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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

REGION __

_______________

HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

______________

_____________________________________

By

DEDICATION

We humbly dedicate this research work to our family for their unending moral support to

us and for giving us our financial needs as we accomplish this research study.

To our fellow schoolmate and dearest teachers for guiding and giving us the chance to

complete this task through their views and perceptions by answering the research instrument

We also devote this humble study to our great institution for providing us the better

quality of education and giving us the opportunity to explore more and be an educated type of

person.

To our practical research I teacher for giving us the opportunity to experience how to be

good a researcher and for serving as our mentor starting from the first day of class up to the end

Lastly, to our Almighty God who gave us the guidance, strength and wisdom as we go

through this study even in our grueling times and for giving us the courage to defend this work

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We, the researchers, wish to express our heartfelt gratitude and deepest appreciation to

the persons who made their delightful contribution to make this research study a fulfillment with

To the Practical Research I teacher for her intellectual contribution and assistance and for

her effort and time in editing and proofreading this research work.

To the participants, the Senior High School students of this institution, for their active

cooperation, participation and effort in responding the questionnaires with their own perspectives

To our families, friends, fellow classmates and teachers for their heartwarming moral,

To our Heavenly God for providing us the guidance, wisdom, strength, perseverance, and

ABSTRACT

This research study aims to understand the factors that affect the performance of grade

11-12 students of ____________________on the field of Mathematics. It contains all the opinions

and viewpoints of the respondents if they were comfortable enough on the subject and the learning

environment as well. It also intends to help the students as well as the teachers to be informed

about the reasons behind why students perform poorly or excellently inside the classroom.

The basis of classifying the variables that affect students performance as well as

perspective on the subject was the responses of the participants from the given research

questionnaires which were provided by the researchers. The research sample and population was

16 students, all receiving education from Liceo de Masbate. Data was analyzed using the interview

guide as questionnaires for the respondents and focused group discussion as a medium in gathering

data information.

The results of the study revealed that most of the respondents described Mathematics as a

mind blowing subject as it goes broader while being studied and also because of its sub-topics.

Somehow, respondents have also stated that the subject Mathematics has its own relation to real

life because of its basic fundamentals which was essential in counting and measuring. It has also

been determined that anxiety on the subject mathematics has a negative effect on students

performance inside the classroom and it has been seen that there is a medium and relationship

between the students and the teachers in the learning process of the students in the sense that

teachers are one the of the main source of learning. In some way, teacher’s attitude and teaching

strategies has its own effects to the students by their charms in teaching and how they make every

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter I: The Problem and its Background

D. Definition of Terms--------------------------------------------------------------------------4-5

A. Research Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------10

B. Research Locale-------------------------------------------------------------------------------10

D. Research Instruments----------------------------------------------------------------------11-13

A. Summary of Findings------------------------------------------------------------------------19

B. Conclusion----------------------------------------------------------------------------------19-20

C. Recommendation-----------------------------------------------------------------------------20

Appendices----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROBLEM

This research aims to explore the factors affecting the academic performance in

SPECIFIC PROBLEM

2. How does mathematics affect your performance as a student inside the classroom?

3. What is the importance of the role of a Mathematics teacher in the learning process?

1

B. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The product of this research study explains the factors affecting the academic performance

helpful guide for the teachers to facilitate the learning process of the students and also to make

The students may achieve benefits from this study such as they will be able to comprehend

and nurture the importance of Mathematics subject and this will also help them develop their

learning skills and overcome their weaknesses and turn it into strength. This study is designed to

make a conclusion on the objective from general to specific problem that includes the cause why

Lastly, the future researchers could also gain knowledge according to the K to 12

curriculum that can be their basis on their research work for them to improve more and be able to

2

C. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

The research is focused and limited only on the factors affecting the academic performance

in mathematics. Further validation was concluded based on the cleared questions. The students’

The research instrument was solely administered once and no achievement tests were

given to the participants based on the grades in Mathematics taken during the first semester SY:

2018-2019. The research instruments were interview and focus group discussion.

Nine groups of students were used as participants of the research. They were all Grade 12

students of ___________________ coming from ABM, GAS, HUMSS and TECH-VOC courses

3

D. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Perseverance – the quality that allows someone to continue trying to do something even

though it is difficult.

Nurture – the care and attention given to someone or something that is growing or developing

Sectors – an area of an economy: a part of an economy that includes certain kinds of jobs

Extent – the range, distance, or space that is covered or affected by something or included in

something

Trigonometry – a branch of mathematics that deals with relationships between the sides and

angles of triangles

4

Geometry – a branch of mathematics that deals with points, lines, angles, surface, and solids

Ridicule – to laugh at and make jokes about (someone or something) in a cruel or harsh way: to

of ideas from all members of the group; also: the mulling over of ideas by one or more

Terminology – the special words or phrases that are used in a particular field

Dialect- a form of language that is spoken in a particular area and that uses some of its own

5

CHAPTER II

The major aim of this chapter was to review relevant literature of factors that facilitate

achievement in mathematics which is cited from different authors based on their own opinions

and observations. This literature review covers the factors that are related to school variables. The

second part of the review addresses the variables that are related to learners and mathematics

achievement and variables. The literature review shows a significant relationship between all peer

group attitude variables considered in this study and achievement in mathematics. Almost all

sources reviewed for the purpose of this study report and a significant positive relationship

Mathematics is a pillar of almost all the streams in academic sectors. Given the important

role mathematics plays in tertiary education and most careers, it is not only beneficial but also

essential to establish some off the factors that facilitate achievement in mathematics in

disadvantaged schools and establish what schools can learn from one another. However, according

to Hughes (1999) the most important conclusions from qualitative research on factors related to

achievement in schools are that (a) teachers are critical resources; (b) the composition of the

student body matters; (c) schools make a difference, and (d) physical facilities, class size,

curriculum, instructional strategies and other resources influence student learning indirectly

Mathematics according to Maliki, Ngban, and Ibu (2009) is described as a subject that

affects all aspects of human life at different degrees (p.131). According to the National

Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008), mathematics is used throughout our daily lives. The

news is the fact that students performance in mathematics has not improved significantly despite

its importance, not even with the introduction and use of technology nowadays, students make use

6

According to Singh et al. (2002) these variables are home and family-related and thus are

difficult to change and beyond control of educators. Such factors alone cannot account for the lack

learners. In particular explanations fail to account for intro-group achievement differences and the

success of some South African disadvantaged learners in spite of these background factors. Some

well-achieving disadvantaged learners come from the same communities and share similar

school, learners and teachers were reviewed. In this regard Malcolm et al., (2000) in their literature

review suggest that when investigating factors that facilitate achievement in mathematics, are

more extensive investigation should consider learner, teacher and school variables.

However, According to Mcleod (1992) factors such as attitude and beliefs play an

important role in mathematics achievement. The general relationship between attitude and

achievement is based on the concept that the better the attitude a learner has towards a subject or

On the other hand, Stuart (2000) argues that teachers, peer and family attitudes toward

The findings are that learners who have positive attitudes towards their teachers have high

achievement levels. Newman and Schwager (1993) found that all grades a sense of personal

relatedness with the teacher is important in determining a learner’s frequency in seeking help from

the teacher. They further state this aspect of the classroom climate has been shown to be related

to good academic outcome. In the same Vein Dungan and Thurlow (1989) state that the extent to

which learners likes their teacher, influence their liking of the Subject.

Meanwhile, Ma (1997) observed that in the case of trigonometry learners, the attitude that

mathematics was important and enjoyable was significantly associated with achievement in

mathematics. According to Ma (1997) learners who have more enjoyable experiences while

7

Schoenfeld (1989) explores aspects of the relationship between learners’ beliefs about

mathematics, their sense of mathematics as a discipline and their relationship with it, and their

“Learners who think less of their mathematical ability tend more to attribute their mathematical

successes to luck and their failures to lack of ability, whereas those who consider themselves to

Learners studied by the researcher made a distinction between the mathematics they know and

experience in the classrooms and abstract mathematics, the discipline of creativity, problem-

solving and discovery, about they are told but not yet experienced (Schoenfeld, 1989). According

Peer pressure in mathematics affects all learners, successful ones as well as those who are

less successful. The effect of negative peer pressure has been recorded in numerous articles

(Dungan&Thurlow, 1989; Reynolds & Walberg 1992; Stuart, 2001). In their review of literature

Dungan and Thurlow (1989) found that learners’ attitudes towards mathematics have been

associated with peer group attitudes. Accordingly, Reynolds and Walberg (1992) identified peer

attitudes as one of the most influential factors in learners’ mathematical achievements. According

to Harris (1995) learners are ridiculed by their peer to pursue academic excellence in mathematics.

Fennema and Sherman (1978) find that the mathematics self-concept is correlated with

achievement in mathematics. They further find that mathematics self-concept is higher in males

than in females at high school. In contrast Maqsud and Khalique (1991) find that there is

significant positive relationship between self-concept and attitude towards mathematics for female

groups, but no significant correlation between these variables for male groups was found. Maqsud

and Khalique (1999) go on to report that self-concept measures for both males and females do not

Some research has suggested that, compared to other subjects, there is a relatively strong

8

1992). In this regard, Maree (1994) stated that the following factors are of significance in the

Learners’ interest and ability are positively related. According to Maree (1994) the better

learner performs in mathematics, the more he/she well like the subject and vice versa.

poor facilities, equipment and instructional materials for effective teaching (Odogwu,1994; Yemi

& Adeshina, 2013), and large pupil-to-teacher ratios (Alele-Williams,1988). Another major

hindrance to better improvement of government spending is the continued use of traditional chalk

and talk methods which are yet to give way to the multimedia teaching methods presently in use

Also, another issue rose that equally affect students performance is the distance from

most student’s homes to their schools. This adversely affects not just fatigue, but sometimes

absenteeism, which, according to Duze (2005), could lead to truancy and eventual dropout by

some students. Evidence from research has also showed that long distances traveled to school are

among the major reasons why students performed poorly and eventually dropped out of schools (

Therefore, this review of related literature deals the questions on how to resolve the factors

that affects the academic performance of students on the field of mathematics. Learners’ home

environment, attitudes towards mathematics, instructional contexts and practices plays a big role

in the function of learners’ mathematical achievement. And also the teachers motivated their

learners in the classroom become a leading concern of all disciplines including the subject

mathematics.

CHAPTER III

9

METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains research design, research locale, sample or participants, research

instruments, data collection procedure, and data analysis procedure of this qualitative research.

A. RESEARCH DESIGN

This study indicates the types of research that were being conducted by researchers to

explicate how this study achieved the aim of this research. The data showed a clear explanation

about the Factors Affecting the Academic Performance in Mathematics of Grade 11-12 Students

As this research was being conducted, researchers agreed to use the case study as an

approach for this research. Case study suits as the research approach for the research topic

because researchers derived to focus only on the stated problems of the research to easily gather

B. RESEARCH LOCALE

______________ without any interactions with the said participants outside the school premises.

This location also agreed the time frame that the interview has been done only after the class

session that the respondents had. Researchers also concluded not to undertake this activity

during weekends as a respect to their fellow respondents and only be done during weekdays.

The focus group discussion was held on the study area wherein they can think carefully and they

C. SAMPLE OR PARTICIPANTS

The researchers gathered their respondents according to the data they needed along

the research work. These respondents were composed of the students from the different strands

of Grade 11-12 students aged 17 to 18 yrs. old. In every strand they selected only 4 students to

be a representative of ABM, GAS, HUMSS, and TECH-VOC which led them to had 16

participants all in all. This research paper involved the students’ behavior and learning skills that

10

affects their academic performance in the field of Mathematics. They are not really confident in

answering the given questions same as they are also shy due to the topic is about Mathematics.

D. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The main instrument used for data gathering was an interview prepared by the

researchers to gather the perception of the respondents. This research instrument was used to

lessen the time being consumed in gathering data information. The type of questions used were

questions.

to ensure the data gathered were reliable and also to observe how the participants respond

Interview guide and focus group discussion questionnaire provided for the

11

Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

REGION __

____________________

HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

______________

Name: ____________________________________________________

Grade and Section: __________________________________________

Age: ____

“Factors Affecting the Academic Performance in Mathematics of Grade 11______________.”

Direction/s: Read each questions carefully and write your answer on the space provided.

1. What comes in your mind when you hear the word Mathematics?

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

3. In your own opinion, what factors influence students learning in Mathematics among Junior

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

4. Do you feel satisfaction when you correctly answer a mathematical problem/s? Explain your

answer.

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

12

Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

REGION __

_______________

HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

_____________

Direction/s: Read each questions carefully and write your answer on the space provided.

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

13

E. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

In this section, researchers provided the plans they’ve made before undergoing the

research study. On their 1st week of the research work they undergo brainstorming and release

their own perspective about the development of the said research instruments. For the further

developing of the activity, they coincide to use Focus Group Discussion and Interview as the

guide to gather data information. On the 2nd week researchers initially worked with the gathering

of data using the Focus Group Discussion wherein they produce a mathematical problem to be

given to the participants that had been divided into two groups to answer the said problem. As

for the researchers, they observed how their participants respond and react to the activity given.

For the 3rd and 4th week of gathering the data, researchers undergo the interviewing of the

respondents with the questions that they made during the focused group discussion.

The Gantt chart below will show the Data Collection Procedure:

1. Development of

research

instrument

2. Data gathering

through focus

group

discussion

3. Data gathering

through

interview

14

F. DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

After collecting data, researchers analyze participants’ answers. The researchers gathered

every data through interviews and focused group study wherein every statement, feelings and

answers were from the participants’ opinion and reactions. Every data collected had been read

and analyze well by the researchers and qualified as relevant information. Researchers used

themes and patterns from construct as a coding instrument to classify key points in every

statement.

15

CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter includes the presentation of data, analysis of data, and interpretation of data

which has been examined by the researchers. Mathematics is a way of describing relationships

between numbers and other measurable quantity. Mathematics can express simple equations as

well as interactions among the smallest particles and the farthest objects in the known universe.

has different branches as like to science, it contains variety of topics containing the desirable

formulas. Entering the world of Mathematics requires enough knowledge, perseverance, focus

and inspiration.

our respondents stated the same argument proven by the opinions they had given to us in the

interview guide. They commonly describe mathematics as a mind blowing subject because of

Based on the ideas of the participants, they study mathematics because it has been a part

of the curriculum as a subject. Studying mathematics was too questionable for every student

because it has many different branches which are not applicable in daily living. In some other

ways, basic mathematics is connected to the reality of life of a student. This fact committed us to

reveal the idea that counting, measuring, adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing which are

some of the branch of mathematics was the most used of the students in daily life. Studying

mathematics must teach us how to count, add, subtract, multiply, and divide things especially

when it comes to measure things that need measurements. Mathematics studies different kind of

formulas to teach us every way to solve cases in daily living that we might encounter.

16

Sub problem 2: How does mathematics affect your performance as a student inside the

classroom?

According to our participant’s opinions, the factors that influenced the performance of

the students inside the classroom are difficulties of the students to understand mathematical

equations, formulas and problems easily that causes them to feel anxious towards the subject.

Sub problem 3: What are the important roles of the Grade 11 Mathematics teacher in the

Some of our respondents stated that a good teacher should be able to make their lessons

interesting. Every learning process of a student depends on the teacher on how they teach the

students and also they are the main source of knowledge that the student gains in every lessons

through their strategies in teaching their lessons. Teachers had an ability to make the classroom

alive by her charms on teaching and her strategies to wake up every students mind and body.

subject not just because it is composed of numbers but also, the sub-topics it had as it goes

broader while being studied. Mathematics subject also depends on how difficult the lesson is

and how it was delivered and discussed by the teachers. It is also the students’ mentality that the

subject mathematics is automatically difficult but somehow it’s up to the students if they are

willing and interested to gain knowledge and learn more about the subject. In addition, students

find mathematics as a hard subject because of the absence of example that should be given by

17

DIFFICULTY OF

LESSON

LACK OF

LACK OF

EXAMPLES

INTEREST

FACTORS

AFFECTING THE

ACADEMIC

PERFORMANCE OF

THE STUDENTS

SOCIALMEDIA WILLINGNESS

TO LEARN

TEACHING SKILLS

This conceptual framework presents the factors affecting the academic performance of

grade 11 students of ___________and the variables why students perform poorly or excellently

Based on the responses of the students from the interview guide provided, the factors

difficulty of lesson, lack of interest, willingness to learn, teaching skills, lack of examples given

Mathematics subject also depends on how to deal the difficulty of each lesson, how it

was delivered and discussed by the teachers and mostly the students’ mentality about this

subject is automatically focused on the subject’s difficulty. Somehow, this will always depend

on the students if they are willing to pay attention and challenge themselves to gain high grades

Lastly, in this chapter the several studies have shown a positive correlation between a

the broader climate or context of the school that facilitates or constrains classroom instruction.

18

CHAPTER V

RESEARCH FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter will be discussing the general ideas formulated by the results of findings

given in the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data wherein the relevance of the said

findings are made from the participants’ opinions and ideas that have been summarized by the

researchers.

A. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

1 Students study Mathematics because it has been a part of the curriculum and they also

2. Students lower their rate in participating because not every student could understand the

3. Every learning process of students depends on the teacher on how they teach the students;

they are the main source of knowledge which students can gain.

but also the sub-topics when it goes broader while studying. In addition it’s also the students’

B. CONCLUSIONS

1. The researchers have concluded that the students must considered mathematics as an

important part of their daily lives and have taken mathematics as an avenue for success.

2. The researchers have concluded that students don’t actively participate because of their

19

3. The researchers have concluded that a teacher plays an important role in the learning process

of the students as he/she served as the medium in all concerns of discipline in the learning

4. The researchers have concluded that there are some portions that teaching mathematics is hard

C. RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Researchers would like to recommend that students must give importance and dedication to

2. Researchers would like to recommend that students should give enough time in learning the

subject mathematics.

3. Researchers would like to recommend that teachers as a whole must double their efforts for

the students to obtain the knowledge and interest needed in the learning process of students..

4. Researchers would like to recommend that students should not have a mindset that the subject

mathematics is automatically difficult because learning any subjects goes through the process of

development.

5. Researchers would like to recommend that the school with its administration should gather all

the information and background of those low performing students and provide them enough

20

CHAPTER VI

REFERENCE LIST

Hughes,(1999). Literature Review. Retrieved from

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

21

Raynolds & Walberg,(1992). Literature Review. Retrieved from

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24976/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed

=y

Maliki, Ngban, and Ibu (2009), An Investigation of Mathematics Performance of High School

https://journals.uncc.edu/urbaned/article/view/431/526

https://journals.uncc.edu/urbaned/article/view/431/526

22

Alele-Williams,1988. An Investigation of Mathematics Performance of High School Students in

https://journals.uncc.edu/urbaned/article/view/431/526

https://journals.uncc.edu/urbaned/article/view/431/526

https://journals.uncc.edu/urbaned/article/view/431/526

23

APPENDICES

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

REGION __

___________________

HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

____________

interview about the “Factors Affecting the Academic Performance in Mathematics of Grade 11

Students of________.” in order to gather relevant information that we need for our research

paper.

Thank you so much and hoping for your consideration. God bless you!

Sincerely yours,

Noted By:

Approved By:

24