constructors
J. Leary, Widos, LLC D. R. Townley, Alternate, Lubrizol Advanced Materials
K. S. Lively, Retired

SC-THERMO SUBGROUP ON MATERIALS


L. Hutton, Chair, Plasticwelding, LLC G. Morgan, Viega, LLC
J. Leary, Vice Chair, Widos, LLC V. Rohatgi, Chevron Phillips Chemical Co.
C. Eastman, Kiewit Power Constructors D. R. Townley, Alternate, Lubrizol Advanced Materials
L. Gill, Ipex USA, LLC V. D. Holohan, Contributing Member, U.S. Department of Transporta-
F. Hampton III, Lubrizol Advanced Materials tion — Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
J. Kalnins, Crane Resistoflex

ix
SC-THERMO SUBGROUP ON MULTILAYERED REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
W. Jee, Chair, Sasol (USA) Corp. C. W. Rowley, The Wesley Corp.
J. Mason, Vice Chair, Mason Materials Development, LLC A. Sakr, Consultant
L. Gill, Ipex USA, LLC D. Johnson, Alternate, Ipex USA, LLC
D. McGriff, ISCO Industries, Inc. D. Burdeaux, Contributing Member, FlexSteel Pipeline Technologies, Inc.

SC-THERMO SUBGROUP ON STANDARDS


L. Gill, Chair, Ipex USA, LLC F. Hampton III, Lubrizol Advanced Materials
W. Jee, Vice Chair, Sasol (USA) Corp. J. Wright, Georg Fisher Central Plastics, LLC
M. Clark, Consultant D. R. Townley, Alternate, Lubrizol Advanced Materials
A. Gambino, Asahi/America, Inc.

SC-THERMO SUBGROUP ON THERMOPLASTIC LINED METALS


J. Kalnins, Chair, Crane Resistoflex S. Boyd, Boyd Tech, Inc.
D. Yanik, Vice Chair, Crane Resistoflex M. McDaniel, Dow Chemical Co.
B. Allen, Crane Resistoflex H. Svetlik, Contributing Member, Georg Fischer Piping

x
CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE NPPS COMMITTEE

General. ASME Standards are developed and maintained with the intent to represent the consensus of concerned
interests. As such, users of this Standard may interact with the Committee by requesting interpretations, proposing
revisions or a case, and attending Committee meetings. Correspondence should be addressed to:

Secretary, NPPS Standards Committee


The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Two Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5990
http://go.asme.org/Inquiry

Proposing Revisions. Revisions are made periodically to the Standard to incorporate changes that appear necessary
or desirable, as demonstrated by the experience gained from the application of the Standard. Approved revisions will be
published periodically.
The Committee welcomes proposals for revisions to this Standard. Such proposals should be as specific as possible,
citing the paragraph number(s), the proposed wording, and a detailed description of the reasons for the proposal,
including any pertinent documentation.

Proposing a Case. Cases may be issued to provide alternative rules when justified, to permit early implementation of
an approved revision when the need is urgent, or to provide rules not covered by existing provisions. Cases are effective
immediately upon ASME approval and shall be posted on the ASME Committee web page.
Requests for Cases shall provide a Statement of Need and Background Information. The request should identify the
Standard and the paragraph, figure, or table number(s), and be written as a Question and Reply in the same format as
existing Cases. Requests for Cases should also indicate the applicable edition(s) of the Standard to which the proposed
Case applies.

Interpretations. Upon request, the NPPS Standards Committee will render an interpretation of any requirement of the
Standard. Interpretations can only be rendered in response to a written request sent to the Secretary of the NPPS
Standards Committee.
Requests for interpretation should preferably be submitted through the online Interpretation Submittal Form. The
form is accessible at http://go.asme.org/InterpretationRequest. Upon submittal of the form, the Inquirer will receive an
automatic e-mail confirming receipt.
If the Inquirer is unable to use the online form, he/she may mail the request to the Secretary of the NPPS Standards
Committee at the above address. The request for an interpretation should be clear and unambiguous. It is further rec-
ommended that the Inquirer submit his/her request in the following format:
Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s) and the topic of the inquiry in one or two words.
Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the Standard for which the interpretation is being requested.
Question: Phrase the question as a request for an interpretation of a specific requirement suitable for
general understanding and use, not as a request for an approval of a proprietary design or
situation. Please provide a condensed and precise question, composed in such a way that a
“yes” or “no” reply is acceptable.
Proposed Reply(ies): Provide a proposed reply(ies) in the form of “Yes” or “No,” with explanation as needed. If
entering replies to more than one question, please number the questions and replies.
Background Information: Provide the Committee with any background information that will assist the Committee in
understanding the inquiry. The Inquirer may also include any plans or drawings that are
necessary to explain the question; however, they should not contain proprietary names or
information.

Requests that are not in the format described above may be rewritten in the appropriate format by the Committee prior
to being answered, which may inadvertently change the intent of the original request.

xi
Moreover, ASME does not act as a consultant for specific engineering problems or for the general application or
understanding of the Standard requirements. If, based on the inquiry information submitted, it is the opinion of
the Committee that the Inquirer should seek assistance, the inquiry will be returned with the recommendation
that such assistance be obtained.
ASME procedures provide for reconsideration of any interpretation when or if additional information that might affect
an interpretation is available. Further, persons aggrieved by an interpretation may appeal to the cognizant ASME
Committee or Subcommittee. ASME does not “approve,” “certify,” “rate,” or “endorse” any item, construction, proprietary
device, or activity.

Attending Committee Meetings. The NPPS Standards Committee regularly holds meetings and/or telephone confer-
ences that are open to the public. Persons wishing to attend any meeting and/or telephone conference should contact the
Secretary of the NPPS Standards Committee.

xii
INTRODUCTION

The ASME Standards for Nonmetallic Pressure Piping Systems (NPPS) are
NM.1 Thermoplastic Piping Systems: This Standard contains requirements for piping and piping components that are
produced using thermoplastic resins or compounds. Thermoplastics are a specific group of nonmetallic
materials that, for processing purposes, are capable of being repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and
hardened by decrease of temperature.
NM.2 Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin Piping Systems: This Standard contains requirements for piping and
piping components that are produced using glass-fiber reinforcement embedded in or surrounded by cured
thermosetting resin.
NM.3 Nonmetallic Materials: This Standard includes specifications for nonmetallic materials (except wood, nonfibrous
glass, and concrete) and, in conformance with the requirements of the individual construction standards,
methodologies, design values, limits, and cautions on the use of materials. This Standard is divided into three
Parts:
– NM.3.1, Nonmetallic Materials, Part 1 —Thermoplastic Material Specifications: This Part contains thermoplastic
material specifications identical to or similar to those published by the American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM International) and other recognized national or international organizations.
– NM.3.2, Nonmetallic Materials, Part 2 — Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Material Specifications: This Part contains
reinforced thermoset plastic material specifications identical to or similar to those published by ASTM and other
recognized national or international organizations.
– NM.3.3, Nonmetallic Materials, Part 3 — Properties: This Part provides tables and data sheets for allowable
stresses, mechanical properties (e.g., tensile and yield strength), and physical properties (e.g., coefficient of
thermal expansion and modulus of elasticity) for nonmetallic materials.

It is the owner’s responsibility to select the piping standard that best applies to the proposed piping installation. Factors
to be considered by the owner include limitations of the standard, jurisdictional requirements, and the applicability of
other standards. All applicable requirements of the selected standard shall be met. For some installations, more than one
standard may apply to different parts of the installation. The owner is also responsible for imposing requirements
supplementary to those of the standard if such requirements are necessary to ensure safe piping for the proposed
installation.
Certain piping within a facility may be subject to other codes and standards, including but not limited to the following:
ASME B31.1, Power Piping: This code contains requirements for piping typically found in electric power generating
stations, industrial and institutional plants, geothermal heating systems, and central and district heating and cooling
systems.
ASME B31.3, Process Piping: This code contains requirements for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; onshore
and offshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, ore-processing,
semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; food- and beverage-processing facilities; and related processing plants and
terminals.
ASME B31.4, Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries: This code contains requirements for piping
transporting products that are predominately liquid between plants and terminals, and within terminals and pumping,
regulating, and metering stations.
ASME B31.5, Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components: This code contains requirements for piping for
refrigerants and secondary coolants.
ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems: This code contains requirements for piping transporting
products that are predominately gas between sources and terminals, including compressor, regulating, and metering
stations; and gas gathering pipelines.
ASME B31.9, Building Services Piping: This code contains requirements for piping typically found in industrial,
institutional, commercial, and public buildings, and in multi-unit residences, which does not require the range of sizes,
pressures, and temperatures covered in ASME B31.1.

xiii
ASME B31.12, Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines: This code contains requirements for piping in gaseous and liquid hydrogen
service, and pipelines in gaseous hydrogen service.
National Fuel Gas Code: This code contains requirements for piping for fuel gas from the point of delivery to the
connection of each fuel utilization device.
NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities: This standard contains requirements for medical and laboratory gas systems.
NFPA Fire Protection Standards: These standards contain requirements for fire protection systems using water, carbon
dioxide, halon, foam, dry chemicals, and wet chemicals.

The ASME NPPS Standards specify engineering requirements deemed necessary for safe design and construction of
nonmetallic pressure piping. These Standards contain mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and nonmanda-
tory guidance for construction activities. These Standards do not address all aspects of these activities, and those aspects
that are not specifically addressed should not be considered prohibited. While safety is the overriding consideration, this
factor alone will not necessarily govern the final specifications for any piping installation. With few exceptions, the
requirements do not, of practical necessity, reflect the likelihood and consequences of deterioration in service
related to specific service fluids or external operating environments. These Standards are not design handbooks.
Many decisions that must be made to produce a safe piping installation are not specified in detail within these Standards.
These Standards do not serve as substitutes for sound engineering judgment by the owner and the designer. The phrase
engineering judgment refers to technical judgments made by knowledgeable designers experienced in the application of
these Standards. Engineering judgments must be consistent with the philosophy of these Standards, and such judgments
must never be used to overrule mandatory requirements or specific prohibitions of these Standards.
To the greatest possible extent, Standard requirements for design are stated in terms of basic design principles and
formulas. These are supplemented as necessary with specific requirements to ensure uniform application of principles
and to guide selection and application of piping elements. These Standards prohibit designs and practices known to be
unsafe and contain warnings where caution, but not prohibition, is warranted.
These Standards generally specify a simplified approach for many of their requirements. A designer may choose to use a
more rigorous analysis to develop design and construction requirements. When the designer decides to take this
approach, he or she shall provide to the owner details and calculations demonstrating that design, fabrication, exam-
ination, inspection, testing, and overpressure protection are consistent with the criteria of these Standards. These details
shall be adequate for the owner to verify the validity of the approach and shall be approved by the owner. The details shall
be documented in the engineering design.
The designer is responsible for complying with requirements of these Standards and demonstrating compliance with
the equations of these Standards when such equations are mandatory. These Standards neither require nor prohibit the
use of computers for the design or analysis of components constructed to the requirements of these Standards. However,
designers and engineers using computer programs for design or analysis are cautioned that they are responsible for all
technical assumptions inherent in the programs they use and for the application of these programs to their design.
These Standards do not fully address tolerances. When dimensions, sizes, or other parameters are not specified with
tolerances, the values of these parameters are considered nominal, and allowable tolerances or local variances may be
considered acceptable when based on engineering judgment and standard practices as determined by the designer.
Suggested requirements of good practice are provided for the care and inspection of in-service nonmetallic pressure
piping systems only as an aid to owners and their inspectors.
The requirements of these Standards are not to be interpreted as approving, recommending, or endorsing any proprie-
tary or specific design or as limiting in any way the manufacturer’s freedom to choose any method of design or any form of
construction that conforms to the requirements of these Standards.
It is intended that editions of the ASME NPPS Standards not be retroactive. Unless agreement is specifically made
between contracting parties to use another edition, or the regulatory body having jurisdiction imposes the use of another
edition, the latest edition issued at least 6 months prior to the original contract date for the first phase of activity covering a
piping installation shall be the governing document for all design, materials, fabrication, erection, examination, inspec-
tion, testing, and overpressure protection for the piping until the completion of the work and initial operation. Revisions
to material specifications included in ASME NM.3.1 and ASME NM.3.2 are originated by ASTM and other recognized
national or international organizations, and are usually adopted by ASME. However, those revisions do not necessarily
indicate that materials produced to earlier editions of specifications are no longer suitable for ASME construction. Both
ASME NM.3.1 and ASME NM.3.2 include a Mandatory Appendix, “Guideline on Acceptable ASTM Editions,” that lists the
latest edition of material specifications adopted by ASME as well as other editions considered by ASME to be identical for
ASME construction.
Users of these Standards are cautioned against making use of revisions to these Standards without assurance that they
are acceptable to the proper authorities in the jurisdiction where the piping is to be installed.

xiv
ASME NM.1-2018

Chapter 1
Scope and Definitions

1-1 SCOPE tion includes design, materials, fabrication, erection,


inspection, examination, and testing.)
(a) This Standard prescribes requirements for the (2) This Standard is not intended to apply to the
design, materials, fabrication, erection, examination, operation, examination, inspection, testing, maintenance,
testing, and inspection of thermoplastic piping systems. or repair of a thermoplastic piping system that has already
(b) Thermoplastic piping, as used in this Standard, been placed in service. The provisions of this Standard
includes pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, may be applied for those purposes, although other consid-
special connecting components, and the pressure- erations may also apply.
containing portions of other piping components, (3) Engineering requirements of this Standard, while
whether manufactured in accordance with standards considered necessary and adequate for safe design, gener-
referenced in this Standard or specially designed. It ally employ a simplified approach to the subject.
also includes hangers and supports and other equipment (-a) A designer capable of applying a more
items necessary to prevent overstressing the pressure- rigorous analysis than that included in this Standard
containing components. shall have the latitude to do so; however, the approach
shall be documented in the engineering design and its
1-2 GENERAL validity accepted by the owner.
(a) Identification. This Standard covers thermoplastic (-b) The approach used shall provide details of
pressure piping systems. design, construction, examination, inspection, and
(b) Responsibilities testing for the design conditions of section 2-1, with calcu-
(1) Owner. The owner of a thermoplastic piping lations consistent with the design criteria of this Standard.
system installation shall have overall responsibility for (4) Thermoplastic piping systems shall conform to
compliance with this Standard, and for establishing the the specifications and standards listed in Table 4-2.1-1.
requirements for design, construction, examination, Thermoplastic piping components neither specifically
inspection, and testing that will govern the entire approved nor specifically prohibited by this Standard
fluid-handling or process installation of which the ther- may be used provided they are qualified for use as set
moplastic piping system is a part. The owner shall also forth in applicable Chapters of this Standard.
be responsible for designating the fluid service. (5) Where a thermoplastic piping system installation
(2) Designer. The designer shall be responsible to the necessitates measures beyond those required by this Stan-
owner for assurance that the engineering design of the dard, such measures shall be specified in the engineering
thermoplastic piping system complies with the require- design and shall be implemented.
ments of this Standard and with any additional require- (6) Compatibility of materials with the intended fluid
ments established by the owner. service and hazards inherent to the instability of
(3) Manufacturer, Fabricator, and Erector. The man- contained fluids are not within the scope of this Standard.
ufacturer, fabricator, and erector of thermoplastic piping (d) General Requirements
systems shall be responsible for providing materials, (1) The design and construction of a thermoplastic
components, and workmanship in compliance with the re- piping system shall take into consideration the limitations
quirements of this Standard and of the engineering design. and conditions specific to the intended fluid service (e.g.,
(4) Owner’s Inspector. The owner’s Inspector (see temperature limits, necessary safeguarding), as these
section 6-1) shall be responsible to the owner for ensuring factors affect the selection and application of materials,
that the requirements of this Standard for inspection, components, and joints.
examination, and testing, and any additional requirements (2) A thermoplastic piping system shall meet the
established by the owner, are met. most restrictive requirements of each of its components.
(c) Intent of the Standard (e) Fluid Service
(1) It is the intent of this Standard to set forth the (1) The fluid service requirements considered in the
requirements deemed necessary for safe construction development of this Standard include those for nontoxic
of thermoplastic piping system installations. (Construc- fluids (including slurries) and gases, and flammable or

1
ASME NM.1-2018

combustible liquids and gases, except as specified in anchor: a rigid restraint providing substantially full fixa-
Chapter 7. tion, permitting neither translation nor rotational dis-
(-a) The service temperatures and pressures for placement of the pipe.
such applications are limited by the material properties assembly: the joining together of two or more piping
and design of the specific piping components selected for components by bolting, solvent-cement welding, fusing,
the given application. screwing, brazing, soldering, or cementing, or by use of
(-b) When designing thermoplastic piping adhesive or packing devices, as specified by the engi-
systems, the designer shall consider the degradation of neering design.
material properties due to interaction with the process
fluids. However, specific guidelines and requirements backup ring: a metallic or nonmetallic ring with bolt holes
for, or limitations due to, interactions between the sized and located per the applicable flange standard. When
fluid and the pipe material are beyond the scope of the backup ring is used with a thermoplastic flange
this Standard. adapter, threaded fasteners are used to join and compress
(2) Except as specified in Chapter 7, this Standard the two flange adapters (often used with a gasket) to
does not address the requirements for thermoplastic create a leak-free connection.
piping systems in Category M fluid service. The design, base material: the material to be welded or otherwise
material, fabrication, examination, and testing require- fused.
ments of such service are beyond those currently bladder: a saclike device used in the flow-fusion or elec-
defined in this Standard. trofusion welding process that, when pressurized, makes
contact with the inner walls of the weld zone prior to the
1-2.1 Content and Coverage commencement of the weld process to ensure a bead-free
(a) This Standard covers thermoplastic piping systems weld zone on the inner diameter of the pipe.
operating under pressure. bolt design stress: see stress.
(b) Thermoplastic piping used in some applications
bulk flow velocity: the instantaneous average speed of fluid
may require special quality requirements and certifica-
through a pipe or fitting at a given point. It is stated disre-
tion.
garding laminar and turbulent flow effects that create
(c) This Standard covers thermoplastic piping that
different velocity zones within the cross section.
interconnects pieces or stages within a packaged equip-
ment assembly. butt fusion: a type of joining of thermoplastic pipe, sheet, or
(d) Exclusions. This Standard excludes the following: other similar forms by heating the ends to be joined to a
(1) thermoplastic piping systems that meet all of the molten state and then rapidly pressing them together to
following: form a homogeneous bond.
(-a) The system has internal gauge pressures at or butt joint: a joint between two members aligned approxi-
above zero but less than 0.105 MPag (15 psig). mately in the same plane.
(-b) The system handles fluid that is nonflam-
Category D: see fluid service.
mable, nontoxic, and not damaging to human tissues as
defined in section 1-3. Category M: see fluid service.
(-c) The system’s design temperature ranges from component: as used in this Standard, an item within the
−29°C through 100°C (−20°F through 212°F). piping system; components include, but are not limited to,
(2) power boilers in accordance with ASME Boiler pipe, piping subassemblies, parts, valves, strainers, relief
and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Section I, and boiler devices, and fittings.
external piping that is required to conform to ASME B31.1 nonstandard component: a component not manufac-
(3) pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, tured in accordance with any of the standards listed in
compressors, and other fluid-handling or processing Table 4-2.1-1.
equipment, including internal piping and connections specially designed component: a nonstandard compo-
for external piping nent designed in accordance with section 2-1 ,
section 2-2, section 2-3, section 7-4, or section 8-3 and
1-3 DEFINITIONS complying with other requirements of this Standard.
Some of the common terms relating to thermoplastic standard component: a component manufactured in
piping are defined below. For terms related to thermoplas- accordance with one or more of the standards listed in
tics but not defined here, definitions are in accordance Table 4-2.1-1.
with ASTM F412 and abbreviations are in accordance compression-type tube fitting: a flareless mechanical grip
with ASTM D1600. connection consisting of a body, a nut, and single or dual
adhesive joint: a bonded joint made using an adhesive on ferrules. See also para. 5-2.1.
the surfaces to be joined.

2
ASME NM.1-2018

connections for external piping: those integral parts of indi- tion, examination, inspection, and testing of the system as
vidual pieces of equipment that are designed for attach- required by this Standard.
ment of external piping. examination: quality control or nondestructive testing
convoluted backup ring: a unique geometric cross- performed by the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector
sectional shape intended to increase the stiffness of a to verify conformance with requirements and specifica-
metallic or nonmetallic ring used within a thermoplastic tions. Examples of examination include the following:
lap-joint flange connection. 100% examination: complete examination of all of a
damaging to human tissues: for the purposes of this Stan- specified kind of item in a designated lot of piping.
dard, this phrase describes a fluid service in which expo- random examination: complete examination of a
sure to the fluid, caused by leakage under expected percentage of a specified kind of item in a designated
operating conditions, can harm skin, eyes, or exposed lot of piping.
mucous membranes so that irreversible damage may spot examination: a specified partial examination of
result unless prompt restorative measures are taken. each of a specified kind of item in a designated lot of piping.
(Restorative measures can include flushing with water examiner: a person who performs an examination.
or administering antidotes or medication.) expansion joint: a flexible piping component or assembly
defect: a flaw (imperfection or unintentional disconti- that absorbs seismic, thermal, and/or terminal movement.
nuity) of such size, shape, orientation, location, or proper- fabrication: the preparation of piping for assembly,
ties as to give cause for rejection. including cutting, threading, grooving, forming,
designer: the person or organization in responsible charge bending, and joining of components into subassemblies.
of the engineering design. Fabrication can be performed in the shop or in the field.
design life: duration of time used in design calculations, fillet weld: a weld of approximately triangular cross
selected for the purpose of verifying that a replaceable section joining two surfaces approximately at right
or permanent component is suitable for the anticipated angles to each other in a lap joint, tee joint, or corner joint.
period of service. (Design life does not pertain to the flammable: for the purposes of this Standard, a term used
life of a piping system because a properly maintained to describe a fluid that under ambient or expected oper-
and protected piping system can provide service indefi- ating conditions is a vapor or produces vapors that can be
nitely.) ignited and will continue to burn in air. The term thus can
design pressure: see para. 2-1.2.2. apply, depending on service conditions, to fluids defined
design temperature: see para. 2-1.2.3(e). for other purposes as flammable or combustible.

design temperature, minimum: see para. 2-1.2.3(b). flange adapter: a thermoplastic component designed to
attach to a thermoplastic pipe by solvent-cement
discontinuity: a lack of continuity or cohesion; an interrup- welding or heat fusing. The component has a plain end
tion in the normal physical structure of material or a or socket end on one side and a retaining lip on the
product. other. It is used with a backup ring to make a thermoplastic
displacement stress range: see para. 2-2.3.3(b). lap-joint flange connection.
electrofusion welding (EFW): a joining process for thermo- flared plastic face: sealing surface formed on a pipe spool
plastic materials in which heat for the welding is provided or fitting by plastic deformation of the liner. Sometimes
by energizing an electrically resistive coil in the weld zone. used synonymously with “flare.”
elements: see piping elements. flaw: an imperfection or unintentional discontinuity that is
employer: the owner, manufacturer, fabricator, contractor, detectable by a nondestructive examination.
assembler, or installer responsible for the welding, flow-fusion welding (FFW): a thermoplastic welding
joining, and nondestructive examination (NDE) process for sheets or pipe where the melt is constrained
performed by their organization. during the welding process.
engineering design: the detailed design governing a piping fluid service: a general term concerning the application of a
system, developed from process and mechanical require- piping system, considering the combination of fluid prop-
ments, conforming to the requirements of this Standard, erties, operating conditions, and other factors that estab-
and including all necessary specifications, drawings, and lish the basis for design of the piping system.
supporting documents. Category D fluid service: a fluid service in which all of the
erection: the complete installation of a piping system in the following apply:
locations and on the supports designated by the engi- (a) The fluid handled is nonflammable, nontoxic, and
neering design and including any field assembly, fabrica- not damaging to human tissues as defined in section 1-3.
(b) The design gauge pressure does not exceed 1 035
kPa (150 psi).

3
ASME NM.1-2018

(c) The design temperature ranges from −29°C through high-vapor-pressure application: a liquid-pipeline end use
186°C (−20°F through 366°F). in which the media transported are hydrocarbon liquids
Category M fluid service: a fluid service in which both of having a vapor pressure greater than 110 kPa (16 psi)
the following apply: absolute at 38°C (100°F), as determined by ASTM D323.
(a) The fluid is so highly toxic that a single exposure to a hot oiling: the activity of passing oil at an elevated
very small quantity of the fluid, caused by leakage, can temperature into a piping system for the purpose of
produce serious irreversible harm to persons on removing paraffin and wax deposits from the pipe bore.
breathing or bodily contact, even when prompt restora-
tive measures are taken. hydrostatic design basis (HDB): see stress.
(b) After consideration of piping design, experience, hydrostatic design stress (HDS): see stress.
service conditions, and location, the owner determines hydrostatic test (hydrotest): an evaluation procedure in
that the requirements for normal fluid service do not suffi- which water is used as the medium to determine the pres-
ciently provide the leak tightness required to protect per- sure containment capabilities of a piping system or
sonnel from exposure. component. Also called hydrotest.
normal fluid service: a fluid service not subject to the
requirements for Category D or Category M fluid service. imperfection: a condition of not being perfect; a departure
of a quality characteristic from its intended condition.
fusing: a permanent bond between thermoplastic piping
components formed by heating the parts sufficiently to inspection: the act of witnessing or verifying compliance to
permit the commingling of the materials when the the specified requirements.
parts are pressed together. Also known as fusion. Inspector: a person who witnesses or verifies compliance
fusing machine operator: person who uses and controls the to the specified requirements.
equipment (including manual, semiautomatic, and auto- installer: person who performs the solvent weld, makes
matic machine styles) required to fuse thermoplastic flange connections, or assembles other types of mechan-
piping components together. The fusing processes ical connections.
included are butt fusing, heated-tool butt welding, Joining Procedure Specification (JPS): general term for the
infrared welding, flow-fusion welding, socket fusion, documented procedure for all types of thermoplastic
socket-fusion welding, saddle fusion, electrofusion, elec- joining processes.
trofusion welding, and electrofusion saddle joining or
welding. joint crush test: a method used to evaluate socket-fused or
electrofused thermoplastic joints.
Fusing Procedure Specification (FPS): a formal written
document describing the process for joining thermo- joint design: the joint geometry together with the required
plastic piping components by fusion, which provides dimensions of the welded or heat-fused joint.
direction to the installer or fusion machine operator lap joint: a type of mechanical connection made between
for making sound and quality production fusion joints. piping components using a flange adapter with a backup
See also Joining Procedure Specification (JPS) and Proce- ring. Flared steel pipe with a thermoplastic liner can also
dure Qualification Record (PQR). be used.
Fusion Performance Qualification (FPQ): a document that listed: for the purposes of this Standard, a term describing
is intended to verify the ability of the fusing machine a material that conforms to one or more specifications in
operator to produce a sound, fused joint when following ASME NM.3.1, or as defined in this Standard, or to the
a qualified Fusing Procedure Specification (FPS). See also extent as referenced in the standards in Table 4-2.1-1.
Performance Qualification Test Record (PQTR). long-term hydrostatic strength (LTHS): the estimated hoop
grounding lug: a connecting device to enable electrical stress, expressed in megapascals (pressure per square
continuity between metallic components of a thermo- inch), in a plastic pipe wall that will cause failure of
plastic-lined metallic piping system. the pipe at an average of 100 000 h when subjected to
heat fusion: a permanent bond between thermoplastic a constant hydrostatic pressure.
piping components formed by heating the parts suffi- material: a substance from which a component is made.
ciently to permit the commingling of the materials Materials include, but are not limited to, thermoplastics,
when the parts are pressed together. thermoset plastics, metal alloys, elastomers, reinforcing
heat joint: see heat fusion. fibers, and thermoplastic fibers.

high-speed tensile impact test: a method used to evaluate maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP): the
the mechanical properties of thermoplastic pipe (poly- highest continuous internal pressure at which a piping
ethylene and others) joined by heat fusing, in which a system may be operated in accordance with the provisions
test sample under tension is exposed to a defined of this Standard.
impact load.

4
ASME NM.1-2018

maximum allowable operating temperature (MAOT): the miter: two or more straight sections of pipe matched and
highest continuous operating temperature the piping joined in a plane bisecting the angle of junction so as to
system is able to resist while complying with the provi- produce a change in direction.
sions of this Standard. monolithic thermoplastic: piping or piping component that
maximum allowable stress: the highest stress value that is formed from a homopolymer or copolymer resin or
may be used in the design formulas for a given material compound without joints or seams.
and design temperature. nominal: a numerical identification of dimension, capacity,
maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP): the pres- rating, or other characteristic used as a designation, not as
sure at the coincident temperature to which a component an exact measurement.
can be subjected without exceeding the maximum allow- nominal thickness: the thickness given in the product
able stress of the material or pressure–temperature rating material specification or standard to which manufacturing
of the component. tolerances are applied.
maximum pressure rating: the highest internal pressure to noncontact fusion: a heat-joining process in which the
which a piping component has been qualified. heating element does not touch the ends of the thermo-
maximum qualified temperature: the highest temperature plastic piping components being joined.
at which the maximum pressure rating and minimum nondestructive examination (NDE): the process of testing
qualified pressure of a multilayered reinforced thermo- or evaluating materials, components, or assemblies
plastic piping system have been established. without affecting the serviceability of the part or
maximum sustained operating pressure (MSOP): the system, in order to detect, locate, measure, interpret,
highest pressure at which a piping system is operated and evaluate flaws. Also known as nondestructive
during a normal operating cycle; sometimes referred testing (NDT).
to as maximum actual operating pressure. normal fluid service: see fluid service.
may: an expression of permission. owner: the party or organization ultimately responsible
mechanical coupling: in a thermoplastic-lined metallic for operation of a facility. The owner is usually the one
piping system, a metallic device that provides structural who would be granted an operating license by the regu-
support to a butt-fusion-welded joint. latory authority having jurisdiction or who has the admin-
mechanical joining: the mating of piping components istrative and operational responsibility for the facility. The
formed by a positive-holding mechanical assembly owner can be either the operating organization (i.e., might
(e.g., flanged joint, threaded joint, or flared joint). not be the actual owner of the physical property of the
facility) or the organization that owns and operates
mechanical joint: a joint for the purpose of mechanical the plant.
strength or leak resistance, or both, in which the mechan-
ical strength is developed by threaded, grooved, rolled, packaged equipment: an assembly of individual pieces or
flared, or flanged pipe ends, or by bolts, pins, toggles, stages of equipment, complete with interconnecting
or rings; and the leak resistance is developed by piping and connections for external piping. The assembly
threads and compounds, gaskets, rolled ends, caulking, can be mounted on a skid or other structure prior to
or machined and mated surfaces. delivery.

minimum allowable operating pressure: the lowest tran- Performance Qualification Test Record (PQTR): a written
sient internal pressure the piping system is able to record of a test administered to a welder or a welding
resist without damage. operator to determine the individual’s capacity to
perform a specific welding application. Welding perfor-
minimum allowable operating temperature: the lowest mance qualification tests are specific to a Welding Proce-
continuous temperature that the piping system is able dure Specification (WPS). See also Fusion Performance
to resist while complying with the provisions of this Stan- Qualification (FPQ).
dard.
permeation: the three-step physical process of absorption,
minimum operating bend radius (MOBR): the smallest diffusion, and desorption by which a fluid passes through a
bending radius that the multilayered reinforced thermo- barrier.
plastic piping system should be subjected to when the
piping system is in operation. pipe: a pressure-tight cylinder used to convey a fluid or to
transmit a fluid pressure, which is ordinarily designated
minimum qualified pressure: the lowest internal pressure “pipe” in applicable material specifications. Materials
the component has been proven to resist. designated “tube” or “tubing” in the specifications are
minimum qualified temperature: the lowest temperature treated as pipe when intended for pressure service.
the component has been proven to resist.

5
ASME NM.1-2018

pipe support elements: fixtures and structural attachments qualified life: the length of time for which a nonmetallic,
as follows: reinforced, multilayered thermoplastic piping system has
(a) Fixtures are elements that transfer the load from been qualified for use. [See para. 8-3.2.1(c).]
the pipe or structural attachment to the supporting struc- reinforcing ring: a metallic or nonmetallic ring used to
ture or equipment. They include, but are not limited to, distribute the load from the threaded fasteners used
hanging-type fixtures, such as hanger rods including parts, with thermoplastic flange adapters.
spring hangers, sway braces, counterweights, turn-
buckles, struts, chains, guides, anchors, and snubbers; relining: a technique used to rehabilitate pipelines by
and bearing-type fixtures, such as saddles, bases, pulling or inserting a pipe liner into the existing host
rollers, brackets, and sliding supports. piping system.
(b) Structural attachments are elements that are bolted restraint: a device designed to prevent, resist, or limit
or clamped to the pipe, such as clips, lugs, rings, clamps, movement of a piping system.
clevises, straps, and skirts. sealing area: the cross-sectional area of the molded or
piping: assemblies of piping components used to convey, flared plastic face of thermoplastic-lined metallic
distribute, mix, separate, discharge, meter, control, or piping, which has metallic backing that resists bolting
snub fluid flows. Piping also includes pipe support stress.
elements but does not include support structures, such sealing stress: the sustained pressure imparted by flange
as building frames, bents, foundations, or any equipment bolting necessary to effect a long-term leak-tight joint. It is
excluded from this Standard [see para. 1-2.1(d)]. normally less than seating stress, as long-term joint
piping components: mechanical elements suitable for performance implies the initial seating stress has been
joining or assembly into pressure-tight fluid-containing previously applied.
piping systems. Components include pipe, piping subas- seating stress: the initial pressure imparted by flange
semblies, tubing, fittings, flanges, gaskets, bolting, valves, bolting necessary to effect a leak-tight seal. It is normally
and devices such as expansion joints, flexible joints, pres- greater than sealing stress, due to the necessity of
sure hoses, traps, strainers, inline portions of instruments, deforming sealing surface imperfections into the
and separators. mating surface.
piping elements: any material or work required to plan and shall: an expression of a requirement.
install a piping system. Elements of piping include design
specifications, materials, components, supports, fabrica- should: an expression of a recommendation.
tion, examination, inspection, and testing. socket fusion: a fusion-joining method for assembly of
piping installation: designed piping systems to which a certain thermoplastic fittings and pipe in which the
selected standard edition applies. pipe fits inside of the fitting. A metal socket mounted
on a hot plate heats the outside circumference of the
piping system: interconnected piping and components pipe along a defined length, which will vary depending
subject to the same set or sets of design conditions. on the size of pipe and fitting being fused. A metal
plastic: a material that contains a variety of semisynthetic spigot on the opposite side of the hot plate simultaneously
or synthetic solids (polymers), is solid in its finished state, heats the inside surface of the injection-molded fitting; the
and, at some stage in its manufacture or processing, can be length of the heated region is the same as that for the pipe.
shaped by flow. The two general types of plastics are ther- Both fitting and pipe are heated for a set length of time,
moplastic and thermosetting plastics. after which the heated socket or spigot tooling is removed
pressure: an application of force per unit area; fluid pres- and the pipe is pushed into the fitting to form a coalescent
sure (an application of internal or external fluid force per joint.
unit area on the pressure boundary of piping compo- solvent-cement welding: a method for joining pipe and
nents). fittings made of certain thermoplastics [chlorinated
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR): a document listing poly(vinyl chloride) (CPVC), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC),
all pertinent data, including the essential variables and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)] in which a
employed and the test results, used in qualifying the solvent cement containing chemical solvents is used,
procedure specification. See also Fusing Procedure with or without primers, to dissolve the surfaces of the
Specification (FPS) and Joining Procedure Specification pipe’s outer diameter and the fitting socket to fuse the
(JPS). surfaces together to form a pipe joint.

proof testing: process or method for determining design solvent-weld joint: a permanent bond between thermo-
performance characteristics or quality of a component. plastic piping components formed by the use of
solvent or solvent cement that forms an attachment
between the mating surfaces.

6
ASME NM.1-2018

Standard Fusing Procedure Specification (SFPS): see Fusing thermosetting plastic: a resin and catalyst (polymer)
Procedure Specification (FPS). capable of being changed into a substantially infusible
stress: or insoluble product when cured at room temperature,
bolt design stress: the design stress used to determine or by application of heat, or by chemical means.
the required cross-sectional area of bolts in a bolted joint. tube or tubing: see pipe.
displacement stress: a stress developed by the self- ultrasonic examination: a nondestructive method of eval-
constraint of the structure. It must satisfy an imposed uating or testing materials by introducing ultrasonic
strain pattern rather than being in equilibrium with an waves into, through, or onto the surface of the article
external load. The basic characteristic of a displacement being examined and determining various attributes of
stress is that it is self-limiting. Local yielding and minor the material from effects on the ultrasonic waves. Also
distortions can satisfy the displacement or expansion known as ultrasonic testing (UT).
conditions that cause the stress to occur. Failure from
one application of the stress is not to be expected. unlisted: see para. 3-2.2.
Further, the displacement stresses calculated in this Stan- vent: a small opening that allows air, gas, or the like to
dard are “effective” stresses and are generally lower than escape piping systems or a closed space. In thermo-
those predicted by theory or measured in strain-gauge plastic-lined metal piping, it is the method of relieving
tests.1 pressure between the liner and the housing caused by
hydrostatic design basis (HDB): selected properties of permeation.
plastic piping materials to be used in accordance with vent coupling: an accessory added to the vent hole to
ASTM D2837 to determine the hydrostatic design enable ducting of permeates.
stress (see definition below) for the material.
hydrostatic design stress (HDS): the maximum contin- visual examination: the observation of the portion of
uous stress due to internal pressure to be used in the components, joints, and other piping elements that are
design of plastic piping, determined from the hydrostatic or can be exposed to view before, during, or after manu-
design basis by use of a service (design) factor. facture, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, or
sustained stress: a stress developed by an imposed testing.
loading that is necessary to satisfy the laws of equilibrium Welding Procedure Specification (WPS):
between external and internal forces and moments. The (a) formal written document describing the process for
basic characteristic of a sustained stress is that it is not joining thermoplastic piping components by fusion, which
self-limiting. If a sustained stress exceeds the yield provides direction to the installer or fusion machine
strength of the material through the entire thickness, operator for making sound and quality production
the prevention of failure is entirely dependent on the fusion joints. See also Fusion Performance Qualification
strain-hardening properties of the material. A thermal (FPQ) and Joining Procedure Specification (JPS).
stress is not classified as a sustained stress. Further, (b) formal written document that lists the parameters
the sustained stresses calculated in this Standard are to be used in construction of weldments in accordance
“effective” stresses and are generally lower than those with requirements of the ASME B31 Pressure Piping
predicted by theory or measured in strain-gauge tests. Code Sections, various ASME BPVC Sections, and AWS
tensile test: a method used to determine the overall B2.4.
strength of a given object by fitting the object between
two grips, one at each end, then slowly pulling the 1-4 ABBREVIATIONS
grips in opposite directions until the object breaks. Unless otherwise noted, the abbreviations defined in
This method provides information related to the Table 1-4-1 are used in this Standard to replace
object’s yield point, tensile strength, and ultimate lengthy phrases in the text and in the titles of standards
strength. in Table 4-2.1-1.
thermoplastic: a plastic (polymer) that is capable of being
repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and 1-5 STATUS OF APPENDICES
hardened by decrease of temperature.
Table 1-5-1 indicates for each Appendix of this Standard
whether it contains requirements or guidance. See the first
1
Normally, the most significant displacement stress is encountered in page of each Appendix for details.
the thermal expansion stress range from ambient to the normal oper-
ating condition. This stress range is also the stress range usually consid-
ered in a flexibility analysis. However, if other significant stress ranges
occur, whether they are displacement stress ranges (such as from other
thermal expansion or contraction events, or differential support move-
ments) or sustained stress ranges (such as from cyclic pressure, steam
hammer, or earthquake inertia forces), paras. 2-2.3.3(b) and 2-3.3.1.3
may be used to evaluate their effect on fatigue life.

7
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 1-4-1 Abbreviations


Abbreviation Definition
ABS [Notes (1) and (2)] Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
CPVC [Note (1)] Chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)
DR [Note (2)] Dimension ratio
E-CTFE [Note (1)] Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene
EFW Electrofusion welding
ETFE [Note (1)] Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer
FEP [Note (1)] Perfluoro(ethylene propylene) copolymer
FFW Flow-fusion welding
FIPT Female (internal) iron pipe thread
FPQ Fusion Performance Qualification
FPS Fusing Procedure Specification
HDB Hydrostatic design basis stress
HDPE [Notes (1) and (2)] High-density polyethylene
HDS [Note (2)] Hydrostatic design stress
HFP Hexafluoropropylene
I.D. Inside diameter
IDR Ratio of the inside diameter to the wall thickness of pipe
JPS Joining Procedure Specification
LCL Lower confidence limit pressure
MAOP Maximum allowable operating pressure
MAOT Maximum allowable operating temperature
MAWP Maximum allowable working pressure
MDPE [Notes (1) and (2)] Medium-density polyethylene
MOBR Minimum operating bend radius
MPR Maximum pressure rating
MRTPS Multilayered, reinforced thermoplastic piping system
MSOP Maximum sustained operating pressure
NPR Nominal pressure rating
NPS Nominal pipe size
O.D. Outside diameter
PA Polyamide
PB [Note (1)] Polybutylene
PE [Note (1)] Polyethylene
PE-RT Polyethylene of raised temperature
PEX Cross-linked polyethylene
PFA [Note (1)] Perfluoroalkoxy alkane
PP [Note (1)] Polypropylene
PQR Procedure Qualification Record
PQTR Performance Qualification Test Record
PR [Note (2)] Pressure rating
PTFE [Note (1)] Poly(tetrafluoroethylene)
PTFE-M Modified PTFE
PVC [Note (1)] Poly(vinyl chloride)
PVC-O Oriented poly(vinyl chloride)
PVDF [Note (1)] Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
PVDF-C Poly(vinylidene fluoride) copolymer
PVVE Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether
RPM Reinforced plastic mortar
RTP Reinforced thermosetting plastic
RTR Reinforced thermosetting resin

8
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 1-4-1 Abbreviations (Cont’d)


Abbreviation Definition
SDR [Note (2)] Standard dimension ratios
SIDR [Note (2)] Standard inside diameter dimension ratio
SPIG Spigot end
WPS Welding Procedure Specification
NOTES:
(1) Abbreviation is in accordance with ASTM D1600.
(2) Abbreviation is in accordance with ASTM F412.

Table 1-5-1 Status of Appendices


Appendix Title Status
Mandatory
I Fusing and Electrofusing of Polyamide-11 Plastic Piping; and Fusing of Polypropylene, Poly(Vinylidene Requirements
Fluoride), and Poly(Tetrafluoroethylene) Plastic Liners of Lined Steel Pipe
II Threaded Thermoplastic Connections Requirements
III Acceptance Criteria for Thermoplastic Joints Requirements
IV Stress Intensification Factors and Flexibility Factors Requirements
V One-Piece Thermoplastic Flanges Requirements
Nonmandatory
A Components for Thermoplastic Lap-Joint Flange Connections Guidance
B Design Requirements for Buried Piping Guidance
C Pressure Surge From Fluid Transient Guidance
D Multilayered Reinforced Thermoplastic Piping System(s) Operation, Maintenance, and Repair Guidance

9
ASME NM.1-2018

Chapter 2
Design

2-1 DESIGN CONDITIONS 2-1.2.3 Temperature


(a) All temperatures referred to in this Standard are the
2-1.1 General
average material temperatures of the respective materials
(a) The piping capacity of many nonmetallic materials expressed in degrees Celsius (°C) [Fahrenheit (°F)], unless
degrades under load with time. Therefore, the procure- otherwise stated.
ment documents shall specify a design life for the (b) The piping shall be designed for a material tempera-
piping system. ture representing the maximum sustained condition
(b) If the mechanical properties of the nonmetallic expected. The design temperature shall be assumed to
material under consideration vary or degrade with be the same as the fluid temperature unless calculations
time, the mechanical properties used in design shall be or tests support the use of other data, in which case the
consistent with the load duration and design life of the design temperature shall not be less than the average of
piping system. Therefore, care shall be taken in selecting the fluid temperature and the outside wall temperature.
the appropriate material properties for a given loading. (c) Where a fluid passes through heat exchangers in
NOTE: The physical properties for thermoplastic materials are series, the design temperature of the piping in each
provided in ASME NM.3.3. section of the system shall conform to the most severe
temperature condition expected to be produced by the
heat exchangers in that section of the system.
2-1.2 Pressure, Temperature, and Other Loads
(d) For outdoor exposed pipe subjected to solar
2-1.2.1 General thermal heating, the evaluation of such heating effects
(a) These design conditions define the pressures, shall be considered.
temperatures, and various loads applicable to the (e) Minimum material temperatures shall consider the
design of thermoplastic piping systems. minimum fluid temperature or minimum one-day meteor-
(b) Piping systems shall be designed for the most ological conditions for the site.
severe condition of coincident pressure, temperature, (1) The pipe material shall not be used at a tempera-
and loading, except as herein stated. The most severe ture below the manufacturer’s minimum temperature
condition shall be that which results in the greatest limit.
required pipe wall thickness and the highest flange rating. (2) See ASME NM.3.3, as available, for maximum and
minimum design temperatures for the various materials.
2-1.2.2 Pressure. All pressures referred to in this Stan-
dard are expressed in megapascals (MPa) above atmo- 2-1.2.4 Ambient Influences
spheric pressure [MPa (gauge)] [pounds per square (a) Cooling Effects on Pressure. Where the cooling of a
inch gauge (psig)], unless otherwise stated. fluid can reduce the pressure in the piping to below atmo-
(a) Internal Design Pressure. The internal design pres- spheric, the piping shall be designed to withstand the
sure shall be no less than the maximum sustained oper- external pressure, or provision shall be made to break
ating pressure (MSOP) within the piping system, including the vacuum.
the effects of static head. (b) Fluid Expansion Effects. Where the expansion of a
(b) External Design Pressure. Piping subject to external fluid can increase the pressure, the piping system shall be
pressure shall be designed for the maximum differential designed to withstand the increased pressure, or provi-
pressure anticipated during operating, shutdown, or test sion shall be made to relieve the excess pressure.
conditions.
(c) Pressure Cycling. This Standard does not explicitly 2-1.2.5 Dynamic Effects
address the contribution of fatigue caused by pressure
cycling. Special consideration may be necessary where (a) Impact. Impact forces caused by all external and
piping systems are subjected to pressure cycling. internal conditions shall be considered in the piping
design. One form of internal impact force is due to the
propagation of pressure waves produced by sudden

10
ASME NM.1-2018

changes in fluid momentum. This phenomenon is often 2-1.2.7 Thermal Expansion and Contraction Loads.
called water hammer or steam hammer and can be The design of thermoplastic piping systems shall take
caused by the rapid opening or closing of a valve in account of the forces and moments resulting from
the piping system. The pipe wall thickness determination thermal expansion and contraction, and from the
shall include consideration of these pressure increases. effects of expansion joints. Thermal expansion and
Nonmandatory Appendix C provides guidance on the contraction shall be provided for, preferably by
design for pressure surges. The designer should be elbows, offsets, or changes in direction of the pipeline.
aware that propagation of pressure waves is only one Hangers and supports shall permit expansion and contrac-
example of impact loading and that other causes exist. tion of the piping between anchors. Expansion joints and
(b) Wind. Exposed piping shall be designed to with- flexibility devices may be used if approved by the owner.
stand wind loadings. The analysis considerations and
2-1.2.8 Building Settlement Effects. Building settle-
loads may be as described in ASCE/SEI 7, or authoritative
ment displacements shall be considered to account for
local meteorological data may be used to define or refine
the fact that further settlement of buildings may occur
the design wind forces. Where local jurisdictional rules
following initial construction. If the actual amount of
covering the design of building structures are in effect
building settlement is unknown, then the total calculated
and specify wind loadings for piping, these values shall
vertical displacements shall be used.
be considered the minimum design values. Wind and
earthquake loads may be considered as not acting concur-
rently. 2-2 DESIGN CRITERIA
(c) Earthquake (Seismic) Loads. The effect of earth-
2-2.1 General
quakes shall be considered in the design of piping,
piping supports, and restraints. The earthquake loads These criteria cover pressure–temperature ratings for
may be as defined in ASCE/SEI 7, or authoritative local standard and specially designed components, allowable
seismological data may be used to define or refine the stresses, stress limits, and various allowances to be
design earthquake forces and building displacement used in the design of piping and piping components.
effects as applicable to the seismic design requirements
of the local building codes. Where local jurisdictional rules 2-2.2 Pressure–Temperature Ratings for Piping
covering the design of building structures are in effect and Components
specify earthquake (seismic) loadings for piping, these
2-2.2.1 Components Having Specific Ratings
values shall be considered the minimum design values.
Earthquake (seismic) inertial effects and anchor (a) Pressure–temperature ratings for certain piping
motion effects shall be considered where required by components have been established and are contained
local building codes. Earthquake and wind loads may in some of the specifications listed in Table 4-2.1-1.
be considered as not acting concurrently. Where piping components have established pressure–
(d) Vibration. The designer shall consider vibration temperature limits permitted by this Standard, the
when determining the arrangement and support of piping. pressure–temperature ratings between those established
limits and the upper material temperature limits may be
2-1.2.6 Weight Effects. The following weight effects
determined in accordance with the requirements of this
combined with loads and forces from other causes
Standard, but such extensions are subject to restrictions, if
shall be taken into account in the design of piping.
any, imposed by the standards listed in Table 4-2.1-1.
When sustained loads on the pipe are evaluated, the
(b) Standard components may not be used at condi-
sum of the dead loads and live loads shall always be
tions of pressure and temperature that exceed the
considered together.
limits imposed by this Standard.
(a) Live Load. The live load shall consist of the weight of
the fluid transported. Snow and ice loads shall be consid- 2-2.2.2 Components Not Having Specific Ratings
ered in localities where such conditions exist.
(b) Dead Load. The dead load shall consist of the weight (a) Unless limited elsewhere in this Standard, piping
of the piping components, insulation, protective lining and components that do not have specific pressure–tempera-
coating, and other superimposed permanent loads. ture ratings shall be rated for the same allowable pres-
(c) Test or Cleaning Fluid Load. The test or cleaning fluid sures as the thermoplastic pipe, as determined in
load shall consist of the weight of the test or cleaning fluid. paras. 2-3.1 and 2-3.2 for material having the same allow-
(d) Buried Piping System Load. For buried piping appli- able stress.
cation, additional design loads (backfill, soil cover and (b) Piping components for which allowable stresses
burial depth, soil type, compaction, and surcharge have been developed in accordance with para. 2-2.3,
loads) shall be considered (see para. 2-3.3.2). but that do not have established pressure ratings, shall
be rated by requirements for pressure design in

11
ASME NM.1-2018

para. 2-3.2, modified as applicable by other provisions of pressure–temperature rating equal to or exceeding the
this Standard. more severe conditions.
(c) Methods of manufacture or design of components
not covered by this Standard or not listed in referenced 2-2.3 Allowable Stress Values and Other Stress
standards shall comply with the requirements of Limits for Piping Components
paras. 2-3.1 and 2-3.2 and other applicable requirements
2-2.3.1 Allowable Stress Values. Allowable stress
of this Standard for design conditions involved.
values for thermoplastic pipe materials are based on
(d) Where components other than those discussed
time duration and temperature and are provided in
in (a) through (c), such as pipe or fittings not assigned
ASME NM.3.3. The basis for the allowable stress limits
pressure–temperature ratings in an American National
is also given in ASME NM.3.3.
Standard, are used, the manufacturer’s recommended
pressure–temperature ratings shall not be exceeded. 2-2.3.2 Service Factors for Different Applications.
The allowable stress values listed in ASME NM.3.3 for
2-2.2.3 Ratings: Normal Operation. A piping system
each material are based on general industrial applications
shall be considered safe for operation if the maximum
that use water as a working fluid. Other service factors are
sustained operating pressure and temperature that
provided for other fluids. Where certain industries are
may act on any part or component of the system do
governed by federal or local regulations that require
not exceed the maximum pressure and temperature
the use of lower values for the design factors than
allowed by this Standard for that particular component.
those used in ASME NM.3.3, the allowable stress values
The design pressure and temperature shall not exceed the
from ASME NM.3.3 shall be multiplied by the ratio of
pressure–temperature rating for the particular compo-
the required service factor over the service factor used
nent and material as defined in the applicable specification
in ASME NM.3.3, as follows:
listed in Table 4-2.1-1.
service factorspecific
Sspecific = SNM.3.3 (2-2-1)
2-2.2.4 Ratings: Allowance for Variation From design factorNM.3.3
Normal Operation
(a) The maximum internal pressure and temperature where
allowed shall include considerations for occasional loads design factorNM.3.3 = the service factor used in development of the
and transients of pressure and temperature. Since varia- ASME NM.3.3 S values
tions in pressure and temperature inevitably occur, the SNM.3.3 = S value given in ASME NM.3.3, MPa (psi)
piping system, except as limited by component standards Sspecific = S value to be used in design, MPa (psi)
referred to in para. 2-2.2.1 or by manufacturers of compo- service factorspecific = the service factor to be used in design
nents referred to in para. 2-2.2.2, shall be considered safe
for occasional short operating periods at higher than This requirement applies only to the S values, not to the
design pressure or temperature. For such variation, SA values, where SA is the secondary stress allowable range
either pressure or temperature, or both, may exceed as found in NM.3.3, Table 1-1-3:
the design values, provided the computed stress (hoop S = Sspecific(EF) (2-2-2)
or axial) does not exceed the maximum allowable
stress from ASME NM.3.3 for the coincident temperature where
for the transient conditions by EF = environmental derating factor based on fluid–
(1) 10% if the event duration occurs for no more than material interaction effects; EF ≤ 1.0
8 h at any one time and not more than 800 h/yr
(2) 20% if the event duration occurs for not more
2-2.3.3 Limits for Sustained and Displacement
than 1 h at any one time and not more than 80 h/yr
Stresses
(b) The safe pressure–temperature ratings can be
impacted by specific chemical fluid services (i.e., applica- (a) Sustained Stresses
tions that use fluids other than water). Designers shall (1) Internal Pressure Stress. The calculated stress due
consult manufacturers or review previous successful to internal pressure shall not exceed the allowable stress
service applications to determine the impact of chemical values given in the Allowable Stress Tables in ASME
service on the pressure–temperature rating. See NM.3.3 at the maximum operating temperature. This
para. 2-2.3.2 for service factor considerations for different criterion is satisfied when the wall thickness of the
applications. piping component, including any reinforcement, meets
the requirements of paras. 2-3.2.1 through 2-3.2.7,
2-2.2.5 Ratings at Transitions. Where two piping
excluding para. 2-3.2.1.2 but including the consideration
systems operating at different design conditions are
of allowances permitted by paras. 2-2.2.4 and 2-2.4.
connected, a division valve shall be provided having a

12
ASME NM.1-2018

(2) External Pressure Stress. Piping subject to The maximum number of permitted equivalent full-
external pressure shall be considered safe when the range temperature cycles, N, shall be 100 000.
wall thickness and means of stiffening meet the require- (2) Materials Other Than HDPE. The total number of
ments of para. 2-3.2.1.2. thermal cycles shall be the sum of the cycles of each
(3) Longitudinal Pressure Stress. For straight pipe, temperature change, ΔTE, ΔT1, ΔT2, …, ΔTn:
the sum of the longitudinal stresses, SL, due to pressure, N = NE + N1 + N2 + … + Nn (2-2-6)
weight, and other sustained loads shall not exceed the
basic material allowable stress, S, in the hot condition. 2-2.3.4 Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to Occa-
Where the material has different properties in the sional Loads
axial and hoop directions, the allowable stress, S, shall
be that applicable to the axial direction. The longitudinal (a) During Operation. The sum of the longitudinal
pressure stress, Slp, for pipe joined to transmit axial pres- stresses produced by internal pressure, live and dead
sure thrust loads may be determined by eq. (2-2-3) or loads, other sustained loads, and occasional loads shall
eq. (2-2-4): meet the requirements of para. 2-3.3.1.2.
(b) During Test. During pressure tests performed in
PD
Slp = (2-2-3) accordance with section 6-3 , the circumferential
4tn (hoop) stress shall not exceed 150% of the allowable
stress value given in ASME NM.3.3 at test temperature.
Pd 2 (2-2-4)
In addition, the sum of longitudinal stresses due to test
Slp = pressure, live and dead loads, and sustained loads at
D2 d2
the time of test, excluding occasional loads, shall not
where exceed 120% of the allowable stress value given in
D = outside diameter, mm (in.) ASME NM.3.3 at test temperature.
d = inside diameter, mm (in.) If any piping system or portion thereof is subjected to
P = internal pressure, MPa (psig) pressure or stress levels beyond these limits during the
tn = nominal thickness, mm (in.) pressure testing, it shall be removed and replaced.

(4) Combined Longitudinal Stress. The sum of the lon- 2-2.4 Design Allowances
gitudinal stresses produced by external pressure, live 2-2.4.1 Corrosion or Erosion. When corrosion or
loads, dead loads, and other sustained loads shall meet erosion is expected to occur, an increase in wall thickness
the requirements of para. 2-3.3.1.1. of the piping shall be provided over that required by other
(b) Displacement Limited Stress Range. The calculated design requirements. This allowance, in the judgment of
reference displacement stress range, per para. 2-3.3.1.3, the designer, shall be consistent with the expected life of
shall not exceed the allowable stress range, SA, as given in the piping.
ASME NM.3.3 based on the fatigue properties for the given
material at the given temperature. SA shall be selected 2-2.4.2 Threading. The allowances required for
based on the total number of temperature cycles or threading shall be determined in accordance with
the number of equivalent reference displacement Mandatory Appendix II.
stress range cycles, N, as determined below: 2-2.4.3 Mechanical Strength. Where enhancement of
(1) HDPE mechanical strength is necessary to prevent damage,
5.0 5.0 collapse, excessive sag, or buckling of pipe due to super-
i Ty i T y
N = NE + N1jjjj 1 zzzz + N2jjjj 2 zzzz +… imposed loads, the wall thickness of the pipe should be
k TE { k TE { (2-2-5) increased. If this is impractical or would cause excessive
5.0 local stresses, then the superimposed loads shall be
i T y
+ Nnjjjj n zzzz reduced or eliminated by other design methods.
k TE {
2-2.4.4 Material Quality Factors. Factors for the
where quality of material made to various manufacturing
N1, N2, …, Nn = number of cycles at letter tempera- methods shall be reflected in the allowable design stress.
tures changes, ΔT1, ΔT2, …, ΔTn
NE = number of cycles at maximum
temperature change ΔTE
ΔT1, ΔT2, …, ΔTn = the lower temperature changes
experienced by the pipe, °C (°F)
ΔTE = maximum temperature change
experienced by the pipe, °C (°F)

13
ASME NM.1-2018

2-3 PRESSURE DESIGN OF PIPING COMPONENTS where


t = minimum wall thickness from the standard to
2-3.1 Criteria for Pressure Design of Piping which the pipe was made, accounting for manufac-
Components turing tolerances, or the minimum measured wall
thickness, mm (in.)
The design of piping components shall consider the
effects of pressure and temperature, in accordance
2-3.2.1.2 Straight Pipe Under External Pressure. See
with paras. 2-3.2.1 through 2-3.2.7, including the consid-
Nonmandatory Appendix B for recommended require-
eration of variations and allowances permitted by
ments for external pressure design of buried piping
paras. 2-2.2.4 and 2-2.4. In addition, the mechanical
systems.
strength of the piping system shall be determined
adequate in accordance with para. 2-3.3 under other ap- 2-3.2.1.3 Allowable Pressure Due to Pressure
plicable loadings, including, but not limited to, those load- Spikes. For straight pipe made of HDPE, the sum of
ings and conditions defined in sections 2-1 and 2-2. the maximum anticipated operating pressure plus the
maximum anticipated occasional pressure spikes shall
2-3.2 Pressure Design of Components be not greater than 1.5PD. The maximum permitted dura-
2-3.2.1 Straight Pipe tion of the pressure spike is 15 min, and the total duration
of the pressure spikes shall be less than 20 h/yr.
2-3.2.1.1 Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure
2-3.2.2 Joints or Fittings. This paragraph provides the
(a) The minimum required wall thickness, t min , of design requirements and limitations for joints or fittings in
straight pipe sections for pressure design shall be deter- thermoplastic piping systems.
mined by the following: (a) General Requirements for All Thermoplastics
(1) For O.D.-controlled pipe (1) See Chapter 5 for allowable joining methods for
PDD each type of listed thermoplastic.
t min = +A (2-3-1)
2S + PD (2) The piping components permitted in section 2-3
shall be designed to withstand a pressure greater than or
(2) For I.D.-controlled pipe equal to the design pressure of the attached pipe.
PDd + 2SA + PA (3) See Mandatory Appendix II for requirements on
t min = (2-3-2) threaded thermoplastic connections.
2S PD (4) See Mandatory Appendix III for acceptance
criteria for thermoplastic joints.
where
(5) See Mandatory Appendix V and Nonmandatory
A = an allowance to be determined by the designer for
Appendix A for requirements and information on thermo-
threading, grooving, erosion, or other wall loss
plastic flanges and flange connections.
mechanisms, mm (in.)
(b) Requirements Specific to HDPE. Pipe fittings,
D = specified or actual outside diameter, mm (in.)
including electrofusion fittings, shall be designed to with-
d = specified or actual inside diameter, mm (in.)
stand a pressure greater than or equal to the design pres-
P = internal pressure, MPa (psig)
sure, PD, of the attached HDPE pipe.
PD = design pressure, MPa (psig)
(1) The pressure rating (PR) of the fitting shall be
S = maximum allowable stress from ASME NM.3.3,
determined by testing or by the following calculation:
Table 1-1-1, MPa (psi)
i 2S zy
PR = GSRjjj zz PD (2-3-5a)
When the pipe is subjected to scratches, dents, or k DR 1 {
other damage during construction, the remaining pipe
wall thickness shall be greater than or equal to t min where GSR is the geometric shape rating factor per
plus any erosion or other required allowance. Table 2-3.2.2-1 and DR is the dimensional ratio (D/t).
(b) The maximum allowable working pressure, Pa, shall (2) For components of different DRs, the item with
be determined as follows: the smaller DR shall be counterbored and tapered to equal
(1) For O.D.-controlled pipe the wall thickness of the item with the larger DR, or its
outside diameter shall be machined and tapered to equal
2S(t A) (2-3-3) the wall thickness of the item with the larger DR and shall
Pa =
D (t A ) comply with Figure 2-3.2.2-1, illustration (a) or illustra-
tion (b), as applicable. This requirement shall be identified
(2) For I.D.-controlled pipe on the design and fabrication drawings.
2S(t A) 2S(t A) (c) Materials Other Than HDPE. Tables 2-3.2.2-2 and
Pa = = (2-3-4)
d (t A) + 2t d+A+t 2-3.2.2-3 list the design factors (DF) and pressure
ratings (PR), respectively, for non-HDPE thermoplastic

14
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 2-3.2.2-1 Geometric Shape Rating (GSR) for HDPE 2-3.2.4 Design of Mitered Elbows. For mitered elbows
Fittings made of HDPE, the following requirements apply:
Fitting Description GSR [Note (1)]
(a) The design pressure rating of the mitered elbow,
Pm, shall be calculated as the lesser of eqs. (2-3-6)
Straight pipe 1.0
and (2-3-7) (see Figure 2-3.2.2-1) or as determined by
Molded flange adapters 1.0
testing per para. 2-3.2.2(b)(1):
Machined flange adapters 1.0
Molded fittings 1.0 Stelbow ijj telbow zyz
Pm = jj zz (2-3-6)
Concentric conical monolithic reducer 1.0 j
r2 k telbow + 0.622 tan telbowr2 z{
(machined or molded) [Note (2)]
Thrust collar (machined or molded) 1.0 or
Stelbow ijj R1 r2 zyz
Fabricated tee equal outlet (two DR less 0.65 Pm = j z (2-3-7)
than pipe) DR 5 to DR 9 r2 jjk R1 + 0.5r2 zz{
Mitered elbows [Note (3)] (one to five 0.80
segments) DR 5.6 to DR 9 where Pm shall be greater than or equal to PD and
Mitered elbows [Notes (1) and (3)] 0.75 R1 = centerline radius of mitered elbow, mm (in.);
(one to five segments) DR 9.5 to DR see Figure 2-3.2.2-1, illustrations (a) and (b)
13.5 (segments ≤22.5-deg r2 = radius of curvature at the end of a tapered
directional changes per fusion) transition joint, mm (in.)
NOTES: telbow = minimum (mitered segment) wall thickness
(1) Alternatively, the GSR factor may be determined by dividing the for fabricated elbows, mm (in.)
pressure rating determined by calculation or testing by the pres-
sure rating of the pipe used to make the fitting.
(2) Pressure ratings for concentric conical monolithic reducers shall
(b) Alternatively, the pressure rating for HDPE mitered
be based on the minimum dimensional ratio (DR). In a reducer, fittings may be determined by testing as provided in ASME
the wall thickness will vary from the greatest diameter to the SF-2206.
smallest diameter. Since the DR is the ratio of the diameter to (c) The maximum DR permitted for HDPE mitered
the minimum wall thickness, the pressure rating of the elbow segments shall be determined by the pressure
reducer shall be based on the section of the reducer with the rating.
highest DR (lowest pressure rating).
(d) The minimum fabricated wall thickness of the
(3) Pressure ratings for all mitered fittings shall be determined using
eq. (2-3-5a) with an appropriate GSR factor. The equation has
monolithic reinforced sections of the mitered elbow
values suitable for HDPE mitered elbows. Alternatively, the shall be >1.25tmin of the attached straight pipe. The addi-
manufacturer’s pressure ratings may be used if they are tional monolithic wall thickness shall be provided by
backed by test data. enlarging the pipe O.D. while maintaining the pipeline
I.D., or by reducing the pipe I.D. while maintaining the
pipeline O.D.
NOTE: If a mitered fitting design has been tested as required in
molded fittings made in compliance with referenced speci- ASME SF-2206, a wall thickness >1.25tmin may not be required,
fications. Alternatively, the manufacturer’s pressure provided the owner approves the thickness and it has been veri-
rating may be used if it is backed by test data. The pressure fied by test data.
rating for other thermoplastic piping components shall be
(e) The fabricated tolerance of the fitting angular direc-
determined by testing or by the following calculation:
tion shall be +3 deg. Mitered joints of 3 deg or less (angle
i 2S zy
PR = DFjjjj zz
z PD (2-3-5b) αelb in Figure 2-3.2.4-1) shall not require redesign consid-
k D/t 1 { eration as mitered elbows.
(f) HDPE mitered elbows shall comply with the
following requirements, except the wall thickness shall
be determined as outlined in (c):
2-3.2.3 Intersections (1) The angle θ in Mandatory Appendix IV ,
(a) HDPE. Fabricated intersections and molded tees as Table IV-1 shall not be more than 22.5 deg.
provided in para. 2-3.2.2 may be used. For electrofusion (2) The centerline distance shall be in accordance
saddle fittings, the ratio of O.D.branch/O.D.run shall be less with Mandatory Appendix IV, Table IV-1.
than 0.6 per Mandatory Appendix IV, Table IV-1. (3) The segments of the n miter bends shall be joined
(b) Materials Other Than HDPE. Molded intersections by butt-fusion joints.
may be used. Fabricated intersections may be used if
their use is backed by test data.

15
ASME NM.1-2018

Figure 2-3.2.2-1 Nomenclature for 90-deg Mitered Elbows

GENERAL NOTE: αelb = 22.5 deg max.; θ = angle of miter cut, deg. See para. 2-3.2.4 for definitions of other terms.
NOTES:
(1) This design has a reduced I.D. A thicker wall pipe shall be used for reinforcement.
(2) This design has approximately the same I.D. as the pipe connecting to this fitting. An oversize pipe shall be used for the fabricated segments.

Table 2-3.2.2-2 Design Factor (DF)


Fitting Description DF Reference Specification
PVC Schedule 40
Straight pipe 1.0 ASME SD-1785
Molded fittings, solvent weld 0.6 ASME SD-2466
Molded fittings, threaded (threads are actually Sch. 80) 0.5 ASME SD-2464, ASME SD-2467

PVC Schedule 80
Straight pipe 1.0 ASME SD-1785
Molded fittings, solvent weld 0.6 ASME SD-2467
Molded fittings, threaded 0.5 ASME SD-2464, ASME SD-2467

CPVC Schedule 40
Straight pipe 1.0 ASME SF-441
Molded fittings, solvent weld 0.6 ASME SF-438

CPVC Schedule 80
Straight pipe 1.0 ASME SF-441
Molded fittings, solvent weld 0.6 ASME SF-439
Molded fittings, threaded 0.5 ASME SF-437

ABS Pressure Piping Components


Straight pipe 1.0 ASTM D2661, ASTM F2806, ASTM F2969
Molded fittings, solvent weld 0.6 ASTM D2235, ASTM F2135
Molded fittings, threaded 0.5 ASTM D3311, ASTM F1498

16
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 2-3.2.2-3 Pressure Rating (PR) at 23°C (73°F)


Fitting Description PR, MPa (psi) Reference Specification
PVC Schedule 40
Molded unions 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970
Molded wyes 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970

PVC Schedule 80
Molded flange adapters 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970
Molded unions 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970
Molded wyes 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970

CPVC Schedule 40
Molded unions 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970
Molded wyes 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970

CPVC Schedule 80
Molded flange adapters 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970
Molded unions 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970
Molded wyes 1.034 (150) ASME SF-1970

ABS Pressure Piping Components


Molded flange adapters 1.034 (150) ASTM D2235, ASTM F2135
GENERAL NOTE: An appropriate derating factor shall be applied for higher-temperature applications or services.

2-3.2.5 Attachments 2-3.3 Analysis of Piping Components


(a) External and internal attachments to piping shall be (a) To validate a design under the rules in this para-
designed so as not to cause flattening of the pipe, excessive graph, the complete piping system shall be evaluated
localized bending stresses, or harmful thermal gradients between anchors for the effects of thermal expansion,
in the pipe wall. weight, other sustained loads, and other occasional loads.
(b) Such attachments shall be designed to minimize (b) Each component in the system shall meet the limits
stress concentrations in applications where the in this paragraph. Equations (2-3-8) and (2-3-9) may not
number of stress cycles, due to either pressure or apply for bellows and expansion joints.
thermal effects, is relatively high for the expected life (c) When evaluating piping stresses in the vicinity of
of the equipment. expansion joints, consideration shall be given to actual
cross-sectional areas that exist at the expansion joint.
2-3.2.6 Closures
2-3.3.1 Aboveground Pipe
(a) General. Closures shall be made by use of closure
fittings, such as threaded or bonded plugs and caps, 2-3.3.1.1 Stress Due to Sustained Loads. Longitudi-
manufactured in accordance with standards listed in nal stresses, SL, in the pipe caused by applied pressure and
Table 4-2.1-1, and used within the specified pressure– bending loads in thermoplastic pipe shall satisfy
temperature ratings. eq. (2-3-8):
(b) Openings in Closures M
SL = Slp + 0.75i A 1.0S (2-3-8)
(1) A closure with a threaded or socketed opening Z
shall be designed as a reducer or reducer bushing.
(2) Secondary drill and tap of a threaded or bonded where
plug or cap is not permitted. i = stress intensification factor (see Mandatory
Appendix IV)
2-3.2.7 Pressure Design of Flanges and Blanks MA = resultant bending moment due to the applicable
(a) Flanges — General. See Mandatory Appendix V and applied sustained load
Nonmandatory Appendix A. S = basic allowable stress, MPa (psi), given in ASME
(b) Blind Flanges. Blind flanges shall be made of mate- NM.3.3 for long-term load duration at the design
rials per ASME B16.5. temperature

17
ASME NM.1-2018

Figure 2-3.2.4-1 Tapered Transition Joint

c9

r29 r19 a

t'

Component of Component of Pipe


lower DR higher DR centerline

t'

r29 r19 a

c9

(a) Constant I.D. With Reinforcement on O.D.

18
ASME NM.1-2018

Figure 2-3.2.4-1 Tapered Transition Joint (Cont’d)

t9

r29 r19 a

c9

Pipe
centerline

Joint

(b) Constant O.D. With Reinforcement on I.D.

GENERAL NOTE:
c′min = 2.5t′; c′ values are after facing
a
0.35 < < 0.6
b c
r1′min = 0.05t′
r2′min = 0.05t′
t′ = thickness of thinner component

Slp = longitudinal pressure stress, MPa (psi), for the x = 1.2 if the event duration occurs for not more than
axially coupled pipe [see para. 2-2.3.3(a)(3)] 1 h at any one time and not more than 80 h/yr. In
Z = section modulus (see para. 2-3.3.3) the case of multiple possible k values, the limiting
k value shall apply.
2-3.3.1.2 Stress Due to Occasional Loads MB = resultant bending moment due to occasional
loads
(a) Longitudinal stresses, SL, in the pipe caused by
applied pressure and occasional bending loads in thermo-
(b) If the load duration basis for the sustained loads
plastic pipe shall satisfy eq. (2-3-9):
differs from that for the occasional loads, then the
M M Miner’s rule summation shall be used:
SL = Slp + 0.75i A + 0.75i B kS (2-3-9)
Z Z ÄÅ ÉÑ ÄÅ ÉÑ
ÅÅÅ S + 0.75i MA ÑÑÑ ÅÅÅ 0.75i MB ÑÑÑ
where
( ÅÅ lp
ÅÅ
ÅÅ
)Z ÑÑÑ
Ñ (
ÑÑ + … + ÅÅÅ
ÅÅ
Å ) Z ÑÑÑ
Ñ
ÑÑ + … k
k = 1.0 for design loads and any loads occurring more ÅÅÅÅ S(LT ) ÑÑÑÑ ÅÅÅ S(B) ÑÑ
ÑÑÖ
Ç Ö Å
Ç
than 8 h at any one time and more than 800 h/yr
x = 1.1 if the event duration occurs for no more than (2-3-10)
8 h at any one time and not more than 800 h/yr

19
ASME NM.1-2018

where (1) For the run pipe


S(B) = S value, MPa (psi), from ASME NM.3.3 at the 4
(Doh dh4)
duration of the occasional load, MB Z= (2-3-13)
S(LT) = S value, MPa (psi), from ASME NM.3.3 at the 32Doh
duration of the sustained load, MA
where
2-3.3.1.3 Stress Due to Displacement and Thermal dh = inside diameter of header, mm (in.)
Expansion Load Ranges Doh = outside diameter of header, mm (in.)

(a) Cyclic secondary longitudinal loads shall include, (2) For the branch pipe
but are not limited to, the effects of thermal expansion, 4
seismic anchor motions [if not included in eq. (2-3-9)], (Dob db4)
Z= (2-3-14)
and vibrations. 32Dob
(b) The bending stresses in the thermoplastic pipe
caused by applied cyclic secondary loads shall satisfy where
eq. (2-3-11): db = inside diameter of the branch pipe, mm (in.)
iMc Dob = outside diameter of the branch pipe, mm (in.)
SA (2-3-11)
Z
(b) For components and joints other than intersections,
where the section modulus used to determine stresses shall be
Mc = range of resultant cyclic secondary moment load the classic section modulus:
on the cross section, if any 2I (2-3-15)
Z=
SA = allowable fatigue stress, MPa (psi), from ASME D
NM.3.3 at the given temperature and for the
given number of equivalent cycles as determined 2-4 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
in para. 2-2.3.3(b)
2-4.1 Design of Pipe Support Elements
2-3.3.1.4 Stress Due to Nonrepeated Secondary Pipe support elements (e.g., anchors, guides, and
Loads supports) shall be selected and applied to comply with
(a) Noncyclic secondary longitudinal loads shall the principles and requirements of this section.
include, but are not limited to, the effects of nonrepeated 2-4.1.1 General
anchor motions and ground settlement.
(b) The bending stresses in the thermoplastic pipe (a) Thermoplastic piping shall be supported, guided,
caused by applied noncyclic secondary axial and longitu- and anchored in such a manner as to prevent damage
dinal loads shall meet eq. (2-3-12): to the piping.
iMD (b) Point loads and narrow areas of contact between
2Sh (2-3-12) piping and supports shall be avoided.
Z (c) Pipe support elements shall be designed to avoid
where pinpoint stresses, since thermoplastic piping is less
MD = noncyclic secondary resultant moment loading rigid than metallic pipes.
on the cross section (d) Local stresses at points of support, including
clamping forces, shall be considered.
2-3.3.2 Buried Pipe (e) Padding placed between piping and supports where
damage to piping can occur shall be compatible for direct
(a) The design loads for buried piping systems shall contact with the piping material.
include, but are not limited to, soil loads, wheel loads, (f) Where pipe support elements contact the pipe, the
other surcharge loads, external pressure loads, negative load shall be distributed over the pipe using sleeves,
pressure loads, groundwater pressure, flotation loads, wraps, etc. U-bolts should not be used.
frost heave, soil settlement, and earthquake loads, as ap- (g) Due to the high thermal expansion and contraction
plicable. properties of thermoplastic materials, thermoplastic
(b) An acceptable method for the design of buried pipe piping can move considerably more than metallic pipes.
is provided in Nonmandatory Appendix B. (1) These movements shall not be restricted in a
manner that will cause excessive pipe stresses.
2-3.3.3 Determination of Section Modulus (2) Anchors and guides may be used to direct the
(a) For intersections, the section modulus used to pipe to expand and contract into portions of the
determine stresses shall be the effective section modulus. system that are designed to absorb them.

20
ASME NM.1-2018

(h) Valves and equipment that would transmit exces- considered an anchor mechanism unless specifically rec-
sive loads to the piping shall be independently supported ommended by the manufacturer.
to prevent such loads.
(i) Considerations shall be given to mechanical 2-4.1.5 Thrust Collars for HDPE
guarding in traffic areas. (a) The shear stress in the thrust collar due to applied
(j) Manufacturer’s recommendations for support shall primary loads shall satisfy eq. (2-4-1):
be considered.
Fi
i= < 0.8Sh (2-4-1)
2-4.1.2 Anchors AS
(a) A thermoplastic piping system shall have sufficient where
pipe anchors or restraints to ensure that the system can As = shear area of the thrust collar at the interface at
withstand the effects of fluid transients caused by the the surface of the pipe, mm2 (in.2)
closure or opening of quick-acting valves. Fi = axial force due to the maximum of simultaneously
(b) Valves should normally be anchored to absorb the occurring applied loads, N (lb)
handwheel or operator loads required to operate the τi = shear stress in the interface of the thrust collar
valves. and the pipe due to the applied primary loads,
(c) Anchors should be carefully placed so as not to MPa (psi)
excessively decrease the piping system’s flexibility or
ability to absorb expansion movement due to temperature (b) If other bonded or welded attachments to pipe are
variation. used, the design shall consider pipe wall bending stresses
2-4.1.3 Guides due to eccentricity of the loads from the restraint points on
the pipe, in addition to shear stresses.
(a) Guides that are used to control movement of pipe
caused by thermal expansion and contraction or vibra- 2-4.2 Moduli of Elasticity
tions shall not excessively restrict movement in the
(a) The moduli of elasticity to be used in the analysis of
unrestrained direction.
(b) Metal guides, if used, shall be lined with suitable any given loading condition shall be taken from ASME
materials (wear resistant and/or flexible) to prevent NM.3.3 for the appropriate material, temperature, and,
damage to the pipe surface. where appropriate, load duration.
(b) The mechanical properties of some materials vary
2-4.1.4 Supports depending on the duration of the applied load. This load-
based variation shall be considered in the design to ensure
(a) Supports shall be spaced to limit excessive sag or that the mechanical properties of the chosen material for a
deformation at the design temperature and within the given analysis are consistent with the anticipated load
design life of the piping system. duration.
(b) When determining pipe support requirements, (1) For HDPE piping, the modulus used for thermal
consider the following: expansion analysis shall be selected to be consistent with
(1) the effects of decreases in the modulus of elas- the duration of the application of the thermal expansion
ticity with increasing temperature load.
(2) creep effects of the pipe material with time (2) For seismic loads on HDPE piping, the moduli of
(c) The thermal expansion of the piping system shall be elasticity from ASME NM.3.3 based on half-hour durations
considered in the design and location of supports. shall be increased by 25% (see ASME PVP2012-78777).
(d) Where axial restraint is required, positive stops,
such as shear collars, shall be provided as axial restraint.
Frictional forces from clamping pressure shall not be

21
ASME NM.1-2018

Chapter 3
Materials

3-1 GENERAL (d) Unlisted materials shall meet a published specifi-


cation covering chemistry, physical and mechanical prop-
Chapter 3 contains limitations and required qualifica- erties, method and process of manufacture, and quality
tions for thermoplastic materials based on their proper- control.
ties. Use of these materials in piping systems is also subject (e) Unlisted materials shall be qualified for service
to requirements and limitations in other parts of this Stan- within a stated range of minimum and maximum tempera-
dard. ture and pressure based on data associated with
successful experience, tests, or analysis, or a combination
3-2 MATERIALS AND SPECIFICATIONS thereof.
3-2.1 Listed Materials 3-2.3 Unknown Thermoplastic Materials
Materials meeting the following requirements shall be Thermoplastic materials of unknown specification shall
considered listed and acceptable material: not be used for pressure-containing piping system compo-
(a) thermoplastic materials listed in ASME NM.3.3 nents.
(b) thermoplastic materials not listed in ASME NM.3.3
but not specifically prohibited by this Standard, provided 3-2.4 Size or Thickness
they satisfy one of the following requirements:
(1) The materials are referenced in other parts of this Materials outside the limits of size or thickness given in
Standard and shall be used only within the scope of and in any specification listed in this Standard (see
the product form permitted by the referencing text. Table 4-2.1-1) may be used if the material is in compliance
(2) The materials shall comply with the require- with the other requirements of the specification and no
ments of ASME NM.3.3, Mandatory Appendix III for the other similar limitation is given in the requirements for
listing of new thermoplastic materials. construction.
(c) thermoplastic materials for pressure pipe
3-2.5 Limitations on Materials
(1) polyolefin: PE, PP
(2) vinyl: PVC, CPVC (a) A listed thermoplastic material for pressure pipe
(3) fluorinated: PVDF shall not be used at a design temperature above the
(4) polyamide: PA-11 maximum temperature at which the allowable stress
(5) ABS value has been determined for the material (see ASME
(d) thermoplastic materials for linings NM.3.3).
(1) polyolefin: PE, PP (b) The designer shall verify that thermoplastic mate-
(2) fluorinated: PVDF, PTFE, FEP, PFA, ETFE, E-CTFE rials that meet other requirements of this Standard are
suitable for service throughout the operating temperature
3-2.2 Unlisted Materials range.
Thermoplastic materials other than those meeting the (c) Thermoplastic materials for use at temperatures
requirements of para. 3-2.1 shall be considered unlisted below those recommended by the manufacturer shall
thermoplastic materials. Unlisted thermoplastic materials be tested to determine that they are suitable for use in
shall be used only if they satisfy all of the following re- standard piping. The designer shall have test results at
quirements: or below the lowest design temperature to ensure that
(a) The materials shall comply with the requirements the thermoplastic materials are suitable for the intended
of ASME NM.3.3, Mandatory Appendix III for the listing of application at the design minimum temperature.
new thermoplastic materials.
(b) The designer shall document the owner’s accep-
tance for use of unlisted thermoplastic materials.
(c) All other requirements of this Standard are satis-
fied.

22
ASME NM.1-2018

3-2.6 Marking of Thermoplastic Materials or 3-3 THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS


Products (a) Requirements for metallic and thermoplastic mate-
Thermoplastic materials or products marked as rial combinations (e.g., metallic-lined piping with thermo-
meeting the requirements of a material specification or plastics) are listed in Chapter 7.
multiple specifications shall be acceptable provided (b) Requirements for metallic, nonmetallic, and ther-
(a) one of the markings includes the thermoplastic moplastic material combinations (e.g., multilayer rein-
material specification, and the type of thermoplastic mate- forced, fiberglass reinforced) are listed in Chapter 8.
rial is permitted by this Standard (c) Combinations of any of the above materials are
(b) the appropriate allowable stress from ASME NM.3.3 listed in Chapter 8.
for the specified type of thermoplastic material is used
(c) all other requirements of this Standard are satisfied

23
ASME NM.1-2018

Chapter 4
Standards for Piping Components

4-1 GENERAL Table 4-2.1-1. Additional ASTM standards adopted by


ASME will appear in ASME NM.3.1 and will be added
(a) Standard Piping Components. Standard piping to ASME NM.1 in future editions.
components are piping components that comply with The names and addresses of the organizations from
one or more standards listed in Table 4-2.1-1 or ASME which the referenced standards and specifications can
NM.3.1. be procured are shown in Table 4-2.1-2.
(b) Nonstandard Piping Components. Nonstandard
piping components are piping components that do not 4-2.2 Additional References
comply with one or more standards listed in Table
4-2.1-1; however, they shall meet the pressure design The following additional publications are referenced in
and other requirements of this Standard. this Standard and may be used for guidance:

ASME PVP2012-78777, Determination of Tensile Elastic


4-2 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS Modulus in High Density Polyethylene Piping at Seismic
Strain Rates, by D. Munson, T. Adams, and S. Nikholds, in
4-2.1 Standards and Specifications ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Volume
The standards and specifications listed in Table 4-2.1-1 1: Codes and Standards, pp. 217–228
are incorporated into this Standard by reference. These Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
documents contain references to other codes, standards, (ASME), Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990
and specifications for thermoplastic piping and compo- (www.asme.org)
nents (including metallic and nonmetallic backup
rings) and metals lined with thermoplastics. Any codes, PPI Material Handling Guide, Chapter 2, “Inspections,
standards, and specifications not explicitly listed in Tests and Safety Considerations”
Table 4-2.1-1 shall be used only in the context of the PPI TN-46, Guidance for Field Hydrostatic Testing of High
listed standard or specification in which they appear. Density Polyethylene Pressure Pipelines: Owner’s
As it is not practical to refer to a specific edition of Considerations, Planning, Procedures, and Checklists
each standard or specification throughout the text of Publisher: Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI), 105 Decker Court,
this Standard, the approved editions are shown in Suite 825, Irving, TX 75062 (www.plasticpipe.org)

24
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 4-2.1-1 Specifications and Standards


Designator Title
General Standards
49 CFR 192 Code of Federal Regulations; Title 49, Transportation; Part 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by
Pipeline: Minimum Federal Safety Standards
API 570 Piping Inspection Code and Inspection Certification
ASCE/SEI 7 Minimum Design Loads and Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other Structures
ASME B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads (UN and UNR Thread Form)
ASME B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose, Inch
ASME B16.1 Gray Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: Classes 25, 125, and 250
ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: NPS 1∕2 Through NPS 24 Metric/Inch Standard
ASME B16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings
ASME B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
ASME B16.42 Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: Classes 150 and 300
ASME B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 Through NPS 60 Metric/Inch Standard
ASME B18.2.1 Square, Hex, Heavy Hex, and Askew Head Bolts and Hex, Heavy Hex, Hex Flange, Lobed Head, and Lag Screws
(Inch Series)
ASME B18.2.2 Nuts for General Applications: Machine Screw Nuts, Hex, Square, Hex Flange, and Coupling Nuts (Inch
Series)
ASME B18.2.6M Metric Fasteners for Use in Structural Applications
ASME B31 ASME Code for Pressure Piping
B31.1, Power Piping
B31.3, Process Piping
B31.4, Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries
B31.5, Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components
B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
B31.9, Building Services Piping
B31.12, Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines
ASME B46.1 Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay)
ASME BPVC ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section I, Rules for the Construction of Power Boilers
Section II, Materials, Part D — Properties
Section III, Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components
Section V, Nondestructive Examination
Section VIII, Rules for the Construction of Pressure Vessels, Division 1, and Division 2, Alternative Rules
Section IX, Qualification Standard for Welding, Brazing, and Fusing Procedures; Welders; Brazers; and
Welding, Brazing, and Fusing Operators
ASME NM.3.1 Nonmetallic Materials, Part 1 — Thermoplastic Material Specifications
ASME NM.3.3 Nonmetallic Materials, Part 3 — Properties
ASME PCC-1 Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly
ASME PCC-2 Repair of Pressure Equipment and Piping
ASME SF-477 Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe
ASTM D638 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics
ASTM D1598 Standard Test Method for Time-to-Failure of Plastic Pipe Under Constant Internal Pressure
ASTM D1599 Standard Test Method for Resistance to Short-Time Hydraulic Pressure of Plastic Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
ASTM D1600 Standard Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Related to Plastics
ASTM D1603 Standard Test Method for Carbon Black Content in Olefin Plastics
ASTM D2122 Standard Test Method for Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings
ASTM D2321 Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow
Applications
ASTM D2444 Standard Practice for Determination of the Impact Resistance of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings by Means
of a Tup (Falling Weight)
ASTM D2774 Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping
ASTM D2837 Standard Test Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials or Pressure
Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Products
ASTM D3139 Standard Specification for Joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals

25
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 4-2.1-1 Specifications and Standards (Cont’d)


Designator Title
General Standards (Cont’d)
ASTM D3311 Standard Specification for Drain, Waste, and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings Patterns
ASTM D4218 Standard Test Method for Determination of Carbon Black Content in Polyethylene Compounds by the
Muffle-Furnace Technique
ASTM F2135 Standard Specification for Molded Drain, Waste, and Vent (DWV) Short-Pattern Plastic Fittings
AWS B2.4 Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification for Thermoplastics
AWS G1.10 Guide for the Evaluation of Thermoplastic Welds
AWS QC1 Standard for Certification of Welding Inspectors
AWWA C207 Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Service, Sizes 4 in. Through 144 in. (100 mm Through 3,600 mm)
CSA Z662 Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems
DIN 2501 PN16 Plate Flange
DVS 2207-1 Welding of thermoplastics — Heated element welding of pipes, piping parts and panels made out of
polyethylene
DVS 2207-5 Welding of thermoplastic materials — Testing and assessing welded joints in PE casing pipes
DVS 2207-6 Welding of thermoplastics — Non-contact heated tool butt welding of pipes, pipeline components and
sheets — Methods, equipment, parameters
DVS 2207-11 Welding of thermoplastic materials — Heated element welding of pipes, piping parts and panels made of PP
DVS 2207-15 Welding of thermoplastics — Heated tool welding of pipes, piping parts and panels made of PVDF
DVS 2210-1 Industrial piping made of thermoplastics — Design and execution — Above-ground pipe systems —
Recommendations for the internal pressure and leak tests
DVS 2212-1 Qualification testing of plastic welders — Qualification Test Groups I and II
EN 1092-1:2002 Flanges and their joints — Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN designated — Part
1: Steel flanges
EN 12814-3:2014 Testing of welded joints in thermoplastics semi-finished products — Part 3: Tensile creep test
EN 12814-7:2002 Testing of welded joints of thermoplastics semi-finished products — Part 7: Tensile test with waisted test
specimens
EN 13067:2003 Plastics welding personnel — Qualification testing of welders — Thermoplastics welded assemblies
EN 13100-1 Non-destructive testing of welded joints of thermoplastics semi-finished products — Part 1: Visual
examination
ISO 161/1:1978 Thermoplastic pipes for the transport of fluids — Nominal outside diameters and nominal pressures — Part
1: Metric series
ISO 7005-1:1992 Metallic flanges — Part 1: Steel flanges
PPI TR-3 Policies and Procedures for Developing Recommended Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB), Hydrostatic Design
Stresses (HDS), Pressure Design Basis (PDB), Strength Design Basis (SDB), and Minimum Required
Strength (MRS) Ratings for Thermoplastic Piping Materials or Pipe
PPI TR-4 PPI Listing of Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB), Hydrostatic Design Stress (HDS), Strength Design Basis
(SDB), Pressure Design Basis (PDB) and Minimum Required Strength (MRS) Ratings for Thermoplastic
Piping Materials or Pipe
PPI TR-45 Butt Fusion Joining Procedure for Field Joining of Polyamide-11 (PA-11) Pipe
ABS Standards
ASTM D1527 Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
ASTM D2235 Standard Specification for Solvent Cement for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe and
Fittings
ASTM D2282 Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe
ASTM D2468 Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40
ASTM D2661 Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and
Vent Pipe and Fittings
ASTM D3965 Standard Classification System and Basis for Specifications for Rigid Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
Materials for Pipe and Fittings
ASTM F2806 Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe (Metric SDR-PR)
ASTM F2969 Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) IPS Dimensioned Pressure Pipe
CPVC Standards
ASME SD-1784 Specification for Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC)
Compounds
ASME SD-2846/SD-2846M Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot-and-Cold-Water Distribution Systems

26
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 4-2.1-1 Specifications and Standards (Cont’d)


Designator Title
CPVC Standards (Cont’d)
ASME SF-437 Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40
ASME SF-438 Specification for Threaded Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
ASME SF-439 Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
ASME SF-441/SF-441M Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
ASME SF-442/SF-442M Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR)
ASME SF-1970 Specification for Special Engineered Fittings, Appurtenances or Valves for Use in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)
or Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Systems
ASTM F493 Standard Specification for Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe and
Fittings
CSA B137.6 CPVC Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings for Hot and Cold Water Distribution Systems
PE Standards
API 15LE Specification for Polyethylene Line Pipe (PE)
ASME SD-2239 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Controlled Inside Diameter
ASME SD-2513 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
ASME SD-2609 Standard Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe
ASME SD-2683 Specification for Socket-Type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter-Controlled Polyethylene Pipe and
Tubing
ASME SD-2737 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Tubing
ASME SD-3035 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Controlled Outside Diameter
ASME SD-3261 Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and
Tubing
ASME SD-3350 Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials
ASME SD-4976 Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Molding and Extrusion Materials
ASME SF-714 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter
ASME SF-1055 Specification for Electrofusion Type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter Controlled Polyethylene
and Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Plastic Pipe and Tubing
ASME SF-1924 Specification for Plastic Mechanical Fittings for Use on Outside Diameter Controlled Polyethylene Gas
Distribution Pipe and Tubing
ASME SF-2206 Specification for Fabricated Fittings of Butt-Fused Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Fittings, Sheet Stock, Plate
Stock, or Block Stock
ASME SF-2619/SF-2619M Specification for High-Density Polyethylene (PE) Line Pipe
ASME SF-2880 Specification for Lap-Joint Type Flange Adapters for Polyethylene Pressure Pipe in Nominal Pipe Sizes 3∕4 in.
to 65 in.
ASTM F2164 Standard Practice for Field Leak Testing of Polyethylene (PE) and Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Pressure
Piping Systems Using Hydrostatic Pressure
ASTM F2435 Standard Specification for Steel Reinforced Polyethylene (PE) Corrugated Pipe
ASTM F2620 Standard Practice for Heat Fusion Joining of Polyethylene Pipe and Fittings
ASTM F2634 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Testing of Polyethylene (PE) Butt Fusion Joints Using Tensile-Impact
Method
ASTM F3123 Standard Specification for Metric Outside Diameter Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PN)
AWWA C901 Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Tubing, 3∕4 in. (19 mm) Through 3 in. (76 mm) for Water Service
AWWA C906 Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Fittings, 4 in. Through 65 in. (100 mm Through 1,650 mm), for
Waterworks
AWWA M55 PE Pipe — Design and Installation
ISO 13953:2001 Polyethylene (PE) pipes and fittings — Determination of the tensile strength and failure mode of test pieces
from a butt-fused joint
PPI MAB-02 Generic Electrofusion Procedure for Field Joining of 14 Inch to 30 Inch Polyethylene (PE) Pipe
PPI TN-38 Bolt Torque for Polyethylene Flanged Joints
PPI TR-33 Generic Butt Fusion Joining Procedure for Field Joining of Polyethylene Pipe
PE-RT Standards
ASME SF-2623 Standard Specification for Polyethylene of Raised Temperature (PE-RT) SDR 9 Tubing
ASME SF-2769 Standard Specification for Polyethylene of Raised Temperature (PE-RT) Plastic Hot and Cold-Water Tubing
and Distribution Systems

27
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 4-2.1-1 Specifications and Standards (Cont’d)


Designator Title
PE-RT Standards (Cont’d)
ASTM F2735 Standard Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings for SDR9 Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX) and
Polyethylene of Raised Temperature (PE-RT) Tubing
CSA B137.18 Polyethylene of Raised Temperature Resistance (PE-RT) Tubing Systems for Pressure Applications
PP Standards
ASME SD-4101 Standard Specification for Polypropylene Injection and Extrusion Materials
ASME SF-2389 Standard Specification for Pressure-Rated Polypropylene (PP) Piping Systems
ASTM D5857 Standard Specification for Polypropylene Injection and Extrusion Materials Using ISO Protocol and
Methodology
CSA B137.11 Polypropylene (PP-R) Pipe and Fittings for Pressure Applications
PVC Standards
ASME SD-1784 Specification for Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC)
Compounds
ASME SD-1785 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120
ASME SD-2241 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series)
ASME SD-2464 Specification for Threaded Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
ASME SD-2466 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40
ASME SD-2467 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
ASME SF-1970 Specification for Special Engineered Fittings, Appurtenances or Valves for Use in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)
or Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Systems
ASTM D2152 Standard Test Method for Adequacy of Fusion of Extruded Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Molded
Fittings by Acetone Immersion
ASTM D2564 Standard Specification for Solvent Cements for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Piping Systems
ASTM D2672 Standard Specification for Joints for IPS PVC Pipe Using Solvent Cement
ASTM D2855 Standard Practice for the Two-Step (Primer and Solvent Cement) Method of Joining Poly (Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) or Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Pipe and Piping Components With Tapered Sockets
AWWA C900 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe and Fabricated Fittings, 4 in. Through 60 in. (100 mm Through
1,500 mm)
AWWA M23 PVC Pipe — Design and Installation
PVCO Standards
ASME SF-1483 Standard Specification for Oriented Poly(Vinyl Chloride), PVCO, Pressure Pipe
AWWA C909 Molecularly Oriented Polyvinyl Chloride (PVCO) Pressure Pipe, 4 in. Through 24 in. (100 mm Through 600
mm) for Water, Wastewater, and Reclaimed Water Service
CSA B137.3.1 Molecularly Oriented Polyvinylchloride (PVCO) Pipe for Pressure Applications
PVDF Standards
ASME SD-3222 Standard Specification for Unmodified Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) Molding Extrusion and Coating
Materials
ASME SD-5575 Standard Classification System for Copolymers of Vinylidene Fluoride (VDF) With Other Fluorinated
Monomers
ASME SF-1673 Standard Specification for Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Corrosive Waste Drainage Systems
ASTM D6713 Standard Specification for Extruded and Compression Molded Shapes Made From Poly(Vinylidene
Fluoride) (PVDF)
CSA B181.3 Polyolefin Laboratory Drainage Systems
Standard for Metals Lined With Thermoplastics
ASTM F1545 Standard Specification for Plastic-Lined Ferrous Metal Pipe, Fittings, and Flanges
PA Standards
ASME SF-1733 Standard Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyamide (PA) Plastic Fitting for Polyamide (PA) Plastic Pipe
and Tubing
ASME SF-2600 Standard Specification for Electrofusion Type Polyamide-11 Fittings for Outside Diameter Controlled
Polyamide-11 Pipe and Tubing
ASME SF-2945 Standard Specification for Polyamide 11 Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
ASTM F1973 Standard Specification for Factory Assembled Anodeless Risers and Transition Fittings in Polyethylene (PE)
and Polyamide 11 (PA11) and Polyamide 12 (PA12) Fuel Gas Distribution Systems
ASTM F2145 Standard Specification for Polyamide 11 (PA 11) and Polyamide 12 (PA12) Mechanical Fittings for Use on
Outside Diameter Controlled Polyamide 11 and Polyamide 12 Pipe and Tubing

28
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 4-2.1-1 Specifications and Standards (Cont’d)


Designator Title
PA Standards (Cont’d)
ASTM F2767 Standard Specification for Electrofusion Type Polyamide-12 Fittings for Outside Diameter Controlled
Polyamide-12 Pipe and Tubing for Gas Distribution
ASTM F2785 Standard Specification for Polyamide 12 Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
Standards for Other Thermoplastics
ASME SD-3307 Standard Specification for Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA)-Fluorocarbon Resin Molding and Extrusion Materials
ASME SD-4894 Standard Specification for Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Granular Molding and Ram Extrusion Materials
ASME SD-4895 Standard Specification for Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Resin Produced From Dispersion
ASME SD-6779 Standard Classification System for and Basis of Specification for Polyamide Molding and Extrusion
Materials (PA)
ASTM D3159 Standard Specification for Modified ETFE Fluoropolymer Molding and Extrusion Materials
ASTM F1412 Standard Specification for Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings for Corrosive Waste Drainage Systems
ASTM F1498 Standard Specification for Taper Pipe Threads 60° for Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings
Standards for Multilayered Reinforced Thermoplastic Piping Systems
API Specification 15S Second Edition Spoolable Reinforced Plastic Line Pipe
ASTM D323 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2 Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas
production — Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels, and the use of cast irons
Composites Standards
ASTM F1281 Standard Specification for Crosslinked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX)
Pressure Pipe
ASTM F1282 Standard Specification for Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) Composite Pressure Pipe
ASTM F1488 Standard Specification for Coextruded Composite Pipe
ASTM F1974 Standard Specification for Metal Insert Fittings for Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene and Crosslinked
Polyethylene/Aluminum/Crosslinked Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe
ASTM F2262 Standard Specification for Crosslinked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Crosslinked Polyethylene Tubing OD
Controlled SDR9
ASTM F2434 Standard Specification for Metal Insert Fittings Utilizing a Copper Crimp Ring for SDR9 Cross-Linked
Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing and SDR9 Cross-Linked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Cross-Linked
Polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) Tubing
ASTM F2686 Standard Specification for Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe
ASTM F2720 Standard Specification for Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyethylene (PE-GF) Spiral Wound Large Diameter
Pipe
ASTM F2805 Standard Specification for Multilayer Thermoplastic and Flexible Steel Pipe and Connections
ASTM F2855 Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride)/Aluminum/Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
(CPVC-AL-CPVC) Composite Pressure Tubing
ASTM F2896 Standard Specification for Reinforced Polyethylene Composite Pipe for the Transport of Oil and Gas and
Hazardous Liquids
CSA B137.9 Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Systems
CSA B137.10 Crosslinked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Crosslinked Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Systems
Piping Standards
... Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipelines (2001)
ASCE MOP 119 Buried Flexible Steel Pipe: Design and Structural Analysis
ASTM A53/A53M Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless
ASTM A105/A105M Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications
ASTM A106/A106M Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
ASTM A126 Standard Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Pipe Fittings
ASTM A135/A135M Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe
ASTM A182/A182M Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and
Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service
ASTM A216/A216M Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High-Temperature
Service
ASTM A234/A234M Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High
Temperature Service

29
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 4-2.1-1 Specifications and Standards (Cont’d)


Designator Title
Piping Standards (Cont’d)
ASTM A312/A312M Standard Specification for Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes
ASTM A333/A333M Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-Temperature Service and Other
Applications With Required Notch Toughness
ASTM A351/A351M Standard Specification for Castings, Austenitic, for Pressure-Containing Parts
ASTM A395/A395M Standard Specification for Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated
Temperatures
ASTM A403/A403M Standard Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
ASTM A513/A513M Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
ASTM A536 Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Castings
ASTM A587 Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Low-Carbon Steel Pipe for the Chemical Industry
ASTM A796 Standard Practice for Structural Design of Corrugated Steel Pipe, Pipe-Arches, and Arches for Storm and
Sanitary Sewers and Other Buried Applications
ASTM E94 Standard Guide for Radiographic Examination Using Industrial Radiographic Film
ASTM E114 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Straight-Beam Contact Testing
ASTM E125 Standard Reference Photographs for Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous Castings
ASTM E165/E165M Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination for General Industry
ASTM E186 Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled [2 to 41∕2 in. (50.8 to 114 mm)] Steel Castings
ASTM E280 Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled [41∕2 to 12 in. (114 to 305 mm)] Steel Castings
ASTM E446 Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness
ASTM E709 Standard Guide for Magnetic Particle Testing
MSS SP-43 Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welding Fittings
MSS SP-53 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping
Components — Magnetic Particle Exam Method
MSS SP-97 Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings — Socket Welding, Threaded, and Buttwelding Ends
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) All ASME SD and SF specifications are published in ASME NM.3.1.
(b) As it is not practical to refer to a specific edition of each standard or specification throughout the text of this Standard, unless otherwise
specified, the latest edition shall apply.

30
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 4-2.1-2 Procurement Information


Organization Contact Information
ASCE The American Society of Civil Engineers
1801 Alexander Bell Drive
Reston, VA 20191
(www.asce.org)
ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Two Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5990
(www.asme.org)
ASTM International American Society for Testing and Materials
100 Barr Harbor Drive
P.O. Box C700
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
(www.astm.org)
CSA Canadian Standards Association
178 Rexdale Boulevard
Toronto, Ontario M9W 1R3, Canada
(www.csagroup.org)
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V.
Am DIN-Platz
Burggrafenstraße 6
10787 Berlin
Germany
(www.din.de)
ISO International Organization for Standardization
Central Secretariat
Chemin de Blandonnet 8
Case Postale 401
1214 Vernier, Geneva
Switzerland
(www.iso.org)
MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
127 Park Street, NE
Vienna, VA 22180
(www.msshq.org)
NACE International National Association of Corrosion Engineers
15835 Park Ten Place
Houston, TX 77084-4906
(www.nace.org)
PPI Plastics Pipe Institute
105 Decker Court, Suite 825
Irving, TX 75062
(www.plasticpipe.org)

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ASME NM.1-2018

Chapter 5
Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection

5-1 GENERAL nents in production shall be prepared and qualified by the


employer as required in Chapter 8; Mandatory
(a) Thermoplastic piping materials and components Appendix I; ASME BPVC, Section IX, Article XXII; AWS
shall be prepared for assembly and erection by one or B2.4; CSA Z662; ASME BPE, Part MJ; or DVS 2212-1.
more of the fabrication processes covered in section
5-2, as applicable. 5-1.3.2 Qualification of Joining, Welding, or Fusing
(b) The requirements for the processes used for Procedure Specifications by Others. A JPS, WPS, or
assembly and/or erection shall be the same as those FPS qualified by a technically competent group or
used for fabrication. agency may be used, provided it complies with the
(c) The joiner (also called welder or fusing operator) following:
shall be employed by an entity that is responsible for fabri- (a) The procedure specification meets the require-
cation, assembly, and/or erection. ments of Chapter 8 ; Mandatory Appendix I ; ASME
(d) The acceptable joining procedure qualification re- BPVC, Section IX, Article XXII; AWS B2.4; CSA Z662;
quirements (PQR) for different thermoplastics shall be as ASME BPE, Part MJ; or DVS 2207.
specified in para. 5-2.1. (b) The employer shall have qualified at least one
fusing operator, welder, or joiner trained to use the qual-
5-1.1 Thermoplastic Joining Methods ified JPS, WPS, FPS, or equivalent requirements.
(c) The employer’s trade name or mark shall be shown
The joining of thermoplastic piping systems shall
on the qualified JPS, WPS, or FPS to be used and on each
comply with the requirements of this Standard and its
procedure qualification record (PQR). In addition, the
Appendices.
PQRs shall be signed and dated by the employer, who
5-1.2 Responsibilities thereby accepts responsibility for the qualification
performed by others.
Employers shall be responsible for all joining of ther- (d) Owner’s approval for using the procedure specifi-
moplastic components and subassemblies by their per- cation qualified by others shall be documented prior to its
sonnel. In addition, employers shall use.
(a) conduct the qualification tests required to qualify
the Joining Procedure Specification (JPS), Welding Proce- 5-1.3.3 Performance Qualification of Fusing
dure Specification (WPS), or Fusing Procedure Specifica- Operator, Welder, or Joiner. Thermoplastic fusing opera-
tion (FPS) used by their personnel, except as provided in tors, welders, and joiners shall be qualified in accordance
para. 5-1.3.1 or para. 5-1.3.2 with Chapter 8; Mandatory Appendix I; ASME BPVC,
(b) conduct the qualification tests required to qualify Section IX; or AWS B2.4.
thermoplastic fusing operators and thermoplastic NOTES:
welders or joiners, except as provided in para. 5-1.3.3 (1) Chapter 8 provides the JPS for qualifying joiners of mechan-
or para. 5-1.3.4 ical connections for multilayered reinforced thermoplastic
piping systems.
(c) train and qualify Inspectors and examiners in accor-
(2) AWS and ASME use different terms to describe the same
dance with the requirements of Chapter 6 methods of heat joining. The term used by the AWS is
(d) conduct the requalification tests required to main- “fused.” When ASME Standards are referenced, the term
tain qualification of thermoplastic fusing operators and used is “fusing.”
thermoplastic welders or joiners as specified in
Chapter 8; Mandatory Appendix I; ASME BPVC, Section 5-1.3.4 Performance Qualification of Fusing
IX, Article XXII; AWS B2.4; CSA Z662; or DVS 2212-1 Operator, Welder, or Joiner by Others

5-1.3 Thermoplastic Joining Qualifications (a) An employer may accept the performance qualifi-
cation of a fusing operator, welder, or joiner granted by a
5-1.3.1 Qualification of Joining, Welding, or Fusing previous employer. This acceptance shall be limited to
Procedure Specifications. The JPS, WPS, or FPS to be performance qualifications that were made on pipe
used for joining thermoplastic pipe, fittings, and compo-

32
ASME NM.1-2018

test coupons. Pipe test coupons shall include those made in this Chapter; mechanical joining is discussed in the
with couplings, saddles, and fittings. following sections:
(b) The new employer shall have a copy of the JPS, WPS, (a) Chapter 8 discusses mechanical joining for multi-
or FPS that was followed during qualification, or an layered reinforced thermoplastic piping systems.
equivalent JPS, WPS, or FPS that is within the limits of (Processes for joining thermoplastic liners by heat
the essential variables set forth in Chapter 8 ; fusion are included in para. 5-2.2.1.)
Mandatory Appendix I; ASME BPVC, Section IX, Article (b) Mandatory Appendix II discusses requirements for
XXII; AWS B2.4; or fusing standards in CSA Z662 or threaded thermoplastic connections.
DVS 2212-1. An employer accepting such qualification (c) Mandatory Appendix V discusses requirements for
tests shall obtain a copy of the PQTR from the previous one-piece thermoplastic flanges.
employer. The PQTR shall show the name of the employer (d) Nonmandatory Appendix A provides guidance for
by whom the fusing operator, thermoplastic welder, or mechanical joining using lap-joint thermoplastic flanges
joiner was qualified and the date of that qualification. (LJTFs).
(c) Evidence shall also be provided that the fusing NOTES:
operator, welder, or joiner has maintained qualification (1) All joining processes do not work on all thermoplastics. The
in accordance with Chapter 8; Mandatory Appendix I; selection of compounds and joining techniques is based on
ASME BPVC, Section IX; AWS B2.4; CSA Z662; or DVS the selected thermoplastic and the application require-
2212-1, except that this evidence may be provided by ments.
an employer responsible for the individual’s fusing or (2) Mechanical joining is a joining method in which a device or
thermoplastic welding or joining performance even if fitting, rather than heat fusion or solvent-cement welding, is
used to connect the thermoplastic pipe sections. The term
not the original qualifying employer.
“mechanical fittings or devices” applies only to
(d) The current employer’s business name shall be
(a) stab-type fittings
shown on the qualification record, and it shall be
(b) nut-follower-type fittings
signed and dated by the employer, who thereby (c) bolted-type fittings
accepts responsibility for the qualifications performed (d) other compression-type fittings
by others.
(e) Owner’s approval for performance qualification of
5-2.2 Thermoplastic Joining Using Heat-Fusion
fusing operator, welder, or joiner by others shall be docu-
mented prior to being used.
Methods
In pressure piping systems, heat-fusion joining methods
5-1.3.5 Qualification Records shall be used only to join like piping compounds.
(a) The employer shall maintain copies of the proce- NOTE: Many thermoplastic polymeric compounds cannot be
dure and performance qualification records specified joined to other, different thermoplastic compounds using stan-
in Chapter 8 ; Mandatory Appendix I ; ASME BPVC, dard heat fusion. There are exceptions to this general statement
Section IX, Article XXII; AWS B2.4; CSA Z662; and DVS related to thermoplastic pipe liners.
2212-1. These copies shall be available to the owner at
the location where fabrication, assembly, and erection 5-2.2.1 Butt Fusion. Joining processes for thermo-
are being done. plastic liners using butt fusion are defined in (a)
(b) The owner shall be responsible for maintaining and (b) below. The following limitations shall apply to
records. the use of butt-fusion joining for joining thermoplastic
(c) The retention period for qualification records shall liners. When PTFE liners are joined as described in
be 5 yr after qualification. (b), the procedure is different and is described in Manda-
tory Appendix I.
5-2 JOINING THERMOPLASTIC PIPING NOTE: The terms “hot plate” and “heated tool butt welding” are
used to describe butt-fusion joining. Butt fusion is also called
COMPONENTS BY HEAT FUSION OR
heat fusion.
SOLVENT-CEMENT WELDING
(a) Thermoplastic liners of the following polymeric
5-2.1 Processes and Procedures for Thermoplastic compounds shall be fused in accordance with JPSs specific
Joining to one polymer: PE, PP, PFA, PVDF homopolymer to PVDF
homopolymer, and PVDF copolymer to PVDF copolymer.
The components used in thermoplastic piping systems (b) PTFE shall not be joined to itself, but two PTFE liner
are composed of various polymeric compounds. Various ends may be joined by fusing a PFA film insert between the
methods may be used to join different polymeric two ends. A special JPS for fusion bonding PTFE is
compounds. Three common joining methods are heat provided in Mandatory Appendix I.
fusion, solvent-cement welding, and mechanical joining.
Heat fusion and solvent-cement welding are discussed

33
ASME NM.1-2018

(c) PE Pipe and Fittings. Butt fusion of PE pipe and Federal Regulations (49 CFR Part 192) based on the re-
fittings shall be conducted using an FPS qualified in accor- quirements for the application.
dance with ASME BPVC, Section IX, Articles XXI through (c) PP Pipe and Fittings. Electrofusion of PP piping and
XXIV or AWS B2.4. For butt fusing of piping to be used in fittings shall be conducted using a WPS qualified in accor-
fuel-gas applications, a JPS shall be approved in accor- dance with AWS B2.4.
dance with the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR (d) PVDF Pipe and Fittings. Electrofusion of PVDF or
Part 192). PVDF copolymer pipe and fittings shall be conducted
(d) PA-11 Pipe and Fittings. Butt-fusion joining of PA-11 using a WPS qualified in accordance with AWS B2.4.
nylon pipe and fittings shall be conducted using a JPS as
5-2.2.4 Same Physical Properties. Pipes or compo-
described in PPI TR-45. The procedure specification for
nents made of thermoplastic compounds with the
fuel-gas piping shall be qualified in accordance with the
same physical properties, as shown by ASTM cell classi-
requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR
fication or by comparison of physical properties, shall be
Part 192).
joined using a WPS, FPS, or JPS that has been qualified as
(e) PP Pipe and Fittings. Butt fusion of PP pipe and
required by para. 5-1.3.1 or para. 5-1.3.2.
fittings shall be conducted using a WPS qualified in accor-
dance with AWS B2.4. 5.2.2.5 Differing Physical Properties. Pipes or compo-
(f) PVC Pipe and Fittings. Butt fusion of PVC pipe and nents made of thermoplastic compounds of the same or
fittings shall be conducted using a WPS qualified in accor- similar (copolymers and homopolymers) polymeric
dance with AWS B2.4. compound with different ASTM cell classifications or
(g) PVDF Pipe and Fittings. Butt-fusion joining of PVDF slightly different physical properties shall be joined
and PVDF copolymer pipe and fittings shall be conducted using a WPS, FPS, or JPS that has been qualified as required
using a WPS qualified in accordance with AWS B2.4. by para. 5-1.3.1 or para. 5-1.3.2 and approved by the
(h) PFA Pipe and Fittings. Butt-fusion joining of PFA owner or the owner’s representative or both.
pipe and fittings shall be conducted using a WPS qualified NOTE: PA-11 shall not be joined to PA-12 using heat fusion. PP
in accordance with AWS B2.4. shall not be fused to PE using heat fusion. However, medium-
density PE may be fused to high-density PE using heat fusion, as
5-2.2.2 Socket Fusion indicated in ASME BPVC, Section IX, Articles XXI through XXIV.
(a) PE Piping and Fittings. Socket fusion of PE pipe and
fittings for fuel-gas applications shall be conducted using a 5-2.2.6 Products From Different Manufacturers. At
JPS qualified in accordance with the requirements in the the user’s option, an FPS, WPS, or JPS for thermoplastic
Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR Part 192). For other compounds with the same or slightly different physical
applications, a WPS qualified in accordance with ASTM properties but made by different manufacturers should
F2620 or AWS B2.4 shall be used. be qualified using combinations of the two manufacturers’
(b) PP Piping and Fittings. Socket fusion of PP pipe and pipe and components. Qualified test data as found in PPI
fittings shall be conducted using a WPS qualified in accor- TR-33 or similar technical reports or standards may be
dance with AWS B2.4. used as an alternative to testing.
(c) PVDF Piping and Fittings. Socket fusion of PVDF and
5-2.3 Thermoplastic Joint Properties for Heat
PVDF copolymer shall be conducted using a WPS qualified
in accordance with AWS B2.4.
Fusion
5-2.3.1 Joint Quality. The quality of the thermoplastic
5-2.2.3 Electrofusion joint depends on the qualification of the welder or fusing
(a) PE Piping and Fittings. Electrofusion of PE pipe and operator, the equipment used, environmental influences,
fittings shall be conducted using an FPS qualified in accor- and the welder’s or fusing operator’s adherence to the
dance with ASME BPVC, Section IX, Articles XXI through WPS, FPS, or JPS. Every welder or fusing operator shall
XXIV or using a WPS qualified in accordance with AWS be trained to the appropriate WPS, FPS, or JPS by qualified
B2.4. For electrofusion of piping to be used in fuel-gas personnel who have been trained and tested as required in
applications, the JPS shall be qualified in accordance ASME BPVC, Section IX, Article XXIII or AWS B2.4, or as
with ASME BPVC, Section IX; AWS B2.4; or the Code of required for fusing in CSA Z662 or DVS 2207.
Federal Regulations (49 CFR Part 192) based on the re- 5-2.3.2 Joining Area. The joining area shall be
quirements for the application. protected against adverse environmental conditions
(b) PA-11 Pipe and Fittings. Electrofusion of PA-11 pipe such as dirt, moisture, material shavings, oil, and other
and fittings shall be conducted in accordance with a contaminants. Environment conditions shall be addressed
published qualified joining procedure. For electrofusion in the WPS, FPS, or JPS for the thermoplastic.
of piping to be used in fuel-gas applications, the JPS
shall be qualified in accordance with the Code of

34
ASME NM.1-2018

5-2.4 Application-Specific Joint Requirements for 5-2.6 Thermoplastic Joining Using Solvent-
Heat Fusion Cement Welding Methods
5-2.4.1 Bead or Crevice. Some applications do not 5-2.6.1 PVC–CPVC Limitations
permit the presence of an inside bead or indention (some-
(a) The joining of PVC to CPVC shall not be allowed in
times called a crevice) on the inside surface of the pipe.
pressure piping systems.
Depending on these limitations, various methods shall be
(b) There are some nonpressure applications in which
used to prevent or eliminate beads or indentations, polymers such as PVC and CPVC can be solvent-welded to
including fusing with the aid of a bladder or using each other. The manufacturer of the thermoplastic mate-
heated or nonheated inside bead removers. The user
rial should be consulted before attempting to join different
or the designer shall be consulted for bead-size allowance.
polymers using solvent-cement welding.
5-2.4.2 Other Joining Processes 5-2.6.2 Same Physical Properties. Pipes or compo-
(a) Other joining processes that create a bead, inden- nents made of thermoplastic compounds with the
tion, or other change in the inside or outside surface of the same physical properties, as shown by ASTM cell classi-
thermoplastic pipe or fitting that does not affect the joint fication or by comparison of physical properties, shall be
strength may be used as long as the difference in alignment joined using a WPS or JPS that has been qualified as
is less than 10% of the wall thickness. required by para. 5-1.3.1 or para. 5-1.3.2.
NOTE: Infrared heat is used as a noncontact method of joining a 5-2.6.3 Different Physical Properties. The same or
limited number of thermoplastics. These requirements apply to similar polymeric compounds may have different
noncontact methods of butt-fusion joining. ASTM cell classifications or slightly different physical
(b) An indention below the nominal I.D. of the pipe may properties. Pipes or components made of such compounds
be acceptable provided the indention or misalignment shall be joined using a WPS or JPS that has been qualified as
does not infringe on the minimum wall thickness required required by para. 5-1.3.1 or para. 5-1.3.2 and approved by
for hoop or axial strength. the owner or the owner’s representative or both.

5-2.4.3 Removal of I.D. Bead. For butt-fusion joints, 5-2.6.4 Products From Different Manufacturers. At
removal of the I.D. beads shall be at the option of the the user’s option, a WPS or JPS for thermoplastic compo-
user, purchaser, or designer. nents with the same or slightly different physical proper-
ties but made by different manufacturers should be
5-2.4.4 Size of Bead qualified using combinations of the manufacturers’
pipe, components, and solvent cements. Qualified test
(a) Removal or reduction in size of the O.D. bead
data or technical reports or standards may be used as
created during heat fusion may be performed as long
an alternative to testing.
as the minimum wall thickness required for hoop or
axial strength or tensile load is not reduced. 5-2.7 Thermoplastic Joint Design and Properties
(b) When O.D. bead removal is planned, inspection or
for Solvent-Cement Welding
examination of the bead shall be done during or after the
heat-fusion process and before bead removal. (a) The quality of the thermoplastic joint depends on
(c) No more than a 10% misalignment shall be allowed the qualification of the welder, the equipment used, en-
on outside beads even if minimum wall thickness require- vironmental influences, and the welder’s accurate adher-
ments are met. ence to the WPS or JPS. Every welder shall be trained to the
appropriate WPS or JPS by qualified personnel who have
5-2.5 Requirements for Thermoplastic Pipe and been trained and tested in accordance with para. 5-1.3.3.
Fittings Joints Using Heat Fusion (b) The joining area shall be protected against adverse
environmental conditions such as dirt, moisture, material
(a) Joining surfaces shall be prepared by cutting, facing,
shavings, oil, and other contaminants. Environment condi-
scraping, or machining to provide a clean, smooth end or
tions shall be addressed in the WPS or JPS for the thermo-
external pipe surface.
plastic.
(b) Joining of thermoplastics shall be performed in
accordance with a documented JPS, FPS, or WPS that 5-2.8 Requirements for Thermoplastic Pipe and
has been qualified in accordance with para. 5-1.3.1 or
Fittings Joints Using Solvent-Cement
para. 5-1.3.2.
(c) The owner or user and the contractor shall agree
Welding
that the WPS, FPS, or JPS selected will provide the desired (a) Joining surfaces shall be prepared to provide a
results. clean, smooth end or external pipe surface.

35
ASME NM.1-2018

(b) Joining of thermoplastics shall be performed in acceptable joining procedure qualification requirements
accordance with a documented WPS or JPS that has for various thermoplastics.
been qualified in accordance with para. 5-1.3.1 or (a) When ABS pipe or fittings are joined using a solvent-
para. 5-1.3.2. cement welding procedure, the procedure shall be qual-
(c) The owner or user and the contractor shall agree ified in accordance with AWS B2.4. Environmental condi-
that the WPS or JPS selected will provide the desired tion recommendations shall be included in the WPS.
results. (b) When CPVC pipe or fittings are joined using a
solvent-cement welding procedure, the procedure shall
5-2.9 Noncontact Heat Joining Methods be qualified in accordance with AWS B2.4. Environmental
5-2.9.1 Infrared for PVDF or PVDF Copolymers. The condition recommendations shall be included in the WPS.
WPS for joining PVDF or PVDF copolymers using infrared (c) When PVC pipe or fittings are joined using a solvent-
(IR) shall be qualified per AWS B2.4. cement welding procedure, the procedure shall be qual-
ified in accordance with AWS B2.4 or the manufacturer’s
5-2.9.2 IR for PP. The WPS for joining PP using IR shall procedure qualification. Environmental condition recom-
be qualified per AWS B2.4. mendations shall be included in the WPS.
5-2.9.3 Beadless Welding. The WPS for joining PP or (d) When PVC pipe or fittings are joined using a contact
PVDF pipe and fittings using beadless welding shall be heat-fusing method, the procedure shall be qualified in
qualified per para. 5-1.3.1. accordance with AWS B2.4.
(e) When PP pipe and fittings are joined using a contact
5-2.10 Records or noncontact fusing method, the procedure shall be qual-
ified in accordance with AWS B2.4. Environmental condi-
The data related to the critical parameters and essential tion recommendations shall be included in the WPS.
variables shall be recorded to create a quality control (f) When PP pipe and fittings are joined using socket
record to be turned over to the owner. This data shall fusion, the procedure shall be qualified in accordance with
be retained as required by the owner or the owner’s repre- AWS B2.4. Environmental condition recommendations
sentative. shall be included in the WPS.
5-2.10.1 Butt-Fusion Equipment (Contact or Noncon- (g) When PP pipe and fittings are joined using electro-
tact) With Data Logger. Butt-fusion equipment shall fusion, the procedure shall be qualified in accordance with
monitor and record critical parameters or essential vari- AWS B2.4. Environmental condition recommendations
ables such as heat, cool time, and temperature. Procedure shall be included in the WPS.
specifications qualified using ASME BPVC, Section IX, (h) When PVDF or PVDF copolymer pipe and fittings
Article XXI (for PE only) or AWS B2.4 (for other materials) are joined using a contact or noncontact fusing
may require recording of additional data. method, the procedure shall be qualified in accordance
with AWS B2.4. Environmental condition recommenda-
5-2.10.2 Butt-Fusion Equipment (Contact or Noncon- tions shall be included in the WPS.
tact) Without Data Logger. If the equipment does not have (i) When PVDF or PVDF copolymer pipe and fittings are
monitoring or recording capabilities, data shall be manu- joined using socket fusion, the procedure shall be qualified
ally recorded in quality control records. in accordance with AWS B2.4. Environmental condition
5-2.10.3 Electrofusion Controllers. Electrofusion recommendations shall be included in the WPS.
controllers shall monitor input power, output voltage (j) When PVDF or PVDF copolymer pipe and fittings are
and current, and ambient temperature. A record of joined using electrofusion, the procedure shall be qualified
each fusion shall be recorded and shall include, at a in accordance with AWS B2.4. Environmental condition
minimum, the fusion identification number and date, recommendations shall be included in the WPS.
fusion voltage, ambient temperature at fusion, nominal (k) When PA-11 pipe and fittings are joined using a
fusion time, adjusted fusion time, elapsed fusion time, contact fusing method, the procedure shall be qualified
cooling time, and any fusion termination reason. as required in Mandatory Appendix I. Environmental
condition recommendations shall be included in the JPS.
5-2.10.4 Solvent-Cement Welds. Data related to (l) When PA-11 pipe and fittings are joined using elec-
critical variables shall be recorded as required in AWS trofusion, the procedure shall be qualified as required in
B2.4. Mandatory Appendix I. Environmental condition recom-
mendations shall be included in the JPS.
5-3 PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION (m) When PE pipe and fittings are joined using a
Thermoplastic joining procedures shall be qualified in contact fusion method, the procedure shall be qualified
accordance with ASME BPVC, Section IX; AWS B2.4; or in accordance with ASME BPVC, Section IX or AWS
Chapters 7 and 8 or other requirements in this Standard. B2.4. Environmental condition recommendations shall
Paragraphs (a) through (p) and Table 5-3-1 specify the be included in the FPS or WPS.

36
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 5-3-1 Qualification for Thermoplastic Joining Procedures


Joining Procedure/ Required Procedure Specification Type
Thermoplastic Method Joining Procedure Qualification [Note (1)]
For Pipe and Fittings
ABS Solvent-cement welding AWS B2.4 WPS
CPVC Solvent-cement welding AWS B2.4 WPS
PVC Solvent-cement welding AWS B2.4 or the manufacturer’s WPS
procedure qualification
Heat fusion AWS B2.4 JPS
PP Contact or noncontact AWS B2.4 WPS
fusing
Socket fusion
Electrofusion
PVDF or PVDF copolymer Heat fusion or AWS B2.4 WPS
noncontact fusing
Socket fusion
Electrofusion
PA-11 Contact fusing Mandatory Appendix I JPS
Electrofusion
PE Contact fusing ASME BPVC, Section IX or AWS B2.4 FPS or WPS
Saddle fusion Mandatory Appendix I FPS
Electrofusion ASME BPVC, Section IX or AWS B2.4 FPS or WPS
For Liners
PP, PVDF (homopolymer or Butt fusion Chapter 7 JPS
copolymer), PFA, or PTFE
GENERAL NOTE: The term “fusing” is used in ASME BPVC, Section IX, and “fusion” is used in AWS B2.4. Both terms are defined the same.

NOTE: (1) Environmental condition recommendations shall be included in all procedure specifications.

(n) When PE pipe and fittings are joined using saddle (b) When CPVC pipe and fitting are joined using a
fusion, the procedure shall be qualified using solvent-cement welding procedure, the welder shall be
Mandatory Appendix I. Environmental condition recom- qualified using AWS B2.4.
mendations shall be included in the FPS. (c) When PVC pipe and fitting are joined using a
(o) When PE pipe, fittings, or saddles are joined using solvent-cement welding procedure, the welder shall be
electrofusion, the procedure shall be qualified in accor- qualified using AWS B2.4.
dance with ASME BPVC, Section IX or AWS B2.4. Environ- (d) When PVC pipe and fitting are joined using contact
mental condition recommendations shall be included in heat fusing, the welder shall be qualified in accordance
the FPS or WPS. with AWS B2.4.
(p) When PP, PVDF (homopolymer or copolymer), PFA, (e) When PP pipe and fitting are joined using a contact
or PTFE liners are joined using contact butt fusion, the or noncontact fusing method, the welder shall be qualified
procedure shall be qualified in accordance with the re- using AWS B2.4.
quirements in Chapter 7. Environmental condition recom- (f) When PP pipe and fitting are joined using socket
mendations shall be included in the JPS. fusion, the welder shall be qualified using AWS B2.4.
(g) When PP pipe and fitting are joined using electro-
5-4 OPERATOR QUALIFICATION fusion, the welder shall be qualified using AWS B2.4.
(h) When PVDF or PVDF copolymer pipe and fitting are
Paragraphs (a) through (p) and Table 5-4-1 specify the joined using a contact or noncontact fusing method, the
standard, Chapter, or Appendix that contains require- welder shall be qualified using AWS B2.4.
ments to qualify persons to join various thermoplastics. (i) When liners for thermoplastic-lined metallic pipes
(a) When ABS pipe and fitting are joined using a are joined using heat fusion processes, the joiner shall be
solvent-cement welding procedure, the welder shall be qualified using the JPS and operator qualification require-
qualified using AWS B2.4. ments in Chapter 7. The thermoplastic liners covered by
this section are PP, PVDF (homopolymer or copolymer),
PFA, and PTFE.

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ASME NM.1-2018

Table 5-4-1 Qualification for Thermoplastic Fusion Equipment Operators, Welders, and Installers
Joining Procedure/
Thermoplastic Method Personnel Personnel Qualification Requirement
For Pipe and Fittings
ABS Solvent-cement Welder AWS B2.4
welding
CPVC Solvent-cement Welder AWS B2.4
welding
PVC Solvent-cement Welder AWS B2.4
welding
Contact heat
fusing
PP Contact or noncontact Welder AWS B2.4
fusing
Socket fusion
Electrofusion
PVDF or PVDF copolymer Contact or noncontact Welder AWS B2.4
fusing
Socket fusion
Electrofusion
PA-11 Contact fusing Fusing machine operator Mandatory Appendix I
Electrofusion or joiner

PE Heat fusion Fusing machine operator ASME BPVC, Section IX, Article XXII or AWS B2.4
or welder
Saddle fusion Fusing machine operator Mandatory Appendix I or AWS B2.4
or welder
Electrofusion Fusing machine operator ASME BPVC, Section IX or AWS B2.4
or welder
For Liners
PP, PVDF (homopolymer or Heat fusion Joiner JPS and Chapter 7
copolymer), PFA, or PTFE

(j) When PVDF or PVDF copolymer is joined using (n) When PE is joined using a heat fusion method, the
socket fusion, the welder shall be qualified using AWS fusing operator or welder shall be qualified using ASME
B2.4. BPVC, Section IX, Article XXII or AWS B2.4.
(k) When PVDF or PVDF copolymer is joined using elec- (o) When PE is joined using saddle fusion, the fusing
trofusion, the welder shall be qualified using AWS B2.4. operator or welder shall be qualified using
(l) When PA-11 is joined using a contact fusing method, Mandatory Appendix I or AWS B2.4.
the fusing machine operator or joiner shall be qualified as (p) When PE is joined using electrofusion, the fusing
required in Mandatory Appendix I. operator or welder shall be qualified using ASME
(m) When PA-11 is joined using electrofusion, the BPVC, Section IX or AWS B2.4.
fusing machine operator or joiner shall be qualified as
required in Mandatory Appendix I.

38
ASME NM.1-2018

Chapter 6
Inspection, Examination, and Testing

6-1 INSPECTION cator, or erector unless the owner is also the manufactur-
er, fabricator, or erector.
This Chapter distinguishes between inspection and (b) The owner’s Inspector shall be trained on the prin-
examination (see section 6-2). Inspection applies to func- ciples of the specific joining process to be inspected
tions performed for the owner by the owner’s Inspector or (minimum 24 h). This training shall be documented
the Inspector’s delegates. References in this Standard to and shall cover, as a minimum, safety, fundamentals of
the “Inspector” are to the owner’s Inspector or the Inspec- the joining and installation process, and recognition of
tor’s delegates. typical joint imperfections. In addition, the Inspector
NOTE: Requirements in this Chapter for inspection, examination, shall meet one of the following requirements:
and testing of thermoplastic piping systems apply to all thermo- (1) have at least 8 yr experience in the design, fabri-
plastic materials referenced in this Standard; additional require- cation, or examination of industrial thermoplastic pres-
ments and exceptions for thermoplastic-lined metals and
sure piping systems. Completion of an engineering or
multilayered reinforced thermoplastic piping systems are in
Chapters 7 and 8, respectively. technical degree accredited by the Accreditation Board
for Engineering and Technology (ABET) shall be consid-
ered equivalent to 3 yr experience of the 8 yr required.
6-1.1 Responsibility for Inspection (2) have a professional engineering registration or
It is the owner’s responsibility, exercised through the nationally recognized equivalent with at least 3 yr experi-
owner ’s Inspector, to verify that all required examinations ence in the design, fabrication, or examination of indus-
and testing have been completed and to inspect the ther- trial thermoplastic pressure piping systems.
moplastic piping system to the extent necessary to be (c) In delegating performance of inspection, the
satisfied that it conforms to all applicable examination re- owner’s Inspector shall be responsible for determining
quirements of this Standard and of the engineering design. that any person to whom an inspection function is dele-
gated is qualified to perform that function.
6-1.2 Rights of the Owner’s Inspector
The owner’s Inspector and the Inspector’s delegates 6-2 EXAMINATION
shall have access to any place where work concerned Examination applies to quality control functions
with the thermoplastic piping system installation is performed by the thermoplastic piping systems manufac-
being performed. This work shall include manufacture, turer (for piping components only), fabricator, or erector.
fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, and Reference in this Standard to an examiner shall be to a
testing of the thermoplastic piping system. They shall person who performs quality control examinations.
have the right to audit any examination, to inspect the
thermoplastic piping system using any examination 6-2.1 Responsibility for Examination
method specified by the engineering design, and to
Inspection shall not relieve the thermoplastic piping
review all certifications and records necessary to
system manufacturer, the fabricator, or the erector of
satisfy the owner’s responsibility stated in para. 6-1.1.
the responsibility for
6-1.3 Qualifications of the Owner’s Inspector (a) providing thermoplastic materials, components,
and workmanship in accordance with the requirements
(a) The owner’s Inspector shall be designated by the of this Standard and of the engineering design (see
owner and shall be the owner, an employee of the owner, Chapter 2)
an employee of an engineering or scientific organization, (b) performing all required examinations
or an employee of a recognized insurance or inspection (c) preparing suitable records of examinations and
company acting as the owner’s agent. The owner’s tests for the Inspector’s use
Inspector shall not represent nor be an employee of
the thermoplastic piping component manufacturer, fabri-

39
ASME NM.1-2018

6-2.2 Examination Requirements (b) If any of the items examined as required by


Step 2(b) reveals a defect, all items represented by
6-2.2.1 General. Prior to initial operation, each ther- progressive sampling shall be either
moplastic piping system installation, including compo- (1) replaced and the replacement items examined as
nents and workmanship, shall be examined in required, or
accordance with the applicable requirements of (2) fully examined and replaced as necessary and the
section 6-2. The type and extent of any additional exam- replacement items examined as necessary to meet the re-
ination required by engineering design, and the accep- quirements of this Standard
tance criteria to be applied, shall be specified. Step 4. If any of the defective items are replaced and the
Thermoplastic joints not included in examinations replacement items examined, and a defect is detected in a
required by para. 6-2.3 or by engineering design may replacement item, continued progressive sampling in
be accepted if they pass the leak test requirements in accordance with Steps 1, 2(b), and 3(b) is not required
section 6-3. based on the defects found in the replacements. The defec-
(a) Examination of thermoplastic items shall be tive item(s) shall be replaced and the replacement item(s)
performed after the items have passed final inspection examined until acceptance as specified in para. 6-2.2.3 is
following extrusion, injection molding, or other reached. Spot or random examination (whichever is ap-
forming process. plicable) shall then be performed on the remaining unex-
(b) Examination of fabricated items shall be performed amined joints, items, or components.
after final assembly and inspection.
6-2.2.2 Acceptance Criteria. Acceptance criteria shall 6-2.3 Extent of Required Examination
be as stated in the engineering design and shall meet the Thermoplastic piping in fluid service shall be examined
applicable requirements in Mandatory Appendix III. AWS to the extent specified herein or to any greater extent
G1.10 may also be used to evaluate thermoplastic welds. specified in the engineering design. Acceptance criteria
6-2.2.3 Defective Piping Components and Workman- are as stated in para. 6-2.2.2 and in Mandatory
ship. If examination of an item reveals defects (imperfec- Appendix III for fluid service.
tions of a type or magnitude exceeding the acceptance (a) Visual Examination. At minimum, the following
criteria for joints and material in this Standard), the shall be examined in accordance with para. 6-2.7.2:
item shall be replaced, and the replacement item shall (1) sufficient materials and components, as agreed
be subject to the same examination and acceptance on by the owner, selected at random, to satisfy the exam-
criteria as the original. iner that they conform to the specifications and are free
from defects.
6-2.2.4 Progressive Sampling for Examination. When (2) at least 5% of fabrication. For fused, solvent-
required spot or random examination reveals a defect, the welded, and adhesive joints, each operator’s or assem-
following steps shall be taken: bler’s work shall be represented and shall meet the re-
Step 1. Two additional samples of the same kind of item quirements of Mandatory Appendix III. AWS G1.10
or from the same lot shall be given the same examination. may also be used to evaluate thermoplastic welds for
For a fused item, the sample should be from the same acceptance.
fusion equipment operator. For a solvent-welded or adhe- (3) random examination of the assembly of
sive-joined item, the sample should be from the same ther- threaded, bolted, and other mechanical joints to satisfy
moplastic assembler. the examiner that they conform to the applicable require-
Step 2 ments of the engineering design.
(a) If the items examined as required by Step 1 are ac- (4) random examination of joint alignment. Pipe
ceptable, the defective item shall be replaced and the re- hangers and supports, where applicable, shall be exam-
placement item examined as specified in para. 6-2.2.3, and ined to ensure spacing is at intervals per the designer’s
all items represented by the two additional samples shall requirements.
be accepted. (5) installed thermoplastic piping and components
(b) If any of the items examined as required by Step 1 for evidence of defects that would require replacement,
reveals a defect, two further samples of the same kind shall and for other evident deviations from the intent of the
be examined for each defective item found by that design.
grouping. (b) Certification and Records. The examiner shall be
Step 3 assured by review of certifications, records, and other
(a) If all the items examined as required by Step 2(b) evidence that the thermoplastic piping components
are acceptable, the defective item(s) shall be replaced meet the requirements of the specifications. The examiner
and the replacement item examined as specified in para. shall provide the Inspector with a certification that all of
6-2.2.3, and all items represented by the additional the quality control requirements of the specifications,
sampling shall be accepted.

40
ASME NM.1-2018

applicable standard(s), and engineering design have been (b) Special Methods Not Specified in This Standard. If a
carried out. method not specified herein is to be used, then the method
and its acceptance criteria shall be specified in the engi-
6-2.4 Supplementary Examination neering design in enough detail to permit qualification of
6-2.4.1 General. Any of the methods of examination the necessary procedures and examinations.
described in para. 6-2.7 may be specified by the engi- 6-2.7.2 Visual Examination
neering design to supplement the examination required
by para. 6-2.3. The extent of the supplementary examina- (a) Visual examination of thermoplastic piping systems
tion to be performed and the acceptance criteria that differ includes verification of standards, code, and engineering
from those in para. 6-2.2.2 shall be specified in the engi- design requirements for
neering design. (1) materials, components, and dimensions
(2) preparation and alignment of joints
6-2.4.2 Examination to Resolve Uncertainty. Any (3) alignment of materials and components
method may be used to resolve doubtful indications. (4) method of joining, i.e., fusion, solvent welding,
Acceptance criteria shall be those for the required exam- adhesive joining, bell-and-spigot joints, bolting, threading,
ination. etc.
(5) assembly of supports
6-2.5 Examination Personnel
(6) erection
6-2.5.1 Personnel Qualification and Certification (b) Visual examination shall be performed in accor-
dance with ASME BPVC, Section V, Article 9.
(a) Examiners shall be trained and shall possess a valid
(c) A joint shall receive a visual examination of all
qualification certificate from the manufacturer for the
accessible pipe, fitting, and component surfaces. Accep-
process to be used and the material being welded or
tance criteria are as follows:
shall have experience with nondestructive examination
(1) There shall be no evidence of cracks, voids, inclu-
techniques commensurate with the needs of the specified
sions, defects or flaws, lack of fusion, or incomplete
examinations.
joining. AWS G1.10 may be used to evaluate thermoplastic
(b) Personnel performing nondestructive examination
welds for acceptance. Either the designer or the owner or
(NDE) to the requirements of this Standard shall be qual-
owner’s representative shall identify which acceptance
ified and certified for the method to be used following a
level from AWS G1.10 is applicable.
procedure as described in ASME BPVC, Section V, Article 1,
(2) Joints shall exhibit proper design configuration.
T-120(e) or T-120(f).
(3) Any data record as a result of the fusing or joining
6-2.5.2 Specific Requirements. For in-process exam- process shall be reviewed and compared to design re-
ination, the examination shall be performed by personnel quirements.
other than those performing the production work. (d) Visual examination results shall be recorded and
submitted to the owner or owner’s delegate on comple-
6-2.6 Examination Procedures tion. The records shall include the following information:
(a) Any examination shall be performed in accordance (1) date of examination
with a written procedure that conforms to one of the (2) identification of piping system examined
methods specified in paras. 6-2.7.1(a) and 6-2.7.1(b). (3) examination procedure
(b) Procedure shall be written as required in ASME (4) certification of results by examiner
BPVC, Section V, Article 1, T-150. 6-2.7.3 Ultrasonic Examination. Ultrasonic examina-
(c) The employer shall certify records of the examina- tion of welds or joints shall be performed in accordance
tion procedures used, showing dates and results of proce- with ASME BPVC, Section V, Article 4, as required by the
dure qualifications, and shall maintain them and make engineering design.
them available to the Inspector.
6-2.7.4 In-Process Examination
6-2.7 Types of Examination
(a) In-process examination shall comprise examina-
6-2.7.1 General tion of the following, as applicable:
(a) Methods Specified in This Standard. Except as (1) joint preparation and cleanliness
provided in (b), any examination required by this Stan- (2) fit-up, joint clearance, and external and internal
dard, by the engineering design, or by the Inspector alignment prior to joining
shall be performed in accordance with one of the (3) variables (such as temperatures, cooling or cure
methods specified herein. times, environmental conditions) specified in the FPS, JPS,
or this Standard
(4) appearance of the finished joint

41
ASME NM.1-2018

(b) In-process examination shall be visual in accor- 6-3.2 General Requirements for Leakage Tests
dance with para. 6-2.7.2 unless additional methods are
specified in the engineering design. Requirements in para. 6-3.2 may apply to more than
one type of leakage test.
6-3 TESTING 6-3.2.1 Limitations on Pressure
(a) Exceeding Piping Component Strength. If the test
6-3.1 Required Leakage Test
pressure would produce a nominal pressure in excess
Prior to initial operation and after completion of the of 1.5 times rated pressure of the weakest or lowest-
applicable examinations required by section 6-2, each rated component at test temperature, the test pressure
piping system shall be tested to ensure tightness. The may be reduced to the maximum pressure that will
test shall be a hydrostatic leakage test in accordance not exceed the pressure rating at test temperature.
with para. 6-3.4, except as provided in paras. 6-3.1.1 (b) Test Fluid Expansion. If a pressure test is to be main-
and 6-3.1.2. tained for a period of time and the test fluid in the system is
subject to thermal expansion, precautions shall be taken to
6-3.1.1 Exception to Hydrostatic Test. If hydrostatic
avoid excessive pressure.
testing would create a hazardous situation or risk of
contamination, the owner may choose to subject the 6-3.2.2 Other Test Requirements
piping system to a pneumatic leakage test, in accordance
with para. 6-3.5, in lieu of the hydrostatic leakage test. (a) Examination for Leakage. A leakage test shall be
Where pneumatic tests are performed, consideration maintained for at least 1 h. All joints and connections
shall be given to the hazard, precautions, and safety shall be examined for leakage after the 1-h period.
measures associated with the energy stored in (b) Low Test Temperature. The possibility of testing
compressed gas. near the glass transition temperature or below the
rapid crack growth prorogation critical temperature
6-3.1.2 Allowance for NDE Test shall be considered when leakage tests are conducted
on systems where the ductile–brittle transition tempera-
(a) Where the owner considers both hydrostatic and
ture range is near the testing conditions.
pneumatic leakage testing impracticable, an alternative
(c) Sectioning the System for Test. The pipeline length
NDE test may be used if both of the following conditions
tested shall be either the whole pipeline or a section of the
apply:
entire pipeline capable of being isolated, dependent on the
(1) a hydrostatic test would
length and diameter of the section of the pipe, the avail-
(-a) damage the piping system or linings in the
ability of water, the disposability of the water, and the
piping system
spacing between sectioning valves or blind flanged
(-b) contaminate a process that would be hazard-
ends. Based on elevations and distance, the pipeline
ous, corrosive, or inoperative in the presence of moisture
shall be divided into test sections such that
(-c) require significant support modifications for
(1) the hydrostatic test pressure at any point in the
the hydrostatic test load, or
test section shall be
(-d) present the danger of brittle fracture due to
(-a) not less than the design pressure
low temperature during the test
(-b) not more than 50% above the design pressure
(2) a pneumatic test would
rating of any pipeline component
(-a) present an undue hazard of possible release of
(2) Prior to testing execution, an assessment should
energy stored in the system, or
be made as to what the recorded pressure versus time
(-b) present the danger of brittle fracture during
curves should look like and how to read or interpret
the test
the actual recorded pressure data, so that acceptance
(b) The NDE test shall be approved by the owner, and
or corrective action may be taken by experienced,
shall be followed by an initial service leakage test in accor-
trained, and qualified operators.
dance with para. 6-3.6.
NOTES:
6-3.1.3 Nonpressure Piping. Unless otherwise speci- (1) Although written for polyethylene, PPI TN-46 and ASTM
fied in the engineering design, lines open to the atmo- F2164 provide comprehensive guidelines for conducting
sphere, such as vents or drains downstream of the last pressure tests.
shutoff valve, shall be leak tested. (2) ASME PCC-2, Part 5, Article 501 provides comprehensive
requirements for conducting pressure tests.
NOTE: Testing to full hydrostatic requirements may not apply
due to limitations in the pressure rating of nonpressure piping
components.

42
ASME NM.1-2018

6-3.2.3 Special Provisions for Testing and on the structural capacity the existing host pipe is
expected to provide in the relined system.
(a) Piping Components and Subassemblies. Piping
components and subassemblies may be tested either sepa- 6-3.2.6 Repairs or Additions After Leakage Testing
rately or as assembled piping.
(b) Flanged Joints. Flanged joints used to connect piping (a) If repairs or additions are made following the
components and subassemblies that have previously been leakage test, the affected piping shall be retested.
tested, and flanged joints at which a blank or blind is used (b) For minor repairs that do not breach the pressure
to isolate equipment or other piping during a test, are not boundary (e.g., gouges, scratches) or additions such as
required to be leakage tested in accordance with supports or brackets, the owner may waive retest require-
para. 6-3.1. ments when precautionary measures (e.g., para. 6-2.7.4)
(c) Closure Joints. The final joint connecting piping are taken to ensure sound construction.
systems or components that have been successfully 6-3.2.7 Test Records. Records shall be made during
tested in accordance with para. 6-3.1 are not required the testing of each piping system and submitted to the
to be leakage tested provided the joint is examined in- owner or owner’s delegate on completion. The records
process in accordance with para. 6-2.7.4 and an initial shall include the following information:
service leakage test in accordance with para. 6-3.6. (a) date of test
(b) identification of piping system tested
6-3.2.4 Dual Containment Piping
(c) test procedure, including duration
(a) The internal or carrier pipe shall be leakage tested (d) test medium
on the basis of the internal design pressure. (e) test pressure
(1) In stagger welded systems, i.e., systems where (f) certification of results by examiner
the joining of the carrier pipe and the joining of the
containment pipe are performed independently, any 6-3.3 Preparation for Leakage Test
testing requiring visual access to welds or joints of the
(a) Joints Exposed. All joints, welds (including struc-
internal pipe shall be conducted before the containment
tural attachment welds to pressure-containing compo-
pipe weld is performed.
nents), and bonds shall be left uninsulated and
(2) In simultaneous welded systems, i.e., systems
exposed for inspection and examination during leakage
where the joining of the carrier pipe and the joining of
testing, except where agreed to by the owner due to,
the containment pipe are done at the same time, the
but not limited to, the following:
requirement for visual access to joints of the carrier
(1) accessibility
pipe may be waived during carrier pipe testing.
(2) installation methods such as directional drilling
(b) The containment pipe should be leakage tested, by
or relining of existing piping
either hydrostatic or pneumatic methods, as specified by
(3) containment piping
the designer.
(4) direct burial of lines that require immediate
(1) For systems in which a dry annulus indicates the
cover
absence of leaks, hydrostatic testing may not be practical.
(b) Temporary Supports. Piping designed for vapor or
(2) The product manufacturer may be consulted for
gas shall be provided with additional temporary supports,
the suitability of and their specific test procedures for low-
if required, to support the weight of test liquid.
pressure pneumatic test.
(c) Piping With Expansion Joints. Piping systems with
(3) Precautions for pneumatic testing, including
expansion joints should be tested within the allowable
those for low pressures, outlined in para. 6-3.5(a) shall
pressure and temperature range to prevent damage.
apply.
(d) Limits of Tested Piping. Equipment that is not to be
6-3.2.5 Jacketed and Insulated Piping tested shall be either disconnected from the piping or
isolated by blinds or other means during the test. A
(a) The internal pipe shall be leakage tested on the valve may be used, provided the valve (including its
basis of the internal or external design pressure, which- closure mechanism) is suitable for the test pressure.
ever is critical. This test shall be performed before the
jacket or insulation is completed if visual access to 6-3.4 Hydrostatic Leakage Test
joints of the internal pipe is required by para. 6-3.3(a).
(b) The requirements in (a) are not intended to apply to (a) Test Fluid. The fluid shall be water unless there is
multilayered reinforced piping systems, dual contained the possibility of damage due to freezing or to adverse
piping systems, or casing pipes. Relined piping systems effects of water on the piping or the process. The selection
should be evaluated for the ability to withstand pressure of an alternative fluid shall be approved by the designer
testing capacity based on the liner’s structural capacity after review and consideration of chemical compatibility,
flammability, and toxicity.

43
ASME NM.1-2018

(b) Test Pressure. The hydrostatic test pressure in a (c) Test Pressure. The test pressure shall be not less
thermoplastic piping system shall not be less than 1.25 than 1.1 times nor more than 1.33 times the design pres-
times the design pressure at the highest elevation, sure, except where the designer allows for a variance due
except where paras. 6-3.2.1 and 6-3.2.2 apply. to service or safety concerns. When thermoplastic or
multilayered reinforced thermoplastic pipe systems
6-3.5 Pneumatic Leakage Test used for fuel gas service are tested, requirements of 49
CFR 192.513 shall apply.
(a) Precautions. The thermoplastic piping systems and
components covered by this Standard are intended
6-3.6 Initial Service Leakage Test
primarily for use in the distribution of pressurized
liquids. Pressurized (compressed) air or other Initial service leakage tests apply only to piping in Cat-
compressed gases contain large amounts of stored egory D fluid service, at the owner’s option. See
energy that would present serious safety hazards if a para. 6-3.1.2(b).
system were to fail for any reason. Liquids and gas (a) Test Fluid. The test fluid shall be the service fluid.
conveyed by thermoplastic piping systems shall be chem- (b) Procedure. During or prior to initial operation, the
ically compatible with the piping materials. Pressure relief pressure shall be gradually increased in steps, with the
devices and calibrated or redundant pressure measure- pressure held long enough at each step to equalize
ment (multiple gauges) shall be considered as part of piping strains, until the operating pressure is reached.
the testing protocol. Due to inherent hazards associated A preliminary check, including examination of joints
with testing components and systems with compressed per para. 6-2.3, shall be made at the midpoint, or as estab-
air or other compressed gases, some manufacturers do lished by the designer, in the pressurization process.
not allow pneumatic testing of their products. Established (c) Examination for Leakage. The examination for
written guidelines for specific testing procedures shall be leakage required by para. 6-3.2.2(a) shall be conducted
consulted prior to pneumatic testing (e.g., ASME PCC-2, while the system is at operating pressure. Examination
Part 5, Article 501). for leakage of joints and connections previously tested
(b) Test Medium. The gas used as test medium, if not air, in accordance with this Standard may be omitted.
shall be nonflammable and nontoxic, as approved by the
designer.

44
ASME NM.1-2018

Chapter 7
Use of Metallic Piping Lined With Thermoplastics

7-1 GENERAL (b) Recycled, Reprocessed, or Reground Resins. The ac-


ceptable use of qualified recycled, reprocessed, or
(a) This Chapter covers requirements for the design reground resins for liners depends on the resin, as
and use of piping systems comprising mechanically described in (1) through (3).
assembled metallic components, including a metallic pres- (1) Melt-processable resins containing nothing but
sure-containment host pipe and/or fittings, comple- the main identified polymer (neat resins) may be recycled
mented or conjoined with a corrosion- or abrasion- provided the mechanical and thermal properties are
resistant polymeric liner. maintained. Owners may disallow this at their discretion,
(b) These piping systems have special design and use and may also impose resin traceability or certification re-
requirements that are in addition to, or in some cases in quirements that effectively disallow this practice.
lieu of, the requirements in Chapters 1 through 6. These (2) Melt-processable resins containing fillers, stabi-
special requirements are detailed further in this Chapter. lizers, or pigments may be recycled at ratios of at least 6:1
(c) The requirements for pressure-bearing compo- virgin to regrind, provided the mechanical and thermal
nents found in paras. 7-4.2 and 7-4.4.1 through 7-4.4.8 properties are maintained. Owners may disallow this
and section 7-7 may be substituted with analogous re- at their discretion, and may also impose resin traceability
quirements found in any section of the ASME B31 Pressure or certification requirements that effectively disallow this
Piping Code. If another pressure piping code is used, all practice.
relevant requirements from that code shall apply. All other (3) Only virgin PTFE or virgin modified PTFE may be
requirements of this Chapter shall apply. used in making PTFE linings complying with this Standard.
(d) Columns, vessels, nonpressure piping, and other
lined components (dip pipes, spargers, expansion
7-4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
joints, valves, sight glasses, hoses, and complex shape
housings) are not addressed by this Chapter. 7-4.1 Qualifications of the Designer
7-2 STANDARDS (a) The designer is the person(s) in charge of the engi-
neering design of a piping system and shall be familiar
See Table 4-2.1-1 for a list of the standards and speci- with the requirements of this Standard.
fications that apply to both the metallic and plastic compo- (b) The qualifications and experience required of the
nents used to construct metallic piping lined with designer will depend on the complexity and criticality of
thermoplastics. the system and the nature of the individual’s experience.
(c) The designer should be licensed to practice engi-
7-3 MATERIALS neering by the local jurisdiction.
(a) Liner Polymers. The following materials are (d) If the designer is not licensed to practice engi-
accepted for use in thermoplastic-lined metallic piping: neering by the local jurisdiction, the owner’s approval
(1) polyethylene (PE) — PE 4710 shall be required, and the individual shall meet at least
(2) polypropylene (PP), both homopolymers and one of the following criteria:
copolymers (1) completion of an ABET-accredited or equivalent
(3) poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), both homopo- engineering degree requiring the equivalent of at least 4 yr
lymers and copolymers study, plus a minimum of 5 yr experience in the design of
(4) ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE) related pressure piping
(5) ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (E-CTFE) (2) completion of an accredited engineering techni-
(6) poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) cian or associate’s degree requiring the equivalent of at
(7) modified polytetrafluoroethylene (m-PTFE) least 2 yr study, plus a minimum of 10 yr experience in the
(8) perfluoroalkoxy alkane (PFA) design of related pressure piping
(9) perfluoro-ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) (3) 15 yr experience in the design of related pressure
piping (for an individual without a degree and who has no
ABET accreditation)

45
ASME NM.1-2018

(4) experience in the design of related pressure (b) The design temperature of each component in a
piping, which shall be satisfied by piping design experi- piping system shall be the temperature at which,
ence that includes design calculations for pressure, under the coincident pressure, the greatest thickness
sustained and occasional loads, and piping flexibility or highest component rating is required in accordance
with para. 7-4.2 (to satisfy the requirements of
7-4.2 Design Pressure para. 7-4.2, different components in the same piping
system may have different design temperatures).
(a) The design pressure requirements of para. 2-1.2.2
(c) In establishing design temperatures, the fluid
shall be applied in their entirety.
temperatures, ambient temperatures, solar radiation,
(b) The design pressure of each component in a piping
heating or cooling medium temperatures, and the appli-
system shall be not less than the pressure at the most
cable provisions of para. 7-4.3.2 shall be considered.
severe condition of coincident internal or external pres-
sure and temperature (minimum or maximum) expected 7-4.3.1 Uninsulated Components. The component
during service, except as provided in para. 7-4.4.4. The design temperature of uninsulated components shall
most severe condition is that which results in the greatest be taken as the fluid temperature, unless solar radiation,
required component thickness and the highest component heat tracing, or other effects result in a higher tempera-
rating. ture.
(c) When more than one set of pressure–temperature
conditions exist for a piping system, the conditions 7-4.3.2 Externally Insulated Piping
governing the rating of components conforming to (a) The component design temperature of externally
listed standards may differ from the conditions governing insulated piping shall be the fluid temperature unless
the rating of components designed in accordance with calculations, tests, or service experience based on
para. 7-4.4.6. measurements supports the use of another temperature.
(d) When a pipe is separated into individualized pres- (b) Where piping is heated or cooled by tracing or jack-
sure-containing chambers (jacketed piping, blanks, etc.), eting, this effect shall be considered in establishing
the partition wall shall be designed on the basis of the most component design temperatures.
severe coincident temperature (minimum or maximum)
and differential pressure between the adjoining cham- 7-4.4 Design Criteria
bers expected during service, except as provided in
para. 7-4.4.4. (a) The design criteria requirements of section 2-2
shall be applied in their entirety.
7-4.2.1 Required Pressure Containment or Relief (b) In selection of components and design of the piping
(a) Provision shall be made to safely contain or relieve system, the designer shall take into account the commer-
any expected pressure to which the piping can be cially available piping sizes.
subjected. Piping not protected by a pressure-relieving 7-4.4.1 Permissible Pressure–Temperature Design
device, or that can be isolated from a pressure-relieving Criteria
device, shall be designed for at least the highest pressure
that can be developed. (a) Standard Components Having Established Ratings
(b) Sources of pressure should include ambient influ- (1) Except as limited elsewhere in this Standard,
ences, pressure oscillations and surges, improper opera- pressure–temperature ratings contained in standards
tion, decomposition of unstable fluids, static head, and listed in Table 4-2.1-1 for standard piping components
failure of control devices. shall be acceptable for design pressures and temperatures
in accordance with this Standard.
7-4.2.2 Standard Flanged Connections (2) The provisions of this Standard may be used at
the owner’s responsibility to extend the pressure–
(a) For Class 150 and below, the flanged-joint flange
temperature ratings of a component beyond the
connections shall meet the pressure–temperature
ratings of the listed standard.
rating requirements of applicable standards, e.g., ASME
(b) Listed Components Not Having Specific Ratings.
B16.5.
Some of the standards for components listed in
(b) For Class 300 and above, the designer shall consult
Table 4-2.1-1 (e.g., ASME B16.9 and ASME B16.11)
the manufacturer.
state that pressure–temperature ratings are based on
7-4.3 Design Temperature straight seamless pipe. Except as limited in the standard,
such a component, made of a material having the same
(a) The design temperature requirements of para. allowable stress as the pipe, shall be rated using not
2-1.2.3 shall be applied in their entirety. more than 87.5% of the nominal thickness of seamless
pipe corresponding to the schedule, weight, or pressure

46
ASME NM.1-2018

class of the fitting, less all allowances applied to the pipe (c) Compression. Allowable stresses in compression
(e.g., thread depth and/or corrosion allowance). shall be no greater than the basic allowable stresses in
tension as tabulated in ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and
7-4.4.2 Nonstandard Components A-1M or Tables A-2 and A-2M. Consideration shall be
(a) Nonstandard components to which the require- given to structural stability.
ments elsewhere in para. 7-4.4 do not apply shall 7-4.4.4.2 Bases for Design Stresses. The bases for
satisfy the pressure design criteria of this Standard. establishing design stress values for bolting materials
(b) The designer shall ensure that the pressure design and allowable stress values for other metallic materials
has been substantiated through one or more of the means in this Standard shall be as follows:
stated in (1) through (4) below. (a) Bolting Materials. Design stress values at tempera-
NOTE: Designs are also required to be checked for adequacy of ture for bolting materials shall not exceed the lowest of the
mechanical strength as described in para. 7-4.4.5. following:
(1) extensive, successful service experience under (1) the lower of one-fourth of the specified minimum
comparable conditions with similarly proportioned tensile strength at room temperature, ST, and one-fourth
components of the same or like material. of the tensile strength at temperature
(2) experimental stress analysis, such as described in (2) the lower of two-thirds of the specified minimum
ASME BPVC, Section VIII, Division 2, Annex 5F. yield strength at room temperature, SY, and two-thirds of
(3) proof test in accordance with ASME B16.9; ASME the yield strength at temperature
BPVC, Section VIII, Division 1, UG-101; or MSS SP-97. (b) Other Materials. Basic allowable stress values at
(4) detailed stress analysis (e.g., finite element temperature for materials other than bolting materials
method) with results evaluated as described in ASME shall not exceed the lowest of the following:
BPVC, Section VIII, Division 2, Part 5. The basic allowable (1) the lower of one-third of ST and one-third of the
stress from ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M shall be tensile strength at temperature
used in place of the allowable stress, S, in ASME BPVC, (2) the lower of two-thirds of SY and two-thirds of the
Section VIII, Division 2, where applicable. yield strength at temperature
(c) Documentation showing compliance with this para-
7-4.4.4.3 Casting Quality Factor, Ec. The casting
graph shall be available for the owner’s approval.
quality factor, Ec, defined herein, shall be used for cast
(d) For any of these methods, the designer may inter-
components not having pressure–temperature ratings
polate between sizes, wall thicknesses, and pressure
established by standards.
classes, and may determine analogies among related
(a) Basic Quality Factors
materials.
(1) Castings for flanges and fittings and other piping
7-4.4.3 Allowances for Temperature Variations for components shall be assigned a basic casting quality
Plastic Liner. The designer shall take extra precautions factor, Ec, of 0.80.
to ensure that any design temperature peak excursions (2) Centrifugal castings that meet specification re-
are below the maximum permitted temperature of the quirements only for chemical analysis; tensile, hydro-
plastic for a specific chemical service. static, and flattening tests; and visual examination shall
be assigned a basic casting quality factor of 0.80.
7-4.4.4 Allowable Stresses and Other Stress Limits
NOTE: Basic casting quality factors are tabulated for listed speci-
7-4.4.4.1 General. The allowable stresses defined fications in ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M.
in (a) through (c) shall be used in design calculations (b) Increased Quality Factors. Casting quality factors
unless modified by other provisions of this Standard. may be increased when supplementary examinations
(a) Tension. Basic allowable stresses, S, in tension for are performed on each casting.
metals are listed in ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M. (1) Table 7-4.4.4.3-1 states the increased casting
Design stresses for bolting materials, S, are listed in quality factors, Ec, that may be used for various combina-
ASME B31.3, Tables A-2 and A-2M. These shall be deter- tions of supplementary examination.
mined in accordance with para. 7-4.4.4.2. In equations (2) Table 7-4.4.4.3-2 states the acceptance criteria
elsewhere in this Standard where the product SE for the examination methods specified in the notes to
appears, the value S shall be multiplied by one of the Table 7-4.4.4.3-1.
casting or weld joint quality factors found in ASME (3) Quality factors higher than those shown in
B31.3, para. 302.3. Table 7-4.4.4.3-1 shall not result from combining the
(b) Shear and Bearing. Allowable stresses in shear shall tests in Notes (2)(a) and (2)(b), or Notes (3)(a) and
be 0.80 times the basic allowable stress in tension tabu- (3)(b) in Table 7-4.4.4.3-1.
lated in ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and (4) In no case shall the quality factor exceed 1.00.
A-1M or Tables A-2 and A-2M. Allowable stress in bearing
shall be 1.60 times that value.

47
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 7-4.4.4.3-1 Increased Casting Quality Factor, Ec (c) Stresses Due to Sustained Loads, SL. The sum of the
Supplementary Examination
longitudinal stresses due to sustained loads, SL, such as
in Accordance With Note(s) Factor, Ec pressure and weight in any component in a piping
Note (1) 0.85 system, shall not exceed S h , where S h is taken from
ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M at the metal tempera-
Note (2)(a) or Note (2)(b) 0.85
ture of the operating condition being considered.
Note (3)(a) or Note (3)(b) 0.95
(d) Allowable Displacement Stress Range, S A . The
Note (1) and either Note (2)(a) or Note (2)(b) 0.90
computed displacement stress range, S E , in a piping
Note (1) and either Note (3)(a) or Note (3)(b) 1.00 system shall not exceed the allowable displacement
Note (2)(a) or Note (2)(b) and Note (3)(a) 1.00 stress range, SA, calculated by eq. (7-4-1):
or Note (3)(b)
SA = f (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) (7-4-1)
NOTES:
(1) Machine all surfaces to a finish of 6.3 μm Ra (250 μin. Ra in accor-
dance with ASME B46.1), thus increasing the effectiveness of When Sh is greater than SL, the difference between them
surface examination. may be added to the term 0.25Sh in eq. (7-4-1). In that
(2) Examinations case, the allowable stress range shall be calculated by
(a) Examine all surfaces of each casting (ferromagnetic material only) eq. (7-4-2):
by the magnetic particle method in accordance with ASTM E709. Judge
acceptability in accordance with MSS SP-53, Table 1, using reference SA = f [1.25(Sc + Sh) SL] (7-4-2)
photos in ASTM E125.
(b) Examine all surfaces of each casting by the liquid penetrant where
method, in accordance with ASTM E165. Judge acceptability of flaws
f = stress range factor
and weld repairs in accordance with MSS SP-53, Table 1, using reference
photographs in ASTM E125 for surface flaws. x = 6.0(N)−0.2≤ fm (see Figure 7-4.4.4.4-1)
(3) Additional Examinations NOTES:
(a) Fully examine each casting ultrasonically in accordance with (1) Stress range factor applies to essentially noncor-
ASTM E114, accepting a casting only if there is no evidence of depth
roded piping. Corrosion can sharply decrease cyclic
of defects in excess of 5% of wall thickness.
(b) Fully radiograph each casting in accordance with ASTM E94. Judge life; therefore, corrosion-resistant materials
in accordance with the stated acceptance levels in Table 7-4.4.4.3-2. should be considered if a large number of major
stress cycles is anticipated.
(2) The minimum value for f shall be 0.15, which
results in an allowable displacement stress
range, SA, for an infinitely large number of cycles.
fm = maximum value of stress range factor
Table 7-4.4.4.3-2 Acceptance Levels for Castings x = 1.2 for ferrous materials with specified minimum
tensile strengths ≤517 MPa (75 ksi) and at metal
Thickness of Steel Acceptance
Examined, T, Applicable Level (or Acceptable
temperatures ≤371°C (700°F); otherwise, fm = 1.0
mm (in.) Standard Class) Discontinuities N = equivalent number of full displacement cycles
≤25 (≤1) ASTM E446 1 Types A, B, and C during the expected service life of the piping
>25 and ≤51 ASTM E446 2 Types A, B, and C
system
(>1 and ≤2) NOTE: The designer is cautioned that the fatigue life of
>51 and ≤114 ASTM E186 2 Categories A, B, materials operated at elevated temperature can be
(>2 and ≤41∕2) and C reduced.
>114 and ≤305 ASTM E280 2 Categories A, B, Sc = basic allowable stress at minimum metal
(>41∕2 and ≤12) and C
temperature expected during the displacement
cycle under analysis
x = 138 MPa (20 ksi) maximum
7-4.4.4.4 Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to NOTE: For castings, the basic allowable stress shall be
Sustained Loads and Displacement Strains multiplied by the applicable casting factor, Ec. For lon-
(a) Internal Pressure Stresses. Stresses due to internal gitudinal welds, the basic allowable stress should not be
multiplied by the weld quality factor, Ej.
pressure shall be considered safe when the wall thickness
of the piping component, including any reinforcement, Sh = basic allowable stress at maximum metal
meets the requirements of para. 7-4.4.6. temperature expected during the displacement
(b) External Pressure Stresses. Stresses due to external cycle under analysis
pressure shall be considered safe when the wall thickness x = 138 MPa (20 ksi) maximum
of the piping component, and its means of stiffening, meet SL = stress due to sustained loads; in systems where
the requirements of para. 7-4.4.6. supports can be active in some conditions and
inactive in others, the maximum value of

48
ASME NM.1-2018

Figure 7-4.4.4.4-1 Stress Range Factor, f

1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
f

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
103 104 105 106 107 108 109
N (cycles)

Ferrous materials, specified minimum tensile strength #517 MPa (75 ksi),
and at design metal temperatures #3718C (7008F)
All other materials

sustained stress, considering all support condi- (1) Wind and earthquake forces may not be consid-
tions, shall be used ered as acting concurrently.
(2) For castings, the basic allowable stress shall be
When the computed stress range varies, whether from multiplied by the casting quality factor, Ec.
thermal expansion or other conditions, SE shall be defined (b) Test. Stresses due to test conditions shall not be
as the greatest computed displacement stress range. The subject to the limitations in para. 7-4.4.5. It is not neces-
value of N in such cases may be calculated by eq. (7-4-3): sary to consider other occasional loads, such as wind and
earthquake, as occurring concurrently with test loads.
N = NE + (ri5Ni) for i = 1, 2, … , n (7-4-3)
7-4.4.4.6 Allowances. In determining the
where minimum required thickness of a piping component,
NE = number of cycles of maximum computed dis- allowances shall be included for corrosion, erosion,
placement stress range, SE and thread depth or groove depth. See definition for c
Ni = number of cycles associated with displacement in para. 7-4.4.6.1.
stress range, Si
ri = Si/SE 7-4.4.5 Mechanical Strength
Si = any computed displacement stress range smaller (a) Designs shall be checked for adequacy of mechan-
than SE ical strength under applicable loadings.
(b) When necessary, the wall thickness shall be
increased to prevent overstress, damage, collapse, or
buckling due to superimposed loads from supports, ice
7-4.4.4.5 Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to Occa- formation, backfill, transportation, handling, or other
sional Loads loads enumerated in section 7-4.
(a) Operation. The sum of the longitudinal stresses, SL, (c) If increasing the thickness would excessively
due to sustained loads, such as pressure and weight, and of increase local stresses or the risk of brittle fracture, or
the stresses produced by occasional loads, such as wind or is otherwise impracticable, the impact of applied loads
earthquake, may be as much as 1.33 times the basic allow- may be mitigated through additional supports, braces,
able stress given in ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M.

49
ASME NM.1-2018

or other means without requiring an increased wall thick- d = I.D. of pipe. For pressure design calculation, the I.D.
ness. of the pipe shall be the maximum value allowable
(d) Particular consideration should be given to the under the purchase specification.
mechanical strength of small pipe connections to E = quality factor from ASME B31.3, Table A-1A or
piping or equipment. Table A-1B
P = internal design gauge pressure
7-4.4.6 Pressure Design of Metallic Host Components S = stress value for material from ASME B31.1, Table
(a) The metallic host pipe shall be designed to sustain A-1 or ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M
100% of the system design pressure, and the thermo-
plastic liner shall not be considered the pressure NOTE: Equations (7-4-5) and (7-4-6) differ from the thickness
boundary of the pipe. equations in Chapter 2.
(b) The overall limiting factor of the system shall be the
lesser of the host pipe or fitting and flange end connection 7-4.4.6.3 Pressure Design of All Other Piping
or the allowable pressure and temperature of the liner as Configurations. ASME B31.3, para. 303 shall be used
given by the manufacturer. for requirements for pressure design of all other
piping components.
7-4.4.6.1 Straight Pipe. The required thickness, tm,
of straight sections of pipe shall be determined in accor- 7-4.4.7 Piping Support and Flexibility Analysis. The
dance with eq. (7-4-4): designer should perform piping support and flexibility
tm = t + c (7-4-4) analysis as specified in appropriate metallic piping
codes and standards with the additional constraint
where that the flanged joint gasket’s initial seating and residual
c = sum of the mechanical allowances (thread or sealing stress shall be sustained under all normal oper-
groove depth) plus corrosion and erosion allow- ating and loading conditions.
ances. For threaded components, the nominal
7-4.4.8 Permissible Flange Loading
thread depth (dimension h of ASME B1.20.1, or
equivalent) shall apply. For machined surfaces (a) The flanges shall be uniformly loaded, as is prac-
or grooves where the tolerance is not specified, tical.
the tolerance shall be assumed to be 0.5 mm (0.02 (b) Beam-bending loads or lateral distortions imposing
in.) in addition to the specified depth of the cut. uneven pressure on opposite sides of the flange shall be
t = pressure design thickness as calculated in accor- minimized to below the compressive creep–stress limit of
dance with eqs. (7-4-5) and (7-4-6) the plastic sealing surface at the operating and peak excur-
tm = minimum required thickness, including mechan- sion temperatures.
ical, corrosion, and erosion allowances (c) For aboveground pipes and buried pipes with
flanged joints in subterranean vaults, corrosion-resistant
The minimum thickness, T, for the pipe selected, consid- conical Belleville spring washers, used between the metal
ering the manufacturer’s minus tolerance, shall be not less flange’s back face and the nuts on the bolt studs, may be
than tm. considered to enhance sealing by accommodating creep
NOTE: Equation (7-4-4) differs from the thickness equations in and sustaining and balancing uniform sealing force, even
Chapter 2. when subjected to unanticipated pipe-run distortions.
(d) The designer should consider the potential detri-
7-4.4.6.2 Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure. For mental metallurgical effects of process media on the Belle-
t < D/6, the internal pressure design thickness for straight ville springs.
pipe shall be not less than that calculated in accordance 7-4.4.9 Minimum Allowable Liner Thickness. The
with either eq. (7-4-5) or eq. (7-4-6): minimum liner wall thicknesses when metal piping
PD lined with thermoplastics is subjected to positive internal
t= (7-4-5)
2(SE + 0.4P) pressure (only) at ambient temperatures are listed for
common liner materials in ASTM F1545.
P(d + 2c) (a) Guidelines for determination of minimum liner wall
t= (7-4-6)
2(SE 0.6P) thickness when considering design variables such as
temperature, thermal expansion to avoid buckling of
where the liner-pipe and the terminal flange joint, hydrocarbon
D = O.D. of pipe as listed in tables of standards or speci- saturation/chemical saturation (if present), and differen-
fications or as measured tial pressure across the liner wall (to avoid buckling),
venting, and vacuum balancing should be obtained
from manufacturer recommendations.

50
ASME NM.1-2018

Table 7-4.4.10-1 Working Pressures for Metallic Flanges and Fittings Lined With Thermoplastics
Pressure Class and Flange Material
Class 150 Ductile Iron Class 150 Stainless Steel
Flanges Class 150 Forged Steel Type 304L/316L Class 300 Forged Steel
Temperature ASME B16.42 ASME B16.5 ASME B16.5 ASME B16.5
°F °C psig barg psig barg psig barg psig barg
−20 −29 250 17.2 285 19.7 230 15.9 485 33.4
0 −18 250 17.2 285 19.7 230 15.9 485 33.4
50 10 250 17.2 285 19.7 230 15.9 485 33.4
100 38 250 17.2 285 19.7 230 15.9 485 33.4
150 65 242 16.7 285 19.7 212 14.6 485 33.4

200 93 235 16.2 260 17.9 195 13.4 475 32.8


250 121 225 15.5 245 16.9 185 12.8 460 31.7
300 149 215 14.8 230 15.9 175 12.1 450 31.0
350 177 207 14.3 215 14.8 167 11.5 440 30.3
400 204 200 13.8 200 13.8 160 11.0 425 29.3
450 232 185 12.8 185 12.8 155 10.7 405 27.9
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) The maximum temperature limit may be reduced by the liner material’s operating range.
(b) Class 300 pressure–temperature ratings for PP, PVDF, ETFE, E-CTFE, PTFE, and PFA shall be reduced relative to unlined pipe.
(c) Metals lined with HDPE liners have the capability of full ASME pressure rating of the flange used, within their temperature limitations.
(d) Gray cast iron flanges per ASME B16.1 shall not be used.

(b) Guidelines for determination of minimum liner wall (b) Gases. The manufacturer should be consulted when
thickness when considering chemical service should be flows exceed 9.2 m/s (30 ft/sec).
obtained from the manufacturer or experiential data. (c) Multiphase flow can cause damage to the liner if not
appropriately understood. The designer should take extra
7-4.4.10 Pressure and Temperature Limits precaution when designing systems that allow such flows.
(a) The pressure and temperature limits are a function While multiphase flow is allowed, many of the design
of chemical exposure and shall be determined by the man- considerations may fall outside the scope of this Standard.
ufacturer of the plastic-lined piping or experiential data. (d) If abrasion resistance is a design requirement, the
(b) Where chemical service does not impact the pres- designer shall consider process parameters including, but
sure–temperature rating, pressure and temperature not limited to, the following:
limits may be obtained from Table 7-4.4.10-1. (1) liner material
(c) Paragraph 7-4.4.6 shall also apply. (2) liner thickness
(3) process fluid composition, temperature, and flow
7-4.4.11 Pressure Drop. The designer shall ensure the velocity
pressure drop and flow calculations are based on the (4) particle size, shape, and hardness
correct component I.D. These calculations can vary (5) fluid flow rate
between components even within a single piping size (6) other factors as determined by the designer
from a single manufacturer.
7-4.4.13 Electrostatic Charge Generation and
NOTES:
Grounding. Grounding and electrical continuity shall
(1) The I.D. of thermoplastic-lined metallic piping is less than
that for unlined metallic piping and is not standardized. be considered during the design of a system comprising
(2) Generally, there is no assumed degradation of the surface thermoplastic-lined metallic components.
roughness factor as a function of time. (a) The designer shall take into consideration that
piping highly nonconductive flammable liquids or
7-4.4.12 Permissible Flow Velocity. The designer where multiphase flow is possible can generate a
shall take into account the following fluid flow limits: charge buildup on the plastic liner of sufficient magnitude
(a) Liquids. Velocities below 3.7 m/s (12 ft/sec) should to penetrate through the liner by an electrostatic
not create any adverse effects. The designer should check discharge (ESD). The designer should consult the manu-
with the manufacturer if the flow velocity limits exceed the facturer for methods to minimize adverse effects of elec-
recommended limits. trostatic charge generation on the integrity of plastic
liners.

51
ASME NM.1-2018

(b) Where flammable fluids can be present, the (-b) closed system venting without monitoring
designer shall ensure that external electrical continuity (e.g., plugged)
is maintained between all flanged metallic piping compo- (-c) inline venting through the liner wall
nents and that this piping is properly grounded as static (5) no venting
sparking could cause ignition of flammable vapors.
(c) The owner shall develop and maintain a program to 7-4.4.16 Heat-Tracing Practices
test grounded systems on a scheduled basis to ensure the (a) Steam tracing should not be used for liners having a
grounding devices and flange continuity methods are still temperature rating less than 121°C (250°F).
active. (b) Heat tracing shall be designed using sound heat
7-4.4.14 Permeation Resistance of the Liners. The dispersion methods such that it does not create a hot
designer shall take into account the permeation resistance spot that could exceed the liner or host pipe allowable
of the liner in the selection and design of the system. The temperature, or a cold spot that could cause fluid freezing,
manufacturer should provide guidance or test data, if crystallization, or plugging.
available. 7-4.4.17 Insulation. Insulation of the host pipe shall be
NOTE: Important factors that affect the rate of permeation allowed, provided that pipe that is to be vented shall have
include, but are not limited to, the following: vent couplings and/or tubing that protrudes past the insu-
(a) process temperature lation to avoid permeant buildup and corrosion under
(b) media vapor pressure insulation (CUI) of the host pipe O.D. surface.
(c) media molecule size
(d) solubility coefficient 7-4.4.18 Flangeless or Reduced-Flange Piping
(e) polymer crystallinity
(a) Flangeless or reduced-flange piping may be manu-
(f) polymer molecular weight
(g) liner wall thickness factured by using extended pipe lengths, fusion welding
joints, or bent piping to eliminate flange connections.
(b) For metallic piping lined with PE, the designer shall
7-4.4.15 Permeant Venting
follow all guidelines from the manufacturer on the design
(a) Venting is the removal of permeated gases or and installation of a flangeless or reduced-flange plastic-
liquids that have migrated through the plastic liner. lined piping system.
The annular space between the liner and the host pipe (c) For metallic piping lined with PP, PVDF, or PTFE, the
acts as a pathway for the permeant molecules to a designer shall follow all guidelines from the manufacturer
vent location. Permeant fluids will migrate to the on the design and installation of a flangeless or reduced-
lower-pressure vent areas. flange plastic-lined piping system (see Mandatory
WARNINGS: Appendix I).
(1) When thermoplastic-lined metallic piping is equipped 7-4.4.19 Design Considerations for Metallic Piping
with a venting system
Lined With Loose-Fitting Thermoplastics. Loose-fitting
(a) the designer should take into consideration how
the permeant fluids could interact with personnel and the liners perform differently than tightly restrained liners.
environment and provide means of preventing harmful Loose-fitting liners tend to shrink and grow with
interactions thermal cycles, concentrating stresses at the bore-to-
(b) the owner/operator should take into considera- sealing-surface transition. They will also exhibit
tion how the permeant fluids could interact with metallic reduced vacuum resistance compared to tight liners of
structures and personnel the same thickness.
(2) Buildup of permeant species or corrosive by-products Loose-fitting thermoplastic liners should not be used in
can clog and disable the venting system. This can lead to piping systems with thermal cycling or vacuum.
deformation of the liner, causing it to collapse or reduc-
ing the effective vacuum resistance. 7-4.4.20 Designer Responsibility for Component
(b) The designer should consider various approaches Quality Assurance
to venting, including, but not limited to, the following: (a) The designer shall exercise due diligence in
(1) open venting via drilled holes in host housing ensuring that piping manufacturers supply components
(2) open venting via a pathway behind flared sealing that meet acceptable quality standards. This shall
surface fitted with ridged or formed interstitial collar include verification of a sound overall quality system,
(3) open venting via a pathway machined into the design control, qualification of new and revised compo-
flange nent designs and ongoing workmanship, and final inspec-
(4) custom venting designs for high-pressure HDPE tion requirements.
systems
(-a) closed system venting with monitoring

52
ASME NM.1-2018

(b) Manufacturers of thermoplastic-lined metallic 7-5.2.2 Preparation for Assembly


piping shall be able to provide evidence of compliance
(a) Any damage to the sealing surface that would
with ASTM F1545 qualification testing requirements
prevent sealing shall be repaired, or the piping component
and inspection requirements.
shall be replaced.
(c) Qualification testing records shall be available for
(b) Repair of the sealing surface shall be conducted in
every thermoplastic liner design in current use.
accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines.
(d) If the piping manufacturer procures a liner from a
subsupplier, each subsupplier’s liner shall require distinct 7-5.2.3 Bolting Torque
qualification testing.
(a) In assembling flanged joints, the sealing surface
7-4.4.21 Metal Welding shall be uniformly compressed to achieve the material
sealing stress at a given temperature.
(a) Welding shall not be permitted on metals lined with
(b) Bolting shall be installed with a calibrated torque
thermoplastics.
wrench and shall follow the manufacturer’s bolt torque
(b) Metal piping lined with thermoplastics shall not be
guidelines.
used as a ground for welding on other components. See
(c) Care shall be given to ensure the connection is not
para. 7-4.4.13.
overtorqued.
(c) Installation of grounding studs shall be permissible
(d) Special care shall be used in assembling flanged
using stud welding techniques.
joints in which the flanges or liners have differing mechan-
7-4.4.22 Category M Fluid Service. For thermoplastic- ical properties.
lined metallic piping to be used in Category M fluid service, (e) Tightening should be performed to a predeter-
the designer should follow the design rules in ASME B31.3, mined torque (see para. 7-5.4).
Chapter VIII.
7-5.2.3.1 Bolt Length. Bolts shall extend completely
through their nuts, with at least one thread exposed.
7-5 FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION
7-5.2.3.2 Bolt Material. Bolts should be made of
Fabrication and installation of thermoplastic-lined high-strength material as defined by ASME B16.5,
metallic piping components shall comply with the require- Table 1B, unless it has been verified that a sealed joint
ments of sections 5-1 through 5-4. In addition, the require- can be maintained under the rated working pressure
ments in paras. 7-5.1 through 7-5.10 shall apply. and temperature.
7-5.1 Assembler Qualifications 7-5.2.4 Gaskets. For the connection of two lined
systems, gaskets may be used at the owner’s request.
Assemblers shall be trained and certified to meet the
(a) No more than one gasket shall be used between
requirements of the owner.
contact faces in assembling a flanged joint.
7-5.2 Recommended Installation Practices (b) Use of gaskets can alter the bolt torque require-
ment. The guidelines of the manufacturers of both the
7-5.2.1 Standard Flanged Alignment gasket and the plastic-lined piping should be consulted,
(a) Piping Distortions. Piping shall not be distorted to and the torque recommendation for the softer material
bring it into alignment for joint assembly, which intro- should be used.
duces a detrimental strain in equipment or piping compo-
nents.
7-5.3 Flangeless or Reduced-Flanged Piping
(b) Flanged Joints. Unless otherwise specified in the (a) For installation of metallic piping lined with PE, PP,
engineering design, flanged joints shall be aligned as PVDF, or PTFE, the designer shall follow all of the manu-
follows: facturer’s guidelines.
(1) Before bolting, mating gasket contact surfaces (b) The installer shall follow all guidelines from the
shall be aligned to each other within 1 mm/200 mm manufacturers on the design of a flangeless or
(1∕16 in./ft), measured across any diameter. reduced-flange piping system. Refer to Mandatory Appen-
(2) The flanged joint shall be capable of being bolted dix I for liner FPS and welder qualifications.
such that the gasket contact surfaces bear uniformly on the (c) When repairing fusion-welded flangeless or
gasket. reduced-flange systems, the owner should consider the
(3) Flange bolt holes shall be aligned within 3 mm (1∕8 chemical exposure history of the piping and be aware
in.) maximum offset. that permeated species can be present in the liner,
NOTE: The gasket contact surfaces for flanged connections affecting weld joint quality.
without a gasket are considered to be the surface on the
liner face on the flange.

53
ASME NM.1-2018

7-5.4 Connections of Thermoplastic-Lined (b) Plastic liners may be pressure washed with nozzle-
Metallic Piping to Other Types of Piping tip pressures less than 13.79 MPa (2,000 psi). Preferred
flow should be forward or backward and not radially out
(a) Unlined Metallic Piping. A solid thermoplastic to the liner wall.
spacer or gasket shall be required where thermo-
NOTE: PP, PVDF, PFA, ETFE, E-CTFE, and PTFE plastic-lined pipe
plastic-lined metallic piping is connected to unlined
and fittings are not designed to be pigged.
metallic piping. Both a gasket and a spacer shall be
used if the mating surface is not visibly smooth.
(b) Solid Thermoplastic Piping. A solid thermoplastic 7-5.9 External Paint Systems
spacer or gasket may be used where thermoplastic- (a) Plastic-lined pipe and fitting lines may be externally
lined metallic piping is connected to solid thermoplastic painted before they enter service.
piping. (b) The applied paint shall meet the specification re-
(c) Unlined Thermoset Piping. Both a solid thermo- quirements of the process as defined by the owner.
plastic spacer and gasket shall be required where thermo- (c) External paint may be omitted for some materials,
plastic-lined metallic piping is connected to unlined depending on the material of construction and the envi-
thermoset piping. ronment.
(d) Other Piping. Both a solid thermoplastic spacer and (d) If the piping is to be repainted in the field and the
gasket shall be required where thermoplastic-lined surface requires mechanical abrasive cleaning, care
metallic piping is connected to types of piping other should be taken not to damage the plastic flare sealing
than those discussed in (a) through (c) , such as surfaces.
unlined metallic piping or glass-lined piping.
NOTE: For buried pipelines, host steel pipes are typically sand-
(e) Butterfly Valves. A taper bore spacer to enable blasted, primed, epoxy- or urethane-coated, or painted, followed
proper clearance for the butterfly wafer shall be required by overwrapping with adhesively bonded polyethylene tapes.
where thermoplastic-lined metallic piping is connected to
a butterfly valve. (e) The openings of vents for all coated and painted
pipes shall be kept open. See also para. 7-5.10.
7-5.5 Cold-Temperature Installation
7-5.10 Buried Piping
If thermoplastic-lined piping is to be installed at cold
temperatures [see para. 7-6(d)], procedures shall be 7-5.10.1 General Guidelines. Buried plastic-lined
developed with the manufacturer to prevent liner metallic pipe should be installed in accordance with
damage. This shall include heating pipe ends and one of the following:
flanges to no more than 21°C (70°F) to enable mating (a) Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipelines
of flanged ends. (2001), issued by American Society of Civil Engineers
(ASCE)/American Lifelines Alliance
NOTE: Some thermoplastics exhibit brittle characteristics at low
(b) ASCE MOP 119, Buried Flexible Steel Pipe: Design
ambient temperature conditions, and special handling and
installation procedures may be required.
and Structural Analysis

7-5.10.2 Pertinent Forces and Access


7-5.6 Field Fabrication Certification
(a) The installer of the coated and wrapped and cath-
Field fabricators shall be certified by the piping man- odically protected steel pipe shall take into consideration
ufacturer or the manufacturer’s designee. Certification all pertinent forces, including
older than 18 months shall require recertification. (1) internal pressure
(2) start-up, operating, and shutdown conditions
7-5.7 Bonder Qualification for Fusion Welding (3) vertical earth loads
Liners (4) live surface loads
See Mandatory Appendix I. (5) impact loads
(6) thermal strains
7-5.8 Cleaning Procedures (7) additive strains at bends, elbows, and tees
(8) seismic considerations
(a) All plastic-lined pipe and fitting lines shall be (b) Annular venting pipes, when used, shall be corro-
cleared of any debris or obstructions and cleaned sion proofed and shall rise to above the soil surface with a
before being placed into service. The cleaning procedure screened, valved, and U-bend outlet.
shall meet the requirements of the process as defined by (c) Plastic-lined and bolted flanged joints shall be
the owner and include any process-specific requirements buried in a lockable-access corrosion-resistant right-of-
on dryness or service incompatibilities with cleaning way (ROW) manhole or vault, so as to provide access
materials or procedures. to and inspection of the bolted joints.

54
ASME NM.1-2018

7-5.10.3 Field Liner Installation 7-7.1 Inspection


(a) The cable used to field install the liner by pulling it Inspection applies to functions performed for the owner
into the host pipeline, so as to avoid “cutting” the sidewall by the owner’s Inspector or the Inspector’s delegates.
of the host pipe at sags and overbends, directional turns References in this Standard to the “Inspector” are to
during pull-cable wire-rope insertion, and liner pull-back, the owner’s Inspector or the Inspector’s delegates.
shall be one of the following:
(1) para-aramid cable 7-7.1.1 Responsibility for Inspection. It is the owner’s
(2) polymer fiber cable responsibility, exercised through the owner’s Inspector, to
(3) smooth-O.D. die-sized wire rope verify that all required examinations and testing have
(4) jacketed wire rope been completed and to inspect the piping to the extent
(b) For field-installed pipe liner, premachined plastic necessary to be satisfied that it conforms to all applicable
flange adapter liner flanges shall be used. examination requirements of the Standard and of the engi-
neering design.
7-5.10.4 Butt-Fusion-Welded Liner Designs. Flange-
less lined piping where the liners are butt-fusion- 7-7.1.2 Rights of the Owner’s Inspector
welded and fitted with mechanical couplings may be (a) The owner’s Inspector and the Inspector’s dele-
buried without the accommodation for inspection gates shall have access to any place where work concerned
mentioned in para. 7-5.10.2(c). with the piping installation is being performed. This
includes manufacture, fabrication, heat treatment,
7-6 STORAGE AND HANDLING GUIDELINES assembly, erection, examination, and testing of the piping.
The requirements in (a) through (i) apply to appro- (b) The owner’s Inspector and the Inspector’s dele-
priate storage and handling methods for use on metals gates shall have the right to audit any examination, to
lined with thermoplastics. The installer shall take the inspect the piping using any examination method speci-
following into consideration: fied by the engineering design, and to review all certifica-
(a) Store piping indoors or under cover until ready for tions and records necessary to satisfy the owner’s
use. responsibility stated in para. 7-7.2.
(b) Never put the lifts of a forklift inside of the pipe to
7-7.1.3 Qualifications of the Owner’s Inspector
transport. This can damage the plastic liner.
(c) Do not drop piping or roll it off a flatbed as this can (a) The owner’s Inspector shall be designated by the
damage the liner. owner and shall be the owner, an employee of the owner,
(d) Avoid any mechanical or thermal shock to piping or an employee of an engineering or scientific organiza-
that is stored in cold temperatures, especially in climates tion or of a recognized insurance or inspection company
where the ambient temperature is below 0°C (32°F). acting as the owner’s agent. The owner’s Inspector shall
Avoid rough handling of plastic-lined pipe in tempera- not represent nor be an employee of the piping manufac-
tures below 5°C (40°F). Thermoplastics can become turer, fabricator, or erector unless the owner is also the
brittle in low temperatures and are more susceptible manufacturer, fabricator, or erector.
to cracking during rough handling. (b) The owner’s Inspector shall meet one of the
(e) Protective end caps on all pipe and fittings should be following requirements:
left in place until the pipe is ready to be installed. Protec- (1) have at least 10 yr experience in the design, fabri-
tive end caps are not designed for prolonged outdoor cation, or examination of industrial pressure piping. Each
exposure. 20% of satisfactorily completed work toward an accre-
(f) Do not damage the plastic sealing faces when dited engineering degree shall be considered equivalent
removing the end caps. to 1 yr experience, up to 5 yr total.
(g) If end caps are removed for painting, they shall be (2) have a professional engineering registration or
reinstalled with bolting as soon as possible. nationally recognized equivalent with at least 5 yr experi-
(h) Avoid storing plastic-lined piping products where ence in the design, fabrication, or examination of indus-
the liner will be exposed to ultraviolet light for long trial pressure piping.
periods of time. (3) be a certified welding inspector or a senior certi-
(i) Do not stand spools or fittings on the unprotected fied welding inspector as defined in AWS QC1 or a nation-
flange face. ally recognized equivalent with at least 5 yr experience in
the design, fabrication, or examination of industrial pres-
7-7 INSPECTION, EXAMINATION, AND TESTING sure piping.
(4) be an authorized piping inspector as defined in
This Standard distinguishes between examination and API 570, with at least 5 yr experience in the design, fabri-
inspection. cation, or examination of industrial pressure piping.

55
ASME NM.1-2018

(c) In delegating performance of inspection, the (1) When the defective item or work is repaired, the
owner’s Inspector shall be responsible for determining repaired portion of the item or work shall be examined.
that a person to whom an inspection function is delegated The examination shall use the same methods and accep-
is qualified to perform that function. tance criteria employed for the original examination.
NOTE: These requirements are different from those listed in (2) When the defective item or work is replaced, the
Chapter 6 and are exclusive to thermoplastic-lined metallic new item or work used to replace the defective item or
piping. work shall be examined. The examination shall use any
method and applicable acceptance criteria that meet
7-7.2 Examination the requirements for the original examination.

7-7.2.1 General. Examination applies to quality control 7-7.2.3.4 Progressive Sampling for Examination.
functions performed by the manufacturer (for compo- When required spot or random examination reveals a
nents only), fabricator, or erector. Reference in this Stan- defect, then the following steps shall be taken:
dard to an examiner is to a person who performs quality Step 1. Two additional samples of the same kind (if
control examinations. welded or bonded joints, by the same welder, bonder,
or operator) from the original designated lot shall be
7-7.2.2 Responsibility for Examination. Inspection given the same type of examination.
shall not relieve the manufacturer, the fabricator, or Step 2
the erector of the responsibility for (a) If the items examined as required by Step 1 are ac-
(a) providing materials, components, and workman- ceptable, the defective item shall be repaired or replaced
ship in accordance with the requirements of this Standard and reexamined as specified in para. 7-7.2.3.3 and all
and of the engineering design items represented by these two additional samples
(b) performing all required examinations shall be accepted.
(c) preparing suitable records of examinations and (b) If any of the items examined as required by Step 1
tests for the Inspector’s use reveals a defect, two further samples of the same kind shall
be examined for each defective item found by that
7-7.2.3 Examination Requirements sampling.
7-7.2.3.1 General Step 3. If all the items examined as required by Step 2(b)
are acceptable, the defective item(s) shall be repaired or
(a) Prior to initial operation, each piping installation,
replaced and reexamined as specified in para. 7-7.2.3.3
including components and workmanship, shall be exam-
and all items represented by the additional sampling
ined in accordance with the applicable requirements of
shall be accepted, but if any of the items examined as
para. 7-7.2.3.
required by Step 2(b) reveals a defect, all items represent-
(b) The type and extent of any additional examination
ed by the progressive sampling shall be either
required by the engineering design, and the acceptance
(a) repaired or replaced and reexamined as required,
criteria to be applied, shall be specified.
or
(c) Joints and vent openings not included in examina-
(b) fully examined and repaired or replaced as neces-
tions required by para. 7-7.2.3 or by the engineering
sary, and reexamined as necessary to meet the require-
design shall be accepted, if they pass the leakage test
ments of this Standard
required by para. 7-7.3.
Step 4. If any of the defective items are repaired or
7-7.2.3.2 Acceptance Criteria. Acceptance criteria replaced, reexamined, and a defect is again detected in
shall be as stated in the engineering design and shall the repaired or replaced item, continued progressive
at least meet the applicable requirements for bonds sampling in accordance with Steps 1, 2(b), and 4
stated in (a) through (c) and elsewhere in the Standard. should not be required based on the defects found in
(a) Metallic weld acceptance criteria shall be as stated the repair.
in ASME B31.3, Chapter VI. (a) The defective item(s) shall be repaired or
(b) Thermoplastic bond acceptance criteria shall be as replaced and reexamined until acceptance as specified
stated in Mandatory Appendix I. in para. 7-7.2.3.2.
(c) Casting acceptance criteria shall be as stated in (b) Spot or random examination (whichever is appli-
ASME B31.3, Chapter II. cable) shall then be performed on the remaining unexa-
mined joints and vent openings.
7-7.2.3.3 Defective Components and Workmanship
7-7.2.4 Extent of Required Examination
(a) Defects (i.e., imperfections of a type or magnitude
not acceptable by the criteria specified in para. 7-7.2.3.2) 7-7.2.4.1 Examination — Normal Fluid Service.
shall be repaired, or the defective item or work shall be Piping in normal fluid service shall be examined to the
replaced. extent specified herein or to any greater extent specified
(b) Examination shall be as follows:

56
ASME NM.1-2018

in the engineering design. Acceptance criteria shall be as 7-7.2.4.4 Examination to Resolve Uncertainty. Any
stated in para. 7-7.2.3.2 unless otherwise specified. method may be used to resolve doubtful indications.
(a) Visual Examination. At least the following shall be Acceptance criteria shall be those for the required exam-
examined in accordance with para. 7-7.2.7.3: ination.
(1) sufficient materials and components, selected at
random, to satisfy the examiner that they conform to 7-7.2.5 Examination Personnel
specifications and are free from defects. 7-7.2.5.1 Personnel Qualification and Certification.
(2) at least 5% of fabrication. For bonds, each type of Personnel performing nondestructive examination to the
bond made by each bonder and bonding operator shall be requirements of this Standard shall be qualified and certi-
represented. fied for the method to be used following a procedure as
(3) 100% of fabrication for bonds other than circum- described in ASME BPVC, Section V, Article 1, T-120(e) or
ferential, except those in standard components. T-120(f).
(4) random examination of the assembly of
threaded, bolted, and other joints to satisfy the examiner 7-7.2.5.2 In-Process Examination. For in-process
that they conform to the applicable requirements of examination, the examination shall be performed by per-
assembly and erection elsewhere in this Standard. sonnel other than those performing the production work.
When pneumatic testing is to be performed, all threaded,
7-7.2.6 Examination Procedures
bolted, and other mechanical joints, as well as vent open-
ings, shall be examined. (a) Any examination shall be performed in accordance
(5) random examination during erection of piping, with a written procedure that conforms to one of the
including checking of alignment, supports, and cold methods specified in para. 7-7.2.7.1.
spring. (b) Procedures shall be written as required in ASME
(6) erected piping for evidence of defects that would BPVC, Section V, Article 1, T-150.
require repair or replacement, and for other evident (c) The employer shall certify records of the examina-
deviations from the intent of the design. tion procedures used, showing dates and results of proce-
(b) Other Examination. Not less than 5% of all bonded dure qualifications, and shall maintain the records and
joints shall be examined by in-process examination in make them available to the Inspector.
accordance with para. 7-7.2.7.5; the joints to be examined
shall be selected to ensure that the work of each bonder 7-7.2.7 Types of Examination
and bonding operator making the production joints is 7-7.2.7.1 General
examined.
(c) Certifications and Records. The examiner shall be (a) Methods Specified in This Standard. Except as
assured, by examination of certifications, records, and provided in (b), any examination required by this Stan-
other evidence, that the materials and components are dard, by the engineering design, or by the Inspector
of the specified grades and that they have received shall be performed in accordance with one of the
required heat treatment, examination, and testing. The methods specified herein.
examiner shall provide the Inspector with a certification (b) Methods Not Specified in This Standard. If a method
that all the quality control requirements of this Standard not specified herein is to be used, it and its acceptance
and of the engineering design have been carried out. criteria shall be specified in the engineering design in
enough detail to permit qualification of the necessary
7-7.2.4.2 Examination — Category D Fluid Service. procedures and examiners.
Piping and piping elements for Category D fluid service as
designated in the engineering design shall be visually 7-7.2.7.2 Visual Examination
examined to the extent necessary to satisfy the examiner (a) Visual examination of thermoplastic-lined metallic
that components, materials, and workmanship conform to piping includes verification of standard and engineering
the requirements of this Standard and the engineering design requirements for materials; components; dimen-
design. sions; joint preparation; alignment; welding, bonding,
7-7.2.4.3 Supplementary Examination brazing, bolting, threading, or other joining method;
supports; assembly; and erection.
(a) Any applicable method of examination described in (b) Visual examination shall be performed in accor-
para. 7-7.2.7 may be specified by the engineering design to dance with ASME BPVC, Section V, Article 9.
supplement the examination required by para. 7-7.2.4. (c) Records of individual visual examinations shall not
(b) The extent of the supplementary examination be required, except for those of in-process examination as
and any acceptance criteria that differ from those specified in para. 7-7.2.7.5.
in para. 7-7.2.3.2 shall be specified in the engineering
design.

57
ASME NM.1-2018

7-7.2.7.3 Radiographic Examination. Radiographic 7-7.3.2.1 Limitations on Pressure


examination may be used in accordance with ASME
(a) Test Fluid Expansion. If a pressure test is to be main-
B31.3, para. 344.5.
tained for a period of time and the test fluid in the system is
7-7.2.7.4 Ultrasonic Examination. Ultrasonic exam- subject to thermal expansion, precautions shall be taken to
ination may be used in accordance with ASME B31.3, para. avoid excessive pressure.
344.6. (b) Preliminary Pneumatic Test. A preliminary test
using air at no more than 170 kPa (25 psig) pressure
7-7.2.7.5 In-Process Examination may be done prior to hydrostatic testing to locate
(a) In-process examination comprises examination of major leakage.
the following, as applicable:
7-7.3.2.2 Other Test Requirements
(1) joint preparation and cleanliness
(2) preheating (a) Examination for Leakage. The leakage test pressure
(3) fit-up, joint clearance, and internal alignment shall be maintained for at least 10 min, and then all joints,
prior to joining vent openings, and connections shall be examined for
(4) variables specified by the joining procedure, leakage. The test pressure may be reduced to not less
including filler material and the following: than the design pressure during this examination.
(-a) for welding — position and electrode (b) The possibility of brittle fracture shall be consid-
(-b) for brazing — position, flux, brazing tempera- ered when leakage tests are conducted on brittle materials
ture, proper wetting, and capillary action or at low temperature.
(-c) for fusion bonding thermoplastics — bonding (c) Liners that are not fully seated against the metallic
time, temperature, pressure, and filler material housing can exhibit volume growth during pressurization,
(5) for welding thus, pressure decay might not indicate leakage.
(-a) condition of the root pass after cleaning — (1) Liner growth can result in pressure decay in
external and, where accessible, internal examination, systems where the pressure source is valved off.
aided by liquid-penetrant or magnetic-particle examina- (2) Higher than required test pressures (within the
tion when specified in the engineering design maximum allowable rating for the system) have been
(-b) slag removal and weld condition between shown to accelerate liner seating and reduce pressure
passes decay.
(6) appearance of the finished joint (3) The examiner should confirm leakage with
(b) In-process examination shall be visual, in accor- visible indications at flanges or vent openings.
dance with para. 7-7.2.4, unless additional methods are (d) Short-duration liquid drips from vent openings can
specified in the engineering design. be caused by aspirated moisture trapped between the
liner and housing. This can also occur with sensitive or
7-7.3 Testing pneumatic leakage testing.
7-7.3.1 Required Leakage Test (e) For sensitive or pneumatic testing, if the vent
opening is soaped, then a steady stream of bubbles can
(a) Prior to initial operation, each piping system shall indicate a liner defect. Short-duration or diminishing
be tested to ensure tightness. The test shall be a hydro- bubbling can indicate liner seating.
static leakage test in accordance with para. 7-7.3.4, except
as provided herein. 7-7.3.2.3 Special Provisions for Testing
(b) At the owner’s option, a piping system in Category D
(a) Piping Components and Subassemblies. Piping
fluid service may be subjected to an initial service leakage
components and subassemblies may be tested either sepa-
test in accordance with para. 7-7.3.8, in lieu of the hydro-
rately or as assembled piping.
static leakage test.
(b) Flanged Joints. Flanged joints used to connect
(c) If the owner considers a hydrostatic leakage test
piping components and subassemblies that have
impracticable, either a pneumatic test in accordance
previously been tested, and flanged joints at which a
with para. 7-7.3.6 or a combined hydrostatic–pneumatic
blank or blind is used to isolate equipment or other
test in accordance with para. 7-7.3.7 may be substituted.
piping during a test, are not required to be leakage
NOTE: There can be a substantial hazard of stored energy in tested in accordance with para. 7-7.3.1.
compressed gas. ASME PCC-2, Part 5, Article 501 provides exten- (c) Closure Welds. The final weld connecting piping
sive requirements for safely performing compressed-gas testing. systems or components that have been successfully
tested in accordance with para. 7-7.3 are not required
7-7.3.2 General Requirements for Leakage Test. Re-
to be leak tested provided the weld is examined in-
quirements in paras. 7-7.3.2.1 through 7-7.3.2.7 apply to
process in accordance with para. 7-7.2.7.5 and passes
all the types of leakage tests described in this Chapter.
with 100% radiographic examination in accordance

58
ASME NM.1-2018

with para. 7-7.2.7.3 or 100% ultrasonic examination in (2) All weld joints may be primed and painted prior
accordance with para. 7-7.2.7.4. to leakage testing unless a sensitive leak test is required.
(b) Temporary Supports. Piping designed for vapor or
7-7.3.2.4 Externally Pressured Piping. Piping
gas shall be provided with additional temporary supports,
subject to external pressure shall be tested at an internal
if necessary, to support the weight of test liquid.
gauge pressure 1.5 times the external differential pres-
(c) Limits of Tested Piping. Equipment that is not to be
sure, but not less than 105 kPa (15 psi).
tested shall be either disconnected from the piping or
7-7.3.2.5 Jacketed Piping isolated by blinds or other means during the test. A
valve may be used provided the valve (including its
(a) The internal line shall be leakage tested on the basis closure mechanism) is suitable for the test pressure.
of the internal or external design pressure, whichever is
critical. This test shall be performed before the jacket is 7-7.3.4 Hydrostatic Leakage Test
completed, to provide visual access to joints of the internal
(a) Test Fluid
line.
(1) The fluid shall be water unless there is the possi-
(b) The jacket shall be leakage tested in accordance
bility of damage due to freezing or to adverse effects of
with para. 7-7.3.1 on the basis of the jacket design pressure
water on the piping or the process. In that case, another
unless otherwise specified in the engineering design.
suitable nontoxic liquid may be used.
7-7.3.2.6 Repairs or Additions After Leakage (2) If the liquid is flammable, its flash point shall be at
Testing. If repairs or additions are made following the least 49°C (120°F), and consideration shall be given to the
leakage test, the affected piping shall be retested, test environment.
except that for minor repairs or additions, the owner (b) Test Pressure
may waive retest requirements when precautionary (1) Except as provided in para. 7-7.3.5, the hydro-
measures are taken to ensure sound construction. static test pressure at every point in a metallic piping
system shall be not less than 1.5 times the design pressure.
7-7.3.2.7 Test Records (2) When the design temperature is greater than the
(a) Test Data. Records shall be made during the testing test temperature, the minimum test pressure, at the point
of each piping system, and shall include the following under consideration, shall be calculated using eq. (7-7-1):
information: PT = 1.5 PST / S (7-7-1)
(1) date of test
(2) identification of piping system tested where
(3) test fluid P = internal design gauge pressure
(4) test pressure PT = minimum test gauge pressure
(5) certification of results by examiner S = allowable stress at component design tempera-
These test records are not required to be retained after ture for the prevalent pipe material; see ASME
completion of the test, if a certification by the Inspector B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M
that the piping has satisfactorily passed pressure testing ST = allowable stress at test temperature for the
as required by this Standard is retained. prevalent pipe material; see ASME B31.3,
(b) Responsibility for Records. It shall be the responsi- Tables A-1 and A-1M
bility of the piping designer, the manufacturer, the fabri-
cator, and the erector, as applicable, to prepare the records (3) In those cases where the piping system does not
required by this Standard and by the engineering design. include pipe itself, any other component in the piping
(c) Retention of Records. Unless otherwise specified by system, other than pipe-supporting elements and
the engineering design, the following records shall be bolting, may be used to determine the ST/S ratio based
retained for at least 5 yr after the record is generated on the applicable allowable stresses obtained from
for the project: ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M. In those cases
(1) examination procedures where the piping system is made up of equivalent
(2) examination personnel qualifications lengths of more than one material, the ST/S ratio shall
be based on the minimum calculated ratio of the included
7-7.3.3 Preparation for Leakage Test materials.
(a) Joints Exposed (4) If the test pressure as defined in eq. (7-7-1)
(1) All joints, welds, vent openings, and bonds shall would produce a circumferential pressure or longitudinal
be left uninsulated and exposed for examination during stress (based on minimum pipe wall thickness) in excess
leakage testing, except that joints previously tested in of the yield strength at test temperature or a pressure
accordance with this Standard may be insulated or more than 1.5 times the component rating at test tempera-
covered. ture, the test pressure may be reduced to the maximum
pressure that will not exceed the lesser of the yield

59
ASME NM.1-2018

strength or 1.5 times the component ratings at test (2) Thereafter, the pressure shall be gradually
temperature. increased in steps, with the pressure held long enough
at each step to equalize piping strains, until the test pres-
7-7.3.5 Hydrostatic Test of Piping With Vessels as a sure is reached.
System (3) The pressure shall then be reduced to the design
(a) Where the test pressure of piping attached to a pressure before examining for leakage in accordance with
vessel is the same as or less than the test pressure for para. 7-7.3.2.2.
the vessel, the piping may be tested with the vessel at 7-7.3.7 Hydrostatic–Pneumatic Leakage Test. If a
the piping test pressure. combined hydrostatic–pneumatic leakage test is used,
(b) Where the test pressure of the piping exceeds the then the requirements of para. 7-7.3.6 shall be met,
vessel test pressure, and it is not considered practicable to and the pressure in the liquid-filled part of the piping
isolate the piping from the vessel, the piping and the vessel shall not exceed the values calculated in accordance
may be tested together at the vessel test pressure, with para. 7-7.3.4(b).
provided the owner approves and the vessel test pressure
is not less than 77% of the piping test pressure calculated 7-7.3.8 Initial Service Leakage Test. Initial service
in accordance with para. 7-7.3.4(b)(2). leakage tests shall be applicable only to piping in Category
D fluid service, at the owner’s option. See para. 7-7.3.1(a).
7-7.3.6 Pneumatic Leakage Test (a) Test Fluid. The test fluid shall be the service fluid.
(b) Procedure. During or prior to initial operation, the
(a) Precautions. Pneumatic testing involves the hazard
pressure shall be gradually increased in steps, with the
of released energy stored in compressed gas. Particular
pressure held long enough at each step to equalize
care shall be taken to minimize the chance of brittle
piping strains, until the operating pressure is reached.
failure during a pneumatic leakage test. Test temperature
A preliminary check shall be made as described in
shall be considered when the designer chooses the mate-
para. 7-7.3.6 if the service fluid is a gas or vapor.
rial of construction. See para. 7-7.3.2.2(b).
(c) Examination for Leakage. The examination for
(1) Pressure Relief Device. A pressure relief device
leakage required by para. 7-7.3.2.2(a) shall be conducted
shall be provided, having a set pressure not higher
while the system is at operating pressure. Examination for
than the test pressure plus the lesser of 345 kPa (50
leakage of joints, vent openings, and connections may be
psi) or 10% of the test pressure.
omitted if previously tested in accordance with this Stan-
(2) Test Fluid. The gas used as test fluid, if not air,
dard.
shall be nonflammable and nontoxic.
(3) Test Pressure. The test pressure shall be not less 7-7.3.9 Sensitive Leakage Test
than 1.1 times the design pressure and shall not exceed the
lesser of (a) The sensitive leakage test shall be the Bubble Test
(-a) 1.33 times the design pressure — Direct Pressure Technique in accordance with ASME
(-b) the pressure that would produce a circumfer- BPVC, Section V, Article 10, Appendix I or another
ential pressure or longitudinal stress (based on minimum leakage test method that has a demonstrated sensitivity
pipe wall thickness) in excess of 90% of the yield strength not less than 10−3 std mL/s under test conditions.
of any component at the test temperature (b) When the Bubble Test — Direct Pressure Technique
(b) Procedure is used
(1) The pressure shall be gradually increased until a (1) the test pressure shall be at least the lesser of 105
gauge pressure that is the lesser of one half the test kPa (15 psi) gauge or 25% of the design pressure.
pressure or 170 kPa (25 psi) is attained, at which time (2) the pressure shall be gradually increased until a
a preliminary check shall be made, including examina- gauge pressure equal to the lesser of one-half the test pres-
tion of joints and vent openings, in accordance with sure or 170 kPa (25 psi). Then the pressure shall be gradu-
para. 7-7.2.7.2. ally increased in steps, with the pressure held long enough
at each step to equalize piping strains, until the test pres-
sure is reached.

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ASME NM.1-2018

Chapter 8
Multilayered Reinforced Thermoplastic Piping Systems

8-1 SCOPE MRTPS manufacturer’s confirmation of suitability of


the MRTPS for the intended service.
This Chapter pertains to multilayered reinforced ther-
moplastic piping system(s) (MRTPS) that are composed of 8-3.2 Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure
pipes with a thermoplastic liner and a distinct reinforcing
layer. The reinforcing layer can be made of materials such The maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of
as dry glass fiber, impregnated glass fiber, carbon fiber, the piping system shall comply with both the static pres-
aramid fibers, steel strips, steel cords, and aluminum. sure considerations (see para. 8-3.2.1) and the cyclic pres-
MRTPS can be supplied as either stick or spooled pipe. sure considerations (see para. 8-3.2.2).
This Chapter 8-3.2.1 Static Pressure Considerations
(a) discusses design, materials, fabrication, erection,
examination, inspection, and testing of MRTPS. Refer to (a) The MAOP of the piping system shall comply with
Nonmandatory Appendix D for operation, maintenance, eq. (8-3-1):
and repair aspects. MAOP NPR (8-3-1)
(b) concerns the parts of the piping system between the
end connections (i.e., pipe, prime connections, fittings, where
flanges, and supports). Hangers are excluded as they MAOP = maximum allowable operating pressure, kPa
are typically not used with MRTPS. Valves are excluded (psig)
as standard valves used for other piping systems are also NPR = nominal pressure rating of the MRTPS, kPa
used for MRTPS. (psig)
(c) adopts a performance-based approach and does not
prescribe specific materials, constructions, or dimensions. (b) For both metallic-reinforced MRTPS and nonme-
tallic-reinforced MRTPS, the NPR shall be as defined
8-2 APPLICABILITY and established by API 15S.
(c) For nonmetallic-reinforced MRTPS, the NPR shall
(a) This Chapter covers the use of MRTPS in oil and gas be determined at the maximum qualified temperature
applications such as single-phase or multiphase, sweet or and qualified life.
sour service for oil gathering, oil transmission, natural-gas (d) The static pressure shall be determined using pipe
gathering, natural-gas transmission, natural-gas distribu- samples that include the standard field connectors.
tion, water transfer, water injection, water disposal, and
carbon dioxide (CO2) injection. 8-3.2.2 Cyclic Pressure Considerations
(b) Use of MRTPS in high-vapor-pressure applications (a) The ability of an MRTPS to resist the pressure fluc-
is permitted in cases where the design engineer considers tuations anticipated during service shall be verified.
the application acceptable from a risk/safety perspective.
(c) Other MRTPS applications outside the oil and gas NOTE: Pressure fluctuations are generally the result of opera-
tional changes in the pipeline system, such as pump start/stop
industry are acceptable, provided the requirements of this
and valve opening and closure.
Standard are met.
(d) MRTPS may be buried, laid on surface, or used in (b) A service factor of no greater than 0.1 shall be
relining applications. applied to the number of cycles from the lower confidence
limit (LCL) of the cyclic regression analysis per API 15S,
8-3 DESIGN Annex G to determine the allowable number of cycles for
the specific application.
8-3.1 Project Application Information (c) The cyclic testing shall be done on pipe samples that
include the standard field connectors.
The engineer responsible for the design of the piping
system shall provide the parameters shown in API 15S,
Annex B, Project Application Information, for the

61
ASME NM.1-2018

8-3.3 Minimum Allowable Operating Pressure 8-3.8 Minimum Allowable Operating Temperature
(a) The minimum allowable operating pressure of the (a) In establishing the minimum allowable operating
piping system shall be equal to or higher than the temperature of the piping system, the designer shall
minimum qualified pressure of the MRTPS (see consider the fluid temperature, ambient temperature,
para. 8-3.4). and any other factors that can affect the temperature
(b) The design engineer shall have measures in place to of the piping system.
limit the exposure of the piping system to the minimum (b) The minimum allowable operating temperature of
allowable operating pressure to no more than 1 week per the piping system shall be equal to or higher than the
occurrence. minimum qualified temperature of the MRTPS (see
para. 8-3.9).
8-3.4 Minimum Qualified Pressure
8-3.9 Minimum Qualified Temperature
(a) The minimum qualified pressure of the MRTPS shall
be equal to the atmospheric pressure. The minimum qualified temperature of the MRTPS shall
(b) Alternatively, for applications with pressure lower be equal to the lowest temperature used in the qualifica-
than atmospheric pressure, the minimum qualified pres- tion testing of the MRTPS in accordance with API 15S.
sure shall be equal to or higher than the minimum pres-
sure the MRTPS have been proven to resist by qualification 8-3.10 Temperature Fluctuations
testing. (a) Temperature fluctuations, including their magni-
(c) Successful testing shall consist of a hold test under tude and frequency, shall be considered during the
vacuum for 1 week at the maximum qualified temperature design of the piping system.
without damage to the MRTPS or pressure increase in the (b) Temperature variations outside the range of the
test specimen. minimum allowable operating temperature and the
(d) The testing shall be performed on the MRTPS size MAOT shall be proven by qualification testing not to
and class combination that is most susceptible to the adversely affect the performance of the MRTPS.
vacuum effects.
8-3.11 Design Life and Qualified Life
8-3.5 Surge Pressure
The design life of the piping system shall be equal to or
The potential for pressure surge resulting from water less than the qualified life of the MRTPS proven during
hammer shall be assessed by the piping system designer, qualification testing.
and a protection system shall be implemented such that
the highest pressure during a surge event shall not exceed 8-3.12 Fittings and Joints
the piping system MAOP plus 10%.
(a) The jointing system to be used as part of the MRTPS
8-3.6 Maximum Allowable Operating shall have been proven by performance testing and quali-
Temperature fication, as per API 15S, to be equal or superior in perfor-
mance to the pipe being joined.
(a) In establishing the maximum allowable operating (b) Metallic fittings for use in constructing the MRTPS
temperature (MAOT) of the piping system, the designer shall be designed according to ASME B31.3, or equivalent
shall consider the fluid temperature, ambient tempera- ASME standard, for the requested MAOP.
ture, solar radiation, and any other factors that can (c) Where metallic components are used, coating and/
affect the temperature of the piping system. or cathodic protection systems shall be designed and
(b) The MAOT of the piping system shall be equal to or installed that, when properly maintained, will protect
less than the maximum qualified temperature of the the fitting through the life of the piping system.
MRTPS (see para. 8-3.7).
8-3.13 System Supports
8-3.7 Maximum Qualified Temperature
(a) The MRTPS shall be adequately supported such that
The maximum qualified temperature of the MRTPS shall it will not be subjected to any external mechanical loading
be the lower of the highest temperature at which the from the adjacent piping components.
nominal pressure rating of the MRTPS has been estab- (b) The MRTPS shall also be protected from the effects
lished in accordance with API 15S and the highest of any soil settlement or differential settlement.
temperature at which the minimum qualified pressure
of the MRTPS has been established in accordance with
this Chapter.

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ASME NM.1-2018

8-3.14 Minimum Operating Bend Radius 8-4 FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND ERECTION
The minimum operating bend radius (MOBR) used 8-4.1 Fabrication
when the MRTPS is pressurized shall be equal to or
larger than the MOBR established during the qualification The manufacturer of MRTPS components shall operate
testing of the MRTPS, as per API 15S. a quality management system as required by API 15S.

8-3.15 Fluid Composition 8-4.2 Assembly and Erection


The composition of the transported fluid shall be The assembly and erection, including handling and
assessed to ensure compatibility with the MRTPS pipe, installation, shall follow the MRTPS manufacturer’s rec-
joints, and fittings. The assessment shall consider, at ommendations, in addition to the requirements of this
minimum, gas content; pH; levels of hydrogen sulfide Standard.
and carbon dioxide; presence of aromatics, solids, and 8-4.2.1 Joining. The assembly and erection contractor
injected chemicals; and any other service or fluid shall perform the joining of MRTPS in accordance with a
factor that could adversely affect the performance of written joining procedure, based on recommendations
the MRTPS. from the MRTPS manufacturer.
8-3.16 Sour Service 8-4.2.2 Personnel. The personnel responsible for the
fabrication, assembly, and erection of MRTPS shall be
Metallic components used to construct MRTPS subject
trained, assessed, and qualified by the MRTPS manufac-
to sour service shall be compliant with NACE MR0175.
turer.
8-3.17 Additional Design Considerations 8-4.2.2.1 Training. The training program required in
The designer of the piping system shall, as a minimum, para. 8-4.2.2 shall include both a theoretical and a practical
also consider the following: section.
(a) weather effects, ultraviolet degradation, anchoring (a) The theoretical section shall cover receiving,
stresses, potential corrosion mechanisms, protection unloading, handling, storing, laying, joining, backfilling,
from external damage or fire, and any other mechanism and tying in pipe and fittings.
that can cause adverse effects on the performance of (b) The practical section shall cover the details of
MRTPS. joining pipe and fittings and the operation of the installa-
(b) external loading and dynamic forces exerted by tion equipment, if any.
anticipated traffic and environmentally induced loads. 8-4.2.2.2 Assessment. The assessment of personnel
These can require additional burial depths or installation shall include both a written test and the fabrication of an
within a casing. MRTPS test joint. The joint shall be assessed by the trainer
(c) expansion or contraction associated with pressure and deemed acceptable.
or temperature fluctuations. The MRTPS manufacturer
shall provide the designer with expansion coefficients 8-4.2.2.3 Qualification
to adequately compensate for the effects based on the (a) Upon successful completion of the training and
intended installation environment. assessment, each individual shall be issued a training
(d) for surface installations, requirements for certificate or pocket card by the MRTPS manufacturer.
restraining the pipe to prevent movement that can The certificate/pocket card shall
lead to damage. Support designs shall minimize localized (1) be printed on a form containing the logo of the
stresses. MRTPS manufacturer
(e) dimensional compatibility, corrosion control re- (2) have an issue date, an expiry date, and a unique
quirements, and the need for spacing centralizers for identification number
fittings that can reside within a host pipe as part of a (3) include the name and photograph of the indivi-
relining project. dual being certified
(f) for submerged applications, the effects of water (4) include a description of the scope of the training
external pressure, tide movements, waves, wind, and and the identification of the product series and product
other loadings, where applicable. range covered by the training
(g) installation methods. The designer shall indicate (5) be signed by an official of the MRTPS manufac-
limits on installation loading related to axial, external turer and by the individual being certified
pressure and bending capacities of the MRTPS, or combi- (b) All training certificates/pocket cards shall be valid
nations thereof. See para. 8-4.3 for additional installation for 1 yr from the training date, unless the MRTPS man-
considerations. ufacturer operates a process to continuously evaluate the
individual’s performance. The certification shall expire 1

63
ASME NM.1-2018

yr from the training date, or when continuous evaluation 8-4.3.1.3 Horizontal Directional Drilling
ceases, whichever occurs last.
(a) The maximum allowable axial pull load published
NOTES: by the MRTPS manufacturer shall not be exceeded when
(1) Due to the unique design of MRTPS fittings, the MRTPS man- horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is used for the piping
ufacturer shall be the sole entity that provides installer certi-
system installation.
fication, monitoring of installer performance, or both.
(2) The installer’s continuous evaluation shall be based on the
(b) Appropriate pulling heads and tension force
MRTPS manufacturer requirements. gauges/dynamometers shall be installed and monitored
during the pipe-pulling activities.
8-4.3 Installation (c) A visual inspection of the pipe after the pulling is
complete shall be performed to ensure the fitness for
MRTPS included in the scope of this Chapter may be service of the piping system.
buried, laid on surface, or used in relining/rehabilitation (d) Any damages resulting from the installation shall be
applications. within the acceptance criteria defined by the piping
8-4.3.1 Buried Installations. MRTPS may be buried by system designer or MRTPS manufacturer.
conventional “trench and backfill” methods using conven- (e) A sufficient amount of pipe shall be pulled past the
tional trenching equipment, by directional drilling, or by bore exit hole to allow for a 360-deg visual evaluation of
“plowing-in” with specialized trenching plows. the pipe, and to allow for pipe relaxation.
(f) If the examination reveals damages that exceed
8-4.3.1.1 Installation Specification. The design engi- defined acceptance criteria, further examination shall
neer shall develop an installation specification that be executed to ascertain the acceptability of the installed
provides requirements for factors such as, but not pipe.
limited to, the following: (g) If it cannot be satisfactorily determined that the
(a) pipe system routing, taking into consideration the installed pipe is acceptable, the pipe shall be replaced
MOBR of the product or a new HDD bore performed.
(b) the transition from aboveground piping to under-
ground piping 8-4.3.2 Surface Installations
(c) the use of tracer wire, warning tape, or both in
(a) Surface installation shall be performed according to
buried applications, in accordance with the manufac-
the installation specification.
turer’s recommendations
(b) The recommendations for support types and spans
(d) installation of a cathodic protection system, where
shall be followed, including any recommendations for
required
supporting MRTPS interface materials.
(e) application of protective wrapping to the fittings
(c) Bends in MRTPS shall always be made with a radius
(f) backfill material
greater than the MOBR of the product.
(g) burial depth and casing at crossings
(d) MRTPS laid on surface shall be adequately
(h) methods to minimize soil movement and heave
restrained to avoid damage from abrasion on the
(i) compaction techniques that will protect the piping
ground surface and to avoid pipeline kinking or excessive
material from damage
movement.
(j) any additional measures necessary to minimize lo-
calized stresses to the MRTPS 8-4.3.3 Relining Applications
(k) installation and placement of buoyancy weights, if
necessary 8-4.3.3.1 Relining Preparation. Prior to beginning a
relining installation, the installer shall test or examine the
8-4.3.1.2 Co-trenching. If the installation includes host pipeline to confirm there are no obstructions, e.g., any
co-trenching with other pipelines or other underground unexpected sharp turns, dents or kinks in the pipe, or
infrastructure, the installation specification shall include internal weld material. (Such defects can reduce the effec-
adequate direction with respect to separation distances. tive internal diameter of the steel line and damage the
Separation distances shall address potential damage from MRTPS.) The examinations shall also confirm there will
heat sources and provide adequate clearances to allow for be adequate clearance between the O.D. of the MRTPS
future maintenance or repairs, should they become nec- (including couplings or fittings) and the I.D. of the existing
essary. Distances shall also provide adequate room for host line.
specialized tools without inducing damage to the pipe
or adjacent facilities. 8-4.3.3.2 Pull Lines. If wire rope is used as the pull
line, then a swivel shall be installed between the pull line
and the MRTPS to prevent the wire rope from applying
torque to the pipe during installation. A pulling-load indi-
cator system, which provides real-time readout of axial
pull during installation, shall be used. Actual pulling

64
ASME NM.1-2018

force shall be limited to the product’s published maximum (-a) identification of the piping system tested
allowable axial load, and should be recorded and retained (-b) date of test
as part of the installation documentation. (-c) test fluid
(-d) test pressure
8-4.3.3.3 Centralizers. Installation of centralizers
(-e) test duration
shall be completed if specified in the installation specifi-
(-f) test temperature
cation.
(-g) the pressure test chart
8-4.3.3.4 Terminations (-h) calibration certificates for testing equipment
(-i) minimum, maximum, and measurement loca-
(a) Upon exit at the termination end of the pull, a suffi- tion elevations
cient amount of the pipe system shall be pulled past the (-j) certification of results by the examiner
host pipe to allow for a 360-deg evaluation of the pipe to (2) Testing records shall be retained and stored in
ensure the pull through the host pipe has not caused any the project construction file.
damage that will affect the serviceability of the new pipe
system, as well as to allow for the relaxation of the MRTPS.
8-5 EXAMINATION, INSPECTION, AND TESTING
(b) A 3-m (10-ft) trial MRTPS pipe segment may be
pulled through the host pipe in advance of the actual Examination, inspection, and testing shall follow the
MRTPS pull to verify the status of the host pipe and MRTPS manufacturer’s recommendations, in addition
the feasibility of the liner pull. to the requirements of this Standard.
(c) MRTPS shall be appropriately supported at the
transition points from the host pipe to the soil to 8-5.1 General
avoid shear loads and point loads. This section distinguishes between examination and
inspection.
8-4.4 Hydrostatic Test Examination applies to quality control functions
(a) Test Fluid performed by the MRTPS manufacturer, fabricator, or
(1) The test fluid shall be water unless there is the erector. Reference in this Standard to an examiner is
possibility of damage due to freezing or to adverse effects to a person who performs quality control examinations.
of water on the piping or the process. The selection of an Inspection applies to functions performed for the owner
alternative fluid shall consider flammability, toxicity, and by the owner’s Inspector or the Inspector’s delegates.
chemical compatibility with the MRTPS, as well as the References in this Standard to the “Inspector” are to
consequences of a pipe system failure during hydrotest. the owner’s Inspector or the Inspector’s delegates.
(2) If hydrostatic testing would create an undesir- Inspection shall not relieve the MRTPS manufacturer,
able situation or risk of contamination, the owner may the fabricator, or the erector of the responsibility for
subject the piping system to a pneumatic leak test in (a) providing materials, components, and workman-
lieu of the hydrostatic leak test. Where pneumatic tests ship in accordance with the requirements of this Standard
are performed, consideration shall be given to the and of the engineering design
hazard of energy stored in compressed gas, and safety (b) performing all required examinations
precautions shall be implemented as appropriate. (c) preparing suitable records of examinations and
NOTE: ASME PCC-2, Part 5, Article 501 provides guidance for safe
tests for the Inspector’s use
pneumatic testing.
8-5.2 Examination
(b) Test Pressure
(1) The hydrostatic test pressure at every point in 8-5.2.1 Examination at the Manufacturer’s Works.
the MRTPS shall be not less than 1.25 times the MAOP. The manufacturer of the MRTPS components shall
(2) The effects of the piping system elevation differ- examine the manufactured components at the manufac-
ence shall be taken into consideration when defining the turing location to ensure the components comply with the
test pressure. design, quality, and marking requirements of API 15S.
(3) The resulting test pressure along the MRTPS shall
8-5.2.2 Examination at the Worksite
not exceed the allowable test pressure stipulated in the
standards of material specifications for the pertinent 8-5.2.2.1 Examination of Incoming Material. The
components of the piping system. pipes, fittings, and accessories shall be examined prior
(c) Test Duration. The duration of the hydrostatic test to the use in the construction of the piping system to
pressure of the MRTPS, excluding the conditioning and ensure the correct material has been delivered and no
stabilizing time, shall be a minimum of 8 h. damage has occurred during transportation and handling.
(d) Test Records Any damaged items shall be replaced.
(1) A test record shall be completed of each MRTPS
test and shall, at minimum, include the following:

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8-5.2.2.2 In-Process Examination (a) completion of the piping system erection


(b) prior to backfilling of the piping system
(a) The erection activities shall be examined to ensure
(c) random checks during the hydrostatic testing of the
the piping system is installed in accordance with the
piping system
design specifications and in such a way as to avoid any
damage that may affect the long-term integrity of the 8-5.4 Testing
piping system.
(b) Wherever the installation methodology allows, the 8-5.4.1 Required Testing. After completion of the
following items, as a minimum, shall be examined during piping system erection and prior to operation, each
the piping system erection: piping system shall be hydrostatically tested as per
(1) pipes, fittings, and accessories to ensure no para. 8-4.4 to ensure tightness.
damage
(2) trench preparation as per the MRTPS manufac- 8-5.4.2 Limits of Tested Piping
turer’s recommendations (a) Equipment not included in the scope of the hydro-
(3) pipe deployment to verify absence of kinks and static test shall be either disconnected from the piping
damages system or isolated by blinds or other means during the
(4) joining of couplings and fittings test. A valve may be used provided the valve (including
(5) application of corrosion-protective measures at its closure mechanism) is suitable for the test pressure.
metallic fittings, if applicable (b) Piping components and subassemblies may be
8-5.2.2.3 Prehydrotest Examination. Upon comple- tested either separately or as assembled piping.
tion of the erection activities, prior to backfilling and (c) Flanged joints used to connect piping components
subsequent hydrostatic testing, the piping system shall and subassemblies that have previously been tested, and
be examined to ensure that flanged joints at which a blank or blind is used to isolate
(a) no damage is present equipment or other piping during a test, are not required
(b) adequate support and restraint are provided for the to be leak tested.
MRTPS and adjoining equipment 8-5.4.3 Preparation for Hydrostatic Testing. Prior to
Backfill shall be performed in a manner that does not the hydrostatic testing, MRTPS intended for buried appli-
damage the installed piping system. cations shall be covered with soil, with the joints left
exposed.
8-5.3 Inspection
Inspection should be performed at each examination
milestone outlined in para. 8-5.2. At a minimum, inspec-
tion should be performed at the following stages:

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MANDATORY APPENDIX I
FUSING AND ELECTROFUSING OF POLYAMIDE-11
THERMOPLASTIC PIPING; AND FUSING OF POLYPROPYLENE,
POLY(VINYLIDENE FLUORIDE), AND
POLY(TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE) PLASTIC LINERS OF LINED
STEEL PIPE

I-1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS process used, and the test results shall meet all require-
ments of this Appendix.
This Appendix contains requirements for design, (b) The information to be included in the JPS for
fabrication, assembly and erection, examination, inspec- fusing and electrofusing of PA-11 and the fusing of PP,
tion, and testing of thermoplastic piping systems for poly- PVDF,and PTFE liners is provided in paras. 5-2.2.1,
amide-11 (PA-11) thermoplastic materials and 5-2.2.2, and 5-2.2.3. There are no required formats for
polypropylene (PP), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), JPSs or PQRs. Any format may be used provided all ap-
and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). During the creation plicable information is recorded, including a certifying
of ASME NM.1, a review of existing standards revealed that statement acknowledging the validity of the data and
neither ASME BPVC, Section IX nor any of the American certifying that the specimens were made and tested in
Welding Society standards include Joining Procedure accordance with the requirements of this Appendix.
Specifications for PVDF or PTFE liners of lined steel (c) PQRs shall not be revised except to correct errors or
pipe. This Appendix provides requirements for joining add new or omitted information. All such changes shall be
these material types. identified, authorized, and dated on the PQR.
NOTES:
(1) The fusion joining of PTFE liners is accomplished by the use I-4 JOINING PROCEDURES QUALIFIED BY
of a perfluoroalkoxy alkane (PFA) film interface.
(2) PE liners that are to be fitted into a steel pipe housing are to EMPLOYERS OR AGENTS
be fusion welded by the procedures listed in ASME BPVC,
Section IX, Part QF, Plastic Fusing, with the exception that the I-4.1 Qualification Variables
O.D. bead form is to be removed before the fusion-welded The qualification variables for the various processes
line is allowed to move back into the steel pipe bore.
used in making a procedure qualification test joint are
listed in Tables I-8-1, I-8-2, and I-8-3.
I-2 SCOPE
I-4.2 Approval Tests
The requirements in this Appendix apply to the
preparation and qualification of the Joining Procedure (a) The approved tests for qualifying a JPS are listed in
Specification (JPS) for fusing and electrofusing of PA- section I-7.
11 thermoplastic materials, and PP, PVDF, and PTFE (b) The test results shall be recorded on or appended to
liners of lined steel pipe, and to the performance quali- a PQR containing the actual qualification variables.
fication of the fusing operator joining those materials.
I-4.3 Acceptance Criteria
I-3 JOINING PROCEDURE (a) If the results meet the acceptance criteria specified,
Each joining procedure shall be qualified by the the employer or employer’s agent shall sign and date the
employer or the employer’s agent. PQR, indicating that the PQR is an accurate record of the
(a) Tests previously conducted by an employer, the joining and testing of the procedure qualification test
employer’s agent, or a professional organization may specimen.
be used to support a JPS in accordance with this Appendix. (b) The employer or agent may then prepare and issue
The Procedure Qualification Record(s) (PQR) shall an approved JPS.
address all essential variables applicable to the fusing

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(c) The employer or agent shall sign and date the JPS to (d) The fusion of a DN 100 (NPS 4) PP, PVDF, or PTFE/
signify acceptance of responsibility for use of the JPS in PFA liner qualifies a fusing operator to fuse DN 76 and DN
production. 100 (NPS 3 and NPS 4) steel pipe lined with PP, PVDF, or
PTFE/PFA liners.
I-4.4 JPS Range
I-6.2 Electrofusion Test Specimens
Each JPS shall be supported by one or more PQRs, and
shall specify a range or a single value for each essential The limits of electrofusion test specimens are as
variable applicable to the joining process. provided in (a) and (b).
(a) The qualified joining of a DN 50 (NPS 2) PA-11 elec-
I-4.5 Test for Procedure Qualification trofusion coupling qualifies a fusing operator to join DN 13
Specified test specimens shall be used for procedure to DN 100 (NPS 1∕2 to NPS 4) PA-11 couplings.
qualification. The specimens used shall be prepared as (b) The qualified joining of a DN 150 (NPS 6) PA-11
indicated in the specified test standard. electrofusion coupling qualifies a fusing operator to
join DN 100 to DN 200 (NPS 4 to NPS 8) PA-11 couplings.
I-4.6 Control
I-7 TEST METHODS REQUIRED FOR PROCEDURE
During the fusing or electrofusing of procedure quali-
QUALIFICATION
fication specimens, fusing operators shall be under the full
control and supervision of the employer or agent. The I-7.1 Visual Examination
following steps shall be supervised:
(a) preparation of test specimens for fusing or electro- (a) All fused joints or electrofused joints shall receive a
fusing visual examination of all accessible surfaces of the fused
(b) instruction of the fusing operator on use of the joint.
fusing or electrofusing joining procedure (b) The visual examination shall be conducted as
(c) performance of fusing or electrofusing described in PPI TR-45 for fusing and as required in
(d) recording of the essential variables used in the ASME SF-2600 for electrofusion couplings.
fusing or electrofusing test (c) The visual examination for fused thermoplastic
(e) operator performance examinations and tests liners shall be conducted per the criteria listed in a
(f) documenting of test results published procedure.
(g) certification of the final PQR (d) Visual examination results shall be recorded on the
PQR.
I-5 EVALUATION OF TEST SPECIMENS
I-7.2 Elevated-Temperature Sustained-Pressure
(a) Test specimens shall be subjected to the applicable Tests for PA-11 Fused Pipe or Electrofusion
tests. Couplings
(b) Test methods are in section I-7.
(c) The type, number, and location of tests, and evalua- (a) Elevated-Temperature Sustained-Pressure Test for
tion criteria for tests, shall be as indicated in the test stan- Fused PA-11 Pipe. Elevated-temperature sustained-pres-
dards and in this Standard. sure tests shall not require test to failure. The test shall be
performed in accordance with PPI TR-45, as follows:
I-6 SIZE RANGE FOR SPECIMENS (1) The test temperature shall be 80°C (176°F).
(2) The hoop stress shall be 12 755 kPa (1,850 psi)
I-6.1 Fusing Test Specimens (14% above the hoop stress requirement in ASME SF-
1733).
The limits of fusing test specimens shall be as provided (3) All pipe failures shall be ductile outside of the
in (a) through (d). fusion joint (or nonfailures).
(a) The fusion of a DN 50 (NPS 2) PA-11 pipe qualifies a This test shall be conducted using the requirements in
fusing operator to fuse DN 13 to DN 100 (NPS 1∕2 to NPS 4) ASTM D1598. The elevated-temperature sustained-pres-
PA-11 pipe. sure test does not require test to failure in this application.
(b) The fusion of a DN 150 (NPS 6) PA-11 pipe qualifies The duration of the test shall be not less than 170 h without
a fusing operator to fuse DN 100 to DN 200 (NPS 4 to NPS failure.
8) PA-11 pipe. (b) Elevated-Temperature Sustained-Pressure Test for
(c) The fusion of a DN 50 (NPS 2) PP, PVDF, or PTFE/ PA-11 Pipe Joined Using Electrofusion Couplings. This
PFA liner qualifies a fusing operator to fuse DN 25, DN 38, test shall be conducted as described in ASME SF-2600,
and DN 50 (NPS 1, NPS 1.5, and NPS 2) steel pipe lined with using the requirements in ASTM D1598.
PP, PVDF, or PTFE/PFA liners. (1) The temperature shall be constant at 80°C
(176°F).

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(2) The sustained pressure shall be a pipe fiber stress I-7.5 High-Speed Tensile Impact Testing (Fused
of 1.0 MPa (1,450 psi). PA-11 Pipe Only)
(3) The duration of the test shall not be less than 170
h. (a) The tensile impact test method develops adequate
(4) All pipe failures shall be ductile outside of the tensile impact energy at specific rates of strain to rupture
fusion joint (or nonfailures). standard tensile impact specimens of butt-fused plastic
(5) The elevated-temperature sustained-pressure pipe.
test does not require test to failure in this application. (b) Testing shall be conducted in accordance with
ASTM F2634.
I-7.3 Quick-Burst Testing of PA-11 Fused and (1) This test method shall be used to evaluate PA-11
Electrofused Joints butt joints.
(2) This is a pass–fail test.
Quick-burst testing of joints shall be conducted in accor- (-a) Samples showing elongation are ductile and
dance with ASTM D1599, using the requirements from pass.
ASME SF-2600. (-b) Samples failing in a brittle mode fail.
(a) Four samples shall be selected at random. (3) A graphic representation showing stress–strain
(b) The samples shall be conditioned for 16 h prior to is created as the test is conducted. This graph of the test
testing. may be used to evaluate ductility.
(c) The minimum hydraulic burst pressure shall not be
less than that required to produce 26.9-MPa (3,900-psig) I-7.6 Hydrostatic Testing of the Butt-Fusion-
fiber stress in the pipe. Welded PP, PVDF, and PTFE Liners for Lined
(d) Failure of the fitting or joint shall constitute failure Steel
when the pressure is less than in (c).
(e) Failure of one of the four samples shall constitute I-7.6.1 Test Fluid. The fluid shall be water unless there
failure. is the possibility of damage due to freezing or adverse
effects of water on the piping or process. If such a possi-
I-7.4 Tensile Testing bility exists, another suitable nontoxic liquid may be used.
If the liquid is flammable, then its flash point shall be at
I-7.4.1 Testing of PA-11 Fused Joints. Tensile testing of
least 49˚C (120˚F), and consideration shall be given to the
PA-11 fused joints shall be in accordance with ASTM D638
test environment.
at 5 mm/min (0.2 in./min), and the results shall be
reported as required in that standard. I-7.6.2 Fusion-Welded Samples. A minimum of three
fusion-welded samples shall be hydrostatically tested for
I-7.4.2 Testing of PA-11 Electrofusion Couplings. The
each liner type for which the fusion operator is being qual-
testing of electrofusion couplings connected to pipe shall
ified.
be done in accordance with ASME SF-2600.
(a) Specimens shall be tested at a tensile stress that 1-7.6.3 Mechanical Couplings. The mechanical
causes the pipe to yield or causes the pipe to break couplings should not be installed on the fusion-joined
outside the joint area. lined steel sample sections that are to be hydrostatically
(b) The tensile test shall be made on the specimen as tested.
joined.
(c) Results shall be reported as required in ASME SF- I-7.6.4 Fusion-Joined Lined Steel Pipe Samples
2600. (a) The fusion-joined lined steel pipe samples shall be
I-7.4.3 Testing of Fused PP, PVDF, and PTFE Liner fixtured in a hydrostatic device capable of maintaining a
Samples. Tensile testing of fused PP, PVDF, and PTFE sealing force on the open pipe ends and the welded
liner samples shall be in accordance with ASTM D638 samples.
but at a cross-head speed of 50 mm/min (2.0 in./min). (b) The test specimen shall be subjected to a test pres-
(a) Specimens shall be tested at a tensile stress that sure of 3.103 MPa (450 psig) for a minimum of 10 min per
causes the pipe to yield or causes the pipe to break the requirements of ASME B31.3, para. A345.4.
outside the joint area. I-7.6.5 Alternative (Pneumatic) Sensitive Leak Test.
(b) The tensile test shall be made on the specimen as An alternative (pneumatic) sensitive leak test may be
joined. performed with the owner’s approval. See ASME B31.3,
(c) Results shall be reported as required in ASTM D638. para. A345.5.

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Figure I-7.7-1 Instruction on Preparing and Cutting Electrofusion Coupling for Crush Test

GENERAL NOTE: Figure from ASTM F1055. Used with permission of ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

I-7.6.6 Test Results. Test results shall be recorded in I-7.10 Hydrotesting for Metallic Piping Lined With
the Joining Procedure Qualification. A passing grade shall Fused PP, PVDF, or PTFE/PFA
be given if there is no leakage of the test fluid or test gas (a) A representative section of lined steel pipe butt-
through the fusion-welded joint. fused at the midpoint, with a PP, PVDF, or PTFE/PFA
liner and a combined length of approximately 203 mm
I-7.7 Joint Integrity Tests for Electrofusion (8 in.), shall be clamped in a pressure test unit such
Couplings that the fusion-welded section can be subjected to a hydro-
(a) A joint integrity test shall be conducted on electro- static test pressurized to no less than 1.5 times the ASME
fusion joints. Class 150 steel flanged-spool rating [2 944 kPa (427 psig)]
(b) The test shall be conducted using a vise to crush for a minimum of 10 min.
one-half of a split electrofusion coupling. Figure I-7.7-1 (1) The test section shall not have mechanical
shows a half coupling. coupling installed.
(c) Instructions for specimen preparation are provided (2) Any fluid leakage through the test section’s
in ASME SF-2600. fusion-welded joint shall constitute failure.
(1) This test provides an evaluation of the bonding (b) Test Pressure
strength between the pipe and fitting. (1) The hydrostatic test pressure at every point in a
(2) Separation of the fitting from the pipe at the metallic piping system shall be not less than 1.5 times the
fusion interface shall constitute failure. design pressure.
(2) When the design temperature is greater than the
I-7.8 Joint Crush Test test temperature, the minimum test pressure, at the point
under consideration, shall be calculated using eq. (I-7-1):
(a) A joint crush test shall be conducted on electrofu- (I-7-1)
PT = 1.5PST /S
sion joints.
(b) The test shall be conducted using a vise to crush the where
specimen (see Figure I-7.8-1) as described in ASME SF- P = internal design gauge pressure, kPa (psig)
2600, and the results shall be reported as required in PT = minimum test gauge pressure, kPa (psig)
that standard. S = allowable stress at component design tempera-
(1) This test provides an evaluation of the bonding ture for the prevalent pipe material, kPa (psi);
strength between the pipe and fitting. see ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M
(2) Minor separations shall be acceptable, but more ST = allowable stress at test temperature for the
than 15% separation of the heat-zone length shall consti- prevalent pipe material, kPa (psi); see ASME
tute failure. B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M
I-7.9 Saddle-Type Joint Crush Test
(c) In those cases where the piping system does not
Electrofusion saddles shall be tested using a saddle-type include pipe itself, any other component in the piping
joint crush test as described in ASME SF-2600, and the system, other than pipe-supporting elements and
results shall be reported as required in that standard. bolting, may be used to determine the ST/S ratio based
(a) Pipe fused to the fitting is placed in the jaws of the on the applicable allowable stresses obtained from
vise. ASME B31.3, Tables A-1 and A-1M. In those cases
(b) The jaws of the vise are closed. where the piping system is made up of equivalent
(c) Separation of the pipe from the fitting at the fusion lengths of more than one material, the ST/S ratio shall
interface shall constitute failure. be based on the minimum calculated ratio of the included
materials.

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Figure I-7.8-1 Joint Crush Specimens in Vise

GENERAL NOTE: Figure from ASTM F1055. Used with permission of ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

If the test pressure as defined in (b) would produce a I-8.1 Heater Removal Time
circumferential pressure or longitudinal stress (based on
minimum pipe wall thickness) in excess of the yield I-8.1.1 Butt-Fusion Welding of PA-11. The following
strength at test temperature or a pressure more than table provides the maximum heater removal times that
1.5 times the component rating at test temperature, shall be used for butt-fusion welding of PA-11:
the test pressure may be reduced to the maximum pres- Maximum
sure that will not exceed the lesser of the yield strength or Pipe Wall Thickness, Heater Removal Time, s
mm (in.) [Note (1)]
1.5 times the component ratings at test temperature.
1 to <9 (0.18 to <0.40) 8
9 to <15 (0.40 to <0.60) 10
I-8 ESSENTIAL VARIABLES FOR FUSING PA-11
15 to 31 (0.60 to 1.20) 15
The essential variables for fusion joining of PA-11 are
listed in Table I-8-1; those for electrofusing of PA-11 are NOTE: (1) This is the maximum permitted time between the
listed in Table I-8-2; and those for heat-fusion joining of removal of the heater plate and bringing together the liner
PP, PVDF, and PTFE/PFA liners are listed in Table I-8-3. ends to form the weld.

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Table I-8-1 Essential Variables for Heat-Fusing JPS for Table I-8-2 Essential Variables for Electrofusion JPS for
PA-11 PA-11 Electrofusion Couplings
Description of Variable Essential Nonessential Description of Variable Essential Nonessential
Joint type: butt fusion X ... Joint type [Note (1)]
Pipe surface alignment X … Coupling X …
Material X … Saddle X …
Wall thickness X … Fit-up gap X …
Cross-sectional area X … Material X …
Position X … Wall thickness … X
Heater surface temperature X … Coupling or saddle manufacturer X …
Interfacial pressure X … Pipe diameter X …
Bead size as specified X … Cooldown time X …
Bead appearance … X Fusion voltage X …
Open time between heater removal and X … Fusing time X …
welding Material temperature range X …
Cooldown time X … Power supply … X
Fusing equipment manufacturer … X Power cord X …
Processor … X
Saddle clamp X …
I-8.1.2 Butt-Fusion Welding of PP, PVDF, and PTFE Cleaning agent … X
Liners. The following table provides the maximum Scraping device X …
heater removal times that shall be used for butt-fusion
NOTE: (1) There are electrofusion couplings to join pipe to
welding of PP, PVDF, and PTFE liners:
pipe and electrofusion saddles for branch connections.
Maximum
Heater Removal Time, s
Liner Type [Notes (1) and (2)]
PP 5 (a) Typical Butt-Fusing Bead Sizes for PA-11
PVDF 5
Pipe Size, Typical Fusing Bead Size,
PTFE 3 to 5 mm (in.) mm (in.)
40 and smaller (1.25 and 1 to 2 (1∕32 to 1∕16)
NOTES: smaller)
(1) This is the maximum permitted time between the removal of >40 to <90 (>1.25 to <3) 3 to <5 (1∕8 to <5∕16)
the heater plate and bringing together the liner ends to form
90 to 225 (3 to 8) 3 to 5 (1∕8 to 5∕16)
the weld.
(2) The differences between heater removal times for the PP,
PVDF, and PTFE liners and those for PA-11 (see GENERAL NOTE: When the proper bead size is formed against
para. I-8.1.1) are due to differences in thickness (i.e., the the heater surfaces all around the pipe or fitting ends, remove the
liners are thinner than PA-11 pipe) and in the characteristics heater. Melt bead size is dependent on pipe size.
of the materials. (b) Typical Butt-Fusing Bead Sizes for PP and PVDF
Liners
I-8.2 Beads
Typical Fusing Bead Size,
A bead is formed during the butt-fusion process. A Pipe Size, mm (in.) mm (in.)
typical bead is shown in Figure I-8.2-1. 25 to 50 (1 to 2) 4.8 to 6.4 (3∕16 to 1∕4)
75 to 100 (3 to 4) 6.4 to 7.9 (1∕4 to 5∕32)
I-8.2.1 Bead Size for Butt Fusion. The tables below
provide maximum bead sizes that shall be formed
GENERAL NOTES:
during butt fusion of defined materials. (a) There is no bead formed when PTFE liners are butt fused
together with a PFA film interface.
(b) The dimensions in this table refer to bead size on the liner
after fusion.

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Table I-8-3 Essential Variables for Heat Fusion JPS for PP, PVDF, and PTFE/PFA Liners
Description of Variable Essential Nonessential
Joint type: butt fusion X …
Steel-pipe-to-liner cutback dimension … X
Appearance of liner at O.D. and I.D. of cutback … X
Installation of mechanical coupling onto one section of the to-be-joined piping [Note (1)] … X
Installation of wind bag around heater for PTFE/PFA liner weld X …
Warming of steel pipe ends where installation is to be done at ambient temperatures below 45°F (7°C) X …
Construction of onionskin-type shelter around weld location to protect against inclement weather X …
Fusing equipment manufacturer X …
Correct distance fixturing of the steel pipe end within the fusing equipment … X
Alignment of pipe-liner surface and wall thickness X …
Material (liner type) X …
Trimming of liner ends with a facing tool to the proper dimension … X
Heater plate type X …
Verification of heater plate surface temperature X …
Weld position (only horizontal welds allowed) … X
PFA film thickness for fusing PTFE liners … X
Initial PP and PVDF bead size in contact with the heater plate X …
Initial applied pressure against the heater plate to ensure intimate contact of the PTFE with the PFA film X …
Removal of excess PFA film from heating plate after initial PTFE liner contact with heater plate X …
Permissible open time between heater removal and welding X …
Applied pressure for making weld X …
Heater plate placed back in the metallic storage container to avoid damage … X
Cooldown time X …
For PP and PVDF liners: bead size and shape and/or appearance X …
Joint appearance for PTFE fusion-welded liners X …
PTFE fusion-welded connection wrapped with PTFE tape prior to mechanical coupling installation … X
NOTE: (1) Make sure that the coupling is a vented type for PTFE-lined piping.

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Figure I-8.2-1 Polyethylene Pipe Butt-Fusion Joint O.D. Bead (Cross-Sectional View)
These visually acceptable beads may have a These visually acceptable beads may have a
gap under the bead after it cools. gap under the bead after it cools.

PE pipe (cross-sectional view)


PE pipe (cross-sectional view)

(a) Visually Acceptable (b) Visually Acceptable


Uniform bead around pipe Nonuniform bead sizes but uniform
around pipe (typical to molded fitting
bead or unimodal to bimodal pipe bead)

These visually acceptable beads may have a The V-groove should not be deeper than
gap under the bead after it cools. half the bead height.

10% or
less

PE pipe (cross-sectional view) PE pipe (cross-sectional view)

(c) Visually Acceptable (d) Visually Unacceptable


Nonuniform bead sizes but uniform around Nonuniform/uniform bead
pipe (outside diameter mismatch less than around pipe and V-groove
10% of the wall) too deep at pipe-tangent

I-8.2.2 Bead Appearance (c) PTFE/PFA Liner Joints. The PTFE/PFA liner joint
shall appear as a straight liner joint with the location
(a) PA-11 Fusion Beads. The presence of bubbles on the
raised slightly outward to less than 1 mm (1∕32 in.).
PA-11 fusion bead shall not be reason for rejection.
(1) The PFA film shall be uniformly visible over the
NOTE: The PA-11 material absorbs moisture from air. This entire 360-deg surface of fusion weld and protruding
moisture creates bubbles in the beads. The bubbles are slightly out past the weld O.D. surface.
limited to the beads and do not affect the strength of butt-
(2) There shall be no obvious gaps where there is no
fusion joints. See PPI TR-45 for pictures of typical beads with
bubbles.
PFA film between the two PTFE liner ends.

(b) Fusion Beads for PP and PVDF Liners. Fusion beads I-9 VERIFICATION OF ESSENTIAL VARIABLES
for PP and PVDF liner joints shall meet the size criteria
shown in para. I-8.2.1(b) and shall be uniform in size The essential variables for butt fusion of PA-11 plastic
around the entire liner joint. piping are discussed in para. I-9.1; those for electrofusion
NOTES:
of PA-11, in para. I-9.2; and those for butt fusion of PP,
(1) The outward edge of the bead shall be completely rolled over PVDF, and PTFE/PFA pipe and fitting liners, in para. I-9.3.
and touching back with the liner O.D. surface.
(2) Beads shall not be wavy as this indicates that the heater plate I-9.1 Essential Variables for Butt Fusion of PA-11
was too hot.
The PA-11 fusion joint shall be made by heating the ends
(3) There shall be a minimum 2-mm (1∕16-in.) gap between the
outward edge of the bead and the steel pipe end. Beads
of PA-11 pipe as described in the JPS.
cannot touch the steel pipe end. The essential variables for butt fusion of PA-11 are as
(4) Air bubbles shall not appear in the bead or fusion joints. This follows:
applies to PP, PVDF, and PTFE/PFA liners.

74
ASME NM.1-2018

Figure I-9.1-1 Cross-Sectional View of PA-11 Butt-Fusion (g) Bead Size, Shape, and Appearance. The bead size
Bead shall be as provided in para. I-8.2.1(a) . See also
Figure I-9.1-1.
1H
NOTES:
1½H
(1) This bead-size data is provided in PPI TR-45.
(2) The shape of the bead is different from that for PE pipe.
H
(h) Cooldown Time. Cooldown time for a PA-11 butt
fusion shall be 12 min/25 mm (12 min/in.) of pipe
wall thickness.

I-9.2 Essential Variables for Electrofusion Joints


Uniform bead size and shape
Electrofusion coupling joints shall be made using two
bead rolled to pipe surface
pieces of pipe and one electrofusion coupling. See
PA-11 pipe (cross-sectional view) Figure I-9.2-1 . Saddle electrofusion joints shall be
GENERAL NOTES: made using an electrofusion saddle and a piece of PA-
(a) Figure is adapted with permission from PPI TR-45 (TR-45/2016; 11 pipe.
Butt Fusion Joining Procedure for Field Joining of Polyamide-11 The essential variables for electrofusion joints are as
(PA-11) Pipe, page 13, Figure C.1. Illustration of a Properly Made follows:
PA-11 Butt Fusion Joint).
(a) Fit-Up Gap. The fit-up gap shall be the space
(b) H = bead height.
(c) The presence of bubbles in the bead is normal and varies with the
between the pipe and the electrofusion coupling or
amount of absorbed water in the pipe and/or fitting. When PA-11 saddle that is not in contact with the coupling and the
pipe is butt fused to molded fittings, the fitting-side bead can have pipe or the saddle and the pipe. See Figure I-9.2-2.
an irregular appearance. (b) Material
(1) The requirements for procedure qualifications
shall be limited to PA-11 pipe or fittings butt fused or elec-
trofused.
(2) The PA-11 shall meet the requirements of Group
(a) Pipe Surface Alignment. The maximum misalign- 2, Class 2, and Grade 3 (PA-32312) as described in ASME
ment of the PA-11 pipes shall be 10% of the wall thickness. SD-6779.
(b) Material (c) Coupling or Saddle Manufacturer. Each manufactur-
(1) The requirements for procedure qualifications er uses its own distinct processes to make its electrofusion
are limited to PA-11 pipe or fittings butt fused or electro- couplings or saddles. While the bar code on the coupling or
fused. saddle automatically sets the electrofusion processor, the
(2) The PA-11 shall meet the requirements of Group tolerance of the pipe that the coupling or saddle can join or
2, Class 2, and Grade 3 (PA-32312) as described in ASME can be attached to may vary.
SD-6779. (d) Pipe Diameter. Different couplings or saddles shall
(c) Wall Thickness and Cross-Sectional Area. The cross- be used for each pipe size.
sectional area is used to determine the force needed to (e) Cooldown Time. The coupling shall be allowed to
make a PA-11 butt-fusion joint. cool down per the recommendations of the electrofusion
(d) Interfacial Pressure. When the owner has selected coupling or saddle manufacturer.
ASME SF-2600 for the parameters to fuse PA-11, the inter-
NOTE: Differences in the thickness or the amount of heat used in
facial pressure required shall be 414 kPa to 621 kPa (60 the joining process can influence the time needed for cooling.
psi to 90 psi).
(f) Fusion Voltage. The fusion voltage may be set by the
NOTE: This interfacial pressure was determined by testing
published in PPI TR-45.
bar code on the fitting or may be set manually. The rec-
ommended voltage for the specific electrofusion compo-
(e) Heater Surface Temperature. The heater tempera- nent shall be used.
ture required to join PA-11 shall be 257°C to 263°C (495°F (g) Fusing Time. The fusing time may be set by the bar
to 505°F). code on the coupling or saddle or may be set manually.
(f) Heater Removal Time. Heater removal times shall be (h) Power Supply. Either a portable generator or an
as provided in para. I-8.1.1. electric wall plug may be used to supply power to the elec-
trofusion processor provided the generator or plug satis-
fies the processor’s specified voltage and amperage
requirements.

75
ASME NM.1-2018

Figure I-9.2-1 Cross-Sectional View of an Electrofusion Coupling


Terminals

Electrofusion
coupling

PA-11 pipe

Flow zone

Electrofusion wire coils

Body of electrofusion
coupling

GENERAL NOTE: Figure is adapted with permission from PPI MAB-02 [MAB-02-2017; Generic Electrofusion Procedure for Field Joining of 14
Inch to 30 Inch Polyethylene (PE) Pipe, page 50, Appendix H].

(i) Power Cord. A power cord with the correct gauge Figure I-9.2-2 Fit-Up Gap
wire to meet the voltage and amperage requirements
of the electrofusion processor shall be used.
(j) Processor. Electrofusion processors are inter-
changeable as long as they can read the bar code for
the electrofusion component.
(k) Saddle Clamps. Electrofusion saddles are available
in a variety of types and sizes, and the clamping device for
each is unique. The saddle clamp used shall be specific to
the electrofusion saddle used.
(l) Cleaning Agent. Though the cleaning agent is a
nonessential variable, a clean pipe surface is essential
to electrofusion. Various cleaning agents are available
for preparing pipe surfaces for electrofusion; the cleaning
agent recommended by the electrofusion coupling man-
ufacturer should be used. GENERAL NOTE: Figure is adapted with permission from PPI MAB-
(m) Scraping Device. The dimensional requirements 02 [MAB-02-2017; Generic Electrofusion Procedure for Field Joining
needed to make a good electrofusion joint are critical. of 14 Inch to 30 Inch Polyethylene (PE) Pipe, page 56, Appendix H].
The purpose of the scraping device is to remove the oxida-
tion layer from the pipe surface and expose virgin material
for fusion. Use of the scraping device ensures uniform
removal of surface oxidation. (a) Warming the Steel Pipe Ends. If ambient outside
temperatures are below 7˚C (45°F), the steel pipe ends
I-9.3 Essential Variables for Butt Fusing of PP, should be warmed before making the liner fusion joint,
PVDF, and PTFE/PFA Pipe and Fitting Liners since the steel ends can act as a heat sink and remove
heat from the fusing during the joining process. A hot
Butt fusing of PP, PVDF, and PTFE/PFA pipe and fitting
air gun warm to the touch [23˚C (73˚F) or higher]
liners is limited to pipes with a maximum nominal liner
should be used to warm the steel ends.
size of 100 mm (4 in.). The essential variables are as
(b) Installation of a Shelter to Protect the Fusing Area.
follows:
Fusion joining performed in an open plant environment
shall be protected by a shelter or other means such that

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ASME NM.1-2018

Table I-9.3-1 Steel Pipe Liner Thickness for PP, PVDF, (-d) PFA film used as the weld interface to make
and PTFE/PFA Liners the PTFE fusion weld per ASME SD-3307, Type II
PP and PVDF Liner PTFE/PFA Liner
(f) Heater Plate Type
DN (NPS) Thickness, mm (in.) Thickness, mm (in.) (1) The designated heater plate for fusing PP and
25 (1) 3.8 (0.150) 3.3 (0.130) PVDF liners shall have a nonstick PTFE coating that
40 (1.5) 4.1 (0.160) 3.3 (0.130)
accommodates the 232˚C (450°F) fusion joining tempera-
ture.
50 (2) 4.4 (0.172) 3.3 (0.130)
(2) The designated heater plate for fusing the PTFE
75 (3) 4.4 (0.175) 3.3 (0.130)
liners with the PFA film interface shall be coated with a
100 (4) 5.3 (0.207) 4.1 (0.160)
special nonstick (metallic-colored) alloy coating that can
GENERAL NOTE: The same liner thickness is used for 25-mm to 75- accommodate the 418°C (785˚F) fusion weld temperature.
mm PTFE liners.
NOTE: The metallized heater plate shall not be used for welding
PP or PVDF liners. The PP and PVDF liner ends may be charred at
the PTFE weld temperatures, resulting in transfer of charred
debris to other fusion welds that will result in a joint leak.
rain, sleet, snow, dust, and other foreign materials cannot
contaminate the fusion joint. (3) The heater plate type used shall be recorded on
the Fusion Weld Log.
NOTE: A shelter constructed of PE film or other similar film
(g) Heater Plate Surface Temperature
(onionskin) may be used to provide a clean atmosphere.
Failure to do so can result in fusion welds that leak.
(1) PP and PVDF Liners. For fusing of PP and PVDF
pipe and fitting liners, the heater plate temperature shall
(c) Fusing Equipment Manufacturer. The manual or be 232˚C ± 6˚C (450°F ± 10°F). The fusing temperature
hydraulic fusing machine used to fuse plastic-lined shall be as recommended by the supplier of the
steel piping shall use custom die inserts. The inserts plastic-lined steel pipe. The heater plate temperature
shall attach firmly to the housing. shall be verified with a digital pyrometer and recorded
Each fusing equipment manufacturer provides die on the Fusion Weld Log and/or by a data logger.
inserts unique to its equipment. Inserts are not inter- (2) PTFE Liners
changeable between manufacturers in most cases. (-a) For fusing of PTFE pipe and fitting liners, the
The fusing machine shall meet the following require- heater plate temperature shall be 418˚C ± 2˚C (785°F ±
ments: 5°F). The heater plate temperature shall be verified
(1) The heater’s electronic temperature-control with the output reading on the built-in temperature
system shall be capable of holding the temperature toler- gauge and recorded on the Fusion Weld Log.
ances required for the thermoplastic liner to be fused. (-b) A wind bag is a device (heat-resistant cloth)
(2) The thermometer and temperature controller that is positioned directly underneath and around the
shall be calibrated to have a temperature range as PTFE-lined pipe ends that are to be butt-fusion joined.
required for the thermoplastic liner to be fused. Its purpose is to prevent a chimney effect of cooler air
(3) If a hydraulic machine is used, it shall have a cali- moving up past these heated pipe ends and reducing
brated hydraulic gauge. The range for the gauge shall the liner temperature. The use of the wind bag shall
cover the pressure required for the thermoplastic to be recorded on the Fusion Weld Log.
be fused. (h) Initial PP and PVDF Bead Size in Contact With the
(d) Pipe Surface and Wall Thickness Alignment. The Heater Plate. A small, uniform 2-mm (1/16-in.) diameter
maximum misalignment of the PP, PVDF, or PTFE/PFA bead shall be formed all the way around each PP or PVDF
pipe liners shall be <5% of the published plastic liner liner end. A uniform bead indicates that there is a positive
wall thickness (see Table I-9.3-1). contact with the heater plate (see Figure I-9.3-1).
NOTE: The alignment of the thermoplastic liner is important. (1) The fusion operator shall apply a force of 18 N to
This alignment shall be checked before inserting the heater plate. 27 N (4 lbf to 6 lbf) to make this initial bead.
(e) Material (2) When fusing is performed aboveground up in the
(1) Only PP liners shall be fused to PP liners, PVDF to pipe rack, care shall be exercised such that the electrical
PVDF, and PTFE to PTFE with the PFA film interface. cord does not become restrained, causing the heater plate
(2) Plastic liners shall conform to the following re- to tilt to one side and resulting in uneven bead formation
quirements: and heating.
(-a) PP homopolymer per ASME SD-4101, Type II (i) Initial Interfacial Pressure of the PTFE Liner Against
(-b) PVDF copolymer per ASME SD-5575 the PFA Film Next to the Heater Plate. For the first 30 s
(-c) PTFE (ram-extruded pipe liner) per ASME SD- when heating the PTFE liner ends to make the PTFE
4894, Type V; and PTFE fittings (isostatically molded fusion weld, the fusing operator shall apply 111 N to
liner) per ASME SD-4894, Type IV, Grade 1 or Grade 2 133 N (25 lbf to 30 lbf) to the liner ends so that there
is intimate contact with the PFA film that is sandwiched

77
ASME NM.1-2018

Figure I-9.3-1 Cross-Sectional View of a PP and PVDF surface O.D. The bead-size requirements are listed
Butt-Fusion Liner Bead Formed Against the Heater Plate in para. I-8.2.1(b).
NOTES:
(1) The amount of contact pressure will be a function of the pipe
diameter and the wall thickness of the thermoplastic liner.
(2) Applying too much pressure will drive the liner ends
through the melted plastic zone, resulting in a weld with
poor tensile strength. Applying too little weld-forming pres-
sure will produce a too-small bead size, resulting in a weld
with poor tensile strength.
(3) For hydraulic machines, use the interfacial pressure recom-
mended by the manufacturer of the thermoplastic-lined pipe
for the type of material, wall thickness, and diameter.
(2) For making a PTFE liner fusion weld, the fusion
operator shall apply enough even contact pressure to
bring the liner ends together such that the weld region
rises outward about 2 mm (1∕16 in.).
NOTE: Applying too much contact pressure will result in a V-
GENERAL NOTES: shaped weld that is susceptible to a peel failure mode. Applying
(a) The bead shall be uniform around the liner. too little contact pressure, where there is no perceptible outward
(b) Beads form only with PP and PVDF liners. No bead is present movement of the PTFE weld region, will result in a weld with low
when PFA film is sandwiched between the PTFE liner and the tensile strength.
heater plate.
(m) Proper Cooldown Time for the PP, PVDF, and PTFE
Liner Fusion Welds. The fusion operator shall allow the
fusion-welded liners to cool 10 min to 15 min before
between the PTFE liner end and the heater plate. This removing the fusion machine.
initial pressure ensures that the melted PFA film is (n) Recording of Essential Variables
able to migrate into the microstructure of the PTFE (1) All essential variables shall be recorded in the
liner, further anchoring the PFA interfacial layer in place. Fusion Weld Log or using a fusing log and a data
logger. This applies to all liners listed in Mandatory Appen-
NOTE: Failure to apply initial interfacial pressure can result in a
weld with poor tensile strength.
dix I.
(2) The parameters to be verified shall be recorded.
(j) Removal of the Excess PFA Film. After the PTFE liner
ends have sandwiched the PFA film against the heater I-10 JOINING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION
plate, the excess film material shall be removed prior
to removal of the heater plate. I-10.1 Joining Procedure Specification (JPS) or
NOTES: Standard Joining Procedure Specification
(1) When the heater plate is removed, any excess PFA film (SJPS)
adhering to the heater plate can be dragged across the
PTFE liner end, thereby pulling off some of the desired Any JPS or SJPS shall be qualified in accordance with the
film material and resulting in poor weld strength. requirements in section I-10.
(2) Removal of the excess PFA film is accomplished by use of a (a) Published data as provided in PPI TR-45 for
PTFE spatula. elevated temperature and sustained pressure may be
(k) Permissible Liner-End Open Time After Heater Plate used to satisfy the requirements in section I-10. Manufac-
Removal. Paragraph I-8.1.2 provides the maximum turer’s testing data may be used if verified by a third party.
permissible open time between the removal of the (b) An SJPS shall be qualified using published data or
heater plate and bringing together the PTFE liner ends manufacturer’s data.
to form the weld.
(l) Application of Liner Contact Pressure I-10.2 International Procedure Qualification
(1) For making PP or PVDF fusion welds, the fusion
(a) International Joining Procedure Specifications shall
operator shall apply enough even liner contact pressure to
be qualified using one of the following equivalent test
create a uniform bead rollover on both sides of the weld,
methods:
such that the leading bead outside edge touches the liner
(1) EN 12814-7
(2) ISO 13953
One of these test methods may be used in place of high-
speed tensile impact testing.

78
ASME NM.1-2018

The acceptance criteria for EN 12814-7 or ISO 13953 (4) low heater surface temperature and low interfa-
shall be the achievement of 0.8 welding factor or higher cial pressure, five joints
and a ductile rupture. (b) Each fused joint shall be subject to visual examina-
(b) A visual examination and elevated-temperature tion per PPI TR-45 or EN 13100-1.
test are required. The requirements for these tests are (c) Two fused joints of each combination described
as follows: in (a)(1) through (a)(4) shall be evaluated using the
(1) Visual examination in accordance with the re- elevated-temperature sustained-pressure tests for pipe
quirements of EN 13100-1. specified in PPI TR-45 or as defined for PA-11 for
(2) An elevated-temperature sustained-pressure tensile creep test (EN 12814-3) by prior testing (see
test shall be used as described in PPI TR-45. para. I-7.4.1).
(3) In place of the elevated-temperature sustained- (d) Three joints of each combination described
pressure test, the manufacturer of the pipe or of the resin in (a)(1) through (a)(4) shall be evaluated using the
may provide times and temperatures as are shown for high-speed tensile impact test specified in para. I-7.5
other thermoplastics in EN 12814-3 and prior testing. or as required in EN 12814-7 or ISO 13953. The specimen
NOTES: shall be ductile and have a welding factor of 0.8 or higher.
(1) Since PA-11 is not listed in EN 13067, for operator qualifica-
tion, testing as described in para. I-9.2 shall be conducted for I-11.2 Coupons for Acceptance of the JPS
international use.
If the coupons described in para. I-11.1 pass the speci-
(2) The standards listed for International Joining Procedure
Qualifications may be used in countries other than the
fied test, the JPS using the range of temperature, interfacial
United States provided they are acceptable in the pressure, and cooling times shall pass and be allowed as a
country of use. new JPS.

I-10.3 SJPS for Plastic-Lined Steel Pipe I-11.3 Procedure Qualification for Joining PP,
PVDF, and PTFE/PFA Steel Pipe Liners
(a) For joining plastic-lined steel pipe liners, refer to
the published SJPS that addresses the fusing variables The JPS or SJPS shall be used to qualify procedures for
listed in Table I-8-3. joining PP, PVDF, and PTFE/PFA steel pipe liners.
(b) Organizations may use an SJPS for production
fusing without further qualification. I-12 QUALIFICATION OF AN ELECTROFUSION JPS
The PA-11 electrofusion coupling shall be prepared in
I-10.4 Contents of the SJPS
accordance with the JPS using the following test methods:
(a) The SJPS shall address all of the essential and nones- (a) Four electrofusion couplings selected at random
sential variables listed in Tables I-8-1, I-8-2, and I-8-3. shall be quick-burst tested as required in ASME SF-
(b) The organization may include any additional infor- 2600 and fail in a ductile manner.
mation in the SJPS that can be helpful in making a fused (b) Four electrofusion couplings selected at random
joint. shall be tested using the elevated-temperature
sustained-pressure test described in ASME SF-2600.
I-10.5 Changes in Documented Parameters There shall be no failures in a 170-h test period.
(c) Four electrofusion couplings selected at random
Changes in the documented parameters of an SJPS
shall be tested using the tensile test described in ASME
beyond the limits specified in Table I-8-1, Table I-8-2,
SF-2600.
or Table I-8-3 shall require the qualification of a new JPS.
(1) The tensile test shall be conducted as required in
this Standard and the results reported as pass or fail.
I-11 QUALIFICATION OF A FUSING JPS (2) If all samples pass, no additional testing shall be
required. If samples fail, then additional samples shall be
I-11.1 PA-11 Butt-Fusing Joining Coupons
selected and tested.
(a) The PA-11 butt-fusing joint coupons shall be (3) If all samples pass the second test, then the test
prepared in accordance with the JPS using the following shall be considered acceptable.
combinations of heater temperature ranges and interfa- (d) A joint integrity test shall be conducted on four elec-
cial pressure ranges: trofusion couplings and four electrofusion saddles as
(1) high heater surface temperature and high inter- described in ASME SF-2600.
facial pressure, five joints (1) The results shall be reported as pass or fail.
(2) high heater surface temperature and low inter- (2) If all samples pass, no additional testing shall be
facial pressure, five joints required. If samples fail, then additional samples shall be
(3) low heater surface temperature and high inter- selected and tested.
facial pressure, five joints

79
ASME NM.1-2018

(3) If all samples pass the second test, then the test I-13.2.2 Performance Qualification Testing
shall be considered acceptable.
(a) Performance qualification testing shall be in accor-
dance with the testing requirements of the referenced
I-13 FUSING OPERATOR QUALIFICATION standards or this Appendix.
(b) The fusing operator taking performance qualifica-
I-13.1 General
tion tests shall be under the full supervision and control of
(a) Qualification of a PA-11 fusing operator requires a qualified supervisor during the fusing of test specimens.
that the operator make a specimen in accordance with
I-13.2.3 Performance Qualification Records. For each
ASME SF-2600 or the requirements in this Standard.
fusing operator seeking qualification, a qualified super-
NOTE: The operator may be qualified to fuse all sizes and wall visor shall compile a Performance Qualification Record
thicknesses that are within the range of the fusing machine by (PQR) that documents both acceptable and unacceptable
being trained on fusing the smallest size in DR 11 or lower and test results.
the largest size in DR 17 or lower that the machine is capable of
(a) There is no required format for a PQR. Any PQR
fusing.
format may be used.
(b) Qualification of a fusing operator for joining liners (b) The documentation shall identify, at a minimum
requires that the operator make specimens in accordance (1) the JPS used
with the requirements for the specific liner types. (2) the essential variables required for the JPS
(c) The fusing equipment used to qualify butt-fusion (3) the written test, and the examination methods
operators shall be of the same type and from the same used to evaluate the test specimens
manufacturer as that used in the field. (4) the limits of qualification for the fusing operator,
NOTE: An automated data logger or manual record of the fusing i.e., whether the fusing operator is qualified only for
parameters used to make the test specimen shall be provided for certain sizes or liner types
documentation. (c) The supervisor shall be trained to the requirements
(d) Currently Qualified Personnel. Personnel currently of paras. I-13.2.1(b) through I-13.2.1(d). The trained
qualified by the employer or agent to the requirements in supervisor shall supervise the testing.
this Appendix shall be considered qualified under this
I-13.2.4 Acceptance of Test Results
Appendix, provided the basis for their qualification
meets all the requirements of this Appendix. In such (a) Acceptance of test results shall be the responsibility
cases, a certification form shall be initiated and signed of the qualified supervisor or agent.
by the employer to verify compliance with this Appendix. (b) Qualification records shall be signed and dated by
the qualified supervisor or agent after satisfactory
I-13.2 Fusing Operator Test completion of the written examination and performance
The fusing operator test shall comprise a written exam- test.
ination and a performance test. (c) Qualification records shall reference and may
include mechanical test and nondestructive examination
I-13.2.1 Written Examination test reports that are signed by others.
(a) The supervisor shall be trained to the requirements (d) An Operator Identification number is assigned to
of (b) through (d). The trained supervisor shall supervise the fusing operator when the fusing written test and
the testing. test specimens are approved by the qualified supervisor
(b) The written test shall consist of a minimum of 20 or agent. The fusing Operator Identification number is
questions. recorded in the Fusing Operator Identification log or
(c) The operator shall answer 80% of the questions other list of Operator Identification numbers.
correctly. I-13.2.5 Test Failure. A fusing operator who fails the
(d) The written test shall cover written test or the performance test may be retested at the
(1) safety option of the qualified supervisor.
(2) fundamentals of the fusing process (a) If the fusing operator fails the written examination,
(3) identification of typical fusing errors he or she shall first pass the written examination before
(4) fusion equipment operation and maintenance taking the performance test.
(5) Fusing Procedure Specification to be used by the (b) If the fusing operator passes the written examina-
operator for butt fusion or electrofusion tion but fails the performance test, the qualified super-
(6) data logger operation (for hydraulic fusing visor shall determine the training needed and then
machines or electrofusion universal controllers) retrain as required before allowing the fusing operator
(7) visual inspection of the finished joint to retake the performance test.
(8) destructive testing methods or performance
tests

80
ASME NM.1-2018

I-13.3 Expiration and Revocation of Performance para. I-13.4.6.1. Procedures for renewal of qualifications
Qualification, and Requalification are given in para. I-13.3.
(d) The fusing operator responsible for fusing JPS
(a) The performance qualification of a fusing operator qualification test coupons for qualifying the JPS shall
shall be affected when one of the following conditions be also qualified as a fusing operator within the limits
occurs: of the essential performance qualification variables
(1) When the fusing operator has not fused PA-11, given in
PP, PVDF, or PTFE/PFA during a period of 6 months, his or (1) para. I-9.1 for PA-11 butt fusion
her qualifications for this process shall be considered (2) para. I-9.2 for electrofusion
expired. (3) para. I-9.3 for fusion welding of PP, PVDF, and
(2) A fusing operator whose qualification expires as a PTFE liners
result of (1) shall be permitted to requalify by making one
test fusion. If the test fusion meets the requirements of the I-13.4.3 Identification of Fusing Machine Operators.
JPS, then all of the fusing operator’s previous qualifica- Each qualified fusing operator shall be assigned an iden-
tions for fusing PA-11, PP, PVDF, and PTFE/PFA shall tifying number, letter, or symbol by the organization that
be reinstated. shall be used to identify production fused joints completed
(3) When there is a specific reason (e.g., one or more by the fusing operator (see para. I-13.2.3). The identifica-
failed butt-fusion joints) to question a fusing operator’s tion of Fusing Machine Operators shall be applied as
ability to make fusion joints that meet the specification, follows:
the operator’s qualifications for that type of fusing shall be (a) PA-11 fusing operators shall identify the butt-
revoked. fusion weld on the PA-11 pipe or fusion joint.
(4) A fusing operator whose qualification is revoked (b) Lined-pipe fusing operators shall mark the steel
as a result of (3) shall be permitted to requalify by first pipe once the mechanical coupling has been installed.
passing the written examination and then successfully I-13.4.4 Record of Tests. The record of the fusing
completing the performance qualification test(s) that operator’s joining performance qualification tests shall
support the qualification(s) questioned. include
(b) Maximum duration of fusing operator’s qualifica- (a) the qualified ranges of essential performance vari-
tion shall be 1 yr. ables
NOTE: Requalification within a time frame shorter than 1 yr can (b) the type of tests performed
place an undue economic burden on the owner or operator. (c) test results for each fusing operator

I-13.4.5 Fusing Machine Operator Qualification


I-13.4 Requirements for Performance
Records Required for Butt-Fusion Joining
Qualification Tests
(a) Butt-Fusion Joint for Evaluation
This section lists the essential variables that apply to
(1) The following data shall be recorded:
fusing machine operator performance qualifications.
(-a) interfacial fusing pressure within the JPS or
The fusing operator qualification is limited by the essential
SJPS range.
variables given for the fusing process. These variables are
(-b) heater surface temperature within the JPS or
listed in Tables I-8-1, I-8-2, and I-8-3.
SJPS range.
I-13.4.1 Intent of Tests. The fusing operator perfor- (-c) Butt-fusing pressure applied during the
mance qualification tests shall determine the ability of fusing/cool cycle should be calculated to include the
fusing operators to make sound fused joints when drag pressure. The drag pressure shall be within the
following a qualified JPS or SJPS. JPS or SJPS range for the applicable size (e.g., pipe
diameter). The calculated drag pressure plus the fusion
I-13.4.2 Use of Procedure Specifications in Qualifica- pressure should agree with the recorded hydraulic
tion Tests fusing pressure.
(a) Each organization shall qualify each fusing operator NOTE: No drag pressure is used when calculating fusion pressure
for the fusing process to be used in production. for PP, PVDF, and PTFE liners when a manual fusing machine is
(b) The performance qualification tests shall be used. Butt-fusing pressure shall be reduced to a value less than
completed using a qualified JPS. or equal to the drag pressure at the beginning of the heat soak
cycle.
(c) A fusing operator qualified for fusing in accordance
with a qualified JPS or SJPS shall be qualified for fusing in (2) When a manual butt-fusion machine is used,
accordance with other qualified JPSs or SJPSs within instructions shall provide
the limits of the fusing operator essential performance (-a) visual indications of the size
variables. The fusing operator shall pass visual and (-b) shape of the butt-fusion bead when heat and
mechanical examination requirements described in pressure are applied

81
ASME NM.1-2018

(3) The fusing machine shall be opened at the end of (e) The data record for the fusing operator perfor-
the heat soak cycle, the heater removed, and the pipe joint mance qualification test shall be reviewed and compared
ends brought together at the fusing pressure within the to the JPS or SJPS to verify observance of the specified
time frame specified by the JPS or SJPS. variables applied when completing the fused test joint.
(4) Cooling time at butt-fusing pressure shall be the
minimum time specified by the JPS or SJPS. If the recorded I-13.4.6.2 Electrofusion
data is outside the limits of the JPS or SJPS, the joint shall be (a) There shall be no visible evidence on external and
declared unacceptable. accessible internal surfaces of cracks, excess internal (I.D.)
(5) In addition to the data listed in (1), for PA-11, melt caused by overheating, fitting malfunction, or incom-
documentation of the essential variables listed in plete fusion.
Table I-8-1 shall be noted. The additional data listed (1) Burn-through, pipe wall collapse, and melt extru-
in (1) and the essential variables for fusion welding of sion between the pipe ends shall not be acceptable.
PP, PVDF, and PTFE steel pipe liners are provided in (2) Maximum fit-up gap, or maximum misalignment
Table I-8-3. and out-of-roundness, shall be within JPS limits.
(b) Electrofusion Joint for Evaluation (b) The data record for the fusing operator perfor-
(1) All essential variables listed in Table I-8-2 shall mance qualification test shall be reviewed and compared
be recorded. to the JPS to verify observance of the specified variables
(2) Each element listed in Tables I-8-1 and I-8-2 applied when completing the fused test joint.
shall be considered during operator evaluation. (c) Evidence of scraping at the end of the electrofusion
(3) There shall be no electrical fault during fusing coupling shall be present.
operation. (d) Sectioned Electrofusion Joints. Voids due to trapped
air or shrinkage during the cooling process shall be accept-
I-13.4.6 Visual Examination of Test Specimens
able only if round or elliptical in shape with no sharp
(a) For pipe and electrofusion coupons, all surfaces corners, and provided they meet the following require-
shall be examined visually before cutting specimens. ments (see ASME SF-2600):
(b) Pipe test coupons shall be visually examined as (1) Individual voids shall not exceed 10% of the
outlined in paras. I-13.4.6.1 and I-13.4.6.2. fusion zone length.
(2) Multiple voids shall not exceed a combined total
I-13.4.6.1 Visual Examination
of 20% of the fusion zone length.
I-13.4.6.1.1 Butt Fusion — PA-11. There shall be no (3) When voids are detected, additional sections or
visible evidence of cracks or incomplete fusing. Bubbles examinations shall be made to verify that the void does not
are allowed in the fusion beads. Fusion beads shall exhibit follow a diametric path connecting with the pressure-
proper fused bead configuration. See Figure I-9.1-1 for containing area of the joint (see ASME SF-2600).
proper configuration. NOTE: With the owner’s approval, NDE can be used as an alter-
(a) Fused joints shall not display visible angular misa- native to using sectioned electrofusion joints.
lignment, and outside diameter mismatch shall be less
than 10% of the nominal wall thickness. I-13.4.7 Evaluation of Operator Performance Tests
(b) The data record for the fusing operator perfor-
mance qualification test shall be reviewed and compared I-13.4.7.1 Performance Test for Fusing PA-11
to the JPS or SJPS to verify observance of the specified (a) A specimen joint shall be cut into at least three lon-
variables applied when completing the fused test joint. gitudinal bend test pieces, each of which is deformed by
torque or impact.
I-13.4.6.1.2 Butt Fusion — PP, PVDF, and PFA/
(1) If a failure occurs, the fracture shall not initiate in
PTFE
the joint area.
(a) There shall be no visible evidence of cracks or (2) The test shall be conducted using a bend test.
incomplete fusing. (b) Upon passing the performance test and the written
(b) Joints shall exhibit proper fused bead configuration. test, the operator shall be qualified for 1 yr.
(c) See Figure I-8.2-1 for a description of the proper
fused bead configuration. No bead forms when the I-13.4.7.2 Performance Test for Fusing Liners
PFA/PTFE joint is created. (a) Each of the three to five butt-fused lined steel pipe
(d) Fused joints shall not display visible angular misa- samples from each pipe size shall be hydrostatically tested
lignment, and outside diameter mismatch shall be less at 3 103 kPa (450 psig).
than 10% of the nominal wall thickness. (b) The hydrostatic test pressure at any point in the
thermoplastic-lined metallic piping system shall not be
less than 1.5 times the design pressure, but shall not

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ASME NM.1-2018

exceed 1.5 times the maximum rated pressure of the (1) One butt-fusion joint or electrofusion coupling
lowest rated component in the system. shall be made of the size or range to be qualified.
(c) The test shall be conducted for a minimum of 10 When a size range is to be qualified, the smallest size
min. and largest size shall be tested.
(2) When more than one size pipe is qualified, more
I-13.4.7.3 Performance Test for Electrofusion. One
than one butt-fusion machine may be required. For elec-
electrofusion coupon shall be prepared, on which
trofusion, the same equipment is used to qualify the smal-
either of the following tests may be performed at
lest size and the largest size to be tested.
ambient temperature between 16°C and 27˚C (60°F
and 80°F): NOTE: If a butt-fusion joint of only one size is required on a butt-
(a) Electrofusion Bend Test. Four electrofusion bend fusion machine, the joint shall be made on the manufacturer’s
machine to be used in the field.
test specimens shall be removed in accordance with
ASME SF-2600. (3) The performance test shall include making one
(b) Crush Test. Test specimens shall be prepared and butt-fused joint. The joint shall be inspected and destruc-
tested in accordance with ASME SF-2600. tively tested.
(4) The results of the test shall demonstrate an ac-
I-13.4.8 Requalification. After 1 yr, a fusing operator
ceptable joint.
shall be requalified by passing the required written test
(5) The performance tests are detailed in the
and performance test.
following paragraphs:
(a) The butt-fusion and electrofusion performance
(-a) for fusing PA-11, para. I-13.4.7.1
tests shall be conducted for the size or size range to
(-b) for fusing liners, para. I-13.4.7.2
be qualified.
(-c) for electrofusion, para. I-13.4.7.3
(b) The requirements for passing the written test are in
para. I-13.2.1.

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ASME NM.1-2018

MANDATORY APPENDIX II
THREADED THERMOPLASTIC CONNECTIONS

II-1 SCOPE II-1.4 Temperature Limitations


This Appendix provides information for threaded ther- The temperature range of the application shall be
moplastic components manufactured in accordance with reviewed with the manufacturer before design.
existing ASME standards.
Manufactured threaded thermoplastic components for II-2 THREADED JOINT DESIGN
which no ASME standards exist shall be qualified by
testing and by providing data as required by this Standard. II-2.1 Threaded Joint Design for Listed
The limitations listed in paras. II-1.1 through II-1.4 Thermoplastics
apply to thermoplastics manufactured in accordance
with ASME standards and those not manufactured to The following requirements shall apply to threaded
ASME standards. joint design for PVC and CPVC components:
(a) The thermoplastic pipe threads shall conform to
II-1.1 General Limitations ASTM F1498 or as specified by the design engineer. Ther-
moplastic piping components with metal threads shall
(a) Threaded thermoplastic connections shall not be conform to ASME B1.20.1.
used in fuel gas applications. (b) Components threaded into the thermoplastic
(b) Threaded connections that are not specially threaded connections shall be tapered.
designed for compressed-air service shall not be used (1) Metal threads shall be made with a taper
in compressed-air or other compressed-gas applications. described in ASME B1.20.1.
Only manufactured threaded products designed to be (2) Thermoplastic threads shall be made with a taper
used in compressed-air or other compressed-gas applica- described in ASTM F1498.
tions may be used for such applications. (3) The taper shall be compatible for each male and
(c) Threaded thermoplastic connections shall not be female size component.
used in ASME B31.3 Category M service (toxic fluids or (c) Thread shapes other than those described in (a)
gases). This includes threaded thermoplastic flange and (b) may be used if testing shows that the shapes
connections. are designed to provide for strength in axial loads and
leak-tight sealing.
II-1.2 Size Limitations (d) Threaded thermoplastic CPVC and PVC connections
(a) Only threaded connections less than 25 mm (1 in.) shall be field tested for acceptance following the design
may be used for instrument connections in process piping test requirements for the pipeline.
systems.
(b) The threading of pipe shall be limited to Schedule II-2.2 Threaded Joint Design for Nonlisted
80 wall thickness or thicker for all pressure applications of Thermoplastics
PVC and CPVC pipe. For other thermoplastics, Schedule 80 (a) The threaded joint design requirements in para.
or equivalent shall be as specified by the design engineer. II-2.1 shall apply to components made of nonlisted ther-
(c) Testing to verify thread strength shall be performed moplastics.
in addition to the standard acceptance test for the pipe- (b) The design engineer shall specify testing and test
line. See requirements in Nonmandatory Appendix A, conditions for acceptance of nonlisted thermoplastic
Table A-3-1. threaded connections in the piping system.
(d) The maximum size molded adapter shall be 168 mm
(6.625 in.). II-2.3 Mechanical Load Design
II-1.3 Pressure Limitations In addition to pressure loading, the following mechan-
ical loads can have detrimental effects and shall be consid-
The maximum pressure allowed in molded threaded ered based on the risk of failure of the threaded joint:
adapters shall be as shown in Table II-1.3-1. (a) deadweight

84
ASME NM.1-2018

(b) thermal expansion and contraction (a) PVC and CPVC Adapters
(c) environmental loads such as wind, seismic, snow, (1) Molded threaded adapters are external and
and ice internal. Solvent-cement joining shall be used to attach
(d) vibration the nonthreaded end of a molded PVC or CPVC adapter
(e) thermal shock to a pipe or component.
(f) pressure surge (including changes in velocity) (2) CPVC and PVC materials used to make threaded
(1) For threaded pipe, the maximum pressure rating adapters shall meet the requirements of ASME NM.3.1.
shall not be greater than 50% of the wall thickness of the (3) Molded PVC fittings shall comply with either
pipe. ASME SD-2464 or ASME SD-2467.
(2) A pipe rated at 1 379 kPa (200 psi) may have a (4) Molded CPVC threaded adapters shall meet the
threaded joint with a pressure rating of 689 kPa (100 psi). requirements of ASME SF-437.
This requirement shall apply to PVC, CPVC, and other ther- (5) Molded threaded adapters shall be tested as
moplastics. required in the applicable specification [see (2)
and (3)]. A manufacturer of molded threaded adapters
II-2.4 Threaded Joint Assembly shall show compliance to the specification to which the
Threaded connections shall be assembled according to threaded adapters were molded.
the requirements provided by the manufacturer for the (6) The maximum pressure rating for molded PVC
application or published recommendations for the appli- and CPVC threaded adapters shall be as listed in
cation. The following requirements also apply: Table II-1.3-1.
(a) The maximum and minimum torque limits shall be (b) Adapters Made of Other Thermoplastics. The
identified and respected. following requirements apply to threaded adapters
(b) Backing off threaded joints to allow for alignment made of ABS, PP, or PVDF:
shall not be performed. (1) Molded threaded adapters are male and female.
(c) Threaded PVC and CPVC connections require The method of attaching the adapter to a pipe or compo-
thread sealant. The design engineer shall determine nent shall be specified by the manufacturer. The design
which other thermoplastic threaded connections engineer shall follow the requirements of this Standard for
require sealant. listed thermoplastics.
(1) Sealant shall be compatible with the thermo- (2) The thermoplastics shall meet the requirements
plastic materials used at the joint. of ASME NM.3.1 or shall be approved by the design engi-
(2) Sealant shall be compatible with the fluids to be neer using test data (and shall be identified as not
used in the pipe once the system is in service. conforming to ASME NM.3.1).
(3) Sealant is not required if the joint is to be subse- (3) The design engineer shall specify the require-
quently sealed with overlay materials. ments for molded threaded adapters made from ABS,
(4) Tape-type thread sealants shall not be mixed PP, or PVDF. This shall include minimum wall thickness
with paste sealants. and dimensions of the molded fittings. The pressure rating
(d) Any compound or lubricant used in threaded joints shall be verified by testing approved by the design engi-
shall be suitable for the service conditions and shall be neer.
compatible with the piping material. II-2.5.2 Threaded Pipe Ends. Threaded pipe ends are
(e) Primers or solvent cement created by cutting or machining threads into the ends of
(1) shall not be applied to threads on pipe or threads extruded thermoplastic pipes. Pressure limitations of
on fittings threaded pipe ends shall be as listed in Table II-2.5.2-1
(2) shall not be allowed to run or drip into the for materials with an ASME standard or if the pipe material
threaded portion of the fitting complies with an ASME specification; if there is no ASME
(f) Metallic threads shall not be screwed into plastic specification for the pipe material, the pressure limitation
internal threads except those that have metal reinforce- shall be determined by testing.
ment. (a) PVC and CPVC Pipe
(1) Only Schedule 80 or thicker PVC or CPVC pipe
II-2.5 Molded Threaded Adapters and Threaded may be threaded.
Pipe Ends (2) CPVC and PVC pipe used for threading shall meet
II-2.5.1 Molded Threaded Adapters. Molded threaded the requirements of ASME NM.3.1.
adapters are those made by injection molding of thermo- (3) The maximum allowed pipe size to be threaded
plastics. They shall comply with the following require- shall be DN 100 (NPS 4).
ments: (4) When pipe is threaded by a contractor or
supplier, samples of all sizes to be used in an ASME-
stamped thermoplastic piping system shall be fitted

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ASME NM.1-2018

Table II-1.3-1 Pressure Ratings for Molded PVC and CPVC Threaded Adapters
Pressure–Temperature Rating,
Actual Pipe Size, kPa (psi) at 23°C (73°F)
Nominal Pipe Size, DN (NPS) mm (in.) Type of Adapter [Note (1)]
13 (0.50) 21.336 (0.840) PVC Sch. 40 2 068.4 (300)
PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 2 930.27 (425)
19 (0.75) 26.670 (1.050) PVC Sch. 40 1 654.74 (240)
PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 2 378.69 (345)
25 (1.00) 33.401 (1.315) PVC Sch. 40 1 551.32 (225)
PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 2 171.85 (315)
32 (1.25) 42.164 (1.660) PVC Sch. 40 1 275.53 (185)
PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 1 792.64 (260)
38 (1.50) 48.260 (1.900) PVC Sch. 40 1 137.63 (165)
PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 1 620.27 (235)
51 (2.00) 60.325 (2.375) PVC Sch. 40 925.27 (140)
PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 1 378.95 (200)
76 (3.00) 88.900 (3.500) PVC Sch. 40 896.32 (130)
PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 1 275.53 (185)
102 (4.00) 114.300 (4.500) PVC Sch. 40 758.42 (110)
PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 1 103.16 (160)
152 (6.00) 168.275 (6.625) PVC Sch. 40 620.53 (90)
NOTE: (1) When higher temperatures are used, the manufacturer’s temperature–pressure rating for the temperature shall be used. In no case
shall threaded connections be used at pressures or temperatures higher than the manufacturer’s ratings.

Table II-2.5.2-1 Pressure Ratings for PVC and CPVC Field-Threaded Pipe Ends

Nominal Pipe Actual Pipe Type of Threaded Pressure–Temperature Rating, kPa (psi) at 23°C (73°F) [Note(1)]
Size, DN (NPS) Size, mm (in.) Pipe Ends Before Threading Threaded Pipe End
13 (0.50) 21.336 (0.840) PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 5 860.5 (850) 2 930 (425)
19 (0.75) 26.670 (1.050) PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 4 757 (690) 2 378 (345)
25 (1.00) 33.401 (1.315) PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 4 344 (630) 2 172 (315)
32 (1.25) 42.164 (1.660) PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 3 585 (520) 1 793 (260)
38 (1.50) 48.260 (1.900) PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 3 241 (470) 1 621 (235)
50 (2.00) 60.325 (2.375) PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 2 758 (400) 1 379 (200)
76 (3.00) 88.900 (3.500) PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 2 551 (370) 1 276 (185)
101 (4.00) 114.300 (4.500) PVC Sch. 80/CPVC Sch. 80 2 206 (320) 1 103 (160)
NOTE: (1) When higher temperatures are used, the manufacturer’s temperature–pressure rating shall be used. In no case shall threaded connec-
tions be used at pressures or temperatures higher than ratings.

together and the resulting assembly tested for joint tight- (b) Pipe Made of Other Thermoplastics. The following
ness using ASME SF-1970, section 8.3. requirements apply to threaded pipe ends on pipes
(-a) The test requirements of this section are made of thermoplastics other than PVC or CPVC:
above the system test pressure. (1) The minimum wall thickness of the pipe shall be
(-b) The tested components shall not be used in Schedule 80 or equivalent as specified by the design engi-
the piping system. neer.
See Table II-2.5.2-1 for pressure rating of molded NOTE: A greater wall thickness may be used.
PVC and CPVC field-threaded pipe.
(2) Thermoplastic pipe shall be selected from listings
in ASME NM.3.1.

86
ASME NM.1-2018

(3) The maximum allowed thermoplastic pipe size to (3) The assembly of threaded connections conforms
be threaded shall be DN 100 (NPS 4). to section II-2.
(4) When pipe end is threaded by a contractor or (4) The manufacturer of molded thermoplastic
supplier, samples of all sizes to be used in the thermo- threaded adapters has provided a certificate of confor-
plastic piping system shall be tested using the test and mance for each lot of molded components.
inspection requirements of the design engineer. (5) Threaded pipe ends meet the requirements of
para. II-2.5.2.
II-2.6 Test Report (b) For other thermoplastics (ABS, PP, and PVDF), the
design engineer shall provide the tests needed. In addition
(a) The design engineer shall provide a test report that
to the details in (a), the design engineer’s test report shall
documents the results of the tests in paras. II-2.5.2(a)(4)
include the following:
and II-2.5.2(b)(4) and that verifies the following:
(1) a description of the thermoplastic material
(1) The threaded connections are being used only in
(2) a description of the thermoplastic threaded form
approved applications.
(3) a description of each test (including duration and
(2) Thermoplastic threads conform to ASTM F1498.
pressure)
Metallic threads to be used with thermoplastic compo-
(4) a statement indicating whether there was
nents conform to ASME B1.20.1. Threads other than
leakage or breakage
those conforming to this paragraph may be used; if
(c) The test report shall be retained as required by the
such threads are used, the design engineer shall
design engineer for all phases of the project.
provide the test requirements for these threads.

87
ASME NM.1-2018

MANDATORY APPENDIX III


ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR THERMOPLASTIC JOINTS

III-1 SCOPE (e) When available from the equipment used to


monitor hydraulic and thermal variables, the data acqui-
The requirements in this Appendix apply to visual sition record for the fused joint may be compared with the
inspection for acceptance or rejection of HDPE butt- FPS to verify that parameters and procedures were
fusion joints and PVC/CPVC solvent-welded joints. followed in making the fused joint. This provision may
become mandatory when specified.
III-2 POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) BUTT-FUSED
JOINTS III-3 PVC AND CPVC SOLVENT-CEMENT-WELDED
Butt-fused joints shall meet the following: JOINTS
(a) Fused butt joints shall exhibit proper fusion bead Solvent-cement-welded joints shall meet the following:
configuration. Figure I-8.2-1 in Mandatory Appendix I (a) As a result of the solvent-welding process, a bead of
depicts acceptable and unacceptable thermally fused solvent cement can sometimes be found at the socket
bead configurations. entrance. Excessive cement will slow the cure time,
(b) There shall be no evidence of cracks or incomplete and the bead should be removed immediately after the
fusion. solvent-welding process, while the cement is still wet.
(c) Fusion joints, except for miter joints, shall not be (b) In cases where a cement bead did not form at the
visually angled or offset >3 deg. The O.D. mismatch socket entrance, there is a possibility for the cement to
shall be less than 10% of the nominal wall thickness. shrink back down into the socket. If shrink-back is
(d) The cleavage between fusion beads shall not extend observed at the socket entrance, then the depth of the
to or below the O.D. pipe surface (see Figure I-8.2-1 in pocket (“A” in Figure III-3-1) shall not be greater than
Mandatory Appendix I). the thickness of the socket wall (“B” in Figure III-3-1).

Figure III-3-1 Solvent-Cement-Weld Shrink-Back Appearance (Cross-Sectional View)

B
B

(a) Acceptable: A # B (b) Unacceptable: A . B

88
ASME NM.1-2018

MANDATORY APPENDIX IV
STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS AND FLEXIBILITY FACTORS

Table IV-1 begins on the following page.

89
Table IV-1 Stress Intensification Factors, i, and Flexibility Factors, k, for High-Density Polyethylene
Flexibility Flexibility Factor, k Stress Intensification Factor, i
Description Characteristic, h [Note (1)] [Note (1)] Sketch
Straight pipe N/A 1.0 1.0 N/A
Butt-fusion joint N/A 1.0 1.0 N/A
Molded elbow tnR ... 1.25
r2 h2/3 tn
r

Miter elbow s ≥ r(1 + tan θ) (1 + cot ) In-plane loading 1.7


S/2
[Note (2)] DR 1 [Note (3)] h2/3
or 1.1 S tn
r
h5/6
tn(1 + cot )
R
2r

s cot
R

ASME NM.1-2018
2

Equal outlet molded tee 4.4tn 1.0 ib =


1.73
90

[Note (4)] r h2/3 r


D tn
1.17
ir =
h2/3

Equal outlet mitered tee 4.4tn 8.8 1.0 4.45


or ib =
r DR 1 h2/3 r
D tn
2.21
ir =
h2/3

Sidewall fusion branch N/A 1.0 2/3 i y


ji R zy jij T b zyzjjj r m zzz
connection ib = 1.74jjjj m zzzz
T'b
jj z
[Note (5)] j T zzjjjj r zzzz 1.5
k Tr { k r {k p { r'm

rp Tr
2/3 r
iR y jij p yzz
ir = 1.54jjjj m zzzz jj zz 1.5
k Tr { k Rm {
Rm
Table IV-1 Stress Intensification Factors, i, and Flexibility Factors, k, for High-Density Polyethylene (Cont’d)
Flexibility Flexibility Factor, k Stress Intensification Factor, i
Description Characteristic, h [Note (1)] [Note (1)] Sketch
Electrofusion saddle fitting N/A 1.0 1.0
[Note (6)]

Electrofusion coupling N/A 1.0 1.0

ASME NM.1-2018
Concentric monolithic reducers N/A 1.0 1/2
ij D yzij D yz
0.5 + 0.32jjjj 1 zzzzjjjj 2 zzzz
91

2.5 t1
k D2 {k t2 { t2
D1 D2

Concentric fabricated reducers N/A 1.0 i D yi D y


1/2
0.5 + 0.40jjjj 1 zzzzjjjj 2 zzzz 3.0 t1
t2
k D 2 {k t 2 { D2
D1

Fabricated, machined, or N/A 1.0 i D yi D y


1/2
molded thrust collar 0.5 + 0.40jjjj 1 zzzzjjjj 2 zzzz 3.0
k D 2 {k t 2 { t2

D 2 D1
Table IV-1 Stress Intensification Factors, i, and Flexibility Factors, k, for High-Density Polyethylene (Cont’d)
Flexibility Flexibility Factor, k Stress Intensification Factor, i
Description Characteristic, h [Note (1)] [Note (1)] Sketch
Metallic-to-PE bolted flange N/A 1.0 1.0
connection

Full-face ring
gasket: steel
pipe I.D. to
bolt-circle I.D.

Gasket

ASME NM.1-2018
92

HDPE-to-HDPE bolted flanged N/A 1.0 1.0


connections

Full-face gasket:
pipe I.D. to
bolt-ring O.D.

Gasket

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) The following nomenclature applies to this Table only for use in determining stress indices, stress intensification factors, and flexibility factors:
D1 = nominal O.D. of the larger side of a concentric fabricated reducer or the diameter of the thrust collar
D2 = nominal O.D. of the smaller side of a concentric fabricated reducer or the nominal pipe diameter of a thrust collar
DO = pipe O.D.
DR = pipe dimension ratio
x = Do/Tn
Table IV-1 Stress Intensification Factors, i, and Flexibility Factors, k, for High-Density Polyethylene (Cont’d)
GENERAL NOTES: (Cont’d):
R = nominal bend radius of elbow or pipe bend, mm (in.)
r = mean radius of pipe, mm (in.) (matching pipe for elbows and tees)
S = miter spacing at centerline, mm (in.)
T2 = nominal thickness of the smaller side of a concentric fabricated reducer or the nominal pipe thickness of a thrust collar
Tn = nominal wall thickness of pipe, mm (in.) (matching pipe for elbows and tees)
Tr = nominal wall thickness of run pipe, mm (in.)
θ = one-half angle between adjacent miter axes, deg
(b) All abutting piping fittings of differing DRs shall meet the requirements of Figure 2-3.2.4-1, illustration (a) or illustration (b), as applicable.
NOTES:
(1) The stress intensification factors, i, and the flexibility factors, k, shall not be taken as less than 1.0. They are applicable to moments in any plane for fittings except as noted.
(2) One-half miter angle, θ, shall be limited to ≤11.25 deg.
(3) The flexibility factor, k, is applicable only for in-plane bending moment loading.
(4) The tee thickness, tn, shall be 1.4 times the pipe thickness, Tr (1.4Tr).
(5) The ratio ODbranch/ODrun shall be <0.4.
(6) The ratio ODbranch/ODrun shall be <0.6.

ASME NM.1-2018
93
ASME NM.1-2018

MANDATORY APPENDIX V
ONE-PIECE THERMOPLASTIC FLANGES

V-1 SCOPE (a) hydraulic pressure


(b) surge pressure at the highest design flow
This Appendix covers one-piece thermoplastic flanges. (c) thermal expansion and contractions
These one-piece flanges shall be made from ABS, CPVC, PP, (d) bending forces
PVC, or PVDF thermoplastics. The joining methods that (e) misalignment of the flanges
shall be used to join one-piece flanges to thermoplastic (f) force specific to the application
pipe are solvent-cement welding, heat fusion, or threaded
connections. V-2.1 Total Forces
NOTES:
(1) One-piece thermoplastic flanges are generally manufac- (a) For calculation purposes, the following equation
tured using injection molding or fabrication methods. may be used to determine the total force:
(2) One-piece thermoplastic flange connections are intended for total force = WPfl + SPfl + Tex-con + B + Fa
use in systems normally conveying liquids. One-piece ther-
moplastic flanges specifically designed and manufactured where
for compressed-air or other compressed-gas applications B = bending stress, kPa (psi)
may be used in compressed-gas applications.
Fa = force applications specific forces (earth-
quake, vibration, etc.), kPa (psi)
V-1.1 Typical Drawings of One-Piece Fma = misalignment, kPa (psi)
Thermoplastic Flanges SPfl = surge pressure at the highest velocity, kPa
Figure V-1.1-1 shows a thermoplastic flange used for (psi)
solvent-cement connections and socket connections Tex-con = thermal expansion and contraction for the
made with heat. design operating temperature range, kPa
(psi)
V-1.2 Threaded Configuration WPfl = working pressure rating of the components,
kPa (psi)
Figure V-1.2-1 shows threaded connections used with
various thermoplastics.
(b) The equation in (a) shall require modification based
on characteristics of the specific thermoplastic material or
V-2 DESIGN application-related requirements.
The following loads shall be considered in determining
the force needed to make a leak-free seal with a one-piece V-2.2 Bolt Circle
flange: (a) Standard. The dimensions for standard bolt circles
shall be those used in ASME B16.5 for sizes from DN 15 to
DN 600 (NPS 1∕2 to NPS 24).
Figure V-1.1-1 Socket Configuration
(b) Metric. Metric bolt circles may be used. Dimensions
M are provided in Nonmandatory Appendix A, Table
A-2.1-2.

V-2.3 Reinforcing Rings


L
R (a) Metallic or nonmetallic reinforcing rings may be
used with one-piece thermoplastic flanges. See
N Figure V-2.3-1.
Bolt-circle diameter
(b) The pressure rating of the one-piece flange shall not
Max. O.D.
be increased when reinforcing rings are used.

94
ASME NM.1-2018

Figure V-1.2-1 Threaded Configuration V-3 PROOF-TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR ONE-


M
PIECE THERMOPLASTIC FLANGES

V-3.1 Materials
(a) Listed Materials. The following materials are
L
R
currently listed for one-piece thermoplastic flanges:
N
Material Types

Bolt-circle diameter ABS N/A


CPVC N/A
Max. O.D.
PP Homopolymer, copolymer
PVC N/A
PVDF Homopolymer, copolymer
V-2.4 Washers
(b) Unlisted Materials. Unlisted thermoplastic mate-
Washers shall be used between the nut or bolt head and rials may be approved for use by following the require-
the one-piece thermoplastic flange or reinforcing ring. ments in ASME NM.3.3, Mandatory Appendix III.

V-2.5 Stress Relaxation of Thermoplastics V-3.2 Testing Requirements


Additional wall thickness may be needed to compensate V-3.2.1 Testing. Testing shall be conducted following
for stress relaxation. Each thermoplastic has a unique set the requirements listed in ASTM D1598, with the
of stress relaxation curves. following exceptions:
(a) The test pressure shall be 3.2 times the marked
V-2.6 Temperature operating pressure for the one-piece flange.
As temperature increases, modulus and tensile strength (b) The test shall only be conducted for 5 min after
decrease. Temperature-related changes in the physical reaching constant pressure.
properties of thermoplastics vary depending on the (c) The report shall only contain information related to
type of thermoplastic. See values for each thermoplastic the above test. A plot showing pressure equalization and
engineering property in ASME NM.3.3. constant pressure is required. No calculations of hoop
stress or plots of hoop stress are required.

V-3.2.2 Pressure Ratings


(a) General. The pressure rating of the one-piece flange
shall be based on the standard dimension ratio (SDR) or
dimension ratio (DR) or the Schedule of the components
being used. The SDR, DR, or Schedule of flange adapter
shall be determined using the highest temperature at
Figure V-2.3-1 One-Piece Thermoplastic Flange With which the piping system is expected to operate.
Reinforcing Rings
NOTE: The pressure rating of PVC and CPVC lap-joint flange
connections shall be limited to 1 034 kPa (150 psi) for Schedule
80 unless otherwise rated higher by the manufacturer following
the requirements of this Standard.
Bolts (b) Thermoplastic-Lined Metal Pipe. Connections of
Washers thermoplastic-lined metal pipe to one-piece flanges
Reinforcing ring
shall have the pressure rating of the component with
the lower rating. This pressure rating shall be used to
One-piece flange determine the proof-test pressure.
Gasket V-3.2.3 Gaskets. Gaskets, when used, shall be full face
Reinforcing ring for flange adapters not made to metric designs. Metric
designs shall follow the requirements in DVS 2210-1,
Washers Supplement 3.
Nuts V-3.2.4 Sampling. A sufficient quantity of flange
GENERAL NOTE: Hex head bolts are shown above. Studs or hex head connections as agreed on by the seller and purchaser
bolts may be used. shall be selected at random from each lot or shipment

95
ASME NM.1-2018

and tested to determine that the flange connections will V-4 SUBMITTAL INFORMATION FOR ONE-PIECE
pass the proof test. THERMOPLASTIC FLANGES
V-3.2.5 One-Piece Flange Connection V-4.1 PVC
(a) A one-piece flange connection is defined as Submittal information for PVC one-piece flanges shall
containing a flange, a metallic or nonmetallic reinforcing include dimensions as indicated below.
ring, a gasket (if required), bolts, nuts, and washers, plus a (a) If the one-piece flange is for socket joining, dimen-
joining method. sions shall conform to ASME SD-2467.
(b) The following identified joining methods for ther- (b) If the one-piece flange is for spigot joining, dimen-
moplastic lap-joint flanges may be used: sions shall conform to Schedule 40 or Schedule 80 pipe
(1) heat fusion dimensions.
(2) solvent-cement welding (c) If the one-piece flange is for threaded joining, the
(3) threaded connections threads shall meet the requirements of
Mandatory Appendix II.
V-3.2.6 Bolt Torque
(d) The bolt circle shall conform to ASME B16.5 or the
(a) General. The bolt torque required shall be deter- flange standard used for other metal components in the
mined by one of the following: system as required in the owner’s design specifications.
(1) The bolt torque recommended by the manufac- (e) The O.D. and the I.D. of the flange face shall be
turer of the flange adapter or the manufacturer of the provided.
backup ring shall be used with the specified full-face
gasket type and thickness. V-4.2 CPVC
(2) Torque calculations shall be based either on
Submittal information for CPVC one-piece flanges shall
sealing forces plus expected stress relaxation or on
include dimensions as indicated below.
gasket sealing stress plus expected stress relaxation.
(a) If the one-piece flange is for socket joining, dimen-
(b) Bolt Lubrication and Friction-Reducing Coated Bolts
sions shall conform to ASME SF-439.
(1) When method (a)(1) or (a)(2) is used to deter-
(b) If the one-piece flange is for spigot joining, dimen-
mine bolt torque, only bolts, nuts, and washers recom-
sions shall conform to Schedule 40 or Schedule 80 pipe
mended by the flange adapter manufacturer or the
dimensions.
backup ring manufacturer shall be used.
(c) Pipe used to make socket connections shall meet
(-a) Lubricate only if required by the manufactur-
required dimensions for Schedule 40 or Schedule 80
er.
pipe dimensions.
(-b) Use friction-reducing components only if
(d) If the one-piece flange is for threaded joining, the
specified by the manufacturer.
threads shall meet the requirements of Mandatory
(2) When torque calculations are used, only the bolts
Appendix II.
and nuts with the coefficient of friction used in calculations
(e) The O.D. and the I.D. of the flange face shall be
shall be used.
provided.
(3) During installation, bolts and nuts may be lubri-
(f) The bolt circle shall conform to ASME B16.5 or the
cated only if such lubrication is specified in accordance
flange standard used for other metal components in the
with (1)(-a) or (1)(-b).
system as required in the owner’s design specifications.
NOTE: Refer to ASME PCC-1 for more information on fit-up of
flanges. If using HDPE flanges and calculations from PPI TN-38, V-4.3 PVDF and PVDF Copolymer
use information on lubrication and k factors from this Standard.
Submittal information for PVDF or PVDF copolymer
V-3.2.7 Test Specimens. Specimens shall be tested one-piece flanges shall be provided with dimensions as
after the heat-fused or solvent-weld joint has had indicated below.
adequate time to cool or cure. (a) If the one-piece flange is for socket joining, female
socket dimensions shall conform to published socket
V-3.2.8 Proof-Testing Results. Proof-testing results dimensions; pipe dimensions shall comply with published
shall be part of the submittal information for one-piece dimensions for socket connections.
thermoplastic flanges (see section V-4). (b) If the one-piece flange is for spigot joining, dimen-
sions shall conform to PVDF or copolymer PVDF pipe
dimensions.
(c) If the one-piece flange is for threaded joining, the
threads shall meet the requirements of
Mandatory Appendix II. For materials not listed in

96
ASME NM.1-2018

Mandatory Appendix II, the manufacturer may provide (d) The O.D. and the I.D. of the flange face shall be
equivalent test data and descriptive information. provided.
(d) The bolt circle shall conform to ASME B16.5; or for
metric-dimension flange standards, ISO 7005 or EN 1092- V-4.5 ABS
1 shall be used. Other bolt-circle dimensions may be used if Submittal information for ABS one-piece flanges shall
required in the owner’s design specifications. be provided with dimensions as indicated below.
(e) The O.D. and the I.D. of the flange face shall be (a) If the one-piece flange is for female socket solvent
provided. welding, the dimensions shall conform to published socket
dimensions.
V-4.4 PP
(b) Pipe used for the male socket connection shall have
Submittal information for PP one-piece flanges shall be an O.D. that conforms to published dimensions needed for
provided with dimensions as indicated below. socket solvent welding.
(a) If the one-piece flange is for socket-fusion joining, (c) If the one-piece flange is for female threaded
dimensions shall conform to published socket dimensions connections, the threads shall meet the requirements
or PP pipe dimensions. of Mandatory Appendix II. For materials not listed in
(b) If the one-piece flange is for threaded joining, the Mandatory Appendix II, the manufacturer may provide
threads shall meet the requirements of equivalent test data and descriptive information.
Mandatory Appendix II. For materials not listed in (d) The bolt circle shall conform to ASME B16.5; or for
Mandatory Appendix II, the manufacturer may provide metric-dimension flange standards, ISO 7005 or EN 1092
equivalent test data and descriptive information. shall be used. Other bolt-circle dimensions may be used if
(c) The bolt circle shall conform to ASME B16.5; or for required in the owner’s design specifications.
metric-dimension flange standards, ISO 7005 or EN 1092 (e) The O.D. and the I.D. of the flange face shall be
shall be used. Other bolt-circle dimensions may be used if provided.
required in the owner’s design specifications.

97
ASME NM.1-2018

NONMANDATORY APPENDIX A
COMPONENTS FOR THERMOPLASTIC LAP-JOINT FLANGE
CONNECTIONS

A-1 SCOPE (d) Backup rings made to the requirements of ASME


B16.5 or ASME B16.47 may be used if they are made
(a) This Appendix is limited to components for thermo- with proper dimensions and I.D. corner radii for thermo-
plastic lap-joint flange (TLJF) connections (Van Stone plastic backup rings and flange adapters.
flanges). Components used in TLJF connections include
NOTE: ASME lapped flanges made with standard ASME I.D. and
backup rings and flange adapters, and may also
corner radii dimensions are for use in welded metallic piping
include fasteners, washers, and gaskets. Proof-test re-
systems; those dimensions do not meet the dimensional require-
quirements are in Table A-3-1. ments of this Standard for plastic piping systems.
(b) Metallic backup rings, thermoplastic backup rings,
reinforced thermoplastic backup rings, and thermoplastic (e) The backup ring O.D., bolt-hole diameter, and bolt-
flange adapters used in thermoplastic-lined metal piping circle dimensions shall conform to the following:
systems and reinforced thermoplastic piping systems are (1) ASME B16.5 Class 150 dimensions for nominal
included in this Appendix when requirements are the pipe sizes DN 15 to DN 600 (NPS 1∕2 to NPS 24)
same as or similar to those for thermoplastic piping (2) one of the following for DN 650 to DN 1350 (NPS
systems. 26 to NPS 54):
(-a) ASME B16.47 Class 150, Series A dimensions
(-b) ASME B16.1 Class 125 dimensions
A-2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BACKUP
(-c) AWWA C207 CL dimensions for Series B, D,
RINGS FOR TLJF CONNECTIONS and E flanges
For metric sizes, the bolt circles shall be drilled to the
A-2.1 Flange Adapters and Backup Rings for Butt-
dimensions in ISO 7005 and EN 1092.
Fusion Applications
NOTE: When the user’s design specification specifies bolt-circle
Backup rings for heat-fusion joining methods shall and bolt-hole dimensions, these dimensions shall be made to
conform to the dimensions in Table A-2.1-1 for NPS conform to these requirements. The requirements of this Stan-
sizes or Table A-2.1-2 for metric sizes and the following dard not related to dimensions shall be met.
general requirements: (f) The backup ring’s effective thickness shall be
(a) Nonmetallic or metallic backup rings, or metallic adequate to provide the initial and long-term seating
backup rings with nonmetallic encapsulation or stress for leak-free service. See test requirements in
coating, may be used. Table A-3-1.
(b) Backup rings made of metallic or nonmetallic mate- (1) Thermoplastic components for fire lines shall
rial, or combinations of metallic and nonmetallic mate- pass Factory Mutual or National Fire Protection Associa-
rials, when used with thermoplastic flange adapters, tion (NFPA) requirements in addition to the requirements
gaskets, washers, bolts, and nuts, shall pass the test re- in this Standard. When the requirements are the same,
quirements for the thermoplastic as described in additional testing may be omitted.
Table A-3-1. (2) The backup ring shall have a chamfer or radius
NOTE: Gaskets are optional for PE and other thermoplastics and that approximately matches the crotch radius of the ther-
liners used in thermoplastic-lined metallic pipe TLJF connec- moplastic flange adapter when required.
tions.
(c) Additional design requirements, when needed for
the backup rings, shall be provided in the owner’s spec-
ification.

98
ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-2.1-1 NPS Backup Rings for Thermoplastic Pipe

T [Note(1)] I.D. H

R
B.C.

O.D.

Bolt-Hole
Backup Ring O.D., Backup Ring Size, H, Bolt Circle,
Nominal Pipe O.D., mm (in.) I.D., No. of mm (in.) B.C., mm (in.) Radius, R,
Pipe Size mm (in.) [Note (2)] mm (in.) Bolts [Note (2)] [Note (2)] mm (in.)
1
∕2 21.34 (0.84) 88.90 (3.50) 22.86 (0.90) 4 15.88 (0.625) 60.452 (2.38) 2.5 to 3.8 (0.1 to 0.15)
3
∕4 26.67 (1.05) 98.55 (3.88) 28.19 (1.11) 4 15.88 (0.625) 69.85 (2.75) 2.5 to 3.8 (0.1 to 0.15)
1 33.40 (1.315) 107.95 (4.25) 35.05 (1.38) 4 15.88 (0.625) 79.502 (3.13) 2.5 to 3.8 (0.1 to 0.15)
11∕4 42.16 (1.66) 117.60 (4.63) 43.69 (1.72) 4 15.88 (0.625) 88.9 (3.50) 2.5 to 5.0 (0.1 to 0.20)
11∕2 48.26 (1.90) 127.00 (5.00) 50.04 (1.97) 4 15.88 (0.625) 98.552 (3.88) 2.5 to 7.6 (0.1 to 0.30)

2 60.33 (2.375) 152.40 (6.00) 62.48 (2.46) 4 19.05 (0.75) 120.65 (4.75) 2.5 to 11.4 (0.1 to 0.45)
3 88.90 (3.50) 190.50 (7.50) 95.25 (3.75) 4 19.05 (0.75) 152.4 (6.00) 2.5 to 11.4 (0.1 to 0.45)
4 114.30 (4.50) 228.60 (9.00) 120.65 (4.75) 8 19.05 (0.75) 190.5 (7.50) 2.5 to 11.4 (0.1 to 0.45)
6 168.28 (6.625) 279.40 (11.00) 174.75 (6.88) 8 22.23 (0.875) 241.3 (9.50) 2.5 to 11.4 (0.1 to 0.45)
8 219.08 (8.625) 342.90 (13.50) 225.55 (8.88) 8 22.23 (0.875) 298.45 (11.75) 3.8 to 11.4 (0.15 to 0.45)

10 273.05 (10.75) 406.40 (16.00) 279.40 (11.00) 12 25.4 (1.00) 361.95 (14.25) 3.8 to 11.4 (0.15 to 0.45)
12 323.85 (12.75) 482.60 (19.00) 327.66 (12.90) 12 25.4 (1.00) 431.8 (17.00) 3.8 to 11.4 (0.15 to 0.45)
14 355.6 (14.00) 533.40 (21.00) 360.17 (14.18) 12 28.58 (1.125) 476.25 (18.75) 5 to 11.4 (0.2 to 0.45)
16 406.4 (16.00) 596.90 (23.5) 416.05 (16.38) 16 28.58 (1.125) 539.242 (21.23) 5 to 11.4 (0.2 to 0.45)
18 457.2 (18.00) 635.00 (25.00) 462.28 (18.20) 16 31.75 (1.25) 577.85 (22.75) 5 to 14 (0.2 to 0.55)

20 508 (20.00) 698.50 (27.50) 517.65 (20.38) 20 31.75 (1.25) 635 (25.00) 8 to 14 (0.3 to 0.55)
22 558.8 (22.00) 749.30 (29.50) 568.33 (22.375) 20 34.93 (1.375) 692.15 (27.25) 5 to 10 (0.2 to 0.40)
24 609.6 (24.00) 812.80 (32.00) 619.13 (24.375) 20 34.93 (1.375) 749.3 (29.50) 5 to 10 (0.2 to 0.40)
28 711.2 (28.00) 927.10 (36.50) 720.85 (28.38) 28 34.93 (1.375) 863.6 (34.00) 5 to 13 (0.2 to 0.50)
30 762 (30.00) 984.25 (38.75) 771.65 (30.38) 28 34.93 (1.375) 914.4 (36.00) 3.8 to 13 (0.15 to 0.50)

32 812.8 (32.00) 1 060.45 (41.75) 822.45 (32.38) 28 41.4 (1.63) 977.9 (38.50) 3.8 to 14 (0.15 to 0.55)
36 914.4 (36.00) 1 168.40 (46.00) 924.05 (36.38) 32 41.4 (1.63) 1 085.85 (42.75) 3.8 to 10 (0.15 to 0.40)
42 1 066.8 (42.00) 1 346.20 (53.00) 1 076.45 (42.38) 36 41.4 (1.63) 1 257.3 (49.50) 3.8 to 10 (0.15 to 0.40)
48 1 219.2 (48.00) 1 511.30 (59.50) 1 231.90 (48.50) 44 41.4 (1.63) 1 422.4 (56.00) 3.8 to 7.6 (0.15 to 0.30)
54 1 371.6 (54.00) 1 682.75 (66.25) 1 387.35 (54.62) 44 47.75 (1.88) 1 593.85 (62.75) 3.8 to 6 (0.15 to 0.25)
63 1 605.51 (63.209) 1 854.20 (73.00) 1 625.60 (64.00) 52 47.75 (1.88) 1 758.95 (69.25) 3.8 to 6 (0.15 to 0.25)
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) This Table applies to backup rings used with heat-fused thermoplastic pipes such as PE, PP, and PVDF pipes.
(b) Lap-joint flange connections are made using backup rings and thermoplastic flange adapters.
(c) The most commonly used backup rings are made from ductile iron (A536), steel (A53), and stainless steel (316). The selection of materials of
construction or for coatings for backup rings is based on the application. The user, owner, or design engineer is responsible for material
selection.
(d) The following coatings may be used to encapsulate or coat the materials in General Note (c) if selected by the user, owner, or design engineer:
(1) PP reinforced with glass fibers, paint, or galvanizing
(2) other protective coating at the direction of the user, owner, or design engineer
(e) Convoluted, plate, and thermoplastic backup rings may be used provided the chosen materials meet the requirements of this Standard and the
design specification.

99
ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-2.1-1 NPS Backup Rings for Thermoplastic Pipe (Cont’d)

NOTES:
(1) The required thickness, T, of the backup ring and the pressure rating of the backup ring are not provided in the Table. The design requirements
shall determine the thickness and type of backup ring to be used.
(2) The bolt holes and O.D. shall meet the requirements of ASME B16.5 and ASME B16.47. The bolt-circle dimensions may also be made to these
requirements.

A-2.2 Backup Rings for Solvent-Cement-Welded (a) Compressive Strength. The area of the backup ring in
Joints contact with the flange adapter shall not exceed compres-
sive strength at a strain of 1% to 5%, dependent on the
Backup rings for the solvent-cement welding method of thermoplastic and the application.
joining shall conform to the following general require- (1) Short-term loads such as hydraulic shock or
ments: surge shall be calculated using a short-term compressive
(a) Both metallic and nonmetallic backup rings may be strength.
used. (2) Long-term loads such as design operating pres-
(b) Metallic backup rings, including those with nonme- sure shall be evaluated using long-term compressive
tallic coatings or encapsulation, may be used. strength.
(c) Backup rings made of metallic or nonmetallic mate- (3) Figure A-2.3-1 shows the contact area between
rials, or combinations of metallic and nonmetallic mate- flange adapter and backup rings.
rials, when used with thermoplastic flange adapters, (b) Bolt Dimensions. The bolt-circle diameter, bolt-hole
gaskets, washers, bolts, and nuts, shall pass the test re- size, number of bolts, and bolt diameter shall be deter-
quirements for the thermoplastic as described in mined by the requirements in ASME B16.5 or ASME
Table A-3-1. B16.47 for iron-pipe-sized (IPS) applications. These
(d) When needed, additional design requirements for NPS dimensions are provided in Table A-2.1-1. Metric
the backup rings shall be provided in the owner’s spec- dimensions are provided in Table A-2.1-2.
ification. (c) Radius. The radii for PE, PP, and PVDF between the
(e) Backup rings and flange adapters shall be compa- flange face and the barrel of the flange adapter should be as
tible with each other. provided in Tables A-2.1-1 and A-2.1-2. Figures A-2.3-2
NOTE: There are differences in design from manufacturer to and A-2.3-3 show the location of radii on backup rings.
manufacturer. Backup rings from different manufacturers When the backup ring is not in contact with the corner
might not be compatible. or radius of the flange adapter, no radius is required.
(f) The backup ring O.D., bolt-hole diameter, and bolt- (d) Inside Diameter. Tables A-2.1-1 and A-2.1-2
circle dimensions shall conform to ASME B16.5 Class 150 provide typical I.D.s for PE, PP, and PVDF NPS and
dimensions for nominal pipe sizes DN 15 to DN 600 (NPS metric sizes.
1 (e) Thickness. The thickness of backup rings varies by
∕2 to NPS 24). Other flange standards may be used as
required by the user’s design specifications. However, size, design, type of material, and pressure rating. The
the other requirements of this Standard, not related to thickness requirements are not shown in
dimensions, shall be met. Tables A-2.1-1 and A-2.1-2; the user or designer shall
(g) The backup ring’s effective thickness shall be select thickness based on design, operating, and test re-
adequate to provide the initial and long-term seating quirements.
stress for leak-free service. See test requirements in (f) Allowable Backup Ring Designs. Plate-flange, convo-
Table A-3-1.Thermoplastic components for fire lines luted, thermoplastic, and reinforced-thermoplastic
shall pass Factory Mutual or NFPA requirements in addi- backup rings may be used. Figures A-2.3-1 and A-2.3-2
tion to the requirements in this Standard. When the re- show plate-flange backup rings; Figure A-2.3-3 shows a
quirements are the same, additional testing may be convoluted backup ring.
omitted.
A-2.4 Design Requirements for Backup Rings to Be
A-2.3 Design Requirements for Backup Rings to Be Used With Thermoplastic Flange Adapters
Used With Thermoplastic Flange Adapters Joined by Solvent-Cement Welding
Joined by Heat Fusing The following items shall be evaluated in the design of a
The following items shall be evaluated in the design of a backup ring used with a thermoplastic flange adapter
backup ring used with a thermoplastic flange adapter: joined to thermoplastic pipe using solvent-cement
welding:

100
ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-2.1-2 Metric Backup Rings for Thermoplastic Pipe

B.D.

T [Note(1)]

D.A.
I.D.
B.C.
O.D.

Backup Ring O.D., Bolt-Hole Size, Bolt Circle, B.C.,


Nominal mm (in.) Backup Ring No. of H, mm (in.) mm (in.) Radius, R,
Diameter DA, mm (in.) [Note (2)] I.D., mm (in.) Bolts [Note (2)] [Note (2)] mm (in.)
15 20 (0.787) 106 (4.173) 28 (1.102) 4 14 (0.551) 65 (2.559) 3 (0.118)
20 25 (0.984) 118 (4.646) 34 (1.339) 4 14 (0.551) 75 (2.953) 3 (0.118)
25 32 (1.260) 122 (4.803) 42 (1.654) 4 14 (0.551) 85 (3.346) 3 (0.118)
32 40 (1.575) 142 (5.591) 51 (2.008) 4 18 (0.709) 100 (3.937) 3 (0.118)
40 50 (1.969) 156 (6.142) 62 (2.441) 4 18 (0.709) 110 (4.331) 3 (0.118)
50 63 (2.480) 171 (6.732) 78 (3.071) 4 18 (0.709) 125 (4.921) 3 (0.118)

65 75 (2.953) 191 (7.520) 92 (3.622) 4 18 (0.709) 145 (5.709) 3 (0.118)


80 90 (3.543) 206 (8.110) 108 (4.252) 8 18 (0.709) 160 (6.299) 3 (0.118)
100 110 (4.331) 226 (8.898) 128 (5.039) 8 18 (0.709) 180 (7.087) 3 (0.118)
125 (4.921) 226 (8.898) 135 (5.315) 8 18 (0.709) 180 (7.087) 3 (0.118)
125 140 (5.512) 261 (10.276) 158 (6.220) 8 18 (0.709) 210 (8.268) 3 (0.118)

150 160 (6.299) 296 (11.654) 178 (7.008) 8 22 (0.866) 240 (9.449) 3 (0.118)
180 (7.087) 296 (11.654) 188 (7.402) 8 22 (0.866) 240 (9.449) 4 (0.157)
200 200 (7.874) 350 (13.780) 235 (9.252) 8 22 (0.866) 295 (11.614) 4 (0.157)
225 (8.858) 350 (13.780) 238 (9.370) 8 22 (0.866) 295 (11.614) 4 (0.157)
250 250 (9.843) 412 (16.220) 288 (11.339) 12 22 (0.866) 350 (13.780) 4 (0.157)
280 (11.024) 412 (16.220) 294 (11.575) 12 22 (0.866) 350 (13.780) 4 (0.157)

300 315 (12.402) 452 (17.795) 338 (13.307) 12 22 (0.866) 400 (15.748) 4 (0.157)
350 355 (13.976) 525 (20.669) 376 (14.803) 16 22 (0.866) 460 (18.110) 6 (0.236)
400 400 (15.748) 586 (23.071) 430 (16.929) 16 26 (1.024) 515 (20.276) 6 (0.236)
500 450 (17.717) 690 (27.165) 514 (20.236) 20 27 (1.063) 620 (24.409) 6 (0.236)
500 (19.685) 690 (27.165) 530 (20.866) 20 27 (1.063) 620 (24.409) 6 (0.236)

600 560 (22.047) 804 (31.654) 615 (24.213) 20 30 (1.181) 725 (28.543) 6 (0.236)
630 (24.803) 804 (31.654) 642 (25.276) 20 30 (1.181) 725 (28.543) 6 (0.236)
700 710 (27.953) 912 (35.906) 740 (29.134) 24 30 (1.181) 840 (33.071) 5 (0.197)
800 800 (31.496) 1 026 (40.394) 843 (33.189) 24 33 (1.299) 950 (37.402) 5 (0.197)
900 900 (35.433) 1 129 (44.449) 947 (37.283) 28 33 (1.299) 1 050 (41.339) 5 (0.197)
1 000 1 000 (39.370) 1 245 (49.016) 1 050 (41.339) 28 36 (1.417) 1 160 (45.669) 5 (0.197)
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) This Table applies to backup rings used with heat-fused thermoplastic pipes, such as PE, PP, and PVDF pipes.
(b) Socket-fused flange adapters in sizes DA20 through DA75 are also available.
(c) Lap-joint flange connections are made using backup rings and thermoplastic flange adapters.
(d) Convoluted backup rings may be made from ductile iron (GGG 40, DIN 1693), steel (A53), and stainless steel (316). The user, owner, or design
engineer shall be responsible for the selection of materials of construction for backup rings.
(e) The following coatings may be used to encapsulate or coat the materials in General Note (d) if selected by the user, owner, or design engineer:
(1) PP with or without glass fibers, paint, or galvanized
(2) other protective coating at the direction of the user, owner, or design engineer
(f) Convoluted, plate, and thermoplastic backup rings may be used provided the chosen materials meet the requirements of this Standard and the
design specification.

101
ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-2.1-2 Metric Backup Rings for Thermoplastic Pipe (Cont’d)

NOTES:
(1) The required thickness, T, of the backup ring and the pressure rating of the backup ring are not provided in the Table. The design requirements
shall determine the thickness and type of backup ring to be used.
(2) The bolt-circle dimensions may be made to requirements in ISO 7005, EN 1092, and DIN 2501 PN10/16. Bolt holes and O.D. shall also meet
these requirements.

Figure A-2.3-1 Contact Area Between Flange Adapter and Backup Ring

B.D.

B.D.

r
D.A.
I.D.
B.C.
Contact area
O.D.

Figure A-2.3-2 Plate Flange Adapter Figure A-2.3-3 Convoluted Backup Ring
Outside diameter
Bolt circle
Inside diameter

Radius

102
ASME NM.1-2018

(a) Compressive Strength. The area of the backup ring in (e) Thermoplastic flange adapters made by welding or
contact with the flange adapter shall not exceed compres- joining thermoplastic sheet to thermoplastic pipe shall not
sive strength at a stress of 1% to 5%, dependent on the be used in any pressure application.
thermoplastic and the application. NOTE: The type of fabricated flange adapter or stub end
(1) Short-term loads such as water hammer or surge described in (e) is unacceptable. However, fabricated flange
shall be calculated using a short-term compressive adapters made by machining from thermoplastic pipe or
strength. billet may be used for pressure applications.
(2) Long-term loads such as design operating pres-
sure shall be evaluated using long-term compressive A-4.2 Flange Adapter Faces
strength.
(b) Dimensions. The bolt-circle diameter, bolt-hole size, The following provisions for flange adapter faces apply
number of bolts, and bolt diameter shall be determined by to all flange adapters:
the requirements in ASME B16.5 for IPS applications. (a) Flange adapter faces may be smooth or serrated.
These bolt dimensions and typical dimensions for (b) Flange adapter faces may be grooved for O-rings or
flange adapters are provided in the following tables: special gaskets. The flange adapter face thickness shall be
(1) Table A-2.4-1 for socket PVC and CPVC lap-joint designed to compensate for the groove or grooves as indi-
flanges cated in DVS 2210-1.
(2) Table A-2.4-2 for PVC and CPVC spigot flanges
(3) Table A-2.4-3 for PVC and CPVC threaded lap- A-4.3 Design Requirements for Thermoplastic
joint flanges Flange Adapters Attached by Heat Fusion
(4) Table A-2.4-4 for steel backup rings for ABS A-4.3.1 Design Elements
flange adapters
(c) Radius. There are no published radius requirements (a) The wall thickness of the flange adapter for heat
for PVC, CPVC, or ABS backup rings. fusion ( Figure A-4.3.1-1 ) shall be determined by
(d) Materials. Allowable materials for backup rings are eq. (A-4-1):
plate steel, thermoplastic, and reinforced thermoplastic. PDDo
t min = +A (A-4-1)
(2S + PD)
A-3 PROOF-TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR TLJF
CONNECTIONS where
A = an allowance to be determined by the designer
Table A-3-1 lists the allowable materials of construction for threading, grooving, erosion, or other wall
and the proof-test requirements for TLJF connections. loss mechanisms
Do = specified or actual O.D.
A-4 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR TLJF ADAPTERS PD = design pressure
S = allowable stress at the design temperature for
A-4.1 Limitations the long-term duration of load, including service
TLJFs shall not be used in all applications. The following factors, environmental factors, and joint-
limitations apply for the identified applications: derating factors
(a) Thermoplastic flanges shall not be used in fuel-gas tmin = wall thickness of the flange adapter barrel
applications.
(b) Only thermoplastic flanges specifically designed for The flange adapter shall be made from materials
compressed-air or other compressed-gas applications meeting the requirements of ASME NM.3.3 for the mate-
may be used in those applications. Flange adapters not rials required.
specifically made for compressed-air or compressed- NOTE: Equation (A-4-1) cannot easily be used to analyze the wall
gas service shall not be used. thickness of socket-fusion-joined flange adapters. It may be used
(c) Underground flange connections shall be located in to evaluate the ability of pipe wall thickness for flange adapters to
vaults or valve pits. handle the design pressure.
(d) The pressure rating of the TLJF is not limited by the (b) The dimensions of heat-fusion flange adapters are
flange adapter in all cases. Other components can limit the determined by material type and IPS or metric sizing.
maximum pressure. The component with the lowest pres- Figure A-4.3.1-1 shows a typical configuration for a
sure rating shall determine the pressure rating of the TLJF . butt-fusion PE flange adapter. Paragraph A-4.3.3(a)
provides references for flange adapter dimensions.

103
Table A-2.4-1 Solvent-Cement-Weld Socket PVC and CPVC Lap-Joint Flanges

L
R

N Bolt-circle diameter
Max. O.D.

Two-Piece Socket Flange

O.D. of Socket, M, Length Body, L, Bolt Circle, No. of Backup Ring


Nominal Pipe O.D., mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) Bolts O.D., Ring Thickness, R,
Size mm (in.) [Notes (1) and (2)] [Note (2)] [Note (3)] [Note (3)] mm (in.) mm (in.) [Note (2)]
1
∕2 21.366 (0.84) 33.02 to 40.64 (1.3 to 1.6) 25.4 to 30.48 (1.0 to 1.2) 60.325 (2.375) 4 88.9 (3.5) 12.7 to 16.51 (0.5 to 0.65)
3
∕4 26.67 (1.05) 35.56 to 40.64 (1.4 to 1.6) 27.94 to 33.02 (1.1 to 1.3) 69.85 (2.75) 4 98.425 (3.875) 12.7 to 16.51 (0.5 to 0.65)
1 33.401 (1.315) 43.18 to 55.88 (1.7 to 2.2) 31.75 to 35.56 (1.25 to 1.4) 79.375 (3.125) 4 107.95 (4.25) 15.24 to 17.78 (0.6 to 0.70)
11∕4 42.164 (1.66) 57.15 to 69.85 (2.25 to 2.75) 33.02 to 36.03 (1.3 to 1.45) 88.9 (3.50) 4 118.745 (4.675) 16.51 to 19.05 (0.65 to 0.75)

ASME NM.1-2018
11∕2 48.26 (1.90) 58.42 to 71.12 (2.3 to 2.8) 35.56 to 43.18 (1.4 to 1.7) 98.425 (3.875) 4 127 (5.00) 17.78 to 20.32 (0.7 to 0.80)
104

2 60.325 (2.375) 71.12 to 81.28 (2.8 to 3.2) 38.1 to 45.72 (1.5 to 1.8) 120.65 (4.75) 4 152.4 (6.00) 20.32 to 22.86 (0.8 to 0.90)
21∕2 73.025 (2.875) 83.82 to 95.25 (3.3 to 3.75) 43.18 to 53.34 (1.7 to 2.1) 139.7 (5.50) 4 177.8 (7.00) 22.86 to 25.4 (0.9 to 1.0)
3 88.90 (3.500) 104.14 to 129.54 (4.1 to 5.1) 50.8 to 63.5 (2 to 2.5) 152.4 (6.00) 4 190.5 (7.50) 22.86 to 30.48 (0.9 to 1.2)
4 114.30 (4.50) 127 to 152.4 (5.0 to 6.0) 55.88 to 68.58 (2.2 to 2.7) 190.5 (7.50) 8 228.6 (9.00) 25.4 to 31.75 (1.0 to 1.25)
5 141.30 (5.563) 154.94 to 180.34 (6.1 to 7.1) 71.12 to 83.82 (2.8 to 3.3) 215.9 (8.50) 8 257.175 (10.125) 25.4 to 31.75 (1.0 to 1.25)

6 168.30 (6.626) 190.50 to 218.44 (7.5 to 8.6) 76.2 to 88.9 (3.0 to 3.5) 241.3 (9.50) 8 279.4 (11) 30.48 to 34.29 (1.2 to 1.35)
8 209.55 (8.25) 234.95 to 254 (9.25 to 10.0) 104.14 to 116.84 (4.1 to 4.6) 298.45 (11.75) 8 342.9 (13.5) 31.7 to 38.1 (1.25 to 1.50)
10 273.05 (10.75) 292.1 to 317.5 (11.5 to 12.5) 139.7 to 154.94 (5.5 to 6.1) 361.95 (14.25) 12 406.4 (16) 36.83 to 44.45 (1.45 to 1.70)
12 323.85 (12.75) 342.9 to 363.22 (13.5 to 14.3) 175.26 to 190.5 (6.9 to 7.5) 431.8 (17.00) 12 482.6 (19) 36.83 to 44.45 (1.45 to 1.75)
14 355.6 (14.00) 387.35 to 406.4 (15.25 to 16) 177.8 to 195.58 (7 to 7.7) 476.25 (18.75) 12 533.4 (21) 48.26 to 57.15 (1.9 to 2.25)
16 406.4 (16.00) 447.04 to 457.2 (17.6 to 18) 215.9 to 236.22 (8.5 to 9.3) 539.75 (21.25) 16 596.9 (23.50) 50.8 to 59.69 (2.0 to 2.35)
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) Two-piece PVC and CPVC lap-joint flanges are made to different dimensions by different manufacturers. Consequently, this Table provides a range, rather than an exact value, for socket O.D.,
flange length, and backup ring thickness for each nominal pipe size.
(b) There are no published requirements for radii on flange adapters or backup rings.
(c) Backup rings may be made from PVC or CPVC pipe in sizes up to 203.3 mm (8 in.). Above 203.3 mm (8 in.), some manufacturers use aluminum rings coated with PVC. Steel rings are used by some
manufacturers for sizes above 304.8 mm (12 in.).
(d) The pressure rating for PVC and CPVC lap-joint flange connections shall be limited to 10.34 bar (150 psi).
NOTES:
(1) The I.D. of the socket is usually close to the O.D. of the pipe.
(2) As manufacturers of PVC and CPVC flange adapters and backup rings use their own designs and dimensions, ranges have been provided for socket O.D., M; flange length, L; and backup ring
thickness, R.
(3) Bolt-circle diameter, number of bolts, and bolt diameter are per ASME B16.5.
ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-2.4-2 PVC and CPVC Spigot (Spig) Flange

Pipe O.D.

N
R

Bolt-circle diameter
Max. O.D.

Two-Piece Spigot (Spig) Flange

Nominal Pipe O.D., Spigot Flange Length, L, Bolt Circle, No. of Backup Ring Ring Thickness, R,
Size mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) Bolts O.D., mm (in.) mm (in.)
1
∕2 21.366 (0.84) 43.18 to 53.34 (1.7 to 2.1) 60.325 (2.375) 4 88.9 (3.5) 12.7 to 16.51 (0.5 to 0.65)
3
∕4 26.67 (1.05) 48.26 to 58.42 (1.9 to 2.3) 69.85 (2.75) 4 98.425 (3.875) 12.7 to 16.51 (0.5 to 0.65)
1 33.401 (1.315) 50.8 to 60.96 (2.0 to 2.4) 79.375 (3.125) 4 107.95 (4.25) 15.24 to 17.78 (0.6 to 0.70)
11∕4 42.164 (1.66) 55.8 to 66.04 (2.2 to 2.6) 88.9 (3.50) 4 118.745 (4.675) 16.51 to 19.05 (0.65 to 0.75)

11∕2 48.26 (1.90) 63.5 to 73.66 (2.5 to 2.9) 98.425 (3.875) 4 127 (5.00) 17.78 to 20.32 (0.7 to 0.80)
2 60.325 (2.375) 68.58 to 78.74 (2.7 to 3.1) 120.65 (4.75) 4 152.4 (6.00) 20.32 to 22.86 (0.8 to 0.90)
21∕2 73.025 (2.875) 76.2 to 88.9 (3 to 3.5) 139.7 (5.50) 4 177.8 (7.00) 22.86 to 25.4 (0.9 to 1.0)
3 88.9 (3.500) 78.74 to 91.44 (3.1 to 3.6) 152.4 (6.00) 4 190.5 (7.50) 25.4 to 30.48 (1.0 to 1.2)

4 114.3 (4.50) 93.98 to 106.68 (3.7 to 4.2) 190.5 (7.50) 8 228.6 (9.00) 25.4 to 31.75 (1.0 to 1.25)
6 168.3 (6.626) 114.3 to 129.54 (4.5 to 5.1) 241.3 (9.50) 8 279.4 (11) 30.48 to 34.29 (1.2 to 1.35)
8 209.55 (8.25) 144.78 to 160.02 (5.7 to 6.3) 298.45 (11.75) 8 342.9 (13.5) 31.75 to 38.1 (1.25 to 1.50)
10 273.05 (10.75) 195.58 to 210.82 (7.7 to 8.3) 361.95 (14.25) 12 406.4 (16) 36.83 to 43.18 (1.45 to 1.70)
12 323.85 (12.75) 208.28 to 228.6 (8.2 to 9) 431.8 (17.00) 12 482.6 (19) 36.83 to 44.45 (1.45 to 1.75)
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) This Table provides a range of dimensions. PVC and CPVC spigot lap-joint flanges are made to different dimensions by different manu-
facturers.
(b) There are no published requirements for radii on flange adapters or backup rings.
(c) Backup rings shall be made from PVC or CPVC in sizes up to 203.3 mm (8 in.). Above 203.3 mm (8 in.), some manufacturers use aluminum rings
coated with PVC. Steel rings are used by some manufacturers for sizes above 304.8 mm (12 in.).
(d) The pressure rating for PVC and CPVC lap-joint flange connections shall be limited to 10.34 bar (150 psi).

A-4.3.2 PE Flange Adapters (b) PE metric flange adapters (also called welding
necks or neck bushes) made to the requirements of
(a) IPS PE flange adapters shall meet the requirements
DVS 2210-1 shall have radii as required for socket
of ASME SF-2880. Figure A-4.3.1-1 shows a typical config-
fusion or for butt fusion. Figures A-4.3.2-1, A-4.3.2-2,
uration of an ASME SF-2880 flange adapter.
and A-4.3.2-3 show typical configurations for metric
(1) The design pressure shall be used to determine
flange adapters.
the wall thickness of the flange adapter using stress
tables in ASME NM.3.3, eq. (A-4-1), and the design A-4.3.3 PP and PVDF Flange Adapters
rules in A-4.3.1.
(2) The flange adapter shall be made from materials (a) Requirements for Metric Adapters. Metric PP and
meeting the requirements of ASME NM.3.3 for PE. The metric PVDF flange adapters (also called welding necks
ASME SD-3350 cell classification for PE-3608 shall be or neck bushes) shall meet the requirements of DVS
PE-345464C or PE-4710 with a cell classification of 2110-1 and/or dimensions of EN 15484.
PE-445574C or PE-445474C.

105
Table A-2.4-3 PVC and CPVC Threaded Lap-Joint Flange

L
R N

Bolt-circle diameter
Max. O.D.

FIPT (Threaded) Two-Piece Flange

O.D. of Flange Adapter


Nominal Pipe O.D., (Hub), M, Length Body, L, Bolt Circle, No. of Backup Ring Ring Thickness, R,
Size mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) Bolts O.D., mm (in.) mm (in.)
1
∕2 21.336 (0.84) 33.02 to 40.64 (1.3 to 1.6) 25.4 to 30.48 (1.0 to 1.2) 60.325 (2.375) 4 88.9 (3.5) 12.7 to 16.51 (0.5 to 0.65)
3
∕4 26.67 (1.05) 35.56 to 40.64 (1.4 to 1.6) 27.94 to 33.02 (1.1 to 1.3) 69.85 (2.75) 4 98.425 (3.875) 12.7 to 16.51 (0.5 to 0.65)

ASME NM.1-2018
1 33.401 (1.315) 43.18 to 55.88 (1.7 to 2.2) 31.75 to 35.56 (1.25 to 1.4) 79.375 (3.125) 4 107.95 (4.25) 15.24 to 17.78 (0.6 to 0.70)
11∕4 42.164 (1.66) 57.15 to 69.85 (2.25 to 2.75) 33.02 to 36.83 (1.3 to 1.45) 88.89 (3.50) 4 118.745 (4.675) 16.51 to 19.05 (0.65 to 0.75)
106

11∕2 48.26 (1.90) 58.42 to 71.12 (2.3 to 2.8) 35.56 to 43.18 (1.4 to 1.7) 98.425 (3.875) 4 127 (5.00) 17.78 to 20.32 (0.7 to 0.80)
2 60.325 (2.375) 71.12 to 81.28 (2.8 to 3.2) 38.1 to 45.72 (1.5 to 1.8) 120.65 (4.75) 4 152.4 (6.00) 20.32 to 22.86 (0.8 to 0.90)
21∕2 73.025 (2.875) 83.82 to 95.25 (3.3 to 3.75) 43.18 to 53.34 (1.7 to 2.1) 139.7 (5.50) 4 177.8 (7.00) 22.86 to 25.4 (0.9 to 1.0)
3 88.9 (3.500) 104.14 to 129.54 (4.1 to 5.1) 50.8 to 63.5 (2 to 2.5) 152.4 (6.00) 4 190.5 (7.50) 25.4 to 30.48 (1.0 to 1.2)
4 114.3 (4.50) 127 to 152.4 (5.0 to 6.0) 55.88 to 68.58 (2.2 to 2.7) 190.5 (7.50) 8 228.6 (9.00) 25.4 to 31.75 (1.0 to 1.25)
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) This Table provides a range of dimensions. PVC and CPVC threaded lap-joint flanges are made to different dimensions by different manufacturers.
(b) There are no published requirements for radii on flange adapters or backup rings.
(c) Backup rings shall be made from PVC or CPVC in sizes up to NPS 8. Above NPS 8, some manufacturers use aluminum rings coated with PVC. Steel rings are used by some manufacturers for sizes
above NPS 12.
(d) The pressure rating for PVC and CPVC lap-joint flange connections shall be limited to 10.34 bar (150 psi).
ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-2.4-4 Steel Backup Rings for ABS Flange Adapters

D
B

L diameter

I.D. of
Nominal I.D. Backup Backup Backup Bolt-Hole
Pipe Pipe O.D., Ring, O.D., A, Bolt Circle, B, No. of Ring, C, Thickness, Diameter, L,
Size mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) Bolts mm (in.) D, mm (in.) mm (in.)
1
∕2 21.34 (0.84) 88.9 (3.50) 88.9 (3.50) 59.944 (2.36) 4 35.052 (1.38) 6.096 (0.24) 13.97 (0.55)
3
∕4 26.67 (1.05) 98.044 (3.86) 98.044 (3.86) 70.104 (2.76) 4 44.958 (1.77) 6.096 (0.24) 13.97 (0.55)
1 33.40 (1.315) 107.95 (4.25) 107.95 (4.25) 80.01 (3.15) 4 49.022 (1.93) 6.096 (0.24) 13.97 (0.55)
11∕4 42.16 (1.66) 117.602 (4.63) 117.602 (4.63) 88.9 (3.50) 4 59.69 (2.35) 6.35 (0.25) 15.875 (0.625)
[Note (1)]
11∕2 48.26 (1.90) 128.016 (5.04) 128.016 (5.04) 98.044 (3.86) 4 68.072 (2.68) 6.096 (0.24) 13.97 (0.55)
2 60.33 (2.375) 152.908 (6.02) 152.908 (6.02) 120.904 (4.76) 4 77.978 (3.07) 7.874 (0.31) 18.034 (0.71)

3 88.90 (3.50) 191.008 (7.52) 191.008 (7.52) 151.892 (5.98) 4 109.982 (4.33) 7.874 (0.31) 18.034 (0.71)
4 114.30 (4.50) 230.124 (9.06) 230.124 (9.06) 189.992 (7.48) 8 139.954 (5.51) 8.89 (0.35) 18.034 (0.71)
6 168.28 (6.625) 279.908 (11.02) 279.908 (11.02) 241.046 (9.49) 8 195.072 (7.68) 10.922 (0.43) 22.225 (0.875)
8 219.08 (8.625) 340.106 (13.39) 340.106 (13.39) 297.942 (11.73) 8 255.016 (10.04) 11.938 (0.47) 22.225 (0.875)
10 273.05 (10.75) 405.892 (15.98) 405.892 (15.98) 361.95 (14.25) 12 308.102 (12.13) 14.986 (0.59) 24.9936 (0.984)
[Note (2)]
12 323.85 (12.75) 483.108 (19.02) 483.108 (19.02) 432.054 (17.01) 12 363.982 (14.33) 20.066 (0.79) 24.9936 (0.984)
[Note (2)]
NOTES:
(1) Bolt-hole dimensions for NPS 11∕4 backup ring may not meet ASME B16.5 standard dimensions.
(2) These backup rings shall be machined to match the sloping shoulder of NPS 10 and NPS 12 flange adapters.

(b) Materials for PP Flange Adapters (d) PP and PVDF NPS or DN Flange Adapters. A drawing
(1) PP flange adapters shall be made from materials with flange adapter dimensions shall be provided. The
meeting the requirements of ASME SD-4101, Group 1, drawing shall provide flange adapter sizes in NPS or
Class 2, ß-nucleated homopolymer. The cell classification DN for the following:
by ASTM D5857 shall be PP0510866851. (1) minimum neck length
(2) When PP flange adapters are natural material, (2) flange adapter face width (O.D.)
ASME SD-4101 Group 2, Class 2, nucleated copolymer (3) flange face thickness
material shall be used. (4) radius between the barrel and the flange face
(c) Materials for PVDF Flange Adapters. PVDF flange
adapters shall meet the requirements of ASME SD-
3222 as Type 1, Grade 2 for fittings up to 160 mm
(6.3 in.). For fittings 160 mm (6.3 in.) and larger, Type
2 shall be used.

107
ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-3-1 Proof-Test Requirements for TLJF Connections


Torque Based
on Sealing Torque Based on
Forces Plus Gasket Sealing
Proof Test Listed Expected Stress Stress Plus Expected
Material in Para. A-2.2(c) Gasket Relaxation Stress Relaxation
ABS 3.2 times manufacturer’s pressure Yes … Yes
rating for 5 min

CPVC 3.2 times manufacturer’s pressure Yes … Yes


rating for 5 min

PE 3.2 times manufacturer’s pressure Optional If no gasket With gasket


rating for 5 min

PP 3.2 times manufacturer’s pressure Yes … Yes


rating for 5 min

PVC 3.2 times manufacturer’s pressure Yes … Yes


rating for 5 min

PVDF 3.2 times manufacturer’s pressure Yes …. Yes


rating for 5 min

TLMP-to-TLJF 3.2 times manufacturer’s pressure Optional based on Yes, if no gasket Yes, if gasket
connections rating for 5 min thermoplastic liner needed required
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) TLMP = thermoplastic-lined metallic pipe; TLJF = thermoplastic lap-joint flange.
(b) Testing shall be conducted following the requirements listed in ASTM D1598 with the following exceptions:
(1) The test pressure shall be 3.2 times the marked operating pressure for the flange adapter. For TLMP flange connections, no flange adapter shall be
used.
(2) The test shall only be conducted for 5 min after reaching constant pressure.
(3) The report shall only contain environmental information and information related to the above test. A plot showing pressure equalization and
constant pressure shall be required. No calculations of hoop stress or plots of hoop stress are required.
(c) The pressure rating of the TLJF shall be based on the SDR or DR or the Schedule of the components being used. The highest-use temperature
and derating factors shall be used to determine SDR, DR, or Schedule of flange adapter needed. PVC and CPVC lap-joint flange connections
shall be limited to 1 034 kPa (150 psi) for Schedule 80. [Some manufacturers offer flanges with a pressure rating higher than 1 034 kPa (150
psi). Check with the manufacturer on pressure ratings available.]
(d) TLMP-to-TLJF connections have the pressure rating of Class 150 and Class 300 and higher Class flanged TLMPs. This pressure rating shall be
used to determine the proof-test pressure.
(e) Failure shall be defined as leakage, ballooning, rupture, or weeping at the flange adapter or at the flange face.
(f) The flange adapter shall meet the requirements in para. A-4.1 for the material listed.
(g) The backup rings shall meet the dimensional and material requirements in section A-2. The test pressure shall determine the thickness of
the backup ring.
(h) When used, gaskets shall be full face. Metric designs shall follow requirements in DVS 2210-1.
(i) Sampling. A sufficient quantity of flange connections as agreed on by the seller and purchaser shall be selected at random from each lot or
shipment and tested to determine that the flange connections will pass this proof test.
(j) A lap-joint flange connection is defined as containing a flange adapter, metallic or nonmetallic backup ring, gasket (if required), bolts, nuts,
and washers plus a joining method. The accepted joining methods for TLJFs are as follows:
(1) heat fusion
(2) solvent-cement welding
(3) threaded connections
(k) The bolt torque required shall be determined by one of the following:
(1) The flange adapter and backup ring manufacturer’s recommended bolt torque with the specified full-face gasket type and thickness.
(2) For HDPE flange adapters and metallic backup rings, the torque provided in PPI TN-38 shall be used.
(3) For metric flange adapters and backup rings (made to the requirements of DVS 2210-1), use the torque in DVS 2210-1, Table 5. When using
published bolt torque for a given thermoplastic or application, whether the gasket is required or not shall be included.
(4) Torque calculations shall be based on sealing forces plus expected stress relaxation or on gasket sealing stress plus expected stress relaxation.
(l) Test specimens shall be tested after the heat-fused or solvent-weld joint has had adequate time to cool or cure.

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Figure A-4.3.1-1 Thermoplastic Flange Adapter — Typical for PE, PP, and PVDF Butt-Fused Lap-Joint Flange
Connections
Thermoplastic flange
adapter face thickness

Flange adapter barrel length

Flange adapter face

Flange adapter face O.D.

Wall
Fillet radius thickness

A-4.4 Design Requirements for Thermoplastic (3) The dimensions of the flange adapter and backup
Flange Adapters Attached by Solvent- rings shall be within the range provided in Table A-2.4-1
Cement Welding or Table A-2.4-2.
(4) The flange adapter face width shall match the
(a) The minimum wall thickness of the flange adapter backup ring inside dimension.
for solvent-cement welding shall be determined using (5) The pressure rating of the flange adapter, the
eq. (A-4-1). backup ring, and the gasket shall not be less than
NOTE: Equation (A-4-1) cannot easily be used to analyze the wall 10.34 bar (150 psi) when tested as required in ASME
thickness of solvent-cement-welded socket-joined flange adap- SF-1970.
ters. It may be used to evaluate the ability of pipe wall thickness (d) CPVC flange adapters shall meet the following re-
on spigot-type flange adapters to handle the design pressure. quirements:
(b) The dimensions of the flange adapters may be (1) The dimensions of the socket solvent-cement-
provided by ranges in drawing or by requirements in weld connection shall conform to the dimensions for
ASTM or EN standards. Schedule 80, CPVC shall meet the dimensions provided
(c) PVC flange adapters shall meet the following re- in ASME SF-439, and Schedule 40 shall meet the dimen-
quirements: sions provided in ASME SF-438. Because of pressure
(1) The dimensions of the socket solvent-cement- ratings, Schedule 40 flange adapters shall be limited to
weld connection shall conform to the dimensions in 203.2 mm (8 in.) and smaller.
ASME SD-2467 for Schedule 80 flange adapters or (2) The materials shall meet the requirements of
ASME SD-2466 for Schedule 40. Because of pressure ASME NM.3.3. The material shall be CPVC as defined
ratings, Schedule 40 flange adapters shall be limited to by ASME SD-1784 and shall meet a cell classification of
203.2 mm (8 in.) and smaller. 23447 (Type IV, Grade 1).
(2) The PVC materials shall meet the requirements of (3) The dimensions of the flange adapter and backup
ASME NM.3.3. The material shall be PVC as defined by rings shall conform to the range in Table A-2.4-1 or
ASME SD-1784 Table 1 and meet a cell classification of Table A-2.4-2.
12454 (Type 1, Grade 1).

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ASME NM.1-2018

Figure A-4.3.2-1 Typical ISO or DVS Metric Spigot Socket-Fusion Flange Adapters
Flange adapter body O.D.
Spigot O.D.

Backup ring

Flange adapter face O.D.

(a) Standard Spigot Socket-Fusion Flange Adapter

Oversized flange adapter body O.D.

Spigot O.D.

Enlarged

Backup ring

Flange adapter face O.D. O-ring groove

(b) Spigot Socket-Fusion Flange Adapter With O-Ring Enlarged

(4) The pressure rating of the flange adapter, the dimensional systems shall be used only with matching
backup ring, and the gasket shall not be less than systems.
10.34 bar (150 psi). The flange adapter, backup ring, (3) The material shall be ABS as defined by ASTM
and gasket shall be tested as required in ASME SF-1970. D3965 and shall meet a cell classification of 43232 or
(e) ABS flange adapters shall meet the following re- cell class 55152.
quirements: (4) The pressure rating of the flange adapter, the
(1) The dimensions of the socket solvent-weld backup ring, and the gasket shall not be less than
connection shall conform to the dimensions for ABS 10.34 bar (150 psi).
and shall meet the dimensions as provided in
Table A-4.4-1, Table A-4.4-2, or DVS 2210-1. A-4.5 Threaded TLJF Adapters
(2) The flange adapters shall be compatible with the
(a) Typical dimensions for PVC and CPVC threaded lap-
backup rings. ABS flange adapters made to be used with
joint flange connections are shown in Table A-2.4-3.
metric ABS piping systems shall be used only with metric
systems. ABS flange adapters made to be used with other

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ASME NM.1-2018

Figure A-4.3.2-2 Typical ISO or DVS Metric Flange Adapters for Socket Fusing
Socket O.D.
Socket I.D.

Flange face O.D.

(a) Socket Flange With Standard Dimensions

Socket O.D.

Socket I.D.

Enlarged
Enlarged

Flange face O.D. O-ring groove

(b) Socket Flange With O-Ring and Enlarged Dimensions

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ASME NM.1-2018

Figure A-4.3.2-3 Special ISO or DVS Metric Butt-Fusion Flange Adapter for Higher-Pressure Connections
Flange adapter face O.D.

Backup ring

Pipe O.D.

Oversized flange adapter body O.D.

(Enlarged)

(b) Threaded PVC flange adapters shall meet the (4) The dimensions of the flange adapter and backup
following requirements: rings shall conform to the range in Table A-2.4-3.
(1) Threaded PVC flange adapters shall be made to (5) The pressure rating of the flange adapter, the
the requirements of ASME SD-2464. backup ring, and the gasket shall not be less than
(2) The threads shall meet the requirements of ASTM 10.34 bar (150 psi). The flange adapter, backup ring,
F1498. and gasket shall be tested as required in ASME SF-1970.
(3) The PVC materials shall meet the requirements of (6) The threaded flange adapter, backup ring, and
ASME NM.3.3. The material shall be PVC as defined by gasket shall be proof tested as described in section A-3.
ASME SD-1784 Table 1 and shall meet a cell classification (d) Threaded PVDF flange adapters shall meet the
of 12454 (Type I, Grade 1). following requirements:
(4) The dimensions of the flange adapter and backup (1) The threads shall meet the requirements of ASTM
rings shall be within the range provided in Table A-2.4-3. F1498.
(5) The flange adapter face width shall match the (2) The materials shall meet the requirements of
backup ring inside dimension. ASME NM.3.3. The material shall be PVDF as defined
(6) The pressure rating of the flange adapter, the by ASME SD-3222 as Type 1, Grade 2 for fittings up to
backup ring, and the gasket shall not be less than 160 mm (6.3 in.). For fittings 160 mm (6.3 in.) and
10.34 bar (150 psi) when tested as required in ASME larger, Type 2 shall be used.
SF-1970. (3) The dimensions of the threaded flange adapter
(7) The threaded flange adapter, backup ring, and and backup rings shall be provided.
gasket shall be proof tested as described in section A-3. (4) The pressure rating of the threaded flange
(c) Threaded CPVC flange adapters shall meet the adapter, the backup ring, and the gasket shall not be
following requirements: less than the pressure rating of the pipe.
(1) Threaded CPVC flange adapters shall be made to (5) The threaded flange adapter, backup ring, and
the requirements of ASME SF-437. gasket shall be proof tested as described in section A-3.
(2) The threads shall meet the requirements of ASTM
F1498.
(3) The materials shall meet the requirements of
ASME NM.3.3. The material shall be CPVC as defined
by ASME SD-1784 and shall meet a cell classification of
23447 (Type IV, Grade 1).

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ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-4.4-1 Full-Face ABS Socket Flange Adapter

Z1

E B

L diameter

Flange Thickness of
Adapter Flange
Nominal Z1 (Socket Flange Face Length, C, No. of Adapter Bolt-Circle, Bolt-Hole
Pipe Size, Actual Size, to Face), O.D., B, mm (in.) Bolts Face, D, O.D., E, Diameter,
mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) [Note (1)] [Note (2)] mm (in.) mm (in.) L, mm (in.)
12.70 (0.5) 21.34 (0.84) 4.06 (0.16) 96.01 (3.78) 21.08 (0.83) 4 9.91 (0.39) 59.94 (2.36) 13.97 (0.55)
19.05 (0.75) 26.67 (1.05) 4.06 (0.16) 104.90 (4.13) 23.88 (0.94) 4 9.91 (0.39) 70.10 (2.76) 13.97 (0.55)
25.40 (1) 33.40 (1.315) 4.06 (0.16) 115.06 (4.53) 26.92 (1.06) 4 9.91 (0.39) 80.01 (3.15) 13.97 (0.55)
31.75 (1.25) 42.16 (1.66) 4.06 (0.16) 139.95 (5.51) 33.02 (1.30) 4 9.91 (0.39) 88.90 (3.50) 15.88 (0.625)
38.10 (1.5) 48.26 (1.90) 5.23 (0.206) 150.11 (5.91) 37.08 (1.46) 4 9.91 (0.39) 98.04 (3.86) 13.97 (0.55)
50.80 (2) 60.33 (2.375) 6.10 (0.24) 166.12 (6.54) 44.96 (1.77) 4 9.91 (0.39) 120.90 (4.76) 18.03 (0.71)
76.20 (3) 88.90 (3.50) 7.87 (0.31) 198.88 (7.83) 59.94 (2.36) 4 10.92 (0.43) 151.89 (5.98) 18.03 (0.71)
101.60 (4) 114.30 (4.50) 6.10 (0.24) 219.96 (8.66) 71.88 (2.83) 4 13.97 (0.55) 190.25 (7.49) 18.03 (0.71)
152.40 (6) 168.28 (6.625) 7.87 (0.31) 283.97 (11.18) 98.04 (3.86) 4 22.10 (0.87) 241.05 (9.49) 18.03 (0.71)
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) This Table provides dimensions for ABS lap-joint flanges made to British Pipe standards.
(b) There are no published requirements for radii on flange adapters or backup rings.
(c) The pressure rating for ABS lap-joint flange connections is greater than 10.34 bar (150 psi).
NOTES:
(1) Flange adapter length, C, is the distance from the face of the flange adapter to the end of the socket.
(2) Number of bolts shall meet ASME B16.5 requirements.

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ASME NM.1-2018

Table A-4.4-2 ABS Socket Flange Adapter

D
Z1
B

Length of Length From Thickness


Socket Flange Face O.D. of of Flange
Nominal Actual (Socket to to End of Flange Adapter
Pipe Size, Pipe Size, Face), Z1, Socket, B, Adapter, A, Face, D,
mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.)
50.80 (2) 60.33 (2.375) 3.05 (0.12) 39.88 (1.57) 96.01 (3.78) 13.97 (0.55)
76.20 (3) 88.90 (3.50) 6.10 (0.24) 56.90 (2.24) 127.00 (5.00) 18.03 (0.71)
101.60 (4) 114.30 (4.50) 6.10 (0.24) 69.09 (2.72) 159.00 (6.26) 20.07 (0.79)
152.40 (6) 168.28 (6.625) 10.92 (0.43) 103.89 (4.09) 213.11 (8.39) 23.88 (0.94)
203.20 (8) 219.08 (8.625) 13.97 (0.55) 132.08 (5.20) 268.99 (10.59) 25.91 (1.02)
254.00 (10) 273.05 (10.75) 8.13 (0.32) 157.99 (6.22) 305.56 (12.03) 28.96 (1.14)
304.80 (12) 323.85 (12.75) 9.91 (0.39) 180.09 (7.09) 362.46 (14.27) 34.04 (1.34)
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) This Table provides dimensions for ABS lap-joint flanges made to BPS standards.
(b) There are no published requirements for radii on flange adapters or backup rings.
(c) The pressure rating for ABS lap-joint flange connections is greater than 10.34 bar (150 psi).

A-4.6 Proof-Test Requirements for Thermoplastic


Flange Adapters Used as Part of a Lap-Joint
Flange Connection
The thermoplastic flange adapter (heat fused, solvent
Table A-5.1-1 Acceptable Methods for Installing Ther- cement welded, or threaded) is a component in the lap-
moplastic Flange Adapters to Thermoplastic Pipe and joint flange connection and is proof-tested as part of that
Fittings connection, as outlined in section A-3.
Material of Flange Adapter Acceptable Installation
and Pipe and Fittings Method A-5 METHODS OF INSTALLING FLANGE
ABS Solvent-cement welding ADAPTERS ONTO THERMOPLASTIC PIPES
Threaded AND FITTINGS
CPVC Solvent-cement welding
Threaded A-5.1 General
PE Butt fusion
Electrofusion The requirements for installing flange adapters using
PP Electrofusion heat fusion and solvent-cement welding are provided
Hot-plate butt fusion in Chapter 5. Requirements for threaded connections
Noncontact fusion
Socket fusion
are provided in Chapter 5 and Mandatory Appendix II.
Threaded Acceptable methods for installing thermoplastic flange
PVC Butt fusion adapters to thermoplastic pipe and fittings are given in
Solvent-cement welding Table A-5.1-1.
Threaded Thermoplastic one-piece flanges and flange adapters
PVDF and PVDF copolymer Electrofusion installed onto thermoplastic pipe or fittings shall be
Hot-plate butt fusion
Noncontact fusion considered part of the assembly and tested as a unit.
Socket fusion
Threaded

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ASME NM.1-2018

Figure A-5.2-1 Transistor Flange Arrangement


Washers

Metallic flange Metallic backup ring

Bolting

Metallic pipe PE flange adapter or Fusion joint


thermosplastic flange

Gasket (optional)

A-5.2 Typical Metal-to-Thermoplastic-Flange A-5.3 Repair of Thermoplastic One-Piece Flanges


Connections and Flange Adapters
Flange connections between metal flanges and ther- (a) If there are scratches or gouges on the thermo-
moplastic flange adapters with backup rings (see Figure plastic one-piece flange or flange adapter in the radius
A-5.2-1) and solid PVDF flange and backup ring to ther- of the thermoplastic one-piece flange or flange adapter,
moplastic-lined metal pipe (see Figure A-5.2-2) shall meet it shall be replaced. See Figure A-5.3-1 for a definition
the following requirements: of this area.
(a) The bolt circle on the metal flange shall be the same (b) When there are scratches or gouges on the barrel of
as the bolt circle on the backup ring and flange adapter or the flange adapter greater than 10% of wall thickness in
one-piece flange. the area next to the radius, the flange adapter shall be
(b) The flange face with the smallest surface area replaced. See Figure A-5.3-2 for a definition of this area.
(usually the metallic flange) should be used to determine (c) When there is damage to the one-piece flange or
the bolt torque. flange adapter face greater than 0.38 mm (0.015 in.) in
depth and greater than 40% of the flange face width,
the flange or flange adapter shall be replaced or repaired.

Figure A-5.2-2 Solid PVDF Flange and Backup Ring to Thermoplastic-Lined Metal Pipe

GENERAL NOTE: While the illustration shows PVDF flange and backup ring to thermoplastic-lined metal pipe, this concept of using a flange
adapter and backup ring applies to all thermoplastics.

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ASME NM.1-2018

Figure A-5.3-1 One-Piece Flange flange or flange adapter that would prevent the gasket
sealing shall be evaluated per para. A-5.3 . Use of
No scratches or gouges
gaskets is optional for PE. For all other thermoplastics,
permitted in this radius area
select the gasket material based on requirements in
M section A-7.
(d) The flange shall be joined using bolts of a size and
strength that conform to the requirements of ASME B16.5
or ASME B16.47 Series A, as applicable.
L (e) Bolts or studs shall extend completely through their
R
nuts with a minimum of one complete thread exposed
outside the nut to verify complete thread engagement.
N
Bolt-circle diameter Any bolts or studs that fail to do so are not considered
Max. O.D. acceptably engaged.
(f) Requirements for bolts, nuts, and washers are
detailed in section A-9. The length of bolts can be calcu-
lated by adding the thickness of the two flange faces plus
Repairs shall be done by machining. However, repair, the thickness of the gasket (if used) plus the thickness of
rather than replacement, shall be allowed only if after the washers and the thickness of the two nuts plus twice
the repair the flange or flange adapter the pitch of the threads. See Figures A-5.2-1 and A-5.2-2
(1) retains the minimum flange-face dimensions for flange connections for various materials.
required to maintain the pressure rating or (g) If either, or both, of the flanges in the connection is a
(2) continues to meet the minimum requirements of thermoplastic-lined metallic construction, the sealing
the applicable ASTM standard or the manufacturer’s re- surface thickness shall be included in the calculation.
quirements One or two sealing surface thicknesses should be
added, depending on whether one or both flanges are ther-
A-6 FLANGE-TO-FLANGE CONNECTIONS moplastic-lined metal. See Figure A-5.2-2 for an illustra-
tion of thermoplastic pipe joined to thermoplastic-lined
(a) Flanged connections shall be used between dimen-
pipe.
sionally compatible flanges.
(h) In assembling flanged joints, the gasket, if used,
(b) When joining different materials, use the torque
shall be uniformly compressed to the proper design
required for the material with the lowest torque require-
loading. Special care shall be used in assembling
ment. For PE, refer to PPI TN-38 for torque calculations
flanged joints in which the flanges have widely differing
and torque tables or to the manufacturer’s recommended
mechanical properties. Tightening to a predetermined
torque. For all other thermoplastics, refer to the manufac-
torque is recommended. No more than one gasket
turer’s recommended torque.
shall be used between contact faces in assembling a
(c) Before bolting up, flange faces shall be aligned to the
flanged joint. The gasket material shall be selected to
design plane within 5.3 mm/m (1∕16 in./ft) measured
be consistent and compatible with the service require-
across the flange face diameter; flange bolt holes shall
ments of the piping system.
be aligned within 3.2 mm ( 1 ∕ 8 in.) maximum offset.
(i) Use ASME PCC-1, Table 2 as a tightening sequence
Damage to the gasket seating surface on the thermoplastic
for installation for thermoplastic piping systems and ther-
moplastic-lined metallic construction.
(j) Thermoplastic materials are viscoelastic. Consid-
Figure A-5.3-2 Flange Adapter eration shall be given to retightening after a period of
time following initial assembly for the thermoplastic
No scratches greater than 10%
material being used.
of wall thickness in this area
next to the radius (k) Flanges shall not be tightened until the joint
between the one-piece flange or flange adapter and the
thermoplastic pipe has developed adequate strength.
(1) For thermoplastics joined by heat fusion, use
published data on time to develop adequate joint strength
before tightening bolts on flanges.
(2) For solvent-cement-welded thermoplastics, use
the manufacturer’s published cure-time data.
NOTE: Extra caution shall be taken to prevent cold-springing
when bolting up solvent-cemented joints on flanges. Flanges
need to freely float in the longitudinal direction during the

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ASME NM.1-2018

torqueing procedure to prevent disturbing a freshly cemented (2) Gaskets shall be concentric with the flange I.D.
solvent-welded joint. and O.D. after installation.
(3) Gaskets shall be adequately supported during the
A-7 GASKETS positioning process such that an unacceptable portion of
the gasket material does not project into the flow path
A-7.1 General Requirements after installation. If the gasket material does project
into the flow path, because of either the gasket’s lack
(a) The following information should be considered by of stiffness or the size of the gasket, the installer of the
the owner or user when selecting the gasket material: gasket and the owner or the owner’s representative
(1) operating conditions shall determine acceptable limits of projections for
(2) temperature range gaskets for the application.
(3) pressure range (4) Hydrocarbons shall not be applied on thermo-
(4) chemicals to be carried in the thermoplastic pipe plastic surfaces for lubrication or as adhesives during
(5) chemicals in the external environment around installation or operation.
the flange connection (5) Hydrocarbons may be used for cleaning the
(6) sizes of the thermoplastic pipes and flanges to be surface of thermoplastics when allowed by the manufac-
used turer of the flange or flange adapter.
(7) type or types of thermoplastic pipe, fittings, and (6) When full-face gaskets are used, bolts shall be
components to be used installed to hold the gasket in place.
(8) toxic or corrosive chemicals requiring special
considerations A-7.2 Thermoplastic Flanges Requiring Gaskets
(9) level of reliability required above normal service
requirements Table A-7.2-1 lists gasket requirements for thermo-
(b) The manufacturer of the flange adapter and/or the plastic flanges.
backup ring shall be consulted to determine whether a
gasket is required for the specific thermoplastic flange A-8 TIGHTENING OF BOLTS
adapter or flange connection and, if so, the requirements Bolts for one-piece flanges and TLJFs shall be tightened
for the gasket. using the traditional cross-pattern approach.
(c) The design engineer, qualified person, owner or (a) Tighten bolts in increments. Follow the bolt-tigh-
user, or manufacturer of the flange adapter shall evaluate tening sequence shown in ASME PCC-1, Table 2 or
the requirements for the gasket and select the appropriate Table 3. Use ASME PCC-1, Table 4 for proper sequence
specification for the gasket for material requiring gaskets. based on number of bolts. ASME PCC-1, Table 4.1 may
When gaskets are optional, the selection of the gasket also be used.
should be based on the owner’s or user’s requirements. (b) Nonmetallic backup rings or one-piece thermo-
The following also apply: plastic flanges may require special procedures for bolt
(1) No metallic gaskets shall be used. tightening. When using nonmetallic backup rings or
(2) Generic requirements for gaskets should not be one-piece thermoplastic flanges, follow procedures spe-
used because of differences in physical properties cific to the components or application.
between thermoplastics and flange adapter designs.
(3) No segmented gaskets shall be used with thermo-
plastic flange connections.
(d) The following information should be verified
during acceptance inspection using the design specifica-
tion:
(1) The dimensions (O.D., I.D., thickness, and bolt Table A-7.2-1 Gasket Requirements for Thermoplastic
circle for full-face gasket) shall be verified by measure- Flanges
ment.
Gasket Gasket
(2) The gasket or gaskets shall be made from the Material of Flange and Pipe Required Optional
material specified and verified using documentation
ABS X …
supplied with the gasket or gaskets at delivery. The docu-
CPVC X …
mentation shall provide traceability from the gasket or lot
PVC X …
of gaskets to the materials used to make the gasket.
(e) The following shall be verified during installation by PE … X
the owner or the owner’s representative’s inspector PP X …
during and after installation: PVDF and PVDF copolymer X …
(1) Gaskets shall be new and shall not be reused. Thermoplastic-lined metallic … X
pipe

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ASME NM.1-2018

Figure A-9.4-1 Drawings for Bolts With Nuts and Stud A-9.2 Bolts
Bolts With Nuts
Bolts are used for the assembly of two unthreaded
LL components. The bolt has male threads. For flange connec-
tions, bolts and nuts are used to provide force to seal a
flange connection.
(a) The size of bolts shall conform to the requirements
(a) Machine Bolt With Nuts in ASME PCC-1, Nonmandatory Appendix L.
(b) The class of bolt (see ASME PCC-1, Table L-1) shall
be determined by the pressure requirements for the
L design pressure and test pressure.
(c) Bolts shall conform to the requirements in ASME
B16.5, Table 1B, and ASME B18.2.1.

A-9.3 Nuts
Point height
A nut is a fastener with a threaded hole. A nut is used
(b) Stud Bolt With Nuts with a washer and bolt to create force and create a seal on a
flange connection.
(a) The size of the nut shall conform to the size of the
bolt.
(c) When gaskets are used, use the torque recommend- (b) The nuts shall conform to the requirements of
ed by the manufacturer for the gasket and thermoplastic ASME B16.5.
flange or flange adapter combination. (c) The nut dimensions shall meet the requirements of
NOTE: When the torque is higher than the compressive strength ASME B18.2.2 and ASME B18.2.6M.
of the gasket and/or the thermoplastic flange or flange adapter,
the flange connection can be damaged or lose its sealing ability. A-9.4 Stud Bolts
Stud bolts are used in the same applications as a bolt. A
A-9 WASHERS, BOLTS, NUTS, AND STUDS stud bolt has male threads, and nuts are used on both ends.
A head is not on one end of a stud. See Figure A-9.4-1,
A-9.1 Washers illustrations (a) and (b), respectively.
(a) The stud bolt shall be made from materials listed in
(a) Washers shall be used between the head of the bolt
ASME B16.5, Table 1B.
or nuts and the backing ring or device to which the flange
(b) Threads shall conform to ASME B1.1 Class 2A for
connection is being made.
external threads.
NOTE: The washer prevents galling or surface damage that can
increase the rate of corrosion (of metallic components) or
damage to components in some applications. A-10 BOLTED JOINT ASSEMBLY RECORDS
(b) The owner or user may use washers with metallic When joint assembly records are required, they shall
backup rings. include the following information:
(c) Washers shall be used when using nonmetallic (a) joint location or identification
backup rings. (b) joint pressure rating and size
(1) Washers and nuts shall be made of like materials (c) specifications and conditions of flanges, fasteners,
(e.g., steel to steel or bonze to bronze). bolts, washers (including nut- or washer-bearing
(2) Washers shall be marked with the manufac- surfaces), and gaskets
turer’s name and the washer type. All markings shall (d) date of activity (assembly, disassembly, pressure
be depressed and located on the same face of the washer. test, etc.)
(3) If metric washers are used with metric bolts, the (e) names of assemblers/workers
dimensional requirements provided in ASME PCC-1, Non- (f) name of inspector or responsible person
mandatory Appendix M, Table M-3 shall be used. (g) flatness measurements, when made
(4) If U.S. Customary washers are used, dimensional (h) assembly procedure and tightening method used,
requirements in ASME PCC-1, Nonmandatory Appendix M, including applicable target prestress values as per the
Table M-4 shall be used. indicated tightening method
(i) date when a retorque was performed
(j) tool data such as type, model, pressure setting, and
calibration identification

118
ASME NM.1-2018

NONMANDATORY APPENDIX B
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BURIED PIPING

B-1 INTRODUCTION B-1.3 Nomenclature

B-1.1 Purpose The following symbols are used throughout this Appen-
dix:
This Standard contains requirements governing the Ap = cross-sectional area of pipe at the pipe
materials, design, fabrication, erection, examination, section where the evaluation is conducted,
and testing of thermoplastic piping systems. These re- mm2 (in.2)
quirements were written for thermoplastic piping D = average O.D. of thermoplastic pipe, mm
suspended in open space, with the supports located at (in.)
local points on the pipe (unrestrained condition). DR = ratio of the O.D. to the wall thickness of the
Buried thermoplastic piping, on the other hand, is pipe
supported, confined, and restrained by the passive x = D/t
effects of the backfill and the trench bedding. Thus, the E' = modulus of soil reaction (data is site spe-
following general considerations apply to the design of cific), MPa (psi)
buried piping: Epipe = modulus of elasticity of pipe per ASME
(a) Pipe-to-soil interactions shall be evaluated to NM.3.3, MPa (psi)
ensure that the soil provides adequate restraint to gc = acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 (ft/sec2)
limit the movement of the buried pipeline as required H = height of ground cover, m (ft)
to prevent unacceptable levels of stress and/or strain Hgw = height of groundwater above top of the
in the piping and to prevent failure of the soil support. pipe, m (ft)
(b) All components in the buried piping system shall be i = stress intensification factor, per Mandatory
given consideration, including the building penetrations, Appendix IV
branches, bends, elbows, flanges, valves, grade penetra- MC = resultant moment range due to thermal
tions, and tank attachments. expansion and/or contraction and/or the
(c) The effects of restraint cannot be easily evaluated restraint of free-end displacement, N·mm
by the usual methods applied to the exposed or above- (in.-lb)
ground thermoplastic piping, since these methods P = internal design gauge pressure, plus pres-
cannot easily accommodate the effects of bearing and fric- sure spikes due to transient events, MPa
tion at the pipe–soil interface. (psi)
This Appendix sets forth additional design considera- PE = vertical soil pressure due to earth loads,
tions deemed necessary for safe design of restrained MPa (lb/ft2)
buried thermoplastic piping. Pgw = pressure due to groundwater above the top
of the pipe, MPa (lb/ft2)
B-1.2 Scope Phydro = external hydrostatic pressure, equal to
(a) The scope of this Appendix is limited to the design of earth plus groundwater pressure plus
buried piping as defined in para. 2-3.3.2. surcharge load, MPa (psi)
(b) This Appendix deals only with the buried portions PL = vertical soil pressure due to surcharge
of the system, and not the complete system. loads, MPa (lb/ft2)
(c) The design requirements for pressure and other R = buoyancy reduction factor
loads not specifically addressed in this Appendix shall S = allowable stress, per ASME NM.3.3, in the
meet the requirements of Chapters 2 through 5, as appli- form of hydrostatic design stress (HDS),
cable. design stress (DS), and hydrostatic
(d) Unless altered by this Appendix, the allowable design basis (HDB), MPa (psi)
stress values are per ASME NM.3.3. SA = allowable secondary or fatigue stress value
per ASME NM.3.3, MPa (psi)
Scomp = allowable side wall compression stress per
ASME NM.3.3, MPa (psi)

119
ASME NM.1-2018

SL = longitudinal stresses, MPa (psi) back-calculated values using the prism load. When
t = minimum wall thickness from the standard using Tables B-4-2.2-1, B-4-2.2-2, and B-4-2.2-3, the
to which the pipe was made, accounting for earth load is assumed to be the prism load. For installa-
manufacturing tolerances, or the minimum tions exceeding 15.24 m (50 ft) of cover, a more accurate
measured wall thickness, mm (in.) approach would be to use one of the methods that
Tground = temperature of the soil in which the pipe is accounts for arching and that uses the constrained soil
buried, °C (°F) modulus for calculating deflection (McGrath 1998).
Twater = temperature of the water or other fluid in Equation (B-2-1) gives the vertical soil pressure due to
the pipe, °C (°F) the prism load. The depth of cover is the depth from the
Wp = weight of empty pipe, per unit length, kg/m ground surface to the pipe crown:
(lb/ft) PE = saturated × Hgw + dry × (H Hgw) (B-2-1)
Ww = buoyant force, kg/m (lb/ft)
Z = section modulus of pipe cross section at the
B-2.2.2 Live Load. Surface load pressure is attenuated
pipe section where the moment is calcu-
as it travels through a soil mass. The most common surface
lated, mm3 (in.3)
loads for design are truck (wheel) loads and railway loads.
α = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe, 1/
°C (1/°F) B-2.2.2.1 Truck (Wheel) Loads
ΔT = Twater − Tground, °C (°F) (a) Flexible Pavement or Unpaved Road
ν = Poisson’s ratio (see ASME NM.3.3) (1) The American Association of State Highway and
ρdry = unit weight (density) of dry soil (data is site Transportation Officials (AASHTO) defines the wheel load
specific), kg/m3 (lb/ft3) for the rear-axle wheels of a 20-ton (40,000-lb) H-20
ρsaturated = unit weight (density) of saturated soil (data vehicle as 7 257.4 kg (16,000 lb). AASHTO assumes the
is site specific), kg/m3 (lb/ft3) soil contact area for a set of dual tires to be 254 mm ×
ρW = density of fluid, kg/m3 (lb/ft3) 508 mm (10 in. × 20 in.). Table B-2.2.2.1-1 gives the
σSW = circumferential compressive stress in the highest load expected from two passing H-20 trucks.
sidewalls of pipe, MPa (psi) (Maximum loading can occur directly under one wheel
στ = tensile stress in the pipe, MPa (psi) or somewhere between the two wheels, depending on
Ω = change in diameter as a percentage of the depth.)
original diameter, commonly called the (2) For an H-25 vehicle, the load is 89 kN (20,000 lbf)
change in ring diameter Table B-2.2.2.1-1 gives the live load pressure, PL, at depth
for the H-20 wheel loading. H-25 loading pressure can be
B-2 LOADS obtained by multiplying the value in Table B-2.2.2.1-1 by
1.25.
B-2.1 Sustained Loads (3) No reduction in soil pressure is taken for flexible
(a) For buried piping applications, the sustained loads pavement.
are pressure, pipe weight, fluid weight, backfill, soil cover, (4) Impact Factor
groundwater effects, and surcharge loads. (-a) Equation (B-2-2) (from AASHTO) shall be
(b) Buried pipe design requires consideration of burial used for finding the impact factor, IF, as a function of
depth, soil type, and compaction to determine the external depth for paved roads:
loads on the pipe. IF = 1 + 0.33(1.0 0.125H ) > 1.0 (B-2-2)

B-2.2 Soil and Surcharge Loads (-b) Unpaved roads can have an uneven travel
It is critical for buried thermoplastic piping systems to surface. The impact factor can be 2.0 or 3.0, or higher,
consider the external dead loads due to soil weight, back- depending on speed and roughness of the surface.
fill, and surcharge (structure foundation, footing) in the (-c) The soil pressure for live load for flexible pave-
design. Paragraphs B-2.2.1 and B-2.2.2 provide recom- ment shall be obtained from eq. (B-2-3):
mended methods for determining the soil pressure PL = IFP H20 (B-2-3)
from earth and surface loads acting on the crown of
the pipe. Other methods may be used. (b) Rigid Pavement. ASTM A796 gives the soil pres-
sure values for H-20 loading applied through a 304.8-
B-2.2.1 Earth Load. Soil arching occurs above buried mm (12-in.) thick concrete pavement, as shown in
flexible pipe and can reduce the applied load to less than Table B-2.2.2.1-2. The values include the impact factor.
the geostatic load; this is also called the prism load. The (c) Soil Pressure Under Point Load. An alternative
amount of arching depends on soil type, burial depth, method to those given in (a) and (b) above for finding
and pipe stiffness. The E’ values listed in Tables the soil pressure on a buried pipe under a wheel load
B-4-2.2-1, B-4-2.2-2, and B-4-2.2-3 are based on is given in AWWA Manual M-55.

120
ASME NM.1-2018

Table B-2.2.2.1-1 Soil Pressure Under H-20 Load Without R= X2 + H2 (B-2-7)


Impact Factor (Flexible Pavement or Unpaved Roads)
where
H, m (ft) PH20, kPa (lb∕ft2)
IF = impact factor; see (a)(4)
0.46 (1.5) 96 (2,000)
PL2 = soil pressure due to wheel load, kPa (lb/ft2)
0.61 (2.0) 66 (1,370) R = distance from point load to point in soil, m (ft)
0.76 (2.5) 50 (1,008) X = horizontal distance from point load to point in
0.91 (3.0) 38 (780) soil, m (ft)

1.07 (3.5) 30 (620) B-2.2.2.2 Railroad Loading


1.22 (4.0) 25 (520)
(a) Railroad loading is normally taken to be the Cooper
1.83 (6.0) 14 (290)
E-80 load. The E-80 load is a 356-kN (80,000-lbf) load
2.44 (8.0) 10 (190) uniformly applied over three 0.6-m × 2.4-m (2-ft × 8-
3.05 (10.0) 6 (115) ft) areas on 1.5-m (5-ft) centers. Refer to Chapter 6 of
GENERAL NOTES: the PPI Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe for design
(a) From AWWA Manual M55, PE Pipe — Design and Installation. values for railroad loads.
(b) Multiply H-20 soil pressure, PH20, by 1.25 to obtain the soil pres- (b) Railroads normally require casings for pipe within
sure for an H-25 load. 7.62 m (25 ft) of mainline tracks for protection against
washout in the event of pipeline leakage.
(c) Railroad spurs are on private property and can have
different requirements.
(d) Soil Pressure Under Off-Highway Vehicles. Off-
highway vehicles include construction equipment, B-2.3 Occasional Loads
cranes, and mine trucks. Loading can be significantly
higher than the H-20 loading, and the load from more (a) Examples of occasional loads on buried piping are
than one tire or set of tires may be significant. those resulting from seismic events, road and rail traffic
The soil pressure directly under a wheel may be found crossing, differential settlement, and temperature change
using a formula attributed to Timoshenko, and that under (loads caused by temperature change may also be consid-
a more distant tire may be found using the Boussinesq ered sustained in some instances).
equation. The vehicle load pressure is the sum of the (b) An earthquake subjects buried piping to axial loads
two pressures. and bending moments from soil strain due to seismic
(1) Timoshenko Formula. This may be used to calcu- waves, or from ground faulting across the axis of the
late wheel loads for off-highway vehicles: pipe. The seismic soil strain can be estimated for a
ÅÄÅ ÑÉÑ design earthquake in a specific geographical region,
ÅÅ ÑÑ
I W Å Å 3 ÑÑ from which design values for forces and moments in
PL1 = F L ÅÅÅÅ1 ÑÑ
H (B-2-4)
ÑÑ
AC ÅÅÅ 2 2 1.5 ÑÑÑ
ÅÅ
ÅÇ
rT (
+ H ) ÑÑ
ÑÖ
Table B-2.2.2.1-2 Soil Pressure Under H-20 Load on Rigid
AC Pavement With Impact Factor
rT = (B-2-5)
H, m (ft) PL, kPa (lb∕ft2)
0.461 (1.5) 67.03 (1,400)
where 0.61 (2.0) 39 (810)
AC = tire contact area, m2 (ft2) 0.91 (3.0) 29 (605)
IF = impact factor; see (a)(4) 1.22 (4.0) 20 (405)
PL1 = soil pressure due to wheel load, kPa (lb/ft2)
rT = equivalent radius, m (ft)
1.52 (5.0) 12 (250)
WL = wheel load
1.83 (6.0) 10 (202)
2.13 (7.0) 9 (175)
(2) Boussinesq Formula. The Boussinesq formula
gives the vertical soil pressure at any point in a soil 2.44 (8.0) 5 (101)
mass due to a surface point load: Over 2.44 (8.0) Negligible
GENERAL NOTES:
3IFWLH3 (B-2-6) (a) From AWWA Manual M55, PE Pipe — Design and Installation.
PL2 =
2 R5 (b) ASTM A796 does not give the loading at 0.46 m (1.5 ft). The PL
value given was found using the same methodology as in ASTM
A796, with an impact factor of 1.2.

121
ASME NM.1-2018

buried piping can be calculated. The consideration of the pressure) should be considered. In this case, the following
magnitude and effects of seismic ground faulting on buried equation shall be met:
piping is beyond the scope of this Appendix.
ij PS + Pgw yz 1 E pipeI
(c) For buried piping crossing under the road or rail- P + jjj zz 32RB E (B-3-2a)
j 144 zz FS D3
road, occasional vehicular loads shall be considered. k {

B-2.4 Construction Loads ij PS + Pgw yz E pipe


1
P + jjj zz 32RB E (B-3-2b)
Loads that occur during hydrostatic testing shall be j 144 zz FS 12(DR 1)3
k {
considered. These loads include weight of contents,
thermal, and pressured end effect. where
Bʹ = burial depth, defined in eq. (B-3-3a) or
B-2.5 Transient Loads
eq. (B-3-3b)
Transient loads are those that can occur during opera- FS = factor of safety (2.5 to 3.5)
tion of the pipeline. An example of a transient load is surge I = area moment of inertia, t3/12, mm4/mm (in.4/
pressure in a liquid pipeline produced by a change in the in.)
velocity of the moving fluid as defined in PS = applied load due to soil plus surcharge, kPa (lb/
Nonmandatory Appendix C. Surge pressure can result ft2)
from shutting down or starting up a pump station or R = buoyancy reduction factor, defined in eq. (B-3-4)
pumping unit, closing a valve, or blocking the moving ΔP = differential pressure due to external pressure,
fluid (e.g., water hammer). kPa (psi)

B-2.6 Combining of Loads (SI Units)


When calculating equivalent stresses or strains, the 1
B = (B-3-3a)
most critical combination of sustained, occasional, 1 + 4 exp ( 0.213H )
construction, and transient loads that can be expected
to occur shall be considered. NOTE: H is in meters.
(U.S. Customary Units)
B-3 PIPING ANALYSIS
1
B = (B-3-3b)
B-3.1 External Soil Loads 1 + 4 exp ( 0.065H )
The requirements for external soil loads are provided in
NOTE: H is in feet.
paras. B-3.1.1 through B-3.1.4.
B-3.1.1 Compression of Sidewalls. The circumferen- 0.33Hgw
R=1 (B-3-4)
tial compressive stress in the sidewalls, σ SW , due to H
soil and surcharge loads shall not exceed Scomp:
(b) When the depth of cover is less than 1.25 m (4 ft) or
(SI Units) one pipe diameter (whichever is larger), the pipe shall
(PE + PL) × DR withstand the combined external pressure of ground-
(B-3-1a)
SW = Scomp water (flooding), earth, surcharge, and air without
2
credit for the surrounding soil. In this case, eq. (B-3-5)
shall be met:
(U.S. Customary Units)
ij PS + Pgw yz fo 2E pipe i 1 y3
P + jjj zz × jj zz (B-3-5)
(PE + PL) × DR j 144 zz j z
SW = Scomp (B-3-1b)
k { 2 1 v 2 k DR 1 {
2 × 144
where
Values of Scomp may be found in ASME NM.3.3. fo = ovality correction factor
PS = applied load due to soil plus surcharge, kPa (lb/
B-3.1.2 Buckling. External pressure from ground- ft2)
water, earth loads, and surcharge loads on a buried ther- ΔP = differential pressure due to external pressure,
moplastic piping system shall not cause the pipe to buckle. kPa (lb/ft2)
(a) When the depth of cover is greater than 1.25 m (4 ft)
or one pipe diameter, whichever is larger, the external In addition, the requirements of para. (a) are not
pressure from groundwater (flooding), earth loads, required to be met.
surcharge loads, and air pressure (due to negative internal

122
ASME NM.1-2018

B-3.1.3 Ring Deflection. The soil and surcharge loads WW = buoyant force, kg/m (lb/ft)
on a buried thermoplastic pipe shall not result in a pipe x = D2 W
diameter ring deflection, Ω, beyond allowable defection 48
for the pipe inside the diameter of the thermoplastic pipe:
100 K × L × PE + K × PL B-3.2 Longitudinal Stress
= × 3
144 2E pipe 1
3
× ( DR 1 )
+ 0.061 × FS × E (B-3-6) Longitudinal stresses, S L , due to axial forces and
bending moments resulting from applied mechanical
max loads shall not exceed KʹS:
where PD F M
+ a + 0.75 KS (B-3-10)
Fs = soil support factor (given in Table B-4.2.2-4) 4t Ap Z
K = bedding factor (0.1)
L = deflection lag factor (1.0 to 1.5); see para. where
B-4.2.3 Fa = axial mechanical force in pipe, N (lbf)
Ωmax = maximum allowable change in diameter as a Kʹ = design longitudinal stress factor
percentage of the original diameter x = 1.0 for sustained loads
x = 1.1 for occasional loads acting for no more than 8
B-3.1.4 Flotation. Buried thermoplastic piping h at any one time and no more than 800 h/yr
systems shall have sufficient cover or be anchored to x = 1.20 for occasional loads acting for no more than 1
the ground to prevent flotation by groundwater h at any one time and no more than 80 h/yr
(upward resultant force due to buoyancy on a buried M = resultant bending moment in pipe, N·mm (in·lbf)
pipe in saturated soil). Flotation of a buried pipeline is
prevented when the weight of the pipe, its contents, For the assessment of short-duration loads (less than 5
and the soil above the pipe exceed the buoyant force min) the allowable stress, S, may be replaced by 40% of the
acting on the pipe. To ensure this effect occurs, the material tensile stress. In using this value, the K value shall
following relationship shall be satisfied: be taken as 1.0.

(SI Units) B-3.3 Stress From Thermal Expansion and


WW < WP + (1 000 × PE × D / g ) (B-3-7) Contraction
The requirements for analyzing stress from thermal
expansion and contraction are provided in paras.
(U.S. Customary Units) B-3.3.1 through B-3.3.4.
WW < WP + PE × D/12 (B-3-8)
B-3.3.1 Fully Constrained Thermal Contraction. The
stress, σ τc , resulting from fully constrained thermal
WP + WC + WS contraction of the buried pipe when T water < T ground
WW < (B-3-9)
FSf shall be determined as follows:
PD (B-3-11)
where c = E pipe × × T ×
2t
FSf = safety factor against flotation (engineering judg-
ment or 1) B-3.3.2 Fully Constrained Thermal Expansion. The
GSP = specific gravity of pipe material tensile stress, σ τe , resulting from fully constrained
WC = pipe content weight, kg/m (lb/ft) thermal expansion of the buried pipe when T water >
WP = pipe weight, kg/m (lb/ft); may be obtained from Tground shall be determined as follows:
the manufacturer or estimated from the (B-3-12)
following equation: e = E pipe × × T

2
W GSPD ijj 1.06DR 1.12 yzz B-3.3.3 Combined Thermal Expansion and Contrac-
Wp = jj 2 zz tion Stress. The combined thermal expansion and
144 k DR {
contraction stress shall be limited to SA:
WS = soil weight, kg/m (lb/ft) (B-3-13)
c + e SA
x = D ( W)
dry 12 (H Hgw) + saturated B-3.3.4 Alternative Thermal Expansion or Contrac-
12
ÄÅ ÉÑ tion Evaluation. As an alternative to para. B-3.3.3, the
ÅÅ (4 )D2 ÑÑ
× ÅÅÅÅ + DHgw ÑÑÑÑ soil stiffness may be accounted for to calculate pipe
ÅÅÇ 96 ÑÑÖ

123
ASME NM.1-2018

Table B-4.2.1-1 Typical Soil Unit Weight


Unit Weight, kg/m3 (lb/ft3)
Soil Dry Saturated
Typical backfill 1 922.22 (120) 1 922.22 (120)
Sands and gravels 1 890.18 to 2 402.77 (118 to 150) 1 489.72 to 2 306.66 (93 to 144)
Silts and clays 1 393.61 to 2 098.42 (87 to 131) 592.68 to 1 794.07 (37 to 112)

Glacial till 2 098.42 to 2 402.77 (131 to 150) 1 697.96 to 2 306.66 (106 to 144)
Crushed rock 1 906.20 to 2 194.53 (119 to 137) 1 505.74 to 2 002.31 (94 to 125)
Organic silts and clays 1 297.50 to 1 794.07 (81 to 112) 496.57 to 1 505.74 (31 to 94)
GENERAL NOTE: Values are from the PPI Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe, Chapter 6.

expansion and contraction stresses. The bending and axial B-4.2 Soil Parameters
stresses shall satisfy eq. (B-3-14):
Soil parameters vary depending on the mineral compo-
iMC F
Alt = + ac SA (B-3-14) sition, grain size and shape, texture, density, preconsoli-
Z Ap dation history, moisture, and cementation. Presumptive
values are often used in design when specific testing
B-3.4 Nonrepeated Anchor Movements has not been performed. Such values generally work
well but can lead to some variance between the actual
The effects of any single nonrepeated anchor move-
behavior and the predicted behavior.
ments shall meet the requirements of eq. (B-3-15):
Paragraphs B-4.2.1 through B-4.2.3 contain commonly
iMD F accepted presumptive values for soil parameters used in
+ aD < 2S (B-3-15)
Z Ap buried pipe design.
B-4.2.1 Unit Weight of Soil. Table B-4.2.1-1 lists unit
B-3.5 Seismic (Earthquake) Induced Stresses weights for typical soil types.
(a) The stresses in the buried piping system due to soil
B-4.2.2 Modulus of Soil Reaction, Eʹ
strains caused by seismic (earthquake) wave passage,
seismic (earthquake) soil movement, and building (a) Eʹ values should be based on geotechnical informa-
seismic (earthquake) anchor motions effects, where ap- tion for the site, which assumes that the earth pressure at
plicable, shall be evaluated. The stresses shall satisfy the pipe crown is the prism load. It is well known that the E’
eq. (B-3-16): value increases with depth of cover due to the increased
iME F confining pressure on the embedment soil.
+ aE < SA (B-3-16) (1) This effect is not considered in Table B-4.2.2-1.
Z Ap
(2) As the depth increases, the E’ becomes more
conservative. For very shallow cover, the converse is
(b) Seismic wave passage, seismic soil movement, and
true and Eʹ can be less conservative.
building seismic anchor motion loads shall be combined
(3) Table B-4.2.2-2 gives Eʹ as a function of depth. It is
by square root sum of the squares.
suggested to compare the values in Tables B-4.2.2-2
andB-4.2.2-3 and use the minimum Eʹ value.
B-4 SOIL (4) The Eʹ value varies along the length of a pipeline
The requirements for analyzing soil loads on the buried due to construction variability.
thermoplastic piping systems are outlined in this section. (b) Placement of stiff embedment material in soft soils
can result in more deflection. The converse is true as well.
B-4.1 General Considerations To account for this effect, a value may be used for Eʹ that is
a composite of the embedment stiffness and the in situ soil
Parameters presented in this section are typical values
stiffness:
that have been used for plastic pipe design for a number of
E C = FSE (B-4-1)
years. They might not be appropriate for any specific site.
Engineering judgment and additional analysis are some-
times required. where
Eʹ = modulus of soil reaction, MPa (psi)
EʹC = composite Eʹ, kPa (lb/ft2)
FS = soil support factor

124
ASME NM.1-2018

Table B-4.2.2-1 Eʹ Values for Typical Soils


Eʹ for Degree of Compaction of Bedding, MPa (psi)
Moderate 85% to
Slight <85% 95% Proctor, High >95%
Soil-Type Pipe Bedding Material Proctor, <40% 40% to 70% Proctor, >70%
(Unified Classification System) [Note (1)] Dumped Relative Density Relative Density Relative Density
Fine-grained soils (LL > 50%) No data available; consult a competent soils engineer; otherwise, use Eʹ = 0
Soils with medium to high plasticity
(CH, MH, CH–MH)
Fine-grained soils (LL < 50%) 0.34 (50) 1.38 (200) 2.76 (400) 6.89 (1,000)
Soils with medium to no plasticity
(CL, ML, CL–ML) contain <25% coarse-grained
particles
Fine-grained soils (LL < 50%)
Soils with medium to no plasticity
(CL, ML, CL–ML) contain >25% coarse-grained 0.69 (100) 2.76 (400) 6.89 (1,000) 13.79 (2,000)
particles
Coarse-grained soils with fines
{GM, GC, SM, SC [Note (2)]} contain >12% fines
Coarse-grained soils with little or no fines 1.38 (200) 6.89 (1,000) 13.79 (2,000) 20.68 (3,000)
{GW, GP, SW, SP SC [Note (2)]} contain <12% fines
Crushed rock 6.89 (1,000) 20.68 (3,000) 20.68 (3,000) 20.68 (3,000)
Accuracy of deflection ±2% ±2% ±1% ±0.5%
[Note (3)]
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) Values shown are from Howard, A. K. (1977), “Modulus of Soil Reaction Values for Buried Flexible Pipe,” Journal of the Geotechnical Engi-
neering Division, Vol. 103, No. GT1, ASCE, pp. 33–43, January.
(b) The values in this Table are applicable only for fills less than 15.24 m (50 ft). No safety factor is included in table values. These values are for use
in predicting initial deflections only; the appropriate deflection lag factor shall be applied for long-term deflections. If bedding falls on the
borderline between two compaction categories, the lower Eʹ value or average of the two values shall be selected. Percentage Proctor is based
on laboratory maximum dry density from test standards using 598 000 J/m2 (12,500 ft-lb/ft3) (ASTM D698, AASHTO T-99). 1 lb/in.2 = 6.895
kPa.
(c) LL = liquid limit.
NOTES:
(1) ASTM D2487.
(2) Or any borderline soil beginning with one of these symbols, i.e., GM–GC, GC–SC.
(3) For ±1% accuracy and predicted deflection of 3%, actual deflection would be between 2% and 4%.

(c) The soil support factor, FS, is given in Table B-4.3 Shallow Cover (Less Than One Pipe
B-4.2.2-4. Diameter) With Surface Loading
B-4.2.3 Lag Factor, L Pipe having at least 457.2 mm (18 in.) of cover but less
than one diameter of cover might not fully develop soil
(a) Eʹ values given in Table B-4-2.2-1 are based on
support. Surface loading will cause local bending of the
initial deflection readings taken at the time of completion
pipe crown (in addition to ring deflection). Local
of backfill placement. They do not contain any factor for
bending can cause soil heave on the opposite side of
continued settlement of the backfill or compression of the
the pipe from an approaching load.
side fill soil.
Proper analysis of this pipe shall include meeting re-
(b) See Howard (2006) for a discussion of Spangler’s
quirements for sidewall compression per para. B-3.1.1,
suggestion for applying a multiple of 1.25 to 1.5 to the
external pressure buckling per para. B-3.1.2, and ring
calculated deflection to account for time lag.
deflection per para. B-3.1.3, and for soil heave using
(c) A lag factor of 1.0 may be used with the prism load
eq. (B-4-2) from Watkins (1977). This equation may be
for plastic pipe.
used for depths of cover greater than D/2 and at least
457.2 mm (18 in.):

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ASME NM.1-2018

Table B-4.2.2-2 Eʹ Values per Depth of Cover

Depth of Cover, Eʹ for Standard AASHTO Relative Compaction, MPa (psi)


Type of Soil m (ft) 85% 90% 95% 100%
Fine-grained soils with <25% sand 0 to 1.5 (0 to 5) 3.45 (500) 4.83 (700) 6.89 (1,000) 10.34 (1,500)
content (CL, ML, CL–ML) 1.5 to 3.0 (5 to 10) 4.14 (600) 6.89 (1,000) 9.65 (1,400) 13.79 (2,000)
3.0 to 4.6 (10 to 15) 4.83 (700) 8.27 (1,200) 11.03 (1,600) 15.86 (2,300)
4.6 to 6.0 (15 to 20) 5.52 (800) 8.96 (1,300) 12.41 (1,800) 17.93 (2,600)
Coarse-grained soils with fines 0 to 1.5 (0 to 5) 4.14 (600) 6.89 (1,000) 8.27 (1,200) 13.10 (1,900)
(SM, SC) 1.5 to 3.0 (5 to 10) 6.21 (900) 9.65 (1,400) 12.41 (1,800) 18.62 (2,700)
3.0 to 4.6 (10 to 15) 6.89 (1,000) 10.34 (1,500) 14.48 (2,100) 22.06 (3,200)
4.6 to 6.0 (15 to 20) 7.58 (1,100) 11.03 (1,600) 16.55 (2,400) 25.51 (3,700)
Coarse-grained soils with little or no 0 to 1.5 (0 to 5) 4.83 (700) 6.89 (1,000) 11.03 (1,600) 17.24 (2,500)
fines (SP, SW, GP, GW) 1.5 to 3.0 (5 to 10) 6.89 (1,000) 10.34 (1,500) 15.17 (2,200) 22.75 (3,300)
3.0 to 4.6 (10 to 15) 7.24 (1,050) 11.03 (1,600) 16.55 (2,400) 24.82 (3,600)
4.6 to 6.0 (15 to 20) 7.58 (1,100) 11.72 (1,700) 17.24 (2,500) 26.20 (3,800)
GENERAL NOTE: Values shown are from Hartley, J., and Duncan, J. M. (1982), Evaluation of the Modulus of Soil Reaction, Eʹ, and Its Variation With
Depth, Report No. UCB/GT/82-02, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Table B-4.2.2-3 Native Soil Eʹ


Granular Cohesive
Unconfined Compressive
ASTM D1586 Blows, Strength
m (ft) Description (TSF) Description EʹN, MPa (psi)
>0 to 0.3 (>0 to 1) Very, very loose >0 to 0.125 Very, very soft 0.34 (50)
0.3 to 0.61 (1 to 2) Very loose 0.125 to 0.25 Very soft 1.38 (200)
0.61 to 1.22 (2 to 4) Very loose 0.25 to 0.50 Soft 4.83 (700)
1.22 to 2.44 (4 to 8) Loose 0.50 to 1.00 Medium 10.34 (1,500)
2.44 to 4.57 (8 to 15) Slightly compact 1.00 to 2.00 Stiff 20.68 (3,000)

4.57 to 9.14 (15 to 30) Compact 2.00 to 4.00 Very stiff 34.47 (5,000)
9.14 to 15 (30 to 50) Dense 4.00 to 6.00 Hard 68.95 (10,000)
>15 (>50) Very dense >6.00 Very hard 137.90 (20,000)
Rock … … … 344.74 (50,000)
GENERAL NOTE: Values shown are from Howard, A. K. (2006), Pipeline Installation, Relativity Printing, Lakewood, CO. ISBN 0-9651002-0-0.

PH
P + PE + PL + Pgw (B-4-2) B-4.4 Deeply Buried Pipes
FS
Special care should be taken in the design of deeply
where buried pipes [pipe buried under deep fills, H > 15.24
FS = factor of safety m (50 ft)]. These applications can require analysis
PH = soil pressure at incipient failure, kPa (lb/ft2) beyond that given in this Standard.

Yield strength of plastics is time dependent. As a conser- B-5 REFERENCES


vative approach, 2 times the material’s long-term hydro-
static design stress (HDS) should be used. For PE-4710, the AASHTO T-99, Standard Method of Test for Moisture-
HDS at 23°C (73°F) is 6 895 kPa (1,000 psi). Density Relations of Soils Using a 2.5-kg (5.5-lb)
Rammer and a 305-mm (12-in.) Drop

126
ASME NM.1-2018

Table B-4.2.2-4 Soil Support Factor, FS 1 Applications, Part II — Piping Soil Interaction Design
Bd/D
Basis Criteria,” PVP2007-26799 presented at the 2007
PVP Conference, San Antonio, TX, July 25–28, 2007
EʹN/Eʹ 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0
ASTM D698, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory
0.1 0.15 0.30 0.60 0.80 0.90 1.00
Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard
0.2 0.30 0.45 0.70 0.85 0.92 1.00 Effort [12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)]
0.4 0.50 0.60 0.80 0.90 0.95 1.00 ASTM D2487, Standard Practice for Classification of Soils
0.6 0.70 0.80 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.00 for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification
0.8 0.85 0.90 0.95 0.98 1.00 1.00 System)
AWWA (2006). Manual M55,“PE Pipe — Design and Instal-
1.0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 lation,”American Water Works Association, Denver, CO
1.5 1.30 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 1.00 Handbook of Polyethylene Pipe, 2nd edition (2008). Plas-
2.0 1.50 1.30 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 tics Pipe Institute, Irving, TX
3.0 1.75 1.45 1.30 1.20 1.08 1.00 Hartley, J., and Duncan, J. M. (1982). Evaluation of the
Modulus of Soil Reaction, Eʹ, and Its Variation With
5.0 2.00 1.60 1.40 1.25 1.10 1.00
Depth, Report No. UCB/GT/82-02, University of Cali-
GENERAL NOTE: The following nomenclature is used in this Table: fornia, Berkeley, CA
Bd = trench width at pipe springline, mm (in.)
Howard, A. K. (1977). “Modulus of Soil Reaction Values for
D = pipe O.D., mm (in.)
EʹN = modulus of soil reaction of native soil around trench, MPa Buried Flexible Pipe,” Journal of the Geotechnical Engi-
(psi) neering Division, Vol. 103, No. GT1, ASCE, pp. 33–43,
January
Howard, A. K. (2006). Pipeline Installation, Relativity
Printing, Lakewood, CO. ISBN 0-9651002-0-0
Adams, T. M., Spanner, J., Scavuzzo, R., and Thomas, G., McGrath, T. J. (1998). “Replacing Eʹ With the Constrained
“Seismic and Concurrent Load Design for Buried Modulus in Flexible Pipe Design,” Proceedings Pipeline
High Density Polyethylene Pipe in Section III, Division Division, Conf. Pipelines in the Constructed Environ-
1 Applications, Part I — Piping Design Basis Criteria,” ment, ASCE, San Diego, CA
PVP2007-26798 presented at the 2007 PVP Conference, Watkins, R. K. (1977). Minimum Soil Cover Required Over
San Antonio, TX, July 25–28, 2007 Buried Flexible Cylinders, Utah State University, Logan,
Adams, T. M., Spanner, J., Scavuzzo, R., and Thomas, G., UT
“Seismic and Concurrent Load Design for Buried
High Density Polyethylene Pipe in Section III, Division

127
ASME NM.1-2018

NONMANDATORY APPENDIX C
PRESSURE SURGE FROM FLUID TRANSIENT

C-1 LIQUID FLUID FLOW cp = pressure wave velocity, mm/s (in./sec)


d = pipe I.D., mm (in.)
If the liquid fluid flow in a pipe is abruptly stopped, a Epipe = modulus of elasticity of pipe per ASME NM.3.3,
pressure wave, Pwh, is developed that is the product of the MPa (psi)
pressure wave velocity, cp, the fluid density, ρ, and the fluid t = pipe nominal wall thickness, mm (in.)
velocity in the pipe, V. Compressible fluids, i.e., gases, are ψc = pipe wall flexibility reduction factor (see
not subjected to fluid transient pressures: Table C-2-1)
(SI Units)
The fluid transient pressure, Pwh, can be either a positive
cpV
Pwh = (compressive) or negative (tensile) pressure depending
109 on the direction of flow. A tensile pressure can cause
local cavitation and, thus, reduce the positive traveling
wave.
(U.S. Customary Units)
The effect of the thermoplastic pipe wall flexibility is to
cpV slow the wave velocity, cp. This is accounted for by the
Pwh =
1,728 reduction factor, ψ C . Table C-2-1 provides ψ C for
various thermoplastic material.

where
C-3 PRESSURE SURGE
cp = pressure wave velocity, mm/s (in./sec)
Pwh = pressure wave, MPa (psi) Pressure surge from fluid transient shall develop both
V = fluid velocity in the pipe, m/s (ft/sec) circumferential stresses and longitudinal stresses in the
ρ = fluid density, kg/m3 (lbf-sec2/ft4) pipe wall as well as dynamic loads on fitting and closed
valves in the piping system.
C-2 WAVE VELOCITY (a) The circumferential pressure stresses in the pipe
wall shall be determined using the following equations
The wave velocity of the fluid in the pipe is affected by for O.D.- and I.D.-controlled pipe, respectively:
the pipe flexibility. As the wall thickness for a given pipe (1) O.D.-controlled pipe
diameter decreases, the wave velocity, cp, assuming the
P (DR 1)
wall is free to expand or contract slightly, will also SCP = wh
decrease: 2

(SI Units) (2) I.D.-controlled pipe


E pipeBw P (IDR + 1)
1 000 SCP = wh
cP = 2
ij B dy
C jjE pipe + w zzz
k t { where
DR = ratio of the average O.D. to the minimum fabri-
(U.S. Customary Units) cated wall thickness of the pipe
IDR = ratio of the average I.D. to the minimum fabri-
12 144E pipeBw cated wall thickness of the pipe
cP =
ij B dy SCP = change in circumferential pressure stresses,
C jj144E pipe + w zzz MPa (psi)
k t {

(b) Changes in the longitudinal stresses due to the tran-


where sient pressure pulse in axially constrained piping systems
Bw = bulk modulus of the fluid, MPa (lbf/ft2) shall be determined as follows:

128
ASME NM.1-2018

P d
Table C-2-1 Pipe Wall Flexibility Reduction Factors, ψC Sax = wh
4t
Material Factor [Note (1)]
HDPE 1.0 (d) Structural loads are imparted to the piping system
PVC 1.0 at changes in flow direction due to the momentary unbal-
CPVC 1.0 anced pressure thrusts due to the pressure surge and shall
PVDF 1.0 be determined as follows:
NOTE: (1) Pipe wall flexibility reduction factors higher than 1.0 may P d2
be used if they can be technically justified. Fwh = DLF wh
4

where DLF is the dynamic load factor.


Sax = SCP This Fwh is then applied to each straight run of pipe to
determine the pipe movement and resulting stresses. The
where DLF depends on the piping system response to the pres-
Sax = change in axial pressure stress, MPa (psi) sure surge of the fluid transient and shall be calculated. In
ν = Poisson’s ratio (see ASME NM.3.3) the absence of any detailed system response data, a DLF of
2 may be used. Alternatively, a more detailed analysis of
(c) Changes in the longitudinal stresses due to the tran- the event may be conducted to determine less conserva-
sient pressure pulse in unconstrained or aboveground tive loads.
piping systems shall be determined as follows:

129
ASME NM.1-2018

NONMANDATORY APPENDIX D
MULTILAYERED REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
SYSTEM(S) OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR

D-1 SCOPE D-3.2 Hot Oiling


This Appendix provides guidance for the operation, MRTPS may be hot oiled, provided that the maximum
maintenance, and repair of multilayered reinforced ther- hot-oiling temperature is equal to or less than the
moplastic piping systems (MRTPS). maximum temperature used in the qualification of the
MRTPS in accordance with API 15S or in accordance
D-2 GENERAL with the manufacturer’s published procedures.
Definitions and abbreviations for MRTPS are covered in
D-4 MAINTENANCE
Chapter 1. Referenced standards are covered in Chapter 4.
The design, materials, fabrication, erection, examination, MRTPS shall be pigged as needed. The associated equip-
inspection, and testing of MRTPS are covered in Chapter 8. ment affecting the operational parameters of the MRTPS
(i.e., pumps, valves, pulsation dampeners, etc.) shall be
D-3 OPERATION subject to routine preventive maintenance to ensure
smooth and effective running at all times.
The piping system shall be operated within the bounds
of the design parameters listed on the Project Application
D-5 REPAIR
Information (see para. 8-3.1). Any operational changes
beyond the bounds of the outlined design conditions Damaged MRTPS segments shall be cut out and replaced
shall be reflected in an updated Project Application Infor- with new pipe segments joined using the standard jointing
mation and forwarded to the MRTPS manufacturer for system of the MRTPS. As part of the repair, segments of the
review and confirmation. MRTPS where the reinforcing layer has been wetted by the
transported fluid or outside fluid shall be cut back until dry
D-3.1 Pigging reinforcing layer is found. Integrity testing of the pipe
MRTPS may be pigged, provided that soft pigs are used, sections adjacent to the damaged section shall be
ensuring that the inside liner of the MRTPS is not damaged. completed to verify the integrity of the MRTPS.
Steel ball pigs or brush pigs shall not be used.

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ASME NM.1-2018