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Report On “Manufacturing And Testing Of Distribution Transformer”

CHAPTER 1 ABOUT KAVIKA

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The KARNATAKA VIDYUTH KARKHANE LIMITED, a fully owned Government
of Karnataka undertaking, is the successor to the Government Electric Factory, the first ever
manufacturer of electrical transformers in the country, established way back in the year 1933
by the erstwhile Maharaja of Mysore.

Today after eight decades of successful operation KAVIKA has emerged as a


renowned name for distribution transformers in range of 2kVA to 500kVA up to 11kV class
as well as custom built or special type of transformers as per specific requirements.

The secret behind the popularity of KAVIKA transformers is the strict adherence
quality norms at every stage of manufacture. Every product in KAVIKA goes through strict
quality checks at every stage to ensure only the best comes out of the factory. KAVIKA is an
esteemed and renowned organisation with a mission and vision. They are as follows:

VISION:

“KAVIKA committed to supply energy efficient transformers as per agreed


specifications in time at most competitive rate with enchanted customer satisfaction and to
put efforts continuously to improve the quality of the products supplied and Quality
Management system (QMS).”

MISSION:

“To become a globally competitive transformer production industry while working as


an instrument for achieving self-reliance in design, manufacture and maintaining the quality
of the equipment and diversifying to related areas, managing the business and commercial
lines in a scenario of growing professional contempt.”

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KAVIKA has the following features:

 India’s oldest, largest and the first ever transformer manufacturer


 Excellent infrastructure with trained engineers, technicians, latest technology
and skilled manpower.
 The net worth of KAVIKA (as on 31.03.2016) is ₨ 2275.65 lakhs.
 Possessing crucial processing equipment like Annealing, Furnace, Vacuum
Drying Plant, Oil filtering equipment.
 Strict quality checks at all stages of manufacture.
 Routine tests for all transformers at KAVIKA and is also tested at CPRI, Bangalore.

1.2 MAJOR MILESTONES

 The company was established in 1933 as a Government Electric Factory for


manufacturing of electrical accessories.

 In 1976, the company was incorporated as KAVIKA.

 It was converted into a Government PSU in 1976 with ₨600 lakhs as Authorised
share capital and paid up capital of ₨562 lakhs.

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 All the shares are with Government of Karnataka.

 In 1976, company manufacturing only conventional transformers

 The company has obtained Approval/Certification from Bureau of Energy Efficiency


(BEE) for manufacture of star rated transformers.

 The company is shifting its focus from producing the conventional


transformers to the star rated category of transformers of different
capacities.

 After 1995 onwards, KAVIKA started using Auto Cad for designing the transformers

1.3 SERVICES

The various services which KAVIKA is currently offering are as follows:

REPAIR SERVICES:
WITHIN WARRANTEE PERIOD: The warrantee period for a distribution transformer
is usually 3 years. If there is any problem within the warrantee period, then the company
provides repair services to the customers.

MORE THAN WARRANTEE PERIOD: If any problem occurs in the transformer after the
warrantee period, the company provides repair services to consumer with changes.

ENGINEERING SERVICES:
Utilities processing any problems at the time of installation or in operation condition
of the transformers will be solved by the services engineers.

1.4 PRODUCTS:

The main product that is manufactured in KAVIKA is distribution transformer.


The following types of transformers are manufactured in KAVIK

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Serial Ratings in kVA High kVA Low


Description
No KVA Voltage Voltage

Conventional Transformers
3 Phase Aluminium wound
1 Transformers (with or without 25 to 500 11000 433
taps)
3 Phase Copper wound
2 Up to 750 11000 433
Transformers
Four & Five Star rated Up to
3 11000 433
transformers 500

Special Transformers

Single Phase Neutral Grounding


1 Up to 50 4000 400
Transformers
Up to
2 Booster Transformers 13200 11000
2400
3 Special Design Transformers (As per requirements)

FEATURES OF KAVIKA TRANSFORMERS:

 Vacuum chamber is used in the process of drying the active parts, which helps to
maintain very high insulation resistance (minimum of 1000 Mega ohms at 90o C)
is maintained.
 Good quality lamination of cruciform core from the heart of the transformer.
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 Electrolytic Conductor grade conductors of proper tensile strength are used.


 Multi paper covered copper conductor leads of sufficient cross section are used on
the high voltage side.
 “S” type jumpers of sufficient cross section are used in Low voltage connection.
 Solid packing piece made of 100% wood pulp are used for supporting the low voltage
and high voltage coils, which offers sufficient electrical breakdown strength between
the windings and earth parts.
 Proper arrangement for lifting is provided for job as well as tank for proper handling.
In addition to the above all the raw materials are conforming to Indian Standards.
 In all the stage process quality checks are made and in the final testing stage all the
routine tests are conducted as per BIS on Each and Every transformer before
dispatch.
 Type tests are conducted in CPRI Bangalore from time to time (short circuit, high
voltage and temperature rise test.
The total production capacity is 2000 MVA and about 48,000 number of
transformers are manufactured annually. There are number of satisfied clients and few
of them are listed below:

BESCOM, CESCOM, HESCOM, MESCOM, GESCOM.

CLIENTS:

The main customers are ESCOMs in Karnataka. The company sells approximately
95% of their products to 5 ESCOMs. Being a State PSU, KAVIKA has an advantage of
being considered on priority given their quality and delivery performance in the past.

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Party Total Sales Value Total Received Total Monthly


(Rs.) Amount (Rs.) receipt
Total Receipt for the year Percentage
BESCOM Rs. 80,24,57,980.98 Rs. 48.24%
75,18,55,185.00
CESCOM Rs. 19,32,60,517.33 Rs. 11.61%
18,10,12,634.00
GESCOM Rs. 23,54,47,691.48 Rs. 12.81%
19,96,77,483.69
HESCOM Rs. 23,58,82,026.74 Rs. 13.23%
20,62,12,105.00
MESCOM Rs. 23,83,26,957.99 Rs. 14.10%
21,97,93,011.00
Total for the Rs. Rs. 100.00%
year 1,70,53,75,174.52 1,55,85,50,418.69

Table: Sales value and amounts received for the year 2012 – 2013

1.4 DEPARTMENT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

A company is divided into different departments so that the work can be divided
amongst all the departments. All departments work as separate organs for the overall growth
and development of the company. The overall working process of the company involves all
the departments which are interconnected right from design, procurement of materials up
to the dispatch of the finished product.

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The list of departments are as follows:

1. Design Department
2. Purchase Department
3. Store Department
4. Production Department
5. Quality Control Department
6. Marketing Department
7. Maintenance Department
8. Human Resource and Finance Department

DESIGN DEPARTMENT

Before manufacturing any product, one of most the important step is to design how
the product should be, this designing is done by the design department. The main function
of the design department is to give the design specification of the different types of
transformers as per the quality standards.

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT

After designing the transformer according to the quality standards, the next step is to
gather the raw materials required to manufacture the product. This is done by the purchase
department. The purchase department lists the materials required for manufacturing a
transformer and purchases it as per the requirement.

STORE DEPARTMENT

The materials that are purchased are stored and used whenever the need be, the store
department fulfils this function. The raw materials are distributed to the production department
as per its needs. The store department not only store the raw materials but also the finished
product (transformers) until dispatch.

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PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

The production department uses the raw materials to produce transformers as per the
design and specifications. There are many processes involved in the production of
transformers. The production department is again sub-divided as per the needs of
manufacturing a transformer. After the manufacture of a transformer, its quality is tested before
dispatch.

QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT

The objective of the QC department is testing of the raw material as well as the final
product (transformers) as per the specified requirement to ensure the quality of raw materials
used and the quality of the final product remains as per specification. The QC is responsible
for receiving, inspection and testing of the incoming items as per applicable procedure and
maintain records.

MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Marketing department plays several roles in helping the company deliver high
quality goods and services to target consumers. To increase the sales of the transformers
annually, to provide customer care and services, to identify potential customers are few of
its functions.

MAINTAINANCE AND REPAIR DEPARTMENT

The main function of this department is to maintain the equipment and avoid
breakdown problems as much as possible. Also, to ensure the repair of the equipment in
case there is breakdown of the equipment.

HUMAN RESOURCE AND FINANCE DEPARTMENT

The main function of this department is to ensure that trained and qualified man power
is available at the right time and place. It also reviews the minimum qualification on basis of

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the future requirements. HRD is a continuous process to ensure development of employee’s


competencies, motivation and effectiveness in a planned and systematic way.

1.5 SUMMARY

In this chapter, it has been substantiated about the major milestones, various
services, products and clients and functions of different departments of the company in
brief.

In the next chapter, the detailed roles and responsibility of each individual
department is discussed.

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CHAPTER 2 DEPARTMENTS IN KAVIKA

2.1 INTRODUCTION
A normal corporate structure consists of various departments that contribute to the
company's overall mission and goals. Organizing multi-skilled teams from each of the
departments to work on specifically relevant things to growing the business instead of just
administering it, i.e. new product development teams, acquisition teams, new markets entry
teams, etc. works far better, engages people far more since now their work matters to the
company overall and brings the multiple perspectives and talents it takes to get most complex
things done. Here, in KAVIKA the departments are as follows:

1. Design Department
2. Purchase Department
3. Store Department
4. Production Department
5. Quality Control Department
6. Marketing Department
7. Maintenance Department
8. Human Resource and Finance Department

Knowing each department is very important to understand how the company works.
The roles and responsibilities of each of the individual department is discussed in the next
section.

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2.2 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF INDIVIDUAL


DEPARTMENT

DESIGN DEPARTMENT

The design department gives the design specification of the different types of
transformers as per quality standards. Latest technology is being used which is in accordance
to BIS and all the design are computer generated. By using computer design software,
accurate drawing is generated quickly in less time. Final documents required for production,
purchase of materials will be generated by the design department and sent to the other

departments for further processes.

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT

The purchasing department ensures that all goods, supplies and inventory needed to
operate the business are ordered and kept in stock. It is also responsible for controlling the
cost of the goods ordered, controlling inventory levels and building strong relationships with
suppliers. The main objectives of this department are:

To purchase the required material at minimum possible price by following the


company policies.

 To keep department expenses low.


 Development of good & new vendors (suppliers).
 Development of good relations with the existing suppliers.
 Training & development of personal employees in department.
 To maintain proper & up to date records of all transactions.
 Participating in development of new material and products.
 To take Economic "MAKE OR BUY" decisions.
 To avoid Stock- out situations.

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STORES DEPARTMENT

Storages are used for functioning of receiving, storing and issuing materials for
assembly of transformers and proper maintenance of information regarding receipt and
requirement of materials. Store department is headed by deputy General Manager-
Stores/Purchased followed by assisted General Manager.

The main objective is to define the procedure for perceiving product conformity
during internal processing and delivery to the intended destination. It includes product
identification, handling, packing, storage and protection.

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
The production department involves the following processes:

 Production of LV winding
 Production of HV winding
 Core Assembly
 Core-Coil Assembly
 LV and HV Connections
 Drying Process
 Oil Filling
 Lowering Process
 Testing Bed
 Name Plate Fixing
 Dispatch

QUALITY DEPARTMENT
The QC department is headed by the chief quality assurance Manager followed by
the deputy Manager. Assistant Engineer for final testing, raw materials inspection and stage
inspection are under the deputy Manager. Under assistant engineer, junior engineer is present
for checking. Quality test is done in between the process namely,

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COIL RATIO TEST: To check the number of turns of winding and to check for shorting
and disconnection.

FINAL TESTING: Tests done after the final assembly to approach for dispatch.

To ensure the quality and to reduce the defective product being further process,
inspection and testing at the following stages is done:

 Incoming material inspection


 In process inspection
 Final inspection of outgoing product

MARKETING DEPARTMENT

The marketing department is headed by the executive Director followed by the


deputy General Manager. Marketing manager and staff work under the deputy General
Manager. The main objective is to market transformer in all segments of the state. It is
followed by the following work:

 To make people know about the reputation of the company.


 To consider immediate response to the needs of the customer.
 To increase the target of selling transformers annually.
 To identify potential customers.
 To conduct research on new product development.
 Strict adherence to quality to achieve customer satisfaction.

MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR DEPARTMENT

Design and quality control manager heads the maintenance department followed by
the deputy manager, and junior engineer for maintenance. Supervisors for mechanical and
electrical maintenance are under the junior engineer. To define the process for maintenance
of infrastructure used by the company like building and workspace, production equipment,
material handling equipment and utilities, stand by generator and communication system.

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HUMAN RESOURCE AND FINANCE DEPARTMENT

Human resource department is a continuous process to ensure that department of


employee’s competences, motivation and effectiveness in a planned and systematic way. The
functions of the HR department are:

 To maintain on personnel function of the organization.


 Maintaining officers’/employees’ personnel records.
 Grievance handling.
 Retirement benefit payment, gratuity, gift cheque etc.
 Discussing with the management and top taking guidance in personnel matters.
 Extending benefits to employees as per memorandum of settlement entered between
management and labour union.
 Extending promotion as per settlement.

DISPATCH
The fully finished transformers are dispatched to the respective customers as per
consumer requirements after the complete testing of the transformer.
WORKING HOURS: 8:15 am to 4:15 pm (for all departments)

2.3 SUMMARY
In this chapter, it has been explained in detail about the roles and responsibility of
individual departments. In the next section, detailed information about the transformer in
general is discussed.

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CHAPTER 3 TRANSFORMERS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Electrical energy is the backbone of the economy of a country. To develop a country,


power is a must. Transformer is the heart of the power system network. It is essential equipment
to get electrical energy at desired voltage. Transformer makes electrical generation possible at
the most economical generator voltage, power transfer at the most economical transmission
voltage and power utilization at the most suitable voltage for a specified utilization device.
Transformer in an electrical system is important for generation, transmission, distribution and
utilization of electric power.

DEFINITION: Transformer is a static device, which transfers the electrical energy from
one circuit to another without change in frequency.

3.2 BACKGROUND OF A TRANSFORMER


The development of the transformer was as follows:
1830s - Joseph Henry and Michael Faraday work with electromagnets and discover the
property of induction independently on separate continents.
1836 - Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College, Ireland invents the induction coil.
1876 - Pavel Yablochkov uses induction coils in his lighting system.
1878 -1883 - The Ganz Company (Budapest, Hungary) uses induction coils in their
lighting systems with AC incandescent systems. This is the first appearance and use of
the toroidal shaped transformer.
1881 - Charles F. Brush of the Brush Electric Company in Cleveland, Ohio develops his own
design of transformer.
1885 - The property of induction was discovered in the 1830's but it wasn't until 1886 that
William Stanley, working for Westinghouse built the first reliable commercial transformer.

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His work was built Upon some rudimentary designs by the Ganz Company in Hungary (ZBD
Transformer 1878), and Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs in England.

Nikola Tesla did not invent the transformer as some


dubious sources have claimed. The Europeans mentioned
above did the first work in the field. George Westinghouse,
Albert Schmid, Oliver Shallenberger and Stanley made the
transformer cheap to produce, and easy to adjust for final
use.

3.3 IMPORTANCE OF TRANSFORMERS


When a transformer steps up the voltage level of a circuit, it decreases the current
because the power remains constant. Therefore, ac power can be generated at one central
station. The voltage is stepped up for transmission over long distances at very low losses. The
voltage is stepped down again for final use. Since the transmission losses are proportional to
the square of the current, raising the voltage by a factor of 10 will reduce the transmission
losses by a factor of 100. Also, when the voltage is increased by a factor of 10, the cur- rent is
decreased by a factor of 10. This allows the use of much thinner conductors to transmit power.

In modern power stations, power is generated at 12 to 25 kV. Transformers step up the


voltage to 110 to 1000 kV for transmission over long distances at very low losses.
Transformers then step it down to 12 to 34.5 kV for local distribution and then permit power
to be used in homes and industry at 120 V.

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN WORKING OF A


TRANSFORMER
FARADAY’S FIRST LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION:
Whenever a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field an EMF gets induced
across the conductor (called as induced emf), and if the conductor is a closed circuit then
induced current flows through it.

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FARADAY’S SECOND LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION:


The magnitude of induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages
with the coil.

LENZ’S LAW:

When an emf is induced according to Faraday's law, the polarity (direction) of that
induced emf is such that it opposes the cause of its production.

PRINCIPLE OF MUTUAL INDUCTION:

When two or more coils are magnetically linked to each other, then an alternating
current flowing through one coil causes an induced emf across the other linked coils. This
phenomenon called as mutual induction.

3.4 CONSTRUCTION OF A TRANSFORMER

Basically, a transformer consists of two inductive windings


and a laminated steel core. The coils are insulated from each other
as well as from the steel core. A transformer may also consist of a
container for winding and core assembly (called as tank), suitable
bushings to take the terminals, Oil conservator to provide oil in the
transformer tank for cooling Purposes etc. In all types of
transformers, core is constructed by assembling (stacking)
laminated sheets of steel, with minimum air-gap between them (to
achieve continuous magnetic path). The steel used is having high
silicon content and sometimes heat treated. The sheets are cut in
the shape as E, I and L.

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3.5 WORKING OF A TRANSFORMER

The basic principle behind working of a transformer is the phenomenon of mutual


induction between two windings linked by common magnetic flux. Basically, a transformer
consists of two inductive coils; primary winding and secondary winding. The coils are
electrically separated but magnetically linked to each other. When, primary winding is
connected to a source of alternating voltage, alternating magnetic flux is produced around the
winding. The core provides magnetic path for the flux, to get linked with the secondary
winding.

Most of the flux gets linked with the secondary winding which is called as 'useful flux'
or main 'flux', and the flux which does not get linked with secondary winding is called as
'leakage flux'. As the flux produced is alternating (the direction of it is continuously changing),
EMF gets induced in the secondary winding according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic
induction. This emf is called 'mutually induced emf', and the frequency of mutually induced
emf is same as that of supplied emf. If the secondary winding is closed circuit, then mutually
induced current flows through it, and hence the electrical energy is transferred from one circuit
(primary) to another circuit (secondary).

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3.6 LOSSES IN A TRANSFORMER

COPPER LOSSES: Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the
conductors. At higher frequencies, skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding
resistance and losses.

Total copper losses. = I12. R1+ I22R2 = I12. R 01+


I22R 02

CORE LOSSES: There are two types of core or iron losses in a Transformer.

a) Hysteresis Losses

Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost due to
hysteresis within the core. For a given core material, the transformer losses are proportional
to the frequency, and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected.

We can find Hysteresis losses by this formula

Wh = ηB1.6maxf.v watt.

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b) Eddy Current Losses


Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors, and a core made from such a
material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length. Eddy
currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the flux and are responsible
for resistive heating of the core material.

The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and
Inverse Square of the material thickness.

We = PB2max.f2t2 Watt.

Stray losses (leakage Flux)


Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless, since energy supplied to its magnetic
fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. However, any leakage flux that
intercepts nearby conductive materials such as the transformer’s support structure will give
rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. There are also radiative losses due to the
oscillating magnetic field, but these are usually small and negligible.

Dielectric Loss
In the solid insulation or transformer oil i.e. insulation material of the transformer,
dielectric loss occurs when the solid insulation gets damaged or the oil gets deteriorated or its
quality decreases over the time. Hence, the overall efficiency of transformer may be affected
due to this loss.

Other Losses
Magnetostriction Losses
Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material, such as the core, causes it to physically
expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field, an effect known as
magnetostriction. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers
and can cause losses due to frictional heating.

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Mechanical losses
In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating
forces between the primary and secondary windings. These incite vibrations within nearby
metal work, adding to the buzzing noise, and consuming a small amount of power.

3.7 REDUCTION OF LOSSES

1. COPPER LOSSES: To reduce copper losses the resistance of the wire must be
reduced. The resistance can be reduced by increasing the cross-sectional area other
wire and reducing the length of the wire. i.e.

2. CORE LOSSES: There are two types of core losses:


 HYSTERISIS LOSS: In view of minimizing hysteresis losses, soft magnetic
materials for ex: Si steel, steel alloys, Mn-Zn ferrite are used because they have high
saturation magnetization, Low coercivity, High magnetic permeability etc. which
reduce losses due to hysteresis.
 EDDY CURRENT LOSSES: In view of reducing eddy current losses, the magnetic
core of the transformer is not made from a single magnetic material; because in this
case the circulating eddy current flowing will be higher. Instead the magnetic core is a
stack of thin silicon steel lamination and the laminations are insulated from one another
by thin layer of varnish to reduce eddy current and hence eddy current losses.

3. STRAY LOSSES: These types of losses can be reduced by use of small dimensioned
conductors for windings, use of CTC conductors in case of higher current windings,
optimum transposition of the parallel strands, magnetic shielding of the inner tank
walls, use of non-magnetic shield in area of strong magnetic fields.

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3.8 TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS

On basis of construction the transformers can be classified into

 Core type transformer: In core type transformer, windings are cylindrical former
wound, mounted on the core limbs.
 Shell type transformer: A shell type transformer may have simple rectangular
form, or it may have a distributed form.

On basis of their purpose

 Step up transformer: Voltage increases (with subsequent decrease in current)


at secondary.
 Step down transformer: Voltage decreases (with subsequent increase in current)
at secondary.

On basis of type of supply

 Single phase transformer


 Three phase transformers

On basis of their use

 Power transformer: Used in transmission network, high rating


 Distribution transformer: Used in distribution network, comparatively lower
rating than that of power transformers.

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 Instrument transformer: Used in relay and protection purpose in different


instruments in industries
1. Current transformer (CT)
2. Potential transformer (PT)

On basis of cooling employed

 Oil-filled self-cooled type


 Oil-filled water-cooled type
 Air blast type (air cooled)

3.9 SUMMARY
In this chapter details about the transformer basics is discussed. In the next section,
manufacturing of distribution transformer will be discussed.

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CHAPTER 4 MANUFACTURING OF DISTRIBUTION


TRANSFORMER

4.1 INTRODUCTION
Manufacturing is the process of translation of raw materials into finished products to
perform a specified function or purpose. Processing describes the act of taking something
through an established and usually routine set of procedures and at certain times converts
from one form to another in a series of sequence of operations or events.

The manufacturing capability is the key for reliable transformers. The process must be
clearly defined, and the operator’s skill must have the highest levels. Major stages of
manufacturing a transformer are:

 Gathering of raw materials


 Production of LV windings
 Production of HV windings
 Core Assembly
 Core-Coil Assembly
 LV and HV connections
 Drying
 Oil filling
 Lowering
 Testing
 Name plate fixing
 Dispatch

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FLOWCHART OF MANUFACTURING A TRANSFORMER

4.2 COMPONENT STANDARDS


The component standards to be used are as follows:
CONDUCTORS: Distribution transformer with HV winding made of copper conductors is
less susceptible to metal fatigue than aluminium. Copper is harder, stronger and more ductile
than aluminium, expands less and does not flow at terminals. Copper displays low levels of
creep. Under the conditions of extreme loading and temperature conditions of distribution
transformer windings, creep rates of aluminium can be up to 25 times higher than copper.

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This results in aluminium wound distribution transformers having a higher propensity


than copper.

EPOXY DIAMOND DOTTED INSULATION


PAPER:
Diamond dotted paper (DDP) is also referred as
epoxy adhesive diamond paper or varnished paper. The
thickness and width of the paper can be made according to
the customer’s specifications. Diamond dotted paper is
made of electrical grade Kraft paper with B-stage heat
curable epoxy resin coating. DDP is thermally upgrade
Kraft paper and used in oil-filled transformer for layer
insulation between the coils.

PRESS BOARD:
Press board is a special product based on the purest
cellulose, extracted from long-fibered coniferous trees.
These are formed into non- woven material without
using any additional binding agents and then press. The
high chemical purity means pressboard is an extremely
suitable insulation material for electrical machines, capacitors and particularly oil filled
transformers. The material properties allow classification in insulation class A (105 C) and
are manufactured in accordance with the IEC standard.

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OIL DUCTS:

Oil ducts are used in between LV and HV


winding of the transformer for oil circulation,
insulation and cooling purposes.

CRGO LAMINATIONS:
CRGO lamination is used for the core of the
power, distribution transformer, cold rolled grain-
oriented steel is often abbreviated as CRGO. CRGO is
usually supplied by the producing mills in coil form
and have to be cut into “laminations”, which are then
used to form a transformer core, which is an integral
part of any transformer.

TRANSFORMER TANK:
Protection of active part in transformer is very
important. Achieving an optimized size of the
transformer to suit the conditions for installation is very
important. The main role of the tank is to protect the
active parts of the transformer. The tank is manufactured
such that it has sufficient strength to withstand external
and internal fault that may occur during its operation.

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TRANSFORMER OIL:
Insulation oil is commonly known as transformer oil when it is used for a power
transformer. It is obtained by fractional distillation and subsequent treatment of crude
petroleum. That is the reason this oil is also known as mineral insulating oil. Transformer oil
mainly serves the purpose of insulation and dissipation of heat and thus acts as a coolant.
Generally, there are two types of transformer oil used:

 Paraffin based transformer oil.


 Naphthalene based transformer oil.

CONSERVATOR TANK:
Function of a conservator tank of transformer is
when transformer is loaded and when ambient
temperature rises, the volume of oil inside the
transformer increases. A conservator tank of
transformer provides adequate space to this
expanded transformer oil. It also acts as a reservoir
for transformer insulating oil.

BREATHER:
The conservator tank is fitted with a breather containing
silica gel through which air is expelled when transformer is
loaded with losses causing the oil temperature to increase
and expand. During light loading conditions oil cools down
and contract in volume so air is inhaled from the atmosphere.
This air contains moisture and the moisture is observed by
the silica gel crystals and the allowed to enter the
conservator tank.

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RADIATOR:
When an electrical transformer is
loaded, the current starts flowing through its
windings. Due to this flowing of electric
current, heat is produced in the windings, this
heat ultimately rises the temperature of
transformer oil. We know that the rating of any
electrical equipment depends upon its
allowable temperature rise limit.

Hence, if the temperature of the transformer rises insulating oil is controlled, the
capacity or rating of transformer can be extended up to significant range. The radiator of
transformer accelerates the cooling rate of transformer. Thus, it plays a vital role in increasing
loading capacity of an electrical transformer. This is basic function of radiator of an electrical
power transformer.

BUSHINGS:

In electrical power, a bushing is an


insulated device that allows an electrical conductor
to safely through a ground conducting barrier such
that case of a transformer. To, maintain creeping
distance petticoats are made. More number of
petticoats, more the voltage withstanding
capacities. Bushings are grazed like circular roof
tops for the quick escape of rain water.

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MANUFACTURING PROCESS
HV AND LV WINDING: The winding allows the flow of oil around the conductor in between
sections. These windings are made of high grade electrolytic copper or aluminium which is
designed to optimize thermal, mechanical and electrical stress depending on the current and
voltage requirements. Spiral, cross-over, helical and continuous disc winding with multiple
copper conductors are usually adopted for transformers. The coil is lowered on the core legs,
to give extra strength to the winding and for axial cooling air ducts are used between LV and
HV windings.

Thickness of LV conductors with insulation for 25kVA 4-star transformer is 9.8*4.2


mm and HV conductors with insulation of 1.1mm for 25kVA transformer. HV wire size along
with insulation is 1.320 mm.

4.3 PRODUCTION OF 25kVA LV WINDING


 In the first step, we need to wind the pressboard
around the bobbin.
 Then we apply gum around the pressboard.
After that the cotton tape is struck at the edge of
the pressboard for insulation.
 Then the end strip is provided at both the ends
for mechanical support and to hold the LV
winding.
 The rectangular shaped conductor made of
aluminium of size 9.8*4.2 mm is wound.
 It is wound in such a way that there should be
about 41.25 turns per layer.
 Then it is covered with Epoxy Diamond Dotted
Kraft Paper of size 0.1 mm thickness around the
first layer of the conductor.

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 Then the procedure is repeated four times to get a total of 165 turns.
 To maintain the same length throughout the turns, the conductors are inter changed
in between the winding process and this process is called transportation.
 After that the cotton tape is pulled and bound tightly to avoid loosening of the
setup.
 Oil ducts are provided as a cooling agent
 At the end the press board is bound with the cotton tape tightly. The oil duct and
pressboard separate the LV and HV windings from each other.

4.4 PROCEDURE FOR 25kVA HV WINDING


 After the completion of LV winding it will brought into HV department
 Then the cotton tape is removed, and gum is
applied on the pressboard.
 After this, the cotton tape is struck to both the
edges of the pressboard.
 Then the end strip is wound to a small distance at
one edge of the press board to avoid the slipping
of the conductor.
 The round shape conductor made up of aluminium
of size 1.1mm is wound. The conductor is wound
in such a way that there are 292 turns in one layer.
At the other edge of the press board another side slip is used.
 Epoxy Diamond Dotted Kraft Paper of thickness 0.1 mm around the first layer of the
conductor The above procedure is repeated 25 times so that there is a total of 7304
(292*25) turns of the conductor.
 After that cotton tape is pulled and bound tightly to avoid loosening of the setup.
 Then the last layer of Epoxy Diamond Doted Kraft Paper of the setup.
 Epoxy Diamond Dotted Kraft Paper is highly insulating Class A material, it can
withstand 105 C, it can normally withstand 8kV and it can go up to 32kV.

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4.5 CORE ASSEMBLY


Core of the transformer is
like the heart of the living being.
Type of core cruciform, the
specialty of cruciform core is it
reduces the leakage flux in the core.
KAVIKA uses CRGO (cold rolled
grain oriented) laminations, which
is of 0.23 mm thickness.

4.6 CORE-COIL ASSEMBLY


The active part of the core consists
of magnetic core with windings and
accessories. The windings are placed over
the core limbs and necessary connections
are made as per the tapings and vector
group. Best quality insulations are provided
at joints and gaps. At the time of the core-
coil assembly provides core bolts, tie rods, core fixture and pressure blocks. IT gives
mechanical strength and avoids damages from lightening.

HV AND LV CONNECTIONS
The LV side is star connected and HV
side is delta connected. The neutral available
on the primary can be earthed to avoid
distortion. The Star-Delta connection has no
problem of third harmonic component due to
circulating current in delta. It is also more
stable to unbalanced loads since the delta
partially redistributes any imbalances that occur.
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The LV and HV connections in the form of Dyn 11 d indicate type of connection of


the HV winding. Y indicates the type of connection of the LV winding, n indicates neutral and
according to vector group 11 means 30 phase displacement between LV and HV.

The polarity of a winding refers to the direction of the induced emf e.g. in the winding
at a particular instant, for a three-phase transformer; polarity alone is insufficient to represent
the relation between LV and HV winding. In addition to the terminal marking on HV and
LV side voltage vector diagram are required to show the angular displacement between HV
and LV windings.

4.7 DRYING PROCESS


After connection, active part is kept
inside the vacuum chamber to remove
moisture contents, keeping it there for
about 8 to 10 hours with continuous heating
by thermal oil at 120 C to remove water
content. At a time 150 active parts of
63kVA or 70 parts of 100kVA transformers
are kept in the vacuum chamber.

4.8 OIL FILLING


Filtered and
degassed transformer
insulating oil is then filled in
the tank. This oil is
circulated until the require
insulation level is achieved
and this also acts as a
coolant.

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4.9 LOWERING
After drying, the connections are checked again and tightened before lowering onto
the tank.

TESTING
After manufacturing, conduct different test to check the operational performance and
withstand the capacity of the transformer. A detailed information is available in the next
section.

DISPATCH
Before dispatch the oil level is checked, and the horn gap fuse, breather and
name plate are fixed.
4.10

4.10 NON-TECHNICAL TASKS

 Purchase the required material


 Receiving the ordered materials required for the manufacturing of transformer.
 Preparing the bill of quantity after manufacture.
 Eco-friendly methods of disposal of waste materials.

4.11 SUMMARY
In this section the focus was on the manufacturing of the transformer both technical
and non-technical aspects were discussed. In the next chapter testing of transformer is
explained in detail.

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CHAPTER 5 TESTING OF DISTRIBUTION


TRANSFORMER
It is important to test the transformer to make sure it can be used in practical
applications. The tests performed are as follows:

5.1 ACCEPTANCE TEST


Quality testing for the materials used in the transformers is done when the materials are
procured. The following tests are conducted to check the quality of the materials:

 Tensile strength test


 Breakdown voltage test of transformer oil
 Resistance test for transformer oil

5.1.1 TENSILE STRENGTH TEST


This test is performed only to confirm tensile strength of aluminium wires used for
conductor, pressboard and insulation papers. For conductor up to 3 mm tensile strength is 100-
110 N/m2 and for press board the tensile strength is 60-80 N/ m2. This test is significantly
performed on conductor material to judge the strength of this material. A cable conductor is
often subjected to pull from one end during laying, installing and manufacturing hence it should
be strong enough to tolerate the pulling force as well. Hence it becomes necessary to ensure
that the conductor material has sufficient tensile strength.

A specimen of conductor with length little bit longer than gauge length (gauge length
is the length of the specimen on which test is carried out) is first taken. To be careful that the
minimum length of the entire specimen shall be such that it should have extra length at two
ends after its gauge length for holding the same by grips of tensile testing machine. No pre-
conditioning of the specimen is required for tensile test.

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5.1.2 BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE TEST

To assess the insulating property of dielectric transformer oil, a sample of the


transformer oil is taken and its breakdown voltage is measured. The lower the resulting
breakdown voltage, the poorer the quality of the transformer oil.

 The transformer oil is filled in the vessel of the testing device. Two standard-
compliant test electrodes with a typical clearance of 2.5 mm are surrounded by the
dielectric oil.
 A test voltage is applied to the electrodes and is continuously increased up to the
breakdown voltage with a constant, standard-compliant slew rate of e.g. 2 kV/s.
 At a certain voltage level breakdown occurs in an electric arc, leading to a collapse
of the test voltage.
 An instant after ignition of the arc, the test voltage is switched off automatically by the
testing device. Ultra-fast switch off is highly desirable, as the carbonisation due to the
electric arc must be limited to keep the additional pollution as low as possible.
 The transformer oil testing device measures and reports the root mean square value of
the breakdown voltage.
 After the transformer oil test is completed, the insulation oil is stirred automatically,
and the test sequence is performed repeatedly: typically, 5 repetitions, depending on
the standard.
 As a result, the breakdown voltage is calculated as mean value of the individual
measurements.
 It can be concluded that higher the resulting breakdown voltage, more the quality of
the transformer oil.

5.1.3 RESISTANCE TEST OF TRANSFORMER OIL

Resistance test is conducted to check the resistivity of transformers oil. The resistance
of transformer oil is measured at room temperature and at 90 C by applying 500V DC supply.
It can be concluded that higher the resistance value more the quality of transformers oil.

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5.2 SUBTESTS

Sub tests are conducted before the routine tests of a transformer. They are as follows:

 Coil ratio test


 Resistance ratio test
 Vector group test
 Magnetic balance test

5.2.1 COIL RATIO TEST

The performance of a transformer largely depends upon perfection of specific turns


or voltage ratio of transformer. So, transformer ratio test is an essential type test of
transformer. The voltage should be applied only in the high voltage winding in order to
avoid unsafe voltage.

Ratio Test of Transformer and Check of Phase Displacement


Actually, the no load voltage ratio of transformer is equal to the turn ratio. So, ratio
test of transformer.

Procedure of Transformer Ratio Test

 First, the tap changer of transformer is kept in the lowest position and LV
terminals are kept open.
 Then apply 3-phase 415 V supply on HV terminals. Measure the voltages applied
on each phase (Phase-phase) on HV and induced voltages at LV terminals
simultaneously.
 After measuring the voltages at HV and LV terminals, the tap changer of
transformer should be raised by one position and repeat test.
 Repeat the same for each of the tap position separately.

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5.2.2 RESISTANCE TEST


Transformer winding resistance measurement is carried out as a type test, routine test
and it also carried out as a field test. In the factory, it helps in determining the following:

 Calculation of the I2R losses in transformer.


 Calculation of winding temperature at the end of temperature rise test of
transformer.
 As a benchmark for assessing possible damages in the field.

5.2.3 VECTOR GROUP TEST

The vector group of transformers is an essential property for successful parallel


operation of transformers. Hence every electrical power transformer must undergo through
vector group test of transformer at factory site for ensuring the customer specified vector
group of transformer. The phase sequence or the order in which the phases reach their
maximum positive voltages, must; be identical for two paralleled transformers. Otherwise,
during the cycle, each pair of phases will be short circuited.

5.2.4 MAGNETIC BALANCE TEST


Magnetic balance test of transformer is conducted only on three-phase transformers to check
the imbalance in the magnetic circuit.

Procedure of Magnetic Balance Test of Transformer:

 First keep the tap changer of transformer in normal position.


 Now disconnect the transformer neutral from ground.
 Then apply single phase 230 V AC supply across one of the HV winding terminals
and neutral terminal.
 Measure the voltage in two other HV terminals in respect of neutral terminal.
 Repeat the test for each of the three phases.

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5.3 ROUTINE TEST

Routine tests of transformers are mainly for confirming operational performance of


individual unit in production lot. Routine tests of transformers include,

 HV and LV test
 Induced over voltage test (or) double voltage double frequency test
 Short Circuit test
 Open Circuit test

5.3.1 HVAND LV TEST


In HV test, LV is shorted, and supply is given to the HV. As per Indian standard for
11kVA transformer 28kV is applied to the HV of the transformer. In LV test, HV is shorted,
and supply is given to the LV. As per Indian standard for 11kVA transformer 3kV is applied
to the LV of the transformer. This test is passed only if the transformer withstands the voltage
for one minute without any tripping of the circuit breaker. The transformer withstands 28kV
(for HV test) and 3kV (for LV supply) supply up to one minute without any damage it
indicates that the withstanding capacity and dielectric strength of the transformer is more.

5.3.2 INDUCED OVER VOLTAGE TEST (OR) DVDF TEST

DVDF means double voltage double frequency test. Induced over Voltage Test Set
(DVDF) is used for testing the strength of insulation between turns and between other points
of the transformers etc. as stipulated by BIS or other standard specification. For this test
Double Voltage is applied across L.T. terminals for one minute, and to limit the magnetizing
current over frequency is utilized.

It is a mechanically coupled unit having motor and Generator with power and control
panel to regulate the output voltage. If the breakdown voltage does not occur at the highest
voltage applied, then the test is successful.

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5.3.3 OPEN CIRCUIT TEST


A voltmeter, wattmeter, and an ammeter are connected in LV side of the transformer
as shown.

The voltage at rated frequency is applied to that LV side with the help of a variac of
variable ratio auto transformer. The HV side of the transformer is kept open. Now with the
help of variac, applied voltage gets slowly increased until the voltmeter gives reading equal
to the rated voltage of the LV side.

After reaching rated LV side voltage, we record all the three instruments reading
(Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings). The ammeter reading gives the no load current
Ie. As no load current Ie is quite small compared to rated current of the transformer, the voltage
drops due to this current that can be
taken as negligible. Since voltmeter
reading V1 can be considered equal to
the secondary induced voltage of the
transformer, wattmeter reading
indicates the input power during the
test. As the transformer is open
circuited, there is no output, hence the
input power here consists of core losses
in transformer and copper loss in
transformer during no load condition.
But as said earlier, the no-load current in the transformer is quite small compared to the full
load current so, we can neglect the copper loss due to the no-load current. Hence, can take the
wattmeter reading as equal to the core losses in the transformer.

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5.3.4 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST


A voltmeter, wattmeter, and an ammeter are connected in HV side of the transformer as
shown. The voltage at rated frequency
is applied to that HV side with the
help of a variac of variable ratio auto
transformer. We short-circuit the LV
side of the transformer. Now with the
help of variac applied voltage is
slowly increased until the wattmeter,
and an ammeter gives reading equal to
the rated current of the HV side. After
reaching rated current of HV side, we
record all the three instruments
reading (Voltmeter, Ammeter and Watt-meter readings). The ammeter reading gives the
primary equivalent of full load current IL. As the voltage applied for full load current in short
circuit test on transformer is quite small compared to the rated primary voltage of the
transformer, the core losses in transformer can be taken as negligible here.

5.4 SUMMARY
In this chapter detailed description of the tests performed on the transformer is
discussed. In the final chapter, technical and non-technical experiences are
highlighted.

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CHAPTER 6 REFLECTION NOTES

6.1 WORK EXPERIENCE


Internship at KARNATAKA VIDYUTH KARKANE LIMITED was started from
11.07.2018 for a period of one month. Getting internship was really a tough task after a month
of search, internship was granted in this esteemed company. Before starting the internship, we
had visited the company and finally the Managing Director of the company agreed to provide
internship. Then we reported to the Assistant Engineer himself and had a great interaction
with him. The Assistant Engineer is very knowledgeable person with 20 years of experience
in the industry. Personnel Officer assigned topic, which is manufacturing and testing of
distribution transformer.

During the internship period we had the opportunity to interact with several
employees, a task which further enabled us to access their knowledge and experience in
technical and non-technical aspects. The experience gained is vast and they are briefed in
points below.

 Overseeing the planning, operation and interdepartmental function that


contributes to the smooth functioning of the organization.
 Strategic planning of production that helps in achieving the monthly and yearly
targets with less discrepancy.
 Chance to learn on the existing production process with revising and developing and
the processes and operations.
 Interacting with various staffs for gaining their experience and increasing the
practical skills of real time working in an organization.
 Identifying drawbacks in the present process and improving it for further
optimization of the production process and betterment of the quality.
 Performing the above related work as assigned.

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 The discipline followed to achieve customer satisfaction about quality structure of


the management, management information systems and the procedures of
management in advance adept quality control.

6.2 TECHNICAL OUTCOMES


 Learnt about the safety precautions to be followed while performing each and
every task and completing it without causing damage to life and property.
 Learnt about safety procedure like first aid to be followed in case of emergency.
 Increased our knowledge on transformers’ practical construction.
 Had a chance to witness SC and OC test on larger kVA transformer.

6.3 NON-TECHNICAL OUTCOMES


 Learnt how to manage a store and track the usage of materials and how to
economically use the materials available.
 Learnt the working of commercial department, as to how they produce the materials
and how they choose the best vendor. Learnt the functioning of Admin and HR
department and gathered information about how they train the new employee.
Handling the work alone did learn to be punctual and competing the tasks on right
time.
 Internship exposure helped in improving verbal and written communication skills.
 After completion of the internship in overall confidence was boosted and could
successfully handle the work alone and complete it on time.

6.4 KEY LEARNING

After detail study of all the processes, departments and the overall organization
structures, the following points can be stressed upon for key learning.

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 The company’s strict policy of adherence to quality standards. Sampling process done
for inspection of the quality of the procured materials whether they fall within the
prescribed limits of quality dimension or not. This approved and checked by various
departments like procurement, quality control and production to ensure the quality.
 The production plan which is done monthly, based on the no of orders and the
workers allotted to each operation so production process is optimized.
 Each transformer assembly route card with a number to specify the operation it has
gone through and worker’s name who have worked on it observed. It helps in finding
out which operation has gone wrong if the final unit has failed.
 All the workers skilled in performing all the types of operations are seen. Work
rotation is being done efficiently.
 Material transport system used such as a roller guide ways, hangers and forklift to
transfer in-process and final assemblies quickly and smoothly.
 Final quality check that is done for different parameters so that transformer passes
in all aspects.
 Some machine tools that are used are obsolete which requires tedious setup process
and susceptible to many problems.
 Use of mechanical labour severely limits the accuracy of the winding process
which results in much rework.
 There is no accurate guide ways for the wire to be wound perfectly without
any gaps in the winding.
 Much of tedious manual activities are done to control the process of accuracy.
 Majority of the activities are manual which involves co-ordination of workers for
working on one part of the assembly which again required much time.
 Coil ratio test accurately tests whether the terms are within the specified limit or not.
However, much rework is done during the stage.
 There is no specified scale for the length of the wire terminals that are attached to
the coil. That is left to worker to make necessary adjustment in this process which
again might be responsible for certain amount of transformer failure.

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REFERENCE
The data used in this project was taken from the following:

www.google.com

www.electrical4u.com

www.wikipedia.org

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