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1. A popular brand of pen comes in red, blue, or black ink. The writing tip can be chosen from
extra bold, bold, regular, fine, or micro. How many different choices of pens do you have
with this brand?
5 = 15
3�

2. Six acts are scheduled to perform in a variety show. How many different ways are there to
schedule their appearances?
6 P6 = 6! = 720

3. A club with 15 members is to choose four officers – president, vice-president, secretary, and
treasurer. In how many different ways can these offices be filled, if no member can hold
more than one office?
15!
15 P4 = = 32,760
11!
or
15 �
14 � 12 = 32,760
13 �

4. Suppose A and B are two events with P ( A ) = .35 and P ( B ) = .6 . Find P ( A U B ) if the two
events are
a) mutually exclusive
P ( A U B ) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) = .35 + .6 = .95

b) independent
P ( A U B ) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) - P ( A ) P ( B ) = .35 + .6 - .35 �
.6 = .74

5. A carton of 24 light bulbs includes three that are defective. If two of the bulbs are chosen at
random without replacement, what are the probabilities that
a) neither bulb will be defective?
21 C2 35 21 20 35
= or � =
24 C2 46 24 23 46

## b) exactly one of the bulbs will be defective?

3 C1 � 21 C1 21 3 21 21 3 21
= or � + � =
24 C2 92 24 23 24 23 92
6. If P ( A ) = .8 , P ( B ) = .35 , and P ( A I B ) = .28
a) Complete the following probability diagram.

## .52 .28 .07

A B

.13
S
b) Find P ( A I B ) c) Find P ( A U B ) d) Find P ( A U B )
c c

## e) Find P ( A | B ) f) Are A and B independent? g) Are A and B mutually exclusive?

.8 Why? Why not? Why? Why not?

Yes . P ( A | B ) = P ( A ) No . P ( A I B ) �0

7. Diagnostic tests of medical conditions have several results. The test result can be positive or negative and the patient can either
have the condition or not. The results of a new diagnostic test for 200 patients are given in the following table:
Condition Present Condition Absent Total
Test Result + 110 20 130
Test Result - 20 50 70
Total 130 70 200
If a person is selected at random, find the following probabilities:
a) P ( +| condition present ) b) P ( -| condition present )
11 2
13 13

## c) P ( +| condition absent ) d) P ( condition present and + )

2 11
7 20
8. A political discussion group consists of 4 Republicans and 6 Democrats. If a committee of
four people is selected at random, find the probability that
a) all four are Democrats. b) two are Democrats and two are Republicans.
6 C4 1 6 C2 � 4 C2 3
= =
10 C4 14 10 C4 7

9. A box contains 5 red marbles, 6 green marbles, and 9 yellow marbles. You select one marble
at random and do not replace it. Then you randomly select a second marble.
a) Complete the following probability tree:
4 R
19196
G
R
1 9
19
5
Y
R
4 3
19
5
19
10 9
G
G 19
Y
5
19
R
9 6
19
20 G
Y
8
19 Y

3 5 3
� =
10 19 38

## c) Find the probability that the second marble selected is red.

1 4 3 5 9 5 1
� + � + � =
4 19 10 19 20 19 4

d) Find the probability that the first marble selected was red given that the second marble
selected is yellow.
4� 5
1 9
19
=
4� 19 + 10 �
19 + 20 � 19
1 9 3 9 9 8
19
10. Determine if the following probability distributions are valid. If not, tell why.
a)
X P(X)
2 .3
3 - .5
4 .5
5 .7

b)
X P(X)
5 .46
10 .35
15 .25

## Not valid. The probability values must sum to 1.

11. The manager of a retail clothing store has determined the following probability distribution
for X, the number of customers who will enter the store on Saturday.

X 10 20 30 40
P(X) .2 .2 .4 .2

a) Complete the table to find the mean number of customers who will enter the store on Saturday.
X P( X ) X� P( X )
10 .2 2
20 .2 4
30 .4 12
40 .2 8
Total 26

m = 26
b) Complete the table to find the variance of the number of customers who will enter the
store on Saturday.

X P( X ) ( X - m)
2
( X - m)
2
P( X )

10 .2 256 51.2
20 .2 36 7.2
30 .4 16 6.4
40 .2 196 39.2
Total 104

s 2 = 104

c) Find the standard deviation of the number of customers who will enter the store on
Saturday.
s = 104 = 10.2

d) Find the probability that more than 30 customers will enter the store on Saturday.
.2

e) Find the probability that at most 20 customers will enter the store on Saturday.
.4

f) Find the probability that at least 30 customers will enter the store on Saturday.
.6

12. A game is played by randomly selecting one bill from a bag that contains ten \$1 bills, five
\$2 bills, three \$5 bills, one \$10 bill, and one \$100 bill. The player gets to keep the selected
bill.
a) Complete the table of amounts of money won and their probabilities:
X \$1 \$2 \$5 \$10 \$100
P(X 1 1 3 1 1
) 2 4 20 20 20

b) If the player must pay \$20 to play this game, what is the expected value of the game?
1 1 3 1 1
m = 1 � + 2 � + 5 � + 10 � + 100 � - 20
2 4 20 20 20
10 + 10 + 15 + 10 + 100
= - 20 = 7.25 - 20 = -\$12.75
20
13. If X is binomial with n = 12 and p = .8 , then find the following:
a) the mean of X b) the standard deviation of X
m = np = 12 �.8 = 9.6 s = np ( 1 - p ) = 12 � .2 = 1.92 = 1.39
.8 �

c) P ( X = 4 )

256 1 25344
C4 ( .8 ) ( .2 ) = 495 � �
4 8
12 = �.000519045
625 390625 48828125

d) P ( X �4 )
P ( X �4 ) = P ( X = 0 ) + P ( X = 1) + P ( X = 2 ) + P ( X = 3) + P ( X = 4 )
= 12 C0 ( .8 ) ( .2 ) + 12 C1 ( .8 ) ( .2 ) + 12 C2 ( .8 ) ( .2 ) + 12 C3 ( .8 ) ( .2 ) + 12 C4 ( .8 ) ( .2 )
0 12 1 11 2 10 3 9 4 8

= ( .2 ) + 12 �
( .8 ) ( .2 ) + 66 ( .8 ) ( .2 ) + 220 ( .8 ) ( .2 ) + 495 ( .8 ) ( .2 )
12 1 11 2 10 3 9 4 8

## 48 1056 2816 25344

= ( .2 ) + ( .2 ) + ( .2 ) + ( .2 ) + ( .2 )
12 11 10 9 8

5 25 25 125
8� 48 1056 2816 25344 �
= ( .2 ) �
( .2 ) + ( .2 ) + ( .2 ) + ( .2 ) +
4 3 2

� 5 25 25 125 � �
8 �1 48 1056 2816 25344 � 28381
= ( .2 ) � + + + + = �.000581242
625 625 625 125
� 125 �� 48828125

e) P ( X �1)
P ( X �1) = 1 - P ( X < 1) = 1 - P ( X = 0 ) = 1 - 12 C0 ( .8 ) ( .2 )
0 12

1 244140624
=1- = �.9999999959
244140625 244140625

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