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# 5.

0 TUTORIALS

Experiment 1

## 1. Plot of the temperature, T versus distance, r. Calculate the thermal conductivity, k.

40
y = -73.714x + 34.686
35 R² = 0.8378
30
temperature

25
20
distance,r (m)
15
Linear (distance,r (m))
10
5
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15
distance,r(m)

wattmeter,Q(15watts)
45
40 y = -94.857x + 37.076
R² = 0.8245
35
30
temperature

wattmeter,Q(15watts)
25
distance,r(m)
20
15 Linear
10 (wattmeter,Q(15watts)
wattmeter,Q(20watts)
50
45 y = -128.14x + 40.224
40 R² = 0.8383
35
temperature

30
25
Series1
20
15 Linear (Series1)
10
5
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
distance,r(m)

𝑄
𝑘=
𝐴𝑚
Thermal conductivity,k for 15 Watts

## m = Gradient from the graph

10 𝑊
𝑘=−
𝐾
(2.83 × 10−3 𝑚2 ) (−78.862 𝑚)
𝑊 𝑊
𝑘 = 44.81 = 44.81
𝑚. 𝐶 𝑚. 𝐾

Experiment 2

1. Plot the temperature profile in the heater and cooler to determine the temperature gradient
across the insulating disc. Determine the thermal conductivity of paper and cork.

## linear model for paper

40
35 y = -95.857x + 36.01
30 R² = 0.837
temperature

25
20
Series1
15
Linear (Series1)
10
5
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
distance,r(m)
linear model for cork
45
40 y = -121.86x + 39.31
35 R² = 0.8474
temperature

30
25
20 Series1
15
Linear (Series1)
10
5
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
distance,r(m)

## linear model for blank

70

60
y = -247x + 62.52
50 R² = 0.8779
temperature

40

30 Series1

20 Linear (Series1)

10

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
distance,r(m)
𝑄
𝑘=
𝐴𝑚

## m = Gradient from the graph

10 𝑊
𝑘=−
𝐶
(4.91 × 10−4 𝑚2 ) (−503.79 𝑚)

𝑊 𝑊
𝑘 = 40.43 = 40.43
𝑚. 𝐶 𝑚. 𝐾
𝐴 = 𝜋𝑟 2

𝐴 = 𝜋(12.5𝑚𝑚 × 10−3 )2

𝐴 = 4.91−4 𝑚2
Thermal conductivity,k for cork

## m = Gradient from the graph

10 𝑊
𝑘=−
𝐶
(4.91 × 10−4 𝑚2 ) (−242.93 )
𝑚
𝑊 𝑊
𝑘 = 83.84 = 83.84
𝑚. 𝐶 𝑚. 𝐾

2. Comment the influence of insulators upon the conduction of heat transfer between
the heater and the cooler.
Conduction can be described as the transfer of heat from a high-energy molecule to a
lower-energy molecule as the interactions between molecules happen. The heat transfer
has always occurred when the temperature is different. It generally occurs from a high
temperature region to a low temperature region. For example, a spoon is put in a hot
cup of tea. The hot tea is very hot and the spoon is at room temperature that creates two
different temperatures. As the temperature of the hot tea is higher than the temperature
of the spoon, the heat will be transferred from the tea to the spoon that made the spoon
warmer. In summary, the effect of the insulators on the heat transfer conduction
between the heater and the cooler is to decrease the heat transfer rate. Based on the
results of the experiment, it is shown that thermal transfer is distinct insulators such as
paper, cork and blank, as not all materials can heat at the same velocity.

## 3. How this material can inhibit conduction?

The material that can perform electricity or heat depends on how the atoms are linked
to each other and also on the free moving electrons. So, if there are more free moving
electrons, the capacity to conduct electricity or heat is greater. This is because free
electrons enable electricity / heat to be used. For insulators, if the material is less
dense, it is the best insulator because the denser the material, the nearer the atoms are
together. This implies that the transfer of energy from one atom to another is more
efficient. Without these criteria, the materials used in this experiment, such as paper,
cork and blank, which are insulators, can not perform heat.

## 4. Suggest practical uses for insulating material.

Home’s insulation:
Window and door insulation, for instance. These insulations are used to maintain your home alert
and silent, and to safeguard you from outside noise. (Greenmatch.co.uk, 1919)

## Reduced noise levels:

Thermal insulation is used to decrease noise from the outside or any noise that may make you
uneasy. So when the building is insulted, it makes you feel more comfortable
Fire protection:
When the building is fitted with insulation, it can assist to decrease and stop flames from
entering the building when a fire occurs. (North American Insulation Manufacturers
Association, 2019)