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7 Effective Teaching Strategies

For The Classroom


The classroom is a dynamic environment, bringing together students from
different backgrounds with various abilities and personalities. Being an effective
teacher therefore requires the implementation of creative and innovative
teaching strategies in order to meet students’ individual needs.

Whether you’ve been teaching two months or twenty years, it can be difficult to
know which teaching strategies will work best with your students. As a teacher
there is no ‘one size fits all’ solution, so here is a range of effective teaching
strategies you can use to inspire your classroom practice.

1. Visualization

Bring d ull academic concepts to life with visual and practical learning
experiences, helping your students to understand how their schooling applies in
the real-world.
Examples include using the interactive whiteboard to display photos, audio
clips and videos, as well as encouraging your students to get out of their seats
with classroom experiments and local field trips.

2. Cooperative learning

Encourage students of mixed abilities to work together by promoting small

group or whole class activities.

Through verbally expressing their ideas and responding to others your students
will develop their self-confidence, as well as enhance their communication and
critical thinking skills which are vital throughout life.

Solving mathematical puzzles, conducting scientific experiments and acting

out short drama sketches are just a few examples of how cooperative learning
can be incorporated into classroom lessons.

3. Inquiry-based instruction
Pose thought-provoking questions which inspire your students to think
for themselves and become more independent learners.
Encouraging students to ask questions and investigate their own ideas helps
improve their problem-solving skills as well as gain a deeper understanding of
academic concepts. Both of which are important life skills.

Inquiries can be science or math-based such as ‘why does my shadow change

size?’ or ‘is the sum of two odd numbers always an even number?’. However,
they can also be subjective and encourage students to express their unique
views, e.g. ‘do poems have to rhyme?’ or ‘should all students wear uniform?’.

4. Differentiation

Differentiate your teaching by allocating tasks based on students’

abilities, to ensure no one gets left behind.
Assigning classroom activities according to students’ unique learning needs
means individuals with higher academic capabilities are stretched and those who
are struggling get the appropriate support.

This can involve handing out worksheets that vary in complexity to different
groups of students, or setting up a range of work stations around the
classroom which contain an assortment of tasks for students to choose from.
Moreover, using an educational tool such as Quizalize can save you hours of
time because it automatically groups your students for you, so you can easily
identify individual and whole class learning gaps (click here to find out more).

5. Technology in the classroom

Incorporating technology into your teaching is a great way to actively

engage your students, especially as digital media surrounds young people in the
21st century.
Interactive whiteboards or mobile devices can be used to display images and
videos, which helps students visualize new academic concepts. Learning can
become more interactive when technology is used as students can physically
engage during lessons as well as instantly research their ideas, which develops

Mobile devices, such as iPads and/or tablets, can be used in the classroom for
students to record results, take photos/videos or simply as a behaviour
management technique. Plus, incorporating educational programmes such as
Quizalize into your lesson plans is also a great way to make formative
assessments fun and engaging.

6. Behaviour management

Implementing an effective behaviour management strategy is crucial to

gain your students respect and ensure students have an equal chance of reaching
their full potential.
Noisy, disruptive classrooms do no encourage a productive learning
environment, therefore developing an atmosphere of mutual respect through a
combination of discipline and reward can be beneficial for both you and your

Examples include fun and interactive reward charts for younger students,
where individuals move up or down based on behaviour with the top student
receiving a prize at the end of the week. ‘Golden time’ can also work for
students of all ages, with a choice of various activities such as games or no
homework in reward for their hard work.

7. Professional development

Engaging in regular professional development programmes is a great

way to enhance teaching and learning in your classroom.
With educational policies constantly changing it is extremely useful to attend
events where you can gain inspiration from other teachers and academics. It’s
also a great excuse to get out of the classroom and work alongside other
teachers just like you!

Sessions can include learning about new educational technologies, online

safety training, advice on how to use your teaching assistant(s) and much
Being an effective teacher is a challenge because every student is unique,
however, by using a combination of teaching strategies you can address
students’ varying learning styles and academic capabilities as well as make your
classroom a dynamic and motivational environment for students.

What strategies do you use to be an effective teacher? Have you got any top
tips? Comment below – we’d love to hear from you.

Methods of learning
View 3+ more

Language learning strategies

Collaborative learning

Reciprocal teaching
Study skills

Kinesthetic learning



The 10 most important teaching strategies

Written by Steve Armstrong
18 January 2013

Steve loves to experiment and try new things. He is an experienced entrepreneur and has
launched a dozen different start-ups. One of his recent projects is the GlobalPuzzle, a
challenging online puzzle game for inquiring minds, where people will gain wisdom by
answering amazing questions put up by the world's online community. The wisdom is
hidden in a unique picture painted by a talented artist.
Follow @globalpuzzle
Website: www.globalpuzzle.net
Teaching strategies refer to methods used to help students learn the desired course
contents and be able to develop achievable goals in the future. Teaching strategies
identify the different available learning methods to enable them to develop the right
strategy to deal with the target group identified. Assessment of the learning
capabilities of students provides a key pillar in development of a successful teaching

After analysing the target learners, teachers can choose from the following teaching
strategies to ensure maximum output is achieved with their class:

Strategy #1
Similarities and difference identification is a strategy used that enables learners to compare
and contrast the different elements. This strategy helps in classification, enabling the
learners to distinguish between various ideas.

Strategy #2
Note taking and summarising is a teaching strategy that enables the students to keep
information for a long time while being able to use it for analysis and presentation purposes.
This method of teaching encourages participation through questions and other forms of

Strategy #3
Provision of recognition and effort reinforcement is a strategy that enables students to
understand the link between effort and the recognition they expect. Recognition provides
the students with the motivation to continue adding efforts, ensuring that they are able to
achieve their goals.

Strategy #4
Homework and practice is a teaching strategy that enables students to practice skills
acquired from the previous lectures. This strategy enables the student and teacher to form a
communication policy that underlines the time framework and the methods for carrying out
the prescribed assignment.
Strategy #5
Nonlinguistic representation as a teaching strategy includes using the following methods to
pass a message to the learners: mental images, physical models, pictorial representations,
graphical organisers and flow charts.

Strategy #6
Objective setting and feedback provision is a strategy used when learners are expected to
develop, personalise and communicate individual objectives. This method also stresses on
the student performing a self-assessment to measure success achieved from the lecture.

Strategy #7
Generation and test hypotheses is a strategy that enables teachers to analyse systems
while also solving identified problems. This strategy involves the following methods:
problem solving, system analysis, decision-making, historical investigation, experimental
inquiry and invention. This strategy helps in explaining the importance of coursework by
describing the importance of each element. The analysis of this system helps the students
in goal development and tackling of any barriers that they may face achievement of the
stated goals. This strategy also involves testing the accuracy of the hypotheses and testing
other elements to determine whether different solutions will be arrived at.

Strategy #8
Use of cues, organiser and questions is a teaching strategy that is used to ensure focus is
maintained on the relevant important data while ensuring students are able to maintain
deadlines by having advanced organisers. This strategy helps students compare different
scenarios. It is really helpful in topic identification, addressing of available questions,
generation of mental pictures by the student, prediction of the next occurrences and
answering the asked questions. A summary is then developed for the information learned
and the use of this information stated.

Strategy #9
Concept attainment process is a strategy that enables the teacher to develop examples for
use in demonstration of available new concepts. Through use of examples and non –
examples, the students are able to relate to the intended concept.

Strategy #10
Mental rehearsal is a strategy that focuses on variations and internalisation enabling
students to obtain ideas on ways of altering skills and procedures with response to different

With the availability of so many different strategies, teachers can determine what best suites
their intended learning concept and apply it to their classroom setting.

Three Innovative Methods of

Teaching for High School
By The Room 241 Team • February 4, 2013
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This post has been updated as of December 2017.
One theme that runs through everything we do at Concordia University-
Portland is innovation. Sounds like almost everyone else, right? But honestly,
it’s a word we don’t toss around lightly — especially when it comes to
education. (If you haven’t already, read about our first-of-its-kind, 3toPhD®
community that houses our College of Education and a public elementary
school in the same building.)
That said, if you’re interested in shaking up your teaching in innovative ways
that keep your students engaged and excited — in this very short-attention-
span world we live in — we would love to help.
We believe that finding new and innovative methods of teaching is a crucial
skill for high school teachers. Brain research has actually shown that certain
methods and approaches can truly enhance the learning process and, done
right, applying innovative learning and attention-management techniques to
classes is a win-win for both students and teachers. Read on.

Visualization, technology tools, and

active learning
1. Visualization
It can be very hard for students to understand a list of disconnected facts.
Knowledge that is organized and connected to concepts with a goal of
mastery, including the ability to visualize the concepts, can lead to the ability
to transfer knowledge and to a deeper, longer-term understanding of what is
being taught.

Visualization is an especially good teaching strategy for reading and literacy

teachers. Check out this lesson in how to use visualization to help students
illustrate mental images from a portion of text that is read aloud:

Teaching students visualization skills help them understand, recall, and think
critically about the subjects they study.

2. Wisely managed classroom technology

Computers, tablets, digital cameras, video conferencing technology, and GPS
devices can all enhance a student’s learning experience. Possible uses of
classroom technology include using video games to teach math and foreign
languages, leveraging Skype to communicate with classrooms or guest
speakers from around the world, or multimedia projects that allow students to
explore subject matter using film, audio, and even software they create.

However, introducing new tech devices in the high school classroom often
requires that teachers add an element of educational technology leadership to
their usual classroom management. Giving students laptops or tablets, for
example, means teaching them to use devices respectfully and preventing
damage to the equipment. Tech-savvy teachers gave Education Week the
following advice on using classroom technology:
 Explain that the use of tech tools in class is a privilege not everyone has —
and, if abused, it can be discontinued.
 During class, teachers should move around the classroom or use monitoring
software to ensure students are using their devices appropriately. When they
understand that you will intervene if they go off-task, students know they must
focus on their assignment.
 Put students in charge of the upkeep of devices. Classes can learn tech
terms, basic maintenance tasks, and appoint a few students to serve as tech
monitors responsible for distributing and storing equipment. Doing this creates
a sense of value and ownership for the welfare of classroom technology.
3. Active learning: Peer instruction, discussion groups, and
collaborative problem solving
All high-school educators dread a roomful of blank faces or silence after they
open up a topic for class discussion. According to the Johns Hopkins Center
for Educational Resources (CER), devoting time to active learning projects is
one way to get students thinking, talking, and sharing information in the
classroom. The CER publishes a series called The Innovative Instructor that
explores these methods.
One particular article in that series, Bring on the Collaboration!, describes a class
structure where the instructor leads a short overview of the day’s topic and
gives students a challenge to meet by the end of the class, such as answering
a question or solving a problem. Students break into small groups to do
research online, chart out ideas, and discuss ways to meet the challenge.
Groups upload their work to a Blackboard site, where the teacher can then
review it. At the end of class, each group shares what they’ve learned with
their peers. The results? Higher engagement overall and students were
“amazingly” on task during group work.
These are just three ideas for directions you can go in your quest for
innovative teaching methods to get your students more engaged. In today’s
increasingly creative world, new ideas are sprung nearly every day. Join us on
Facebook where we share ideas like these, and much more, with other
passionate educators like you.

Monitoring Progress
Marzano’s 9 Instructional Strategies For Teaching And Learning
What Is The Feynman Technique?
1. Alternative assessments

2. Anchor activities

3. Grade as you go

4. Homework options

5. KWL charts
6. Learning contracts

7. Menus/Agendas

8. Mini-White Boards

9. Question Choices

10. Reflection/Response

11. Think-Pair-Share

12. Tiered Activities

13. Tiered Rubrics

14. Varied Products

Compare/Contrast Ideas
15. Cubing

16. Sticky Note Graph

17. Think-Tac-Toe

18. Think-Pair-Share

Form Groups

19. Appointment Clocks

20. Cubing

21. Curriculum Compacting

22. Four Sides

23. Jigsaw

24. Learning Contracts

25. Mini White Boards

26. Question Choices

27. Think-Tac-Toe

28. Varied Texts

Get Moving
29. Appointment Clocks

30. Four Sides

31. Heads Together

32. Jigsaw

33. Literature Circles

34. Reading Buddies

35. Sticky Note Graph

Work Together
36. Anchor Activity

37. Appointment Clocks

38. Learning Centers

39. Cubing

40. Four Sides

41. Grade as you Go

42. Heads Together

43. Jigsaw

44. Literature Circles

45. Menus/Agendas

46. Mini White Boards

47. Reading Buddies

48. Sticky Note Graph

49. Think-Tac-Toe

50. Tiered Activities

Adapt Content
51. Alternative Assessments

52. Learning Centers

53. Cubing

54. Curriculum Compacting

55. Grade as you Go

56. Homework Options

57. Jigsaw

58. Learning Contracts

59. Literature Circles

60. Menus/Agendas

61. Orbitals

62. Question Choices

63. Reading Buddies

64. Scaffolding

65. Think-Tac-Toe

66. Tiered Activities

67. Tiered Organizers

68. Varied Products

69. Varied Texts

Share Ideas & Opinions

70. Anchor Activities
71. Learning Centers

72. Cubing

73. Four Sides

74. Heads Together

75. KWL Charts

76. Literature Circles

77. Mini White Boards

78. Reflection/Response

79. Sticky Note Graph

80. Think-Tac-Toe

81. Think-Pair-Share

82. Tiered Rubrics

Take Notes
83. Anchor Activities

84. Jigsaw

85. KWL Charts

86. Think-Tac-Toe

87. Varied Organizers

Image attribution fortheteachers.org; A List Of 50+ Teaching Strategies To Jumpstart Your

Teacher Brain


We can use a mind map. List the main goals of the curriculum in the center.
Above these goals, we may branch out to a list of other skills that students need
to have mastered in order to achieve the current curriculum goals.

For struggling students, the map serves as a point of guidance for the skills they
need to master before working toward the curriculum goals – they can see what
they need to work on.

For the students who can already reach a goal, activities that can extend their
learning may include additional lessons that bring students to higher level skills,
or open-ended activities or projects related to the topic.


Once the map is created, a pre-assessment for the entire class may now be
administered. It is advised to avoid multiple-choice tests and instead try to offer
engaging alternatives, such as an escape room, in which players work through a
series of puzzles to receive keys that allow them to escape from a locked room.

A.1Explain the importance of studyingcommunity dynamics and community
actionin relation to applied social sciences and thelearners' future career
HUMSS_CSC12-Iii a-c1 WEEK 1 DAY 1
A.2Compare and contrast the definitions ofcommunity using various
perspective, e.g.Social science, institution, civil society, andlocal/
grassroots level
A. 3Develop/ affirm sense of shared identity andwillingness to contribute to
the attainment ofthe common good
A. 4 Recognize diversities in communities
A. 5Analyze functions of communities in termsstructures, dynamics, and
A. 6Compare and contrast typologies ofcommunities
B.7Recognize the value of undertakingcommunity action modalities
B.8Acknowledge interrelationship of self andcommunity in undertaking
community action
B.9Identify opportunities to contribute tocommunity development through
B.10Recognize the importance of solidarity insociopolitical processes in
promotingnational and global community development
B.11Assess selected community-actioninitiatives
HUMSS_CSC12-IIId-g-11 WEEK 7 DAY 2-3
C.12Promote awareness of human rights incommunities among the
HUMSS_CSC12-IIIh-j-13 WEEK 8 DAY 1-3
C.13Appraise the value of social equity andgender equality in the context
ofparticipatory development
C.14Analyze strategies of empowerment andadvocacy through community
HUMSS_CSC12-IIIh-j-15 WEEK 9 DAY 2-3
C.15Develop commitment and conviction toparticipatory development for
C.16Appraise the value of social equity andgender equality in the context
ofparticipatory development
WEEK 10 DAY 3-4
D.17Explain the processes, methodologies, andapproaches in applied
social sciencesrelated to community study
HUMSS_CSC12-Iva-d-17 WEEK 11 DAY 1-2
D.18Apply systematic social research methodsin conducting a community
D.19Develop a community action plan usingparticipatory approaches
HUMSS_CSC12-Iva-d-17 WEEK 14 DAY 3
E.20 Implement Community Action Initiatives
HUMSS_CSC12-IV-e-h-20WEEK 15 DAY 1-4WEEK 16 DAY 1-4
E.21Appreciate the value of applying socialsciences in community action
HUMSS_CSC12-IV-e-h-21WEEK 17 DAY 1-3


(MAY 4 to 24, 2017)

E.22Synthesize the integrative experience ofimplementing community

action initiatives
HUMSS_CSC12-IV-e-h-22WEEK 17 DAY 4WEEK 18 DAY 1-2
WEEK 18 DAY 3-4
Organization and Management
1. 1. Organization and Josefina B. Bitonio, DPA A Lecture Presentation for PNP and BJMP
2. 2. The Nature of Organization and Management Organization and management is twin terms
that exist side by side with each other, each one needs and supports the other.
Organizations will be inert and useless if there is no management that will steer it;
management will be hollow and meaningless if there’s no organization to manage.
3. 3. The Nature of Organization and Management In the real world of administration,
organization and management are essential elements through which human actions and
objectives are carried out and accomplished. In a manner of speaking, organization and
management become a means to an end.
4. 4. Organization Organizations are defined differently by different authors. There are,
however, certain essential elements that can be discerned from them. In other words,
organizations consist of people who, more or less, share common objectives or purpose. The
behavior of the organization is directed towards the attainment of these objectives. The
members who compromise the organization work jointly in groups and cooperate together in
interdependent relationships. This suggests that organizations structure and integrate their
activities. Furthermore, organizations use knowledge and techniques to accomplish their
5. 5. Parts of a system according to KAST and ROSENZWEIG: 1. organization itself; 2. goals
and values; 3. technical subsystem (knowledge and skills required to do the task); 4. psycho-
social subsystem (composed of individual and group interaction); and 5. managerial
6. 6. Organizations help us to accomplish goals which otherwise would be much more difficult,
if not impossible, to achieve on an individual basis. Organizations, like public organizations,
business enterprises, hospitals, church and military, serve the multifarious and growing
needs of the people and society. For most of us, organizations provide a means of livelihood,
a vehicle to develop our career, and a source of pride. Others even develop a strong
attachment and commitment to their organization that they’d say they are ‘married’ to their
jobs there.
7. 7. Organizations can be formal or informal are “a Formal organizations system of
coordinated activities of a group of people working cooperatively toward a common goal
under authority and leadership” (Scott and Mitchell as cited in Nigro 1989).
8. 8. Organizations can be formal or informal Informal organizations, while they exist side by
side with formal ones, are “undocumented and officially unrecognized relationships between
members of an organization that inevitably emerge out of the personal and group needs of
employees” (Stoner and Freeman, 1989). They are, as described by Herbert A. Simon, “the
interpersonal relationships in the organization that affect decisions within but either are
omitted from the formal scheme or are not consistent with it” (cited in Stoner and Freeman,
9. 9. Bureaucracy Government relies on the formal organizations, more popularly known as
bureaucracy, to carry out its functions and perform its role in society. Much of government
activities are carried out by these organizations which are of varying sizes and functions,
scattered all over the country, but all around by a common mission and purpose – that is, to
protect and promote the welfare of the people. The familiar usage of bureaucracy has
become associated with and often interchanged with government.
10. 10. Management Management, on the other hand, involves the coordination of human and
material resources toward the attainment of organization’s goals (Kast, 1974). In any
organization, absolute harmony is hard to attain and, perhaps, unrealistically achievable.
What is more realistically bound to happen is for some conflict to arise. Thus, it is the task of
management to integrate the varied elements, be these cooperative or conflictive, into a
complete organizational undertaking.
11. 11. Managers – people who are responsible for integrating, coordinating, and directing
activities of others – then have to bring together the organization staff, money, materials,
time and space into an integrated and effective system to achieve organizational objective.
Managers get things done by working with people and physical resources to realize the goals
of the organization; they coordinate and integrate the work and activities of others (Kast,
12. 12. Because most organizations work in a larger environment where other organizations,
institutions, groups of people, demands, pressures, changes, developments, and so on,
exist, it behooves the organizations and their managers to relate with the external
environment if they have to be effective and assure their existence and relevance.
13. 13. Management, according to Kast, has the following elements: 1) toward objectives, 2)
through people, 3) via techniques and, 4) in an organization. In a short, management is
getting the tasks done through people and techniques toward the attainment of objective
within the organizational setting.
14. 14. Management Functions        Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Coordinating
Reporting Budgeting
15. 15. Planning is an organizational management activity that is used to set priorities, focus
energy and resources, strengthen operations, ensure that employees and other stakeholders
are working toward common goals, establish agreement around intended outcomes/results,
and assess and adjust the organization's direction in response to a changing environment. It
is a disciplined effort that produces fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide
what an organization is, who it serves, what it does, and why it does it, with a focus on the
future. Effective strategic planning articulates not only where an organization is going and the
actions needed to make progress, but also how it will know if it is successful
16. 16. Organizing Organizing is the function of management that involves developing an
organizational structure and allocating human resources to ensure the accomplishment of
objectives. The structure of the organization is the framework within which effort is
coordinated. The structure is usually represented by an organization chart, which provides a
graphic representation of the chain of command within an organization. Decisions made
about the structure of an organization are generally referred to as organizational design. The
matching of organizational form, such as structure, reporting relationships, and information
technology, with the organization’s strategy. Decisions.
17. 17. Staffing After an organization's structural design is in place, it needs people with the right
skills, knowledge, and abilities to fill in that structure. People are an organization's most
important resource, because people either create or undermine an organization's reputation
for quality in both products and service In addition, an organization must respond to change
effectively in order to remain competitive. The right staff can carry an organization through a
period of change and ensure its future success. Because of the importance of hiring and
maintaining a committed and competent staff, effective human resource management is
crucial to the success of all organizations. www.cliffsnotes.com
18. 18. Directing Directing or Direction function is said to be the heart of management of process
and therefore, is the central point around which accomplishment of goals take place. A few
philosophers call Direction as “Life spark of an enterprise”. It is also called as on actuating
function of management because it is through direction that the operation of an enterprise
actually starts. Being the central character of enterprise, it provides many benefits to a
concern which are as follows: It Initiates Actions - Directions is the function which is the
starting point of the work performance of subordinates. It is from this function the action
takes place, subordinates understand their jobs and do according to the instructions laid.
Whatever are plans laid, can be implemented only once the actual work starts. It is there that
direction becomes beneficial.
19. 19. Directing It Ingrates Efforts - Through direction, the superiors are able to guide, inspire
and instruct the subordinates to work. For this, efforts of every individual towards
accomplishment of goals are required. It is through direction the efforts of every department
can be related and integrated with others. This can be done through persuasive leadership
and effective communication. Integration of efforts bring effectiveness and stability in a
concern. Means of Motivation - Direction function helps in achievement of goals. A manager
makes use of the element of motivation here to improve the performances of subordinates.
This can be done by providing incentives or compensation, whether monetary or non -
monetary, which serves as a “Morale booster” to the subordinates Motivation is also helpful
for the subordinates to give the best of their abilities which ultimately helps in growth. It
Provides Stability - Stability and balance in concern becomes very important for long term
sun survival in the market. This can be brought upon by the managers with the help of four
tools or elements of direction function judicious blend of persuasive leadership, effective
communication, strict supervision and efficient motivation. Stability is very important since
that is an index of growth of an enterprise.
20. 20. Directing Coping up with the changes - It is a human behavior that human beings show
resistance to change. Adaptability with changing environment helps in sustaining planned
growth and becoming a market leader. It is directing function which is of use to meet with
changes in environment, both internal as external. Effective communication helps in coping
up with the changes. It is the role of manager here to communicate the nature and contents
of changes very clearly to the subordinates. This helps in clarifications, easy adaptions and
smooth running of an enterprise. are benefited out of that in form of higher remuneration
Efficient Utilization- Direction finance helps in clarifying the role of every subordinate towards
his work. The resources can be utilized properly only when less of wastages, duplication of
efforts, overlapping of performances, etc. doesn’t take place. Through direction, the role of
subordinates become clear as manager makes use of his supervisory, the guidance, the
instructions and motivation skill to inspire the subordinates. This helps in maximum possible
utilization of resources of men, machine, materials and money which helps in reducing costs
and increasing profits. www.managementstudyguide.com/importance_of_directing.htm
21. 21. Coordination Mooney (1953) defines coordination as & the orderly arrangement of group
effort to provide unity of action in the pursuit of a common purpose. Coordination is the
process of synchronizing activities of various persons in the organization in order to achieve
goals. It is undertaken at every level of management. wiki.answers.com
22. 22. Reporting Accountability reporting is primary intended to help management better
measure performance against target, whereas, insight reporting is focused on providing
information to help management better understand the business and react tactically and
strategically. www.jstor.org/stable/438206
23. 23. A budget is one of your best tools for reaching your goals . It’s a plan of what money you
expect to receive and how you expect to spend it. A good budget is characterized by the
following: · Participation: involve as many people as possible in drawing up a budget. ·
Comprehensiveness: embrace the whole organization. · Standards: base it on established
standards of performance. · Flexibility: allow for changing circumstances. · Feedback:
constantly monitor performance. · Analysis of costs and revenues: this can be done on the
basis of product lines, departments or cost centers. Budgeting
24. 24. Organization and Management in the Public Sector Organization and management in the
public sector may share many similarities with those in the private setting. For instance, both
practice division of labor, have an internal organization structure, recruit personnel, give
direction and assign tasks to employees, etc.
25. 25. Public and Private Administration Criteria Public Administration 1.Relations to
environment  subject to public scrutiny; public demand and expectations; political pressures
Private Administration  Less exposed to public inspection; internal processes are kept from
public; response to public guided by market dynamics 2. Accountability  Accountable to the
public; transparency in transactions is expected  management accountable to owners of
firms/corporations 3. Measure of performance  general public satisfaction is the gauge in
the improvement in the quality of life  profit is bottomline 4. Nature of goods and services 
open to all  availment based on ones ability to pay
26. 26. Organization and Management Techniques Organization Development (OD).
Organizational development, OD for short, is an approach to planned organizational change.
It is a long-term and, oftentimes, complicated effort to bring the organization to a higher level
of functioning and, at the same time, improve the performance and sense of satisfaction of
the members of organization. While OD includes structural and technological changes, its
main focus is on changing people and the nature and quality of their working relationships, in
short, the organizational culture.
27. 27. Organization and Management Techniques To achieve this, OD zeroes in on improving
the problem-solving and self-renewal processes of the organization. Problem-solving
process refers to the methods by which organizations deal with problems and situations they
face. Renewal process allows managers to adjust to environmental changes by adapting
their problem-solving style and goals in a way that will be most suitable to given situations.
Because organizational development involves the whole organization, support of top
management is essential. Another way of saying this is that OD can only take place with the
blessings of the top hierarchy or high-ranking officials in the organization (Stoner and
Freeman, 1989).
28. 28. Management and Information System (MIS) Management information system, or MIS, is
computer-based information system that provides accurate and timely information to those
needing them. MIS is highly important for the effective performance of the managerial
functions. MIS facilitates planning, decision-making and control, and enables the
organization to carry out these functions more effectively and efficiently (Stoner and
Freeman, 1989). It is not surprising that with the increasing sophistication of computer
technology today, newer systems that can aid public managers in their job will be developed.
29. 29. Total Quality Management by Dr. William Edward Deming documented both public and
private organizations in their attempt to respond to changes as brought about by the
advances in computer and communications technology and trade liberalization and
30. 30. O and M Studies As a field of study, public administration has always been concerned
with improving our understanding of public organizations, commonly known as bureaucracy,
and their effective management. Because much government activities are carried out by the
bureaucracy, it is important to investigate how these public organizations work and operate.
The knowledge gained can help those working in government manage their agencies more
31. 31. The interest in studying the organization and management of public organizations and
institutions will not wane. Government has always relied upon its agencies and institutions to
carry out its activities and the concern for improving government will undoubtedly involve
looking into how these organizations function, their interrelationships with each other and the
external environment.
32. 32. Public administration O and M varies in their approaches and focus. in the United States,
the focused were on the formal structures, functions, and processes of the administrative
organizations of government. The focus on the internal aspects of public administrative
system and the concomitant values of efficiency, economy, and effectiveness with which the
organizations function and operate is characteristic of the traditional public administration.
33. 33. Concepts on System Approach • A system is an organized unitary whole composed of
two or more independent parts, components or subsystems and delineated by identifiable
boundaries from its environmental suprasystem. (F. Kast and J. Rosenzweig, 1979). • A
system can be looked as having inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes. Figure 1 presents
a system framework and its major elements.
34. 34. Inputs: Resources (in terms of manpower, money, materials, equipments and facilities)
Conversion Process o Planning o Organizing o Motivating and o Controlling Output Products
and services to the market Feedback  Influences from the government  Society 
Economics and Technologies Outcomes Enhanced quality life or productivity for customers
(with results meaningful and measurable)
35. 35. Impact Impact is the change in the standard of living of the target group or within the
target area from the program (UN, 1978) 1. Self-reliance; 2. Self-sufficiency; 3. Socially
responsible; 4. Economically independent and politically dynamic; and 5. Better quality of life
36. 36. O and M studies focused on structural concerns such as hierarchy, line of authority,
division of labor, staff-line functions; span of control, records keeping, unity of command, and
the like.
37. 37. Subsequent studies in organization and management branched out to other concerns,
using the behavioral perspective or the human relations model. These studies focused less
on the formal structure and more on the human dimension and informal groups and
interactions within organizations.
38. 38. Other approaches to studying organizational phenomena tried to integrate the elements
of classical and neoclassical theories such as the open-systems, decision-making and
industrial humanism models
39. 39. Other works on organization have been marked by their quest for innovative approaches
(e.g., more flexible organizational forms, more participative processes, and more client-
oriented) in managing organizations as well as concern for the impact of government policies
and activities on the people and society. These are emphasized, for example, by the New
40. 40. Other organization studies are more perspective in character in that they recommend
specific and concrete measures to improve organizational performance. These studies deal
with practical administrative issues and offer solutions to solve them. These studies are what
you call applied studies or research and are sometimes referred to as management studies.
41. 41. A popular example of applied organization studies that we can cite is the reorganization
of the bureaucracy. A study of the existing structure, functions, and procedures is conducted
with the view to identifying concrete measures that will improve the conduct of government
and public affairs.
42. 42. Generally speaking, the studies made by the Institute during those years were
“characteristically inward-oriented” and focused on organization structures, functions,
processes, and procedures, concluded by recommendations to apply management tools and
techniques that have been employed in the United States. The studies dealt with wide
ranging practical issues concerning internal structure, building space, work simplification,
salary scale, employee morale, line of authority, line and staff functions, and so on.
43. 43. Even as the researches continued to adhere to this “inward-looking orientation”, other
patterns emerged. Research investigations already included the local governments-their
organizations, functions, and management- and not just concentrating on the national
government offices and institutions
44. 44. Studies also began to cover the relations between the bureaucracy and the public at
large, as exemplified by the researches on public accountability and program
implementation. This “outwardlooking orientation” and interest on social relevance of public
administration became more pronounced in the studies following the declaration of martial
law and onwards to the ‘80s (Reyes, 1995).
45. 45. Many of the organization studies conducted by the CPA that the time precisely fitted into
the scheme of upgrading the administrative capability of the government. They were a direct
and relevant response to the need and call for efficient, economical, and effective
government. These studies were of the applied type and addressed practical problems in
internal administrative structure, functions, and processes
46. 46. They also offered concrete measures to improve the system. In a sense, the studies filled
the role of providing the government with ideas and solutions to improve government
operations and performance and, thus, make it more capable in accomplishing its task of
nation building and national development.
47. 47. Thus far, it is apparent that the bulk of organization studies before were more oriented
towards dealing with practical issues in Philippine public administration than building
theoretical knowledge about public organizations.
48. 48. This much was noted by Cariño when she reviewed the researches undertaken by the
College. According to her, as cited by Reyes, a little less than three percents of studies made
between 1952 and 1972 could be considered as theoretical works. Reyes also reiterates this
observation in his article.
49. 49. For the Filipino public administration scholars, the challenge probably lies not only in
discovering new frontiers in the discipline but, more importantly perhaps, in defining a public
administration model that brings in the Filipino perspective and the realism of Philippine

Organizational leadership and management

refers to the process of influencing subordinates towards the goals and objectives of the
organization. It refers to the behavior modification displayed by the leader in getting things
done. Such leadership behavior could be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE and that it depends on
the individual perception of subordinates.
AND CONTROLLING the activities of the organization. • As a process, it is the science of
how people carry the function of management. PINOY must understand the management is
setting the administrative machinery of organized efforts towards the objective of the
organization through the four process involved.
4. 4. MANAGER • A person responsible for controlling or administering all or part of a company
or similar organization. • Managers of an organization must adjust their behavior and values
according to the needs and problems of the organization. • Managers are focused on the
four process involved, as he also practice how he makes people behave according to what
he wants to happen in the organization.
5. 5. The Following Assumptions may be of Interest to Beginning Managers: 1. Managerial
leadership is the ability to lead others. – It is the important key to effective management of
organization. – It focuses on goal achievement regardless of leadership style.
6. 6. 2. Managerial leadership is the PROCESS AND ART of Influencing people for them to
move forward for the achievement of group goals and objectives. It involves goal setting. 3.
Managerial leadership depends on the ability to obtain motivated employees and influence
them to follow willingly in performing their task of personal goal setting and organizational
7. 7. 4. Managerial leadership involves character building in people and development of values
towards organizational goals. - It is the ART OF MAKING PEOPLE FOLLOW YOU
Managerial leadership focuses on people’s behavior and the accomplishment of
organizational plans and programs to achieve total performance.
8. 8. The Need for Organizational Management and Leadership 1. Effective management is
more concerned with the wise utilization of the material resources of the organization -
Manpower & material resources are determinants of organizational success but these could
only be possible if the leaders who are equipped with the skill of leadership.
9. 9. 2. The objective of all organization is profitability or sustainability of its operation. 3.
Managerial leadership is necessary in setting target goals and objectives. - These goals &
objectives are benchmark to effective implementation. With good leadership & management
the organizational course of action will be towards better results, hence profit and
sustainability is assured.
10. 10. 4. The prevailing business condition is uncertain and management must be kept on
guard with the environment. -It needs advance planning, evaluation and analysis. 5.
Managerial leadership must have the highest value of integrity and character. -Integrity is the
highest order to be displayed by the leader for him to be an effective example to his
11. 11. Qualities for Managerial Leadership 1. A good manager has sincere liking for people. -He
knows how to deal with people and to work cooperatively
12. 12. 2. Skill in effective communication and the ability to win group cooperation. - This refers
to his ability to choose the right word to inspire & motivate people. 3. Technical competence
and decisiveness on plans and programs. - This refers to PINOY’s ability to analyze the
environmental conditions prevailing at work & the external forces that affects the
organization. He makes decision after evaluating the facts & data gets his subordinates
cooperation in the accomplishment of the task.
13. 13. APPROACHES TO MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP Managerial Leadership traits &
characteristics are highly personal. Leaders have different levels of education, training and
experience. These count so much in the practice of managerial functions. We must realize
our weaknesses & our strength as leaders of our people. We need to adjust accordingly to
create a better organization.
14. 14. The following situations must be considered in the exercise of managerial leadership: 1.
The desire of the people in the group 2. The level of management expectations of
accomplishments 3. The level of satisfaction & challenges of the position 4. The level of
respect needed in the performance of the task 5. The level of aspiration & the desired life
15. 15. Determinants for Managerial Leadership In the same line of thinking, we need to see &
analyze the prevailing situation in the work environment. We need to go deeper into the
problem. We need to see our STRENGTH as organization and make this strength as the
jumping board for people empowerment. On the other hand, we need to see our
WEAKNESSES and make adjustment to correct them.
16. 16. 1. Managerial Orientation a. The personality & character of the manager - Individual
personality & character is important determinants in the kind of leadership style. The kind of
home environment where he lived has great influence on what kind of person he is. b. The
educational background & managerial training - The higher the educational achievement of
the manager & the more he is exposed to managerial interventions would greatly change his
behavior & character for leadership.
17. 17. c. Great knowledge of psychology & social behavior - Working with people is a must for
all PINOY managers as a task around him can not be achieve without the total involvement
of people. This needs a great knowledge of people’s behavior and how the social system
operates. d. The capability for decision making - One of the most important behavior of the
manager is to make decisions. e. Capability to motivate & control people - PINOY managers
must have the capability to motivate people at work. People are like machines the needs to
be oiled & greased. Motivation is synonymous to control as it develop self-direction &
discipline among subordinates.
18. 18. 2. The Behavioral Patterns of Subordinates - PINOY has to adjust to the style of
leadership that would be most appropriate for his subordinates in order for them to be an
effective member of the organization. a. Subordinates with THEORY X pattern of behavior 
Managers feel that workers are lazy & dislike work  Managers believe that workers need to
be monitored, controlled, & given financial incentives to work.
19. 19.  Managers has to practice autocratic leadership style; He needs to be strong in
character & impose greater authority over subordinates. Nevertheless, a good manager must
know how to transform his people towards participation as he could not get total performance
with coercion.. PINOY must take time, courage & patience to it.  Change through training &
team building seminars may do the process of assimilation towards better behavior at work.
And it also needed positive motivation.
20. 20. b. Subordinates with THEORY Y pattern of behavior  Employees have developed self-
discipline in attaining goals  Employees seek responsibilities & is a responsible member of
the organization  They are creative & contribute solutions of organizational problems
Managers should be democratic & participative style of managerial leadership On the other
hand, total trust & confidence should not be given as values & attitudes change, when
managers become too relaxed.
21. 21. c. The Working Environment - The third element that determines managerial leadership
style is the work environment. It refers to the total work in the environment . Those in factory
system where the employees are subject to follow rout nary procedure would respond to a
different style. Those in marketing & advertising activities require work independence &
individual creativity. Those in the office require analysis & data gathering may respond to
different style. - PINOY managers under these conditions require broad working knowledge
about people’s behavior & how to adjust to different individual & groups to get the maximum
22. 22. LANDSCAPE OF MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP The result of good management can be
seen in how the organization progress in their line of operation & how the people react to
these improvement both in human behavior & their economic wellbeing. Organization &
people must live harmoniously & cooperative efforts must be followed for effective
management of organization.