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application guide

g u i d e t o l ay i n g
bitumen polymer
m e m b r a n e s
c o r r e c t l y
B i t u m e n p o ly m e r

Introduction  •  The six golden


rules  •  Equipment  •  Transport  •  Loading/Unloading  • Storage  •
On-site handling  • Conservation • Period of use and climatic
conditions for application • Concrete substrate: smoothing •
Concrete substrate: water, ice, curing • Concrete substrate:
Primer • Sheet metal substrate • Timber substrate • Substrate
over old membranes • Substrate on concrete road deck •
Alignment • Unrolling at low temperature • Surfaces of
membranes •  Flame-laying • Avoiding puncturing • Filling the
joints: what not to do • Spot application • New system of gluing
panels • Double- and multiple-layered coverings • Flame-laying
on vertical surfaces • Paint • Upstands with metal profile •
Protected upstand • Upstands with finishing flashing • Internal
corner • External corner in double-layer • Protruding round
element in double-layer • Protruding round element in single-layer
• Horizontal drain in double-layer • Horizontal drain in single-layer
• Roof vent • Warnings
contents

Introduction 5 Surfaces of membranes 15

Flame-laying 16

THE SIX GOLDEN RULES  6
Avoiding puncturing 16
1. Laying out the sheets
2. Lateral and end overlaps Filling the joints: what not to do 16

3. 45° cut at end overlap Spot application 17


4. Application
5. Double layer of membrane New system of bonding panels 18

6. End overlap of mineral-coated membrane


Double- or multi-layered membranes 18

Flame-laying on vertical surfaces 19


Equipment 8

Paint 19
Transport 9

WATERPROOFING DETAILS
Loading/unloading 9

• Upstands with metal profile 20


Storage 9

• Protected upstand 20
On-site handling 10

• Upstands with finishing flashing 20


Conservation 10

• Internal corner 21
Period of use
and climatic conditions for application 11
• External corner in double layer 22

Concrete substrate: smoothing 12


• External corner in double layer 23

Concrete substrate: water,


• Vertical drain in single layer 24
ice, curing 12

• Vertical drain in double layer 24


Concrete substrate: primer 12

• Round protruding element in double layer 25


Sheet metal substrate 13

• Round protruding element in single layer 25


Timber substrate 13

• Horizontal drain in double layer 26


Substrate over old membranes 13

• Horizontal drain in single layer 27


Substrate on concrete road deck 14

• Roof vent 28
Alignment 15

• Warnings 29
Unrolling at low temperature 15

3
4
INTRODUCTION

CORRECT EXECUTION OF DETAILS


IS AN ESSENTIAL CONDITION FOR SUCCESSFUL
WATERPROOFING.
THIS PUBLICATION IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE
INSTRUCTIONS TO ENABLE THIS TO BE DONE.
THESE SUGGESTIONS CAN BE TRANSLATED INTO PRACTICE
ONLY IF THE OPERATOR HAS ALREADY ACQUIRED THE
CORRECT BASIC SKILL NECESSARY FOR ACHIEVING PROPER
APPLICATION OF WATERPROOF SHEETS.
IT IS FOR THIS REASON THAT, BEFORE COMING TO THE
HEART OF THE TOPIC, WE WANTED TO SUMMARISE THE
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CORRECT APPLICATION, IN SIX
POINTS WHICH WE HAVE CALLED "GOLDEN RULES" AS THEY
ARE VALUABLE FOR ACHIEVING THE BEST RESULTS.

5
The SIX GOLDEN RULES for correctly
1. Laying out the sheets 2. Lateral and end overlaps 3. 45° cut  at end overlap

7 5
6
4
2
3 1

Before laying, the rolls must be


At the end overlap, a corner of the
unrolled and aligned to lay out the
membrane measuring 10 cm per
overlaps between the sheets.
side must be cut off at an angle of
The sheets must then be rolled up
45°.
again to proceed with the flame-
welding.
The end-to-end overlaps of the
waterproof sheets must not be
arranged along a single line but
must always alternate.

Lateral:  these are the joints that


run in the direction of the length of
the sheets.  They must be welded
DRAIN with great care until a trickle of
melted mixture about 1 cm wide
can be seen coming out along the
line of the overlap.  The lateral
overlaps must have a width not less
than 10 cm.
End: this refers to the joint along
the shorter side of the sheet.  This,
The sheets must be arranged with too is a point which requires close
overlaps as in tiling a roof, i.e. attention.  The membrane must be
always starting the overlaps at the melted until mastic runs out in the
drains or the downpipes. process of overlapping.  The
overlapped part should be not less
than 15 cm wide.
Sheets reinforced only with
polyester non-woven fabric laid in
semi-adhesion, in proximity to the
end overlap, must be glued to the
substrate in complete adhesion for
a strip at least one metre wide.

6
y laying bitumen polymer membranes
4. Application 5. Double layer of mem- 6. End overlap of mineral-
brane coated membrane

AREA TO BE
TORCHED SECOND LAYER

MINERAL-COATED
SURFACE
SUPPORT

Connecting the membrane to the If laying a second layer is specified, Whereas the lateral overlaps require
substrate must be carried out as follows: it must be laid so as to straddle the adhesion zones free of grit, at the
• in complete adhesion. The torching of overlap of the previous layer and end overlaps the mineral-coated
the mixture of the rolls must heat the must be bonded in complete surface must be heated with a
membrane and the substrate at the same adhesion. certain persistence so that melting
time, concentrating on the roll. The burner flame must also heat consequently takes place over an
• in semi-independence. Laying in semi- the membrane already laid. area corresponding to the width of
independence is performed by using the the overlap, with consequent
special Index specific membranes melting of the bituminous mastic
(PERFOBASE, VAPORDIFFUSER, underneath.
DIFFUSER ALU, TECTENE REROOF Once the membrane compound
BASE STRIP EP, MINERAL TECTENE which will form the overlap has
REROOF STRIP EP), onto which the been melted, this will enable the
subsequent layers are bonded in complete two edges to be welded perfectly.
adhesion;
• in independence. The membrane is
unrolled "dry" onto the substrate, flame-
bonding only the overlaps. In this case, the
waterproof membrane must always be
ballasted (with flooring, gravel, soil etc,).
The bonding operations will be facilitated if
the sheets are wound around a rigid plas-
tic tube (HDPE, ø 12 cm, length 97 cm)
which will prevent ovalisation of the roll
during laying, particularly in summer. At
the same time, the pressure exerted on the
roll will be uniformly discharged over the
entire contact surface with the support,
also facilitating the release of the melted
mixture along the overlap lines, ensuring
that the membrane is perfectly welded;
For the choice of system and for details of
laying, the reader is referred to the
publications "Technical Specifications”.

7
EQUIPMENT

P R O PA N E GAS
CYLINDER
Use only propane gas
cylinders.

BURNER
Various lengths of
burner may be used
depending on the job
to be done RIGID HDPE
CORE
To avoid ovalisation of the
rolls during laying

CONNECTING
HOSES WITH
P R E S S U R E
REGULATOR

COMPASS
for cutting the
membranes into circular
shapes

T SQUARE
For cutting uniform strips
of membrane

“DELFINO” KNIFE
Aluminium knife

8
TRANSPORT

The pallets are covered with a sheet of very thick heat-shrink


polythene, but long journeys on uneven roads and sharp braking can
cause the rolls to tip up. This problem can be avoided by running
ropes through the rows of pallets, crosswise to the width of the bed of
the lorry. The ropes must be properly tight and suitably protected so
that they do not leave marks on the rolls.

ROPES

LOADING/UNLOADING

INDEX membranes and thermal insulation are produced in such a way


as to resist the mechanical stresses to which they can be exposed in

NO! laying. During handling, however, the material must be treated with
care to avoid the rolls being crushed and prevent contact with sharp
or pointed objects. In low temperatures, violent impacts must be
avoided as they can break the membranes and separate the
insulating panels from the Thermobase.

STORAGE

The material should be stored under cover. The rolls whether covered
YES! or uncovered must remain in a vertical position on a smooth, flat
surface, except for those provided with a rigid core or tube, which can
tolerate a horizontal position for a limited time. Under cover, the
panels can be stacked in two layers with lengths of timber between
the layers to spread the weight. Rolls of Thermobase are stored
upright in the same way as the membranes, with the exception of rolls
NO! with a selvedge which should be arranged horizontally.

9
ON-SITE HANDLING

Keep on site only the rolls strictly necessary for laying during the day.
Set the rolls upright on a smooth, flat surface. Use a crane to lift the

NO! rolls onto the roof, keeping the pallet complete and intact and using
suitable lifting gear.
If the packs have to be opened and the rolls lifted loose, use suitable
lifting gear with the crane and in any event set the rolls upright after
lifting. Do not use ropes to tie and lift the rolls.

CONSERVATION

It is advisable to store the pallets in a dry place, sheltered from the


sun. In the summertime, because of the greenhouse effect, pallets
with heat-shrink wrapping exposed to the sun quickly reach a
temperature of around 70°C and this causes progressive blackening
from the top downwards of the talc coating or mineral granules on the
rolls, until the point where the coils on the roll stick together or at any
rate take on an unpleasant aesthetic appearance.
In the case of membranes reinforced with polyester non-woven fabric,
the heat also causes the ends of the rolls to begin to shrink and thus
wrecks the membrane.
It should also be borne in mind that exposure to heat, as is well-
known, causes progressive and predictable loss of flexibility, but if
what happens naturally in use happens instead to material still on the
roll, it is possible that cracking problems or difficulty unrolling the
material may occur.

In winter the rolls should be stored for 24 hours at a temperature


above +5°C before laying. Avoid leaving the rolls in the open
overnight. Only the rolls which will be applied during the day should
be brought onto the site. A good rule is always to "rotate" the stock
and not to keep rolls for more than 12 months.

10
period of use and climatic conditions for
application

Some types of product carry a symbol of a sun or a pine-tree printed


on the strip at the bottom of the packaging, to identify the period of
use for which the membrane was made and in which it is advisable to
use the product. It is advisable to apply membranes with the sun
symbol during the summer months, and those with the pine-tree
during the winter.
RAIN Failure to comply with the recommended application period does not
reduce the efficiency of the finished membrane, but creates
SNOW drawbacks and disadvantages when laying, such as excessive
softness of the winter membrane when applied in the summer, and
DAMP excessive stiffness and difficulty in unrolling the rolls of the summer
product when used in the winter. The products should therefore be
applied in favourable atmospheric conditions.
Rain, frost, snow and high humidity can interfere with the adhesion of
the membrane to the substrate and at the overlaps. With
temperatures below +5°C it is very likely that there will be ice on the
surface to be covered, and the rolls will be more difficult to unroll. As
a result, moisture trapped between the membrane and the substrate
can give rise to the formation of bubbles. In these conditions it is
better not to apply the material. In summer, in hot countries, and
especially when it is being laid over thermal insulation, it is advisable
to apply the material in the coolest part of the day, avoiding the hours
in the middle of the day when the sun is at its hottest.

11
CONCRETE SUBSTRATE: SMOOTHING

The substrate must be smooth and flat, free from cracks. The surface
must be smoothed with a trowel and any cracks or dips must be filled
with mortar.
Any roughness must be removed, as must any remains from building
work, such as nails, metal sheets, timber etc.

CONCRETE SUBSTRATE: WATER, ICE, CURING

Before application the substrate must be clean and dry.


In the case of concrete and hollow-core substrates it is advisable to
allow a curing period of 8 days to 3 weeks, depending on the season,
before laying.

WATER

ICE

CONCRETE SUBSTRATE: PRIMER

After carrying out the operations specified in the previous paragraphs,


PRIMER spread the bituminous adhesion primer INDEVER in the areas where
the membrane is to be anchored (see Technical Specifications). The
primer has the very important function of preparing the receiving
surface and increasing adhesion.
The bitumen polymer membranes must not be applied until the primer
is completely dry: about 8 hours.

12
SHEET METAL SUBSTRATE

If the membrane is to adhere to sheet metal (see Technical


PRIMER Specifications no. 6), spread INDEVER primer and wait for it to dry
before moving on to laying the membrane.

TIMBER SUBSTRATE

On timber boarding, sheets of bitumen paper or ROLLBASE should


MEMBRANE
be nailed down with large-headed nails to protect the timber from the
burner flame.
The membrane should then be fixed with complete adhesion.
NAIL

PAPER FELT
ROLLBASE

SUBSTRATE OVER OLD MEMBRANES

If the condition of the old membrane allows it to be retained, it can be


used as a substrate (see Technical Specifications no. 3). First, however, remove
unstable and perished parts, separate any protective sheet metalwork
and flatten any bubbles etc.
Apply a coat of INDEVER primer before fixing the membrane.
PRIMER

BUBBLE

13
SUBSTRATE ON CONCRETE ROAD DECK

The intended use of the structure necessitates a solution involving


complete adhesion and the use of membranes of 4-5 mm thickness
reinforced with heavyweight polyester non-woven fabric.
Complete adhesion, however, exposes the membrane to the risk of
the formation of bubbles of vapour which could lift the membrane if
laid on decking which is still damp, or laid in adverse climatic
conditions.
When covering road decks, therefore, it is important to create a
smooth substrate, to wait for poured concrete to cure completely, to
take the moisture condition of the substrate into account, to use
INDEVER AUTOSTRADE primer over the entire surface, and to flame-
bond the membrane as uniformly as possible avoiding leaving areas
not adhering properly which are a potential site of bubbles, especially
near the overlap between sheets of membrane.
According to some experts, using membranes self-protected with
white mineral or painting the membrane with lime seems to reduce
the phenomenon.  If, however, bubbles do appear before the road
asphalt is laid, these must be repaired.
(Beware of anti-evaporating materials [curing agents] which may be
present on the concrete surface of the deck, as they can interfere with
the adhesion of the membrane and the primer).

14
ALIGNMENT

Unroll the roll and align it, overlapping the edge on the neighbouring
sheet. Rewind it bit by bit towards the centre and begin flame
welding.
Take great care over the alignment, referring to "Golden Rule" no. 1.

UNROLLING AT LOW
TEMPERATURE

At low temperatures avoid impacts and violent unrolling which could


damage the membranes themselves. Unroll carefully and not by

kicking the roll.

NO!

SURFACES OF MEMBRANES

The part of the sheet which has to melt is the bottom face, which is
embossed with a pattern of squares and coated with a thin film of
FLAMINA.
When the flame is applied, the FLAMINA melts, indicating the exact
melting point. The upper face of the membrane is covered with talc
screen-printed in spots. This treatment serves to ensure that the coils
separate properly, even at high temperatures.

TALC DOTS

EMBOSSING

15
FLAME-LAYING

Bitumen polymer-based waterproofing membranes are thermo-adhesive


and this property is exploited to adhere them to the substrate and the
overlaps without the addition of other materials such as solvents,
adhesives etc. It is sufficient to heat the sheet with a propane gas burner
flame to make the sheet adhesive. As the heating proceeds, the Flamina
film retracts and the talc-coated face darkens until it takes on a bright
appearance and any embossing flattens out, the surface becomes shiny
and the membrane is ready for adhesion to the substrate and on the
overlaps. The trademark INDEX is printed in white on the Flamina film so
that its disappearance indicates its correct retraction during flaming.
Flame heating must bring about retraction of the film and flattening of the
embossing, but heating the membrane any further can damage the
polyester reinforcement (which melts at 260°C) causing it to retract,
undulate, curl or in the most serious cases to puncture. Insufficient
heating, on the other hand, can cause insufficient adhesion to the base,
between the layers or on the overlaps.

AVOIDING PUNCTURING
Use suitable footwear to avoid perforating the waterproofing
membrane.
NO!

FILLING THE JOINTS. WHAT NOT TO DO

Filling the joints with a trowel, spatula or other tool has been shown over
time to be a more harmful than advantageous. First of all, the
reinforcement of the membrane is affected, weakening it; also, the upper
protective layer is removed and the reinforcement is left exposed.
Often the operator tends to carry out a perfunctory weld on 10 cm of
overlap and then rely almost completely for the seal of the membrane on
giving it a "good filling", not taking into account that the adhesive strength
of 1 or 2 cm of filling is insufficient for sealing the joint. In short, it is a
waste of time to do a useless job twice on the overlap.
It is quicker and safer to carry out the welding correctly the first time, while
unrolling the roll, releasing the stream of melted mixture once to make a
permanent job.
16
SPOT APPLICATION

VAPORDIFFUSER is the waterproofing bitumen polymer with its lower


VAPORDIFFUSER face provided with thick "bitumen nails" which allow spot adhesion to
bare surfaces whether concrete or made up of old and damaged
bituminous membranes and avoids giving rise to bubbles which can
affect the seal of the membrane over time.
VAPORDIFFUSER is flame-bonded to the substrate.
(For more information please see the relevant technical sheet).

PERFOBASE is the perforated sheet which, when laid dry on a


substrate previously treated with Indever primer, enables the next
membrane to be flame-bonded by uniformly distributed spots.
MELTING AREA
Alternatively, it is possible to unroll the membrane and melt it in
alternate spots only, distributing the adhesion areas uniformly.
Particular care must be taken when welding the end overlaps.

PERFOBASE

17
NEW SYSTEM OF BONDING PANELS

HEAT-RESISTANT THERMAL INSULATION


THERMAL
PROMINENT is the draining and waterproofing bitumen polymer
INSULATION membrane for use as a vapour barrier, with a textured upper surface
which enables heat-resistant insulating panels to be glued to it without
recourse to melted oxidised bitumen.
PROMINENT should be flame-bonded to the substrate in complete
adhesion.
(For more information please see the relevant technical sheet).

PROMINENT

THERMAL HEAT-SENSITIVE THERMAL INSULATION


INSULATION
TECTENE BV is the bitumen polymer membrane provided with self-
adhesive strips for bonding expanded polystyrene insulating panels.
TECTENE BV should be bonded to the substrate in complete adhesion.
If held in place for a sufficient length of time, the flame-activated
adhesive enables expanded polystyrene panels to be bonded even with
temperatures close to zero.
(For more information please see the relevant technical sheet).
TECTENE BV

DOUBLE- OR MULTI-LAYERED
MEMBRANES

When the waterproofing membrane is made up of two or more layers,


PA RT I C U L A R
CHANNEL it is essential that these should adhere well to each other. There is no
FAULTY JOINT
justification for a less careful laying procedure merely because the
membrane consists of several layers: it runs the same risks as bad
FAULTY JOINT laying with a single layer membrane. If the layers do not adhere well
to each other, water which gets past the last layer will find its way in
through the innumerable "channels" which form between the layers
following careless and hasty laying, until it finds, even some distance
WATERPROOF away, a faulty joint in the layers below and thus causes a leak. The
COVERING
security of a multi-layered membrane is ensured exclusively by the
LEAK
complete adhesion between the layers which make it up.

18
FLAME-LAYING ON VERTICAL SURFACES

INDEX membranes have excellent resistance to sliding under heat


and do not slip even when fixed vertically to concrete surfaces. Using
the flame to heat both the membrane and the surface to which it is to
adhere will result in tenacious adhesion without the need for
mechanical fixings. The material's grip is produced by cooling, when
the mixture in the melted layer returns to the solid state. It can
happen in the summer months that both the membrane and the
entire substrate are so hot that it takes a long time for sufficient
cooling to occur for the material to get a grip on the vertical surface
and become self-supporting. The operator must therefore control the
heating carefully and in the summer months will have to support the
sheet manually a little longer till it has begun to get a grip, in other
words till it has cooled down. If this is not done, a sheet which is still
too hot will not remain attached to the wall and will fall down. It is
therefore important to wait for cooling to take place and not to give
in to the temptation to reheat a sheet which has become detached
because the operator did not wait long enough, otherwise it will
never cool and he will never succeed in making it adhere to the
vertical surface. To summarise: on vertical surfaces the sheet and the
substrate must be heated and the membrane must be supported until
it has cooled down enough to be self-supporting.

PAINT

Spread the protective paint using a roller, taking care to apply two
coats at right angles to each other. For detail work, use a brush. The
presence of uneven areas on the roof, leading to the formation of
puddles, can locally cause the paint to lift. Do not paint areas of the
membrane which are perpetually immersed in water (For more information
see Technical Specifications no. 12).

Painting over a mineral-covered membrane ensures considerably


longer life than on a smooth membrane.

19
WATERPROOFING DETAILS

UPSTANDS

If a recess has not been provided for


SILICONE SEALANT
a membrane in a vertical wall, a
nailed and sealed profile must be
DRIP
fitted as an end finish for the
Upstand with 10 cm membrane bonded to the wall.
Along the perimeter of the roof and
metal profile 7 cm
on the flat the membrane should be
bonded completely to the substrate.

PRIMER

RENDERING If, however, the upstand is prepared


NAILED MESH so as to house the membrane, the
membrane must be bonded into its
housing which will then be covered
Protected with metal mesh to provide a key for
the mortar.
upstand 7 cm
10 cm
(For more information see Technical Specifications
nos. 1 and 2).

SLIDING LAYER

If the waterproofing membrane


PRIMER comes up to the top of perimeter
walls, it must then be covered with
a nailed flashing.
10 cm
Protected 7 cm

upstand

20
INTERNAL CORNER

1 2 3

4 5 6

1st layer

7 8 9

2nd layer

10 11 12

21
EXTERNAL CORNER

1 2

Double layer

3 4 5

6 7 8

9 10

22
EXTERNAL CORNER

1 2

Single layer

3 4 5

6 7 8

23
Vertical drain

1 2

Single layer

3 4

1 2

Double layer

3 4 5

24
PROTRUDING ROUND ELEMENT

1 2

Double layer

3 4 5

1 cm

1 cm

1 2

Single layer

3 4

1 cm

1 cm

25
HORIZONTAL DRAIN

1 2

Double layer

3 4 5

15 cm

15 cm

6 7 8

4 4

26
HORIZONTAL DRAIN

1 2

Single layer

3 4 5

15 cm

15 cm
4

27
ROOF VENT

2 3

4 5

28
WARNINGS

Very often damage which prejudices the integrity of the membrane is


caused by the wrong use of the roof by unspecialised personnel
(aerial fitters, sheet metal workers, glaziers etc.) operating on the roof
after the work by the waterproofing technician is completed.
It is as well to call the Client's attention to this problem and to make
them aware of the advisability of having the waterproofing technician
present as advisor any time that there are plans for alterations to the
original use of the roof, or non-routine maintenance, aerial fitting,
erection of advertising signs, roof metalwork, air conditioning systems
etc.

MAINTENANCE
The lifespan of waterproofing work is a direct function of careful
skilled maintenance.
It is advisable to arrange periodically for inspection of the membrane,
paying particular attention to checking the functionality of the auxiliary
works, flashings, drainage outlets, overflow pipes etc, and taking care
to remove leaves, moss and other vegetation which could overload
the drainage system.

TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS
To provide useful help to designers and fitters, INDEX has produced a
series of publications called "Technical Specifications”.
In these publications we try to resolve as far as possible all problems
in laying the membranes, taking account of all phenomena which
cause problems when working in various fields.

QUALITY CONTROL SLIP


Each roll product is accompanied by a numbered quality control slip.

29
Associate of GBC Italia

Advanced systems and products for waterproofing, thermal and acoustic insulation,
asbestos cement slab reclamation, restoration
of masonry and concrete, laying paving and coatings

INDEX S.p.A.
Via G. Rossini, 22 - 37060 Castel D’Azzano (Verona) - Italy
tel. 045.8546201 - fax 045.518390 - email: index@indexspa.it
Technical Sales Information email tecom@indexspa.it
1/2013ing

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