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Development of the Atomic Theory

Democritus J.J. Thomson

 460 BC - Greek philosopher proposes the  1897 - English chemist and physicist;
existence of the atom discovered 1st subatomic particles
 He pounded materials until he made them
into smaller and smaller parts Plum Pudding Model or Raisin Bun Model
 He called them atoma which is Greek for Proposed by J.J. Thomson
“indivisible”.

His Theory:

 All atoms:
 Are small hard particles
 Are made of a single material formed into
different shapes and sizes His Theory:
 Are always moving, and they form different
materials by joining together  Atoms contain negatively charged
particles called electrons and positively
charged matter.
 Created a model to describe the atom
John Dalton as a sphere filled with positive matter
with negative particles mixed in
 1803 - British chemist; elements  Referred to it as the plum pudding
combine in specific proportions to model
form compounds
 Solid Sphere Model or Bowling Ball
Model
Ernest Rutherford
 Proposed by John Dalton
 1912 - New Zealand physicist
discovered the nucleus

Nuclear Model
Proposed by Ernest Rutherford
His Theory:

 All substances are made of atoms


that
cannot be created, divided, or
destroyed.
 Atoms join with other atoms to make
new substances. His Theory:
 Atoms of the same element are
exactly alike  Small, dense, positively charged particle
 Atoms of different elements are present in nucleus called a proton
different in mass and size.  Electrons travel around the nucleus, but
 His ideas account for the law of their exact places cannot be described.
conservation of mass (atoms are
neither created nor destroyed)
 The law of constant composition
(elements combine in fixed ratios).
His Theory:
 Neutrons have no electrical charge.
Niels Bohr
 Neutrons have a mass nearly equal to
 1913 - Danish physicist; discovered the mass of a proton.
energy levels  Unit of measurement for subatomic
particles is the atomic mass unit
(amu).
Bohr Model or Planetary Model
Proposed by Niels Bohr Modern Theory of the Atom

 Atoms are composed of three main


subatomic particles: the electron, proton,
and neutron.
 Most of the mass of the atom is
concentrated in the nucleus of the atom
 The protons and neutrons are located within
the nucleus, while the electrons exist
outside of the nucleus.
 In stable atoms, the number of protons is
His Theory: equal to the number of electrons.
 The type of atom is determined by the
 Electrons travel around the nucleus in number of protons it has.
definite paths and fixed distances.  The number of protons in an atom is equal
 Electrons can jump from one level to a to the atomic number.
path in another level.  The sum of the number of protons and
neutrons in a particular atom is called the
atomic mass.
Erwin Shrodinger
 Valence electrons are the outermost
 1924 - Austrian physicist; developed the electrons.
electron cloud model

Isotopes and Radioisotopes


Electron Cloud Model
Proposed by Erwin Schrodinger  Atoms of the same element that have
His Theory: different numbers of neutrons are called
 The exact path of electrons cannot be isotopes.
predicted.  Due to isotopes, mass #s are not round #s.
6 7
 The region referred to as the electron  Li (6.9) is made up of both Li and Li.
cloud,  Often, at least one isotope is unstable.
 Is an area where electrons can likely be  It breaks down, releasing radioactivity.
found.  These types of isotopes are called
radioisotopes
James Chadwick Q- Sometimes an isotope is written without its
35
1932 - English physicist; discovered neutrons atomic number - e.g. S (or S-35). Why?

Q- Draw B-R diagrams for the two Li isotopes.

A- The atomic # of an element doesn’t change


although the number of neutrons can vary,
atoms have definite numbers of protons.
2. All the atoms of an element are identical in mass
and size, and are different from the atoms of another
element.

Dalton used the different shapes or figures to


represent different elements, as follows:

Law of Conservation of Mass


In a chemical reaction, no change in mass 3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than
takes place. The total mass of the products is equal one element, combined in definite ratios with whole
to the total mass of the reactant. number values.

Antoine Lavoisier, a brilliant French chemist,


formulated this law by describing one of his
experiments involving mercuric oxide. He placed a
small amount of mercuric oxide, a red solid, inside a
retort and sealed the vessel tightly.

He weighed the system, and then subjected 4. During a chemical reaction, atoms combine,
it to high temperature. During the heating, the red separate, or rearrange. No atoms are created and
solid turned into a silvery liquid. This observation no atoms disappear.
indicated that a chemical reaction took place. After
which, the setup was cooled and then weighed. The
weight of the system was found to be the same as
before heating.

Law of Definite Proportion:


A compound always contains the same Atomic number = number of protons = number of
constituent elements in a fixed or definite proportion electrons in a neutral atom
by mass.
Mass number = number of protons + number of
If water samples coming from different sources are neutrons
analyzed, all the samples will contain the same ratio
by mass of hydrogen to oxygen. Isotopes – atoms of an element having the same
atomic number but different mass number. The
Law of Multiple Proportions: existence of isotopes was shown by mass
spectroscopy experiments, wherein elements were
If two elements can combine to form more than one found to be composed of several types of atoms,
compound, the masses of one element that will each with different masses.
combine with a fixed mass of the other element are
in a ratio of small whole numbers. a. The atomic number identifies an element. The
atoms of isotopes of an element have the same
Dalton’s Atomic Theory number of protons and electrons.
This theory was proposed by John Dalton, can be
used to explain the laws of chemical change. b. The atoms of isotopes of an element differ in the
This theory is based on the following set of number of neutrons.
postulates:
Ions can be made up of only one atom
1. Elements are made up of very small particles (monoatomic) or more than one type of atom
known as atoms. (polyatomic).
Monoatomic ions are named based on the element.
Binary compounds – made up of two elements.
a. For cations, the name of the element is
unchanged. If an element can form two ions of Ionic compounds – made up of a cation and an
different charges, the name, which is usually derived anion. They are named by giving the name of the
from its Latin name, is modified by the suffix –ic for cation first, followed by the name of the anion.
the ion with the higher charge, and –ous for that with Ex: NaI – sodium iodide
the lower charge. MgCl2 – magnesium chloride

b. For anions, the name of the element is modified Molecular compounds – made up of two non-
by the suffix –ide. metals. They are named by giving the name of the
first nonmetal and then that of the second nonmetal
Several anions are polyatomic and are named modified by the ending -ide. Molecular compounds
based on the atomic constituents and the suffix -ide. are usually gases.
The most common examples are: Ex: CO2 – carbon dioxide
a. OH- – hydroxide ion SO3 – sulfur trioxide
b. CN- – cyanide ion
Ternary Compounds – made up of three elements.
A number of polyatomic anions containing oxygen The naming of ternary compounds follows the same
atoms are named based on the root word of the rule as that of the binary ionic compound: the name
central (or non-oxygen) atom and the suffix –ate for of the cation is given first, followed by the name of
the one with more oxygen atoms and –ite for the the anion.
one with less oxygen atom. Ex: BaCrO4 – barium chromate
K2SO4 – potassium sulfate
a. NO3- – nitrate ion
b. NO2- – nitrite ion
c. SO3 2- – sulfite ion Acids – yield hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions.
d. SO42- – sulfate ion
e. PO43- – phosphate ion Binary acids – composed of hydrogen and another
element, usually a nonmetal. The first part of the
Some anions have common names ending with the name starts with the prefix hydro- followed by the
suffix –ate. name of the element, modified by the ending –ic.
a. C2H3O2- – acetate ion The second part consists of the word ‘acid’. Name =
b. C2O42- – oxalate ion hydro- (root name of element) -ic + acid
Ex: HCl – hydrochloric acid
Chemical Formula. The formula consists of the H2S – hydrosulfuric acid
symbols of the atoms making up the molecule. If
there is more than one atom present, a numerical
subscript is used. Examples are the following: Ternary acids – made up of hydrogen and an anion,
a. O2 – oxygen gas usually containing oxygen. The first part of the name
b. H2O – water consists of the root word of the name of the element,
c. NaOH – sodium hydroxide (liquid Sosa) modified by the ending –ic. The second part consists
d. HCl – hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) of the word ‘acid’. If there is another acid with the
same atoms, the suffix –ous is used to denote the
Molecular formula – gives the composition of the one with less number of atoms. Name = (root name
molecule, in terms of the actual number of atoms of element) -ic (or –ous) + acid
present. Examples are the following: Ex: H2SO3 – sulfurous acid
i. C6H12O6 H3PO4 – phosphoric acid
ii. K3PO4
iii. Na2C2O4
Empirical formula – gives the composition of the
molecule, in terms of the smallest ratio of the number
of atoms present. Examples are the following:
i. CH2O
ii. NaCO2

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