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The Internet of Things (IoT) is the internetworking of physical devices, vehicles and other
objects which consists of an embedded system with sensors, actuators and network connectivity
that enable to collect and exchange data. The IoT allows objects to be sensed and/or controlled
remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more integration of the
physical world into computer-based systems, and result in improved accuracy, efficiency and
economic benefit.
The IoT is a rapidly increasing and promising technology which becomes more
and more present in our everyday lives. Furthermore, the technology is an instance of the more
general class of cyber-physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart
grids, smart homes and smart cities.
Considering the high-rate development of IoT technologies, and the significant
increment in the number of the connected devices, comprehensive overview of the IoT system
aims, architecture, challenges, applications, protocols, and market overview were discussed. In
order to give an example of IoT solution, a simple IoT demonstrator was implemented using the
current affordable hardware, and cloud efficient software. With this demonstrator, the simplicity
and design flexibility of IoT solution were highlighted and two of the IBM IoT software, Node-
RED and Bluemix, were examined.


The ‘Thing’ in IoT can be any device with any kind of built-in-sensors with the ability to collect
and transfer data over a network without manual intervention. The embedded technology in the
object helps them to interact with internal states and the external environment, which in turn
helps in decisions making process.
In a nutshell, IoT is a concept that connects all the devices to the internet and let them communicate
with each other over the internet. IoT is a giant network of connected devices – all of which gather
and share data about how they are used and the environments in which they are operated.

By doing so, each of your devices will be learning from the experience of other devices, as humans
do. IoT is trying to expand the interdependence in human- i.e interact, contribute and
collaborate to things. I know this sounds a bit complicated, let’s understand this with an example.

A developer submits the application with a document containing the standards, logic, errors &
exceptions handled by him to the tester. Again, if there are any issues Tester communicates it back
to the Developer. It takes multiple iterations & in this manner a smart application is created.

Similarly, a room temperature sensor gathers the data and send it across the network, which is then
used by multiple device sensors to adjust their temperatures accordingly. For example,
refrigerator’s sensor can gather the data regarding the outside temperature and accordingly adjust
the refrigerator’s temperature. Similarly, your air conditioners can also adjust its temperature
accordingly. This is how devices can interact, contribute & collaborate.


The term Internet of Things is 16 years old. But the actual idea of connected devices had been
around longer, at least since the 70s. Back then, the idea was often called “embedded internet” or
“pervasive computing”. But the actual term “Internet of Things” was coined by Kevin Ashton in
1999 during his work at Procter&Gamble. Ashton who was working in supply chain
optimization, wanted to attract senior management’s attention to a new exciting technology
called RFID. Because the internet was the hottest new trend in 1999 and because it somehow
made sense, he called his presentation “Internet of Things”.
Even though Kevin grabbed the interest of some P&G executives, the term Internet of Things did
not get widespread attention for the next 10 years.
The concept of IoT started to gain some popularity in the summer of 2010. Information leaked
that Google’s StreetView service had not only made 360 degree pictures but had also stored tons
of data of people’s Wifi networks. People were debating whether this was the start of a new
Google strategy to not only index the internet but also index the physical world.

The same year, the Chinese government announced it would make the Internet of Things a
strategic priority in their Five-Year-Plan.

In 2011, Gartner, the market research company that invented the famous “hype-cycle for
emerging technologies” included a new emerging phenomenon on their list: “The Internet of

The next year the theme of Europe’s biggest Internet conference LeWeb was the “Internet of
Things”. At the same time popular tech-focused magazines like Forbes, Fast Company, and
Wired starting using IoT as their vocabulary to describe the phenomenon.

In October of 2013, IDC published a report stating that the Internet of Things would be a $8.9 trillion
market in 2020.



The internet of things is now growing exponentially and is reaching different verticals and
industries. India is one of the countries where a lot of innovation is happening around IoT across
different verticals and technologies. The IoT in India is mainly driven by 3 players:
Government, Industry and Startups.

There is a lot of scope for IoT in India and Government has rightly recognised it and working
towards it. The government has taken initiative and framed a draft policy to fulfill a vision of
developing a connected, secure and a smart system based on our country’s needs. Government’s
objective is to create an IoT industry in India of USD 15 billion by 2020.

One of the key initiatives of the Government is to build smart cities across the country. Major
aspects of a smart city being focused by the Government are:

 Smart parking
 Intelligent transport system
 Tele-care
 Woman Safety
 Smart grids
 Smart urban lighting
 Waste management
 Smart city maintenance
 Digital-signage
 Water Management


 Long Term software robustness and Security
 Trust and Transparency and Protection of IoT users privacy
 Faster Innovation
 less garbage with less IoT device lock-down

We might not be ready

The unfortunate reality is that most of the households and many businesses in the US are not
ready for the proliferation of the IoT. A recent study had less than 4 in 10 business owners
confident that their organizations were ready to adopt a wholly connected infrastructure. The
same study suggests that an even smaller percentage of organizations have reached a point
where IoT initiatives are actively transforming business processes, services, and products.
The vast majority of them are in preparatory or pilot stages where consideration and planning
are prioritized as opposed to implementation.

Security is a challenge
At least half of the organizations surveyed cited the increased exposure of data and
information as a major concern. It’s an obvious concern. The interconnectedness of
everything means that a weak link in one asset becomes a weak link in the entire
infrastructure. It’s likely that with the release of every new vulnerable device, hackers will
continue to exploit IoT systems. Expect increased denial-of-service and ransomware attacks
as cyber criminals step up their game. While large steps are being made in the security sector,
the proliferation of the IoT may hinge on the development of sound security and encryption

Despite the challenges, the Internet of Things is gaining

In October 2016, the research firm Venture Scanner, was tracking 1,428 IoT startup
companies across 46 countries at the combined value of $25 billion. Just three months later,
those numbers had swelled significantly accounting for another $3 billion in value. Marketers
and businesses alike are beginning to see the benefits of IoT, generate new IoT solutions, and
create completely new channels. One study had the number of connected devices at 24
billion by 2020 with a combined value of $6 trillion that same year. Those are mind-boggling
numbers and show the strong rise of the Internet of Things despite the challenges.


Lagging implementation doesn’t mean the tech isn’t being

The majority of organizations expect IoT initiatives to have a major impact on their business
in the next five years. These impacts include the driving of digital transformation with the
business, such as creating a more streamlined customer experience or sparking innovation
through better data management and analysis.

Interoperability is becoming a reality

Analyst firm, Forrester, recently identified 11 leading vendors in IoT platforms and singled
out four main leaders in the category based on current offerings and roll-out strategies. That
is to say that IoT platforms are getting better as they are prioritized. IBM's Watson,
Thingworx, GE’s Predix, and Microsoft’s Azure IoT Suite were all praised for their
advanced functionality and robust ability to partner with a variety of ecosystems. The sooner
interoperability becomes a complete reality, the sooner the IoT will explode.

But the tech giants aren’t the only ones pushing the Internet of Things forward. Our recent
article highlights other interesting companies that you should know about in the IoT
ecosystem and how they’re leveraging the technology.



Consumer applications
A growing portion of IoT devices are created for consumer use, including connected
vehicles, home automation, wearable technology (as part of Internet of Wearable Things
(IoWT)), connected health, and appliances with remote monitoring capabilities.

Smart home
IoT devices are a part of the larger concept of home automation, which can include lighting,
heating and air conditioning, media and security systems.Long-term benefits could include
energy savings by automatically ensuring lights and electronics are turned off.

A smart home or automated home could be based on a platform or hubs that control smart
devices and appliancesFor instance, using Apple's HomeKit, manufacturers can have their
home products and accessories controlled by an application in iOS devices such as the
iPhone and the Apple Watch.This could be a dedicated app or iOS native applications such as
Siri. This can be demonstrated in the case of Lenovo's Smart Home Essentials, which is a
line of smart home devices that are controlled through Apple's Home app or Siri without the
need for a Wi-Fi bridge. There are also dedicated smart home hubs that are offered as
standalone platforms to connect different smart home products and these include the Amazon
Echo, Google Home, Apple's HomePod, and Samsung's SmartThings Hub. In addition to the
commercial systems, there are many non-proprietary, open source ecosystems; including
Home Assistant, OpenHAB and Domoticz.

Elder care
One key application of a smart home is to provide assistance for those with disabilities and
elderly individuals. These home systems use assistive technology to accommodate an
owner's specific disabilities. Voice control can assist users with sight and mobility limitations
while alert systems can be connected directly to cochlear implants worn by hearing-impaired
users. They can also be equipped with additional safety features. These features can include
sensors that monitor for medical emergencies such as falls or seizures. Smart home
technology applied in this way can provide users with more freedom and a higher quality of

The term "Enterprise IoT" refers to devices used in business and corporate settings. By 2019,
it is estimated that the EIoT will account for 9.1 billion devices.


Commercial application

Medical and healthcare

The Internet of Medical Things (also called the internet of health things) is an application of
the IoT for medical and health related purposes, data collection and analysis for research, and
monitoring. This 'Smart Healthcare', as it is also called, led to the creation of a digitized
healthcare system, connecting available medical resources and healthcare services.
IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems.
These health monitoring devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to
advanced devices capable of monitoring specialized implants, such as pacemakers, Fitbit
electronic wristbands, or advanced hearing aids.Some hospitals have begun implementing "smart
beds" that can detect when they are occupied and when a patient is attempting to get up. It can
also adjust itself to ensure appropriate pressure and support is applied to the patient without the
manual interaction of nurses.A 2015 Goldman Sachs report indicated that healthcare IoT devices
"can save the United States more than $300 billion in annual healthcare expenditures by
increasing revenue and decreasing cost." Moreover, the use of mobile devices to support medical
follow-up led to the creation of 'm-health', used "to analyze, capture, transmit and store health
statistics from multiple resources, including sensors and other biomedical acquisition systems".
Specialized sensors can also be equipped within living spaces to monitor the health and general
well-being of senior citizens, while also ensuring that proper treatment is being administered and
assisting people regain lost mobility via therapy as well.These sensors create a network of
intelligent sensors that are able to collect, process, transfer, and analyse valuable information in
different environments, such as connecting in-home monitoring devices to hospital-based
systems. Other consumer devices to encourage healthy living, such as connected scales
or wearable heart monitors, are also a possibility with the IoT.End-to-end health monitoring IoT
platforms are also available for antenatal and chronic patients, helping one manage health vitals
and recurring medication requirements.
Advances in plastic and fabric electronics fabrication methods have enabled ultra-low cost, use-
and-throw IoMT sensors. These sensors, along with the required RFID electronics, can be
fabricated on paper or e-textiles for wirelessly powered disposable sensing devices. Applications
have been established for point-of-care medical diagnostics, where portability and low system-
complexity is essential.
As of 2018 IoMT was not only being applied in the clinical laboratory industry, but also in the
healthcare and health insurance industries. IoMT in the healthcare industry is now permitting
doctors, patients, and others involved (i.e. guardians of patients, nurses, families, etc.) to be part
of a system, where patient records are saved in a database, allowing doctors and the rest of the
medical staff to have access to the patient's information. Moreover, IoT-based systems are
patient-centered, which involves being flexible to the patient's medical conditions.IoMT in the
insurance industry provides access to better and new types of dynamic information. This includes
sensor-based solutions such as biosensors, wearables, connected health devices, and mobile apps
to track customer behaviour. This can lead to more accurate underwriting and new pricing


The application of the IOT in healthcare plays a fundamental role in managing chronic diseases
and in disease prevention and control. Remote monitoring is made possible through the
connection of powerful wireless solutions. The connectivity enables health practitioners to
capture patient's data and applying complex algorithms in health data analysis.


Digital variable speed-limit sign.

The IoT can assist in the integration of communications, control, and information processing
across various transportation systems. Application of the IoT extends to all aspects of
transportation systems (i.e. the vehicle, the infrastructure, and the driver or user). Dynamic
interaction between these components of a transport system enables inter- and intra-vehicular
communication,smart traffic control, smart parking, electronic toll collection systems, logistics
and fleet management, vehicle control, safety, and road assistance. In Logistics and Fleet
Management, for example, an IoT platform can continuously monitor the location and conditions
of cargo and assets via wireless sensors and send specific alerts when management exceptions
occur (delays, damages, thefts, etc.). This can only be possible with the IoT and its seamless
connectivity among devices. Sensors such as GPS, Humidity, and Temperature send data to the
IoT platform and then the data is analyzed and then sent to the users. This way, users can track
the real-time status of vehicles and can make appropriate decisions. If combined with Machine
Learning, then it also helps in reducing traffic accidents by introducing drowsiness alerts to
drivers and providing self-driven cars too.

There are numerous IoT applications in farming such as collecting data on temperature, rainfall,
humidity, wind speed, pest infestation, and soil content. This data can be used to automate
farming techniques, take informed decisions to improve quality and quantity, minimize risk and
waste, and reduce effort required to manage crops. For example, farmers can now monitor soil
temperature and moisture from afar, and even apply IoT-acquired data to precision fertilization
In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools
using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management.
Developed in part by researchers from Kindai University, the water pump mechanisms
use artificial intelligence to count the number of fish on a conveyor belt, analyze the number of
fish, and deduce the effectiveness of water flow from the data the fish provide. The
specific computer programs used in the process fall under the Azure Machine Learning and the
Azure IoT Hub platforms.


Infrastructure applications
Monitoring and controlling operations of sustainable urban and rural infrastructures like bridges,
railway tracks and on- and offshore wind-farms is a key application of the IoT. The IoT
infrastructure can be used for monitoring any events or changes in structural conditions that can
compromise safety and increase risk. The IoT can benefit the construction industry by cost
saving, time reduction, better quality workday, paperless workflow and increase in productivity.
It can help in taking faster decisions and save money with Real-Time Data Analytics. It can also
be used for scheduling repair and maintenance activities in an efficient manner, by coordinating
tasks between different service providers and users of these facilities. IoT devices can also be
used to control critical infrastructure like bridges to provide access to ships. Usage of IoT
devices for monitoring and operating infrastructure is likely to improve incident management
and emergency response coordination, and quality of service, up-times and reduce costs of
operation in all infrastructure related areas.Even areas such as waste management can benefit
from automation and optimization that could be brought in by the IoT
Metropolitan scale deployments
There are several planned or ongoing large-scale deployments of the IoT, to enable better
management of cities and systems. For example, Songdo, South Korea, the first of its kind fully
equipped and wired smart city, is gradually being built, with approximately 70 percent of the
business district completed as of June 2018. Much of the city is planned to be wired and
automated, with little or no human intervention.
Another application is a currently undergoing project in Santander, Spain. For this deployment,
two approaches have been adopted. This city of 180,000 inhabitants has already seen 18,000
downloads of its city smartphone app. The app is connected to 10,000 sensors that enable
services like parking search, environmental monitoring, digital city agenda, and more. City
context information is used in this deployment so as to benefit merchants through a spark deals
mechanism based on city behavior that aims at maximizing the impact of each notification.
Other examples of large-scale deployments underway include the Sino-Singapore Guangzhou
Knowledge City; work on improving air and water quality, reducing noise pollution, and
increasing transportation efficiency in San Jose, California; and smart traffic management in
western Singapore. Using its RPMA (Random Phase Multiple Access) technology, San Diego-
based Ingenu has built a nationwide public network for low-bandwidth data transmissions using
the same unlicensed 2.4 gigahertz spectrum as Wi-Fi. Ingenu's “Machine Network” covers more
than a third of the US population across 35 major cities including San Diego and Dallas. French
company, Sigfox, commenced building an Ultra Narrowband wireless data network in the San
Francisco Bay Area in 2014, the first business to achieve such a deployment in the U.S. It
subsequently announced it would set up a total of 4000 base stations to cover a total of 30 cities
in the U.S. by the end of 2016, making it the largest IoT network coverage provider in the
country thus far.Cisco also participates in smart cities projects. Cisco has started deploying
technologies for Smart Wi-Fi, Smart Safety & Security, Smart Lighting, Smart Parking, Smart
Transports, Smart Bus Stops, Smart Kiosks, Remote Expert for Government Services (REGS)
and Smart Education in the five km area in the city of Vijaywada.
Another example of a large deployment is the one completed by New York Waterways in New
York City to connect all the city's vessels and be able to monitor them live 24/7. The network


was designed and engineered by Fluidmesh Networks, a Chicago-based company developing

wireless networks for critical applications. The NYWW network is currently providing coverage
on the Hudson River, East River, and Upper New York Bay. With the wireless network in place,
NY Waterway is able to take control of its fleet and passengers in a way that was not previously
possible. New applications can include security, energy and fleet management, digital signage,
public Wi-Fi, paperless ticketing and others.
Energy management
Significant numbers of energy-consuming devices (e.g. switches, power outlets, bulbs,
televisions, etc.) already integrate Internet connectivity, which can allow them to communicate
with utilities to balance power generation and energy usage and optimize energy consumption as
a whole.These devices allow for remote control by users, or central management via a cloud-
based interface, and enable functions like scheduling (e.g., remotely powering on or off heating
systems, controlling ovens, changing lighting conditions etc.). The smart grid is a utility-side IoT
application; systems gather and act on energy and power-related information to improve the
efficiency of the production and distribution of electricity. Using advanced metering
infrastructure (AMI) Internet-connected devices, electric utilities not only collect data from end-
users, but also manage distribution automation devices like transformers.



1. By 2025, it is estimated that there will be more than to 21 billion

IoT devices
A quick look back shows where IoT devices are going. Consider: In 2016, there were more than
4.7 billion things connected to the internet, according to IOT Analytics. Fast-forward to 2021?
The market will increase to nearly 11.6 billion IoT devices.

2. Cybercriminals will continue to use IoT devices to facilitate DDoS

In 2016, the world was introduced to the first “Internet of Things” malware — a strain of
malicious software that can infect connected devices such as DVRs, security cameras, and more.
The Mirai malware accessed the devices using default password and usernames.
What happened next? The malware turned the affected devices into a botnet to facilitate a
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, which aims to overwhelm websites with internet
traffic. The attack ended up flooding one of the largest website hosting companies in the world,
bringing a variety of major, well-known websites and services to a halt for hours.
This particular strain of malware is called “open source,” which means the code is available for
anyone to modify.

3. More cities will become “smart”

Consumers won’t be the only ones using IoT devices. Cities and companies will increasingly
adopt smart technologies to save time and money.
That means cities will be able to automate, remotely manage, and collect data through things like
visitor kiosks, video camera surveillance systems, bike rental stations, and taxis.

4. Artificial intelligence will continue to become a bigger thing

Smart home hubs, thermostats, lighting systems, and even coffee makers collect data on your
habits and patterns of usage. When you set up voice-controlled devices, you allow them to record
what you say to them and store those recordings in the cloud. In most cases, the data is collected
to help facilitate what is called machine learning.
Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence that helps computers “learn” without
someone having to program them. The computers are programmed in a way that focuses on data
that they receive. This new data can then help the machine “learn” what your preferences are and
adjust itself accordingly. For instance, when a video website suggests a movie you might like,
it’s likely learned your preferences based on your past choices.


5. Routers will continue to become more secure and smarter

Because most consumer IoT devices reside in the home and can’t have security software
installed on them, they can be vulnerable to attacks. Why? A lot of manufacturers work to get
their IoT products to market quickly, so security may be an afterthought. This is where the home
router plays a very important role. The router is essentially the entry point of the internet into
your home.
While many of your connected devices cannot be protected, the router has the ability to provide
protection at the entry point. A conventional router provides some security, such as password
protection, firewalls, and the ability to configure them to only allow certain devices on your
Router makers will likely continue to seek new ways to boost security.

6. 5G Networks will continue to fuel IoT growth

Major wireless carriers will continue to roll out 5G networks in 2019. 5G — fifth-generation
cellular wireless — promises greater speed and the ability connect more smart devices at the
same time.
Faster networks mean the data accumulated by your smart devices will be gathered, analyzed and
managed to a higher degree. That will fuel innovation at companies that make IoT devices and
boost consumer demand for new products.

7. Cars will get even smarter

The arrival of 5G will shift the auto industry into a higher gear. The development of driverless
cars — as well as the connected vehicles already on the road — will benefit from data moving
You might not think of your car as an Internet of Things device. But new cars will increasingly
analyze your data and connect with other IoT devices — including other high-tech vehicles on
four wheels.

8. 5G’s arrival will also open the door to new privacy and security
In time, more 5G IoT devices will connect directly to the 5G network than via a Wi-Fi router.
This trend will make those devices more vulnerable to direct attack, according to a recent
Symantec blog post.
For home users, it will become more difficult to monitor all IoT devices, because they will
bypass a central router.


On a broader scale, the increased reliance on cloud-based storage will give attackers new targets
to attempt to breach.

9. IoT-based DDoS attacks will take on more dangerous forms

Botnet-powered distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks have used infected IoT devices to
bring down websites. IoT devices can be used to direct other attacks, according to a Symantec
blog post.
For instance, there may be future attempts to weaponize IoT devices. A possible example would
be a nation shutting down home thermostats in an enemy state during a harsh winter.

10. Security and privacy concerns will drive legislation and

regulatory activity
The increase in IoT devices is just one reason security and privacy concerns are rising.
In mid-2018, the European Union implemented the General Data Protection Regulation. GDPR
has led to similar security and privacy initiatives in several nations around the world. In the
United States, California recently passed a tougher privacy law.


One certainty is that Internet of Things change our lifestyles, It is for common good, The need is
the input and support of technologists and ordinary people to make it good for individuals and
the society. The info triangle can be acheived by working together. For issues of public safety
and public good, there must be public discussion and public solution.
Projections for the impact of IoT on the Internet and economy are impressive, with some anticipating as
many as 100 billion connected IoT devices and a global economic impact of more than $11 trillion by
2025. The potential economic impact of IoT is huge, but the journey to IoT adoption is not a seamless
one. There are many challenges that face companies looking to implement IoT solutions. However, the
risks and disadvantages associated with IoT can be overcome.


Rouse, Margaret (2019). "internet of things (IoT)". IOT Agenda. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
Wigmore, I. (June 2014). "Internet of Things (IoT)". TechTarget.