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Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V
DIVISION OF ALBAY
DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Daraga, Albay

PROJECT K-12: THE EFFECTS OF SHORTAGE OF LEARNING MODULES IN

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS OF DARAGA

NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL S.Y. 2018-2019

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement in Research II

By:

MORILLA, JOHN MARK


ABION, THERESE ANGELU
BANO, VINA JOY
CONDA, ERRIEL GWEN INES
FERNANDEZ, CHARLOTTE
JACOB, SUSSEN JAYNE
JASOLIN, AIZEL
MILLENA, JOY

FEBRUARY, 2019
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V
DIVISION OF ALBAY
DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Daraga, Albay

PROJECT K-12: THE EFFECTS OF SHORTAGE OF LEARNING MODULES IN

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS OF DARAGA

NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL S.Y. 2018-2019

A Research Study Presented to the Faculty of

Daraga National High School Senior High School

Daraga, Albay

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Subject

Research II

By:

MORILLA, JOHN MARK


ABION, THERESE ANGELU
BANO, VINA JOY
CONDA, ERRIEL GWEN INES
FERNANDEZ, CHARLOTTE
JACOB, SUSSEN JAYNE
JASOLIN, AIZEL
MILLENA, JOY

FEBRUARY, 2019
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V
DIVISION OF ALBAY
DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Daraga, Albay

RECOMMENDATION FOR ORAL DEFENSE

This Research study entitled, PROJECT K-12: THE EFFECTS OF


SHORTAGE OF LEARNING MODULES IN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF
SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS OF DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL S.Y. 2018
– 2019, prepared and submitted by JOHN MARK N. MORILLA, THERESE
ANGELU L. ABION, VINA JOY M. BANO, ERRIEL GWEN INES M. CONDA,
CHARLOTTE R. FERNANDEZ, SUSSEN JAYNE M. JACOB, AIZEL F.
JASOLIN, and JOY M. MILLENA, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
subject PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2, has been examined and is hereby
recommended for oral defense.

MARILOU G. CO, MST


Research Adviser

Ii
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V
DIVISION OF ALBAY
DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Daraga, Albay

RESEARCH COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION

This Research study entitled, PROJECT K-12: THE EFFECTS OF


SHORTAGE OF LEARNING MODULES IN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF
SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS OF DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL S.Y. 2018
– 2019, prepared and submitted by JOHN MARK N. MORILLA, THERESE
ANGELU L. ABION, VINA JOY M. BANO, ERRIEL GWEN INES M. CONDA,
CHARLOTTE R. FERNANDEZ, SUSSEN JAYNE M. JACOB, AIZEL F.
JASOLIN, and JOY M. MILLENA, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
subject PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2, has been examined and is hereby
recommended for oral defense.

MRS. ROSAMARIA D. ESCOTE, MAEd


Chairman

MRS. MELANIE M. PORCALLA, MAEd


Member

MARILOU G. CO, MST


Research Adviser

Iii
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V
DIVISION OF ALBAY
DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Daraga, Albay

ADVISER’S RECOMMENDATION

This Research study entitled, PROJECT K-12: THE EFFECTS OF


SHORTAGE OF LEARNING MODULES IN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF
SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS OF DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL S.Y. 2018
– 2019, prepared and submitted by JOHN MARK N. MORILLA, THERESE
ANGELU L. ABION, VINA JOY M. BANO, ERRIEL GWEN INES M. CONDA,
CHARLOTTE R. FERNANDEZ, SUSSEN JAYNE M. JACOB, AIZEL F.
JASOLIN, and JOY M. MILLENA, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
subject PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2, has been reviewed by the undersigned and
is recommended for oral defense.
It is further certified that the undersigned has supervised the pre-editing of
this manuscript.

MARILOU G. CO, MST


Research Adviser

iv
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V
DIVISION OF ALBAY
DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Daraga, Albay

ORAL EXAMINATION

This Research study entitled, PROJECT K-12: THE EFFECTS OF


SHORTAGE OF LEARNING MODULES IN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF
SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS OF DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL S.Y. 2018
– 2019, prepared and submitted by JOHN MARK N. MORILLA, THERESE
ANGELU L. ABION, VINA JOY M. BANO, ERRIEL GWEN INES M. CONDA,
CHARLOTTE R. FERNANDEZ, SUSSEN JAYNE M. JACOB, AIZEL F.
JASOLIN, and JOY M. MILLENA, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
subject PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2, has been successfully defended in an oral
examination held at Daraga National High School on February 18, 2019.

RESULTS OF THE ORAL EXAMINATION

ACTION TAKEN

MRS. ROSAMARIA D. ESCOTE, MAEd


Chairman

MRS. MELANIE M. PORCALLA, MAEd


Member

MRS. MARILOU G. CO, MST


Research Adviser

v
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V
DIVISION OF ALBAY
DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Daraga, Albay

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this Research study entitled, PROJECT K-12: THE
EFFECTS OF SHORTAGE OF LEARNING MODULES IN ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS OF DARAGA NATIONAL
HIGH SCHOOL S.Y. 2018 – 2019, prepared and submitted by JOHN MARK N.
MORILLA, THERESE ANGELU L. ABION, VINA JOY M. BANO, ERRIEL GWEN
INES M. CONDA, CHARLOTTE R. FERNANDEZ, SUSSEN JAYNE M. JACOB,
AIZEL F. JASOLIN, and JOY M. MILLENA, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the subject PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2, has been edit by the
undersigned issued this _____ day of _______________.

ISABELITA MIRABUENO-PALMONES
Retired Teacher Daraga North District
Editor

vi
Republic of the Philippines
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V
DIVISION OF ALBAY
DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Daraga, Albay

APPROVAL SHEET

This Research study entitled, PROJECT K-12: THE EFFECTS OF


SHORTAGE OF LEARNING MODULES IN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF
SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS OF DARAGA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL S.Y. 2018
– 2019, prepared and submitted by JOHN MARK N. MORILLA, THERESE
ANGELU L. ABION, VINA JOY M. BANO, ERRIEL GWEN INES M. CONDA,
CHARLOTTE R. FERNANDEZ, SUSSEN JAYNE M. JACOB, AIZEL F.
JASOLIN, and JOY M. MILLENA, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
subject PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2, has been successfully defended in oral
examination on February 18, 2019 is hereby accepted and approved in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the subject PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2.

GUNDELINA B. OBIAS, Ed. D


Principal III

Vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The success of this study required the help of various individuals. Without

them, the researchers might not meet their objectives in doing this study. The

researchers want to give gratitude to the following people for their invaluable help

and support:

To the research adviser, Mrs. Marilou G. Co, for the continuous support to

the researchers' undergraduate thesis, who is always there in every steps in

writing.

To the Principal Head Dr. Gundelina B. Obias and to her Assistant

Principal, Mrs. Merle A. Lupo for giving support and letting the researchers

conduct the research thesis. Without their assistance this paper would have never

been accomplished.

To the parents for their wise counsel and sympathetic ear. The researchers

were not only able to support each other by deliberating over the problems and

findings, but also happily by talking about things other than the papers.

To Jesus Christ, the Lord and Savior, for giving the wisdom, strength,

support and knowledge in exploring things; for the guidance is helping surpass all

the trials that the researchers encountered and for giving determination to pursue

their studies and to make this study possible.

The Researchers

viii
ABSTRACT

The shortage of learning modules contributed to the factors which

developed an impact to the student’s academic performance. This study

determined the effects of shortage of learning module in the academic

performance of the Senior High School (SHS) students. It also analyzed the

situations faced by students regarding the issue of shortage of modules.

The 100 randomly selected students from the SHS students were the

chosen respondents. The questionnaires (primary method) was used as a

gathering tool for the study.

The researchers used ranking, weighted mean, and percentage as a

statistic tool.

Based from the data and result, the researchers identified the following

findings: 1) The Grade 11 students most frequent answer in the area of importance

of modules that it serves as a guide during class discussion (27.65%) with the

same rank to the Grade 12 (26.42%). 2) With the effects on to the academic

performance of Grade 11 students ranking at one (1) that they don’t understand

the lesson(s) clearly (24.38%) to the same situation of Grade 12 (22.9%). 3)

Regards to the alternatives ways on how the students cope up, the result of

downloading the specific module via internet ranked at the 1 (21.05%), (22.97%)

at the same time to the both Grade 11 and Grade 12 respondents but in the Grade

ix
12 respondents, the photocopying way (22.97%) tied up with the downloading

specific module.

There is a significant effect in the academic performance of Senior High

School students in terms of the shortage of learning modules. Even though most

of the students answered that they are not affected by the shortage of learning

modules still there are students who answered that they are affected of the

shortage of learning modules. Therefore, there is a significant effect in the

academic performance of the Senior High School students.

With the findings, the researchers recommended that: 1) The students

should give more importance on how the modules help them in class discussions

given by their teachers, their grades and to the DepEd as well. 2) The teachers

should know the effect of the shortage of learning modules to better understand

their lessons clearly by the students. 3) The alternative ways should be not a

permanent solution because the problem will never be solved and the modules

should be provided by the Department of Education and the school.

Keywords: K-12, learning modules, academic performance, Department of

Education, Senior High School students

x
TABLE OF CONTENT

Page
TITLE PAGE i
RECOMMENDATION FOR ORAL DEFENSE ii
RESEARCH COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION iii
ADVISER’S RECOMMENDATION iv
ORAL EXAMINATION v
CERTIFICATION vi
APPROVAL SHEET vii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT viii
ABSTRACT ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS x

INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 2
Statement of the problem 3
Scopes and delimitation of the study 3
Hypothesis 4
Significance of the study 5
Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art 13
Gap bridged of the study 14
Theoretical Framework 15
Theoretical Paradigm 17
Conceptual Framework 18
Conceptual Paradigm 19
Definition of terms 20
Notes 22
xi
METHODOLOGY

Research Method 24
Research Instrument 25

Sources Of Data 25
Statistical Treatment 27

Notes 30

PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSIONS OF DATA


Table 1. Grade 11 31

Table 1.2 Grade 12 32


I. Importance of Learning Modules to the 33
Senior High School (SHS) students
II. Effects of Shortage of Learning Modules in 38
the Senior High School (SHS) students
III. Alternative Ways to Meet the Shortage of 42
Learning Modules by Senior High School
(SHS) students
Grade 11 Weighted Descriptive Statistics 47

Grade 12 Weighted Descriptive Statistics 48


Difference between the Grade 11 & 12 Weighted 49
Descriptive Statistics

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND


RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary 52
Findings 53

Conclusions 54
Recommendations 55

xii
BIBLIOGRAPHY 57

APPENDICES 60
Letter of Approval 61
Academic Performance of Respondents 62
Survey Questionnaire 65
Letter of Respondents 66
Documentations 67
CURRICULUM VITAE

xiii
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURES PAGE
1 Theoretical Paradigm 17
2 Conceptual Paradigm 19

xiv
TABLES

TABLES PAGE
1 Grade 11 31
1.2 Grade 12 32
2.1 Importance of Learning Modules 33
Perceived by Grade 11 students
2.2 Importance of Learning Modules 34
Perceived by Grade 12 students
2.3 Importance of Learning Modules 36
Perceived by Senior High School
(SHS) students
3.1 Effects of Shortage of Learning 38
Modules by Grade 11 students
3.2 Effects of Shortage of Learning 39
Modules by Grade 12 students
3.3 Effects of Shortage of Learning 40
Modules Perceived by Senior High
School (SHS) students
4.1 Alternative Ways Perceived by Grade 42
11 students to Meet the Shortage of
Learning Modules
4.2 Alternative Ways Perceived by Grade 43
12 students to Meet the Shortage of
Learning Modules
4.3 Alternative Ways Perceived by Senior 44
High School (SHS) students to Meet
the Shortage of Learning Modules
5.1 Grade 11 Weighted Descriptive 46
Statistics
5.2 Grade 12 Weighted Descriptive 47
Statistics
5.3 Difference between the Grade 11 48
Weighted Descriptive Statistics

xv
GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION

GRAPH PAGE
Importance of Learning Modules
2.3 Perceived by Senior High School 37
(SHS) students
Effects of Shortage of Learning
3.3 Modules Perceived by Senior High 41
School (SHS) students
Alternative Ways Perceived by Senior
4.3 High School (SHS) students to Meet 45
the Shortage of Learning Modules

xvi
INTRODUCTION

“A room without books is like a body without soul”, according to Marcus

Tulius Cicero (1765).1 In today’s education, lack of learning modules has hit public

schools at both the primary and secondary levels. Correspondingly, the shortage

of learning modules is affecting the performance of the students and has brought

immense challenges upon the students and teachers. In consequences, other

students must share a single book in order to not be left behind. In the school setting

the distribution of the book proposed by the Department of Education (DepEd) is

1:1; owing to the undersupply of the books the ratio changed to 3:1. Furthermore,

it is between 3 students versus 1 book indeed, it would be a pick-and-shovel

situation for those 3 learners who shared only one book. As a result, the learning

environment for student has turned into struggling condition to access information

and attain good grades. Government spending on education in the Philippines

remains one of the lowest in Asia. In 2011, the Philippines’ public education

spending stood at only 2.8 percent of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), only

better to Cambodia’s 1.4 percent. Malaysia registered 5.6 percent, Thailand 4.3

percent, and Brunei Darussalam 3.3 percent. In 2012, the Philippines’ education

spending slightly improved to 2.9 percent of GDP but tailed behind Malaysia’s 5.8

“K to 12 is about enhancing the curriculum that better prepares every

Filipino child, about innovating lessons that are taught to each learner,”

percent and Thailand’s 3.8 percent (Asian Development Bank, 2013).2

Senator Edgardo Angara, author of Senate bill No. 3286 or the Enhanced Basic

Education Act of 2012.3 The government—Department of Education (DepEd) are