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The Effect of Temperature and Substitution of Lapindo Mud Powder Waste (Sidoarjo) as an Active pozzolan Material toward the compressive strength Characteristic of Paving Blocks

Danang, Faisal Aidiansyah Fakhri, S. Adam Jannata


The physical development in Indonesia such as housing complex and infrastructures increases along with increasing population. Repairing infrastructure in the village is increasingly done by the government to raise social economics and welfare. The demand of paving block gets higher due to the development because paving block is more easily constructed, affordable, and water absorpable. Therefore, it is necessary to make experiments about material innovation in making paving block in order to make high quality paving block, but in affordable price. One of the efforts to reduce building cost is using the waste of local construction materials. It is easy to obtain and eco-friendly (as it reduces pollution). Furthermore, using waste from construction materials gives financial advantages for the society. For that reason, there is a research of utilizing mud flows of Lapindo in Sidoarjo to be basic materials (active pozzolan) in making paving block. Paving block is one of materials used for road surface besides asphalt and concrete. This material is commonly used for pavement in parking lot, sidewalk, garden, housing complex’ s road, connector of building to building, and lane. Paving block is more popular nowadays than other kinds of pavement. The consuments likely use paving block because it is easy to construct, easy to set up, easy to maintain. Paving block is also affordable and it has good aesthetic value. Moreover, paving block is eco- friendly material as it allows water to absorb. It supports soil conservation and minimizing floods. Lapindo Mud contains higher silica (SiO2) than cement does. However, it contains less limestone (CaO) than cement. Silica is functioned as filler, while limestone has role in fastening. The 900 o C temperature calcination for 5 hours results the total of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 more than 82%. Therefore, it is suitable for pozzolan material. Based on that content, Lapindo mud can be utilized as subtitional material for cement in volume context of making paving block. This article was made to find out the best mixture of Lapindo mud on paving blocks so it formed environmentally friendly, affordable price, and good quality.


The Sidoarjo Mud are consist of 56.75% of Sillicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), 23.31% of Aluminium Oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), 7.37% of Iron(III) oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ), 2.13% of Calcium Hidroxide (CaO), 2.95% of Magnesium oxide (MgO), 1.04% of Kalium oxide (K 2 O), 0.14% of Mangan oxide (MnO), 0.01% of Chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ), 2.7% of Natrium oxide (NA 2 O), 0.38 of Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), 0.96% of Sulfur Trioxide (SO 3 ), 1.2% of Loss of ignition (LOI). Based on the chemical composition of the test result with element of silica, Alumina and Iron, the content of the element, it is good material to use for ingredient of pozzolan artificial. Another important thing is the missing part incandescent (LOI) was Little indicates that very low organic matter including the elements sulfur which can interfere with the binding cement and durability of the concrete or mortar and micro warp suitably qualified ISO 2460: 2014.

Water absorption is defined as the ratio of the volume of hollow space empty which is owned by solids with the amount of the volume of solids which is occupied by solids. Absorption on a material expressed in percent (%) cavity of the volume fraction of an existing cavity in the material.

Method The method of research used here is experimental by burning lusi and making testing object. The testing objects are cubical mortar (5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm) and cylindrical concrete (10 cm x 20 cm) with micro lusi composition as subtitutional material for cement. It consists of four variations, these are 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The tools used are scales, shieve shaker machine, oven, a set of ASTM sieve, mixer, paving block mold, measuring cup, 6 cm 10,5 cm x 21 cm bar mold, picnometer, mounting table, tub, shovel, brass, hammer, calipers, ruler and furnace. The materials used here are cement, Lumajang sand as fine aggregate, dust from Lapindo mud, and water.

Result Based on the chemical analysis, micro lusi is suitable for ASTM requirement about coal flying ash and natural raw or calcinated pozzolan, so that it can be used for making mortar and concrete. Lapindo Mud contains higher silica (SiO2) than cement does. However, it contains less limestone (CaO) than cement. Silica is functioned as filler, while limestone has role in fastening. The 900 oC temperature calcination for 5 hours results the total of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 more than 82%. Therefore, it is suitable for pozzolan material. Based on that content, Lapindo mud can be utilized as subtitional material for cement in volume context of making paving block. Paving block is concrete which has 75% solid cross section or wider than entire section. It has solid volume more than 75% of entire volume. (PUBI-1986)


Chemical Content Analysis The chemical content analysis of hydraulic adhesive from each mixture is needed. It makes the analysis of Lapindo mud utilization as cement subtitution easy.

Atterberg Limits Examination The value of decreasing limit of Lapindo mud is 13,226%. The short value of decreasing limit shows that lapindo mud has delicate particles. Meanwhile the high index plasticity value shows that Lapindo mud has plastical character.

Press Strenght Test for Paving Block The average press strenght of paving block from mixture A to mixture E reduces. It is due to increased CaO from mixture A to mixture E. CaO is chemical content functioned as fastening stuff. Meanwhile SiO2 content functioned as filler from mixture A to mixture E significantly increases. Therefore, decreased CaO dominantly affects the less press strenght, despite increased SiO2 content.

Water Absorbing Test in Paving Block Based on graphics of average water absorption volume, it can be seen that there happens reduced absorption of water from mixture A to mixture D. However, the water absorption rises again in mixture E. The increase of SiO2 in each mixture has decreased the material porosity. Hence, the water absorption volume from mixture A to D reduces. Based on regression analysis, the saturation point of decreasing water absorption is between mixture D and E (exactly in 24,56% mud with 18,215% ater absorption). It is due to the little content of CaO causing less tightening among materials. Thus, the little water absorption power is affected by the high SiO2 amount. However, it is also supported by amount of CaO in keeping the tightening materials in paving block.

CONCLUSION From the result of this research, there are several conclusion earned. If it is from press strenghten point of view, the stir for getting paving block in B2 quality is utilizing Lapindo mud for 7,25%. Meanwhile, if it is analyzed from water absorption method, to get the least water absorption , there must be 24,56% Lapindo mud usage. The most ideal mixture is using 24,56% Lapindo mud because the usage of Lapindo mud is maximum in this mixture. By the water absorption, the mixture is included into B1 quality paving block. From the results obtained, there are some suggestions as follows:

For the construction which endures the load and is exposed to any weather, it will be very good if the mixture uses 7,25% Lapindo mud. Meanwhile for the construction which endures the load, is protected from weather, and has high humidity, there will be good if the mixture uses 24,56% Lapindo mud.


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