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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.

465-466 (2014) pp 1385-1389


© (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.465-466.1385

Stress Concentration Analysis of Plate with Circular Hole: Elasticity


Theory and Finite Element Comparison
S.R. Masrol a, W.A. Siswanto b
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
a
srizal@uthm.edu.my, bwaluyo@uthm.edu.my

Keywords: Stress concentration factor; finite element method; LISA FEA

Abstract. Stress concentration factor for a plate with circular free stress hole subjected to a uniform
far field tension in single direction was investigated in this study. The stress concentration level
along X and Y axis was determined by the elasticity theoretical method. Finite element analysis
using LISA free source software was validated by the elasticity theoretical results. It was found that
finite element analysis stress concentration factor results shows similar pattern as theoretical but
higher near of the hole. Plain strain analysis with Quad 8 element type showed better results
compared to plain stress with Quad 4 element type and plain strain with Quad 4 element type.

Introduction

Nowadays, knowledge about stress concentration is required in designing the structures component.
In fact, the majorities of service cracks nucleate in the area of stress concentration at the edge of a
hole [1]. Holes in structural components will create stress or strain concentrations and hence will
reduce the mechanical properties [1,2]. Karama et al.[2] investigated the stress concentration around
a circular hole in the composite plate under longitudinal tensile load by using non contact electronic
speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) method and Abaqus finite element coding due to increasing
use of composite materials.
LISA [3] is an alternative free usage and user-friendly solution method with limited number of
nodes. It also provides a free learning tool for students either in or off campus [4]. There were also
many previous researches documented the usage of this software as analysis tool. One of them, a
successful programming based learning tool which is called FreeMat, is linked together with other
higher level learning tools; Open/Libre Office Spreadsheet and LISA finite element analysis
application package as finite element teaching tools by Siswanto and Darmawan [4].
This study objective is to investigate the stress concentration factor of a plate with a hole at X
and Y axis. The results from theoretical elasticity calculated based on Martin [5] is compared to
LISA finite element analysis software.

Methodology

Model specifications. A plate with hole in 0.04 meter of diameter as shown in Fig. 1(a) was
investigated in this study. This plate is similar basic condition with infinite medium with a circular
stress-free hole subjected to a uniform far field tension in single direction as analyzed by Martin [3]
as shown in Fig. 1(b). The position of point A, B, C and D is expressed by r position. Uniform
tension initial stress, σo for both end of the plate is 6 MPa along x axis. The factor, a is 0.02 meter.
Plate thickness is 0.003 meter. Total height of the plate is 0.12 meter. The plate material is
homogenous, isotropic and elastic. Material Young Modulus, E is 70 GPa and Poisson ratio, υ is
0.3. Figure 1(c) shows the basic polar coordinate system for the model. The stress distribution and
stress concentration level in x-x and y-y axis on line AB and CD were investigated when the angle,
θ is rotated to π⁄2 and 0 in polar coordinate system as shown in Fig. 1(a).

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1386 4th Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 1. Analysis model (a) this research model (b) Martin [3] (c) Polar coordinate system

Elasticity theoretical method analysis. Stress field distribution for a plate with a circular stress-
free hole subjected to a uniform far field tension, σo in single direction can be expressed as Eq. 1,
Eq. 2 and Eq. 3.

1 1 3 4 cos 2 (1)
2 2

1 1 3 cos 2 (2)
2 2

1 3 2 sin 2 (3)
2

Stress level at line AB was investigated when it rotated at angle, θ = π/2 at polar coordinate system.
Hoop stress field distribution along line AB at X axis can be derived from Eq. 1 as

1 1 3 (4)
2

Radial stress distribution along line AB at Y axis can be derived from Eq. 2 as

1 1 3 4 (5)
2

Stress level at line CD was investigated when it rotated at angle, θ = 0 at polar coordinate system.
Radial stress distribution along line CD at X axis can be derived from Eq. 2 as

1 1 3 4 (6)
2

Hoop stress distribution along line CD at Y axis can be derived from Eq. 1 as

1 1 3 (7)
2

The stress concentration factor ( can be expressed as


(8)
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 465-466 1387

Finite element models. Three 2D simulation models with different theory (Plane Strain/Plain
Stress) and element setting (Quad4/Quad8) were constructed in this study using LISA version 7.7.1
finite element analysis as shown in Fig. 2. The analysis was conducted under static analysis. Since
the geometry, geometry, loadings and constraints are symmetrical, the finite element analysis can be
conducted only in the first quadrant. Symmetrical boundary conditions were applied at all
symmetrical line. A face load, σo of 6 MPa was applied along the right end of the model.

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 2. LISA FEA models (a) plain stress model with Quad 4 element type (b) plain strain model
with Quad 4 element type (c) plain strain model with Quad 8 element type

Result and Discussions

Comparisons of stress distribution. Figure 3 shows the stress distribution results at X-X axis
for each LISA model. For each LISA analysis, stress distribution at X-X direction results shows
tension stress condition at point A, B and D but compression stress condition at point C as shown in
Table 1. However, theoretical elasticity method stress distribution at X-X direction shows zero
stress condition was appeared at point C. The stress distribution results were improved by plain
strain model with Quad 8 element type due to more nodes along line AB and CD were examined
compared with Quad 4 models.

B B

A A A

C D D C D
C
(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 3. Stress X-X distribution (a) plain stress model with Quad 4 element type (b) plain strain
model with Quad 4 element type (c) plain strain model with Quad 8 element type

Table 1: Stress X-X distribution for point A, B,C and D

Stress X-X (Pa)


Point LISA (a) LISA (b) LISA (c) Elasticity
A 2.21E+07 2.29E+07 2.29E+07 1.80E+07
B 5.02E+06 4.98E+06 4.94E+06 6.44E+06
C -1.20E+06 -1.80E+06 -8.67E+05 0.00E+06
D 6.03E+06 6.06E+06 6.01E+06 5.41E+06
1388 4th Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Figure 4 shows the stress distribution result Y-Y axis for each model. For each LISA analysis
stress distribution at Y-Y direction results shows tension stress condition were appeared at point A
and point D but compression stress condition were appeared at point B and point C as shown in
Table 2. However, in theoretical elasticity method stress distribution in Y-Y direction shows
compression stress condition was appeared at point C only. This condition may due to all LISA
models already have tension stress distribution at point A compared to zero stress in theoretical
results.

B B B

A A
A

C D C D C D
(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 4. Stress Y-Y distributions (a) plain stress model with Quad 4 element type (b) plain strain
model with Quad 4 element type (c) plain strain model with Quad 8 element type

Table 2: Stress Y-Y distributions for point A, B, C and D

Stress Y-Y (Pa)


Point LISA (a) LISA (b) LISA (c) Elasticity
A 3.24E+06 4.36E+06 1.51E+06 0.00E+00
B -8.86E+04 -1.66E+05 -4.00E+04 8.89E+05
C -8.48E+06 -8.79E+06 -9.11E+06 -6.00E+06
D 1.55E+06 1.57E+06 1.59E+06 1.06E+05

Comparisons of stress concentration factor. Figure 5 shows the comparisons of stress


concentration factor along line AB. The stress concentration factor near of the hole obtained in
LISA analysis is definitely higher compared to the theoretical method. Plain strain analysis shows
better results than plain stress analysis. The element type in Quad 8 also shows better results due to
Quad 8 elements has a central nodes compared to Quad4. This similar conditions also shows by
comparisons of stress concentration factor along line CD as Fig. 6.

4.00
x-axis Line AB Elasticity
Stress Concentration

3.50 y-axis Line AB Elasticity


x-axis Line AB Plain Stress LISA
3.00 y-axis Line AB Plain Stress LISA
x-axis Line AB Plain Strain LISA Quad4
2.50
Factor

y-axis Line AB Plain Strain LISA Quad4


2.00 x-axis Line AB Plain Strain LISA Quad8
y-axis Line AB Plain Strain LISA Quad8
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
-0.500.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
Distances, a
Fig. 5. Comparisons of stress distribution factor along line AB
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 465-466 1389

1.50

1.00

0.50
Stress Concentration

Distance, a
0.00
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12
-0.50
x-axis Line CD Elasticity
y-axis Line CD Elasticity
-1.00 x-axis Line CD Plain Stress LISA
y-axis Line CD Plain Stress LISA
x-axis Line CD Plain Strain LISA Quad4
-1.50 y-axis Line CD Plain Strain LISA Quad4
x-axis Line CD Plain Strain LISA Quad8
y-axis Line CD Plain Strain LISA Quad8
-2.00
Fig. 6. Comparisons of stress distribution factor on line CD

Conclusions

For stress concentration factor along line AB and CD, between elasticity and LISA analysis have
some difference especially at a = 0.02 and a = 0.06 but the pattern of stress concentration is quite
same. Cracks may nucleate at point A and C as both points shows higher stress concentration.
Comparison for LISA finite element analysis between plain stress, plain strain (Quad4) and plain
strain (Quad8) shows the light differences but still in the same pattern. It shows that LISA software
analysis can predict the stress concentration factor as elasticity theoretical method. For better
results, the finite meshing should be taken into consideration and investigated further.

Acknowledgement

Author would like to acknowledge Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,


Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia for supporting this research work.

References

[1] Z. Yang, C.B. Kim, C. Cho and H.G Beom. The concentration of stress and strain in finite
thickness elastic plate containing a circular hole. International Journal of Solids and Structures.
45(2008) 713-731.
[2] M. Karama, L. Toubal and B. Lorrain. Stress concentration in circular hole in composite plate.
Composite structures. 68 (2005) 31-36.
[3] Sonnenhof, 2012. LISA Version 7.7.1. Sonnenhof Holdings. Retrieved from: http://www.lisa-
fet.com (Accessed on: August 30, 2012).
[4] W.A. Siswanto and A.S. Darmawan. Teaching finite element method of structural line elements
assisted by open source FreeMat. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and
Technology. 4 (2012) 1277-1286.
[5] H.S. Martin. Two dimesional solution: Example 8.7: Infinite medium with a stress-free hole
under uniform far-field tension loading. In the Elasticity: theory, application and numerics. Elsevier
Inc. Oxford, UK, 2009, pp. 174-178.