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WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING Basics of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Week 5- Lecture 23 Dr. MANOJ
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING
Basics of Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Week 5- Lecture 23
Dr. MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
1
Municipal Wastewater Treatment Image Source : http://www.moneycontrol.com/gestepahead/powering/article/state‐ of‐
Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Image Source : http://www.moneycontrol.com/gestepahead/powering/article/state‐ of‐
wastewater‐ treatment‐in‐india ‐961633 ‐ 2.html
Image Source : http://keranews.org/post/wichita ‐falls ‐ drops‐ wastewater‐reuse ‐
project
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Objectives of Wastewater Treatment o Wastewater collected from various communities must be ultimately returned to
Objectives of Wastewater Treatment
o
Wastewater collected from various communities must be ultimately returned to the
receiving waters or applied to land or reused after making it safe for the purpose,
ensuring no danger to human health or damage to the environment.
o
The objective of wastewater treatment is to extract and remove various pollutants and
toxicants including suspended and dissolved materials as well as pathogens present in
the wastewater so that its quality is improved to reach the permissible level of water
to be discharged/reused.
o
The degree of treatment required depends on the characteristics of the raw
wastewater and the desired quality of treated water for disposal or reuse, which is
eventually governed by state regulated wastewater discharged standards or water
quality standard for recycling/reuse.
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
3
Wastewater Discharge Standards: The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 Source : http://cpcb.nic.in/GeneralStandards.pdf
Wastewater Discharge Standards: The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986
Source : http://cpcb.nic.in/GeneralStandards.pdf
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Wastewater Discharge Standards: Environment (Protection) Amendment Rules, 2017 Source :
Wastewater Discharge Standards: Environment (Protection) Amendment Rules, 2017
Source : http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/Sewage%20Treatment%20Plants.pdf
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
5
Wastewater Reuse Standards US ‐ EPA/USAID Guidelines WHO microbiological quality guidelines for wastewater use in
Wastewater Reuse Standards
US ‐ EPA/USAID Guidelines
WHO microbiological quality guidelines for wastewater use in agriculture
Source :
WHO (2006), A compendium of standards for wastewater reuse in the Eastern Mediterranean Region
(http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/116515/dsa1184.pdf;jsessionid=0CBE6A6098376FF
9A870FADD88AD6949?sequence=1)
S ource : EPA, Process Design Manual: Guidelines for Water Reuse, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1992:
Report No. EPA ‐ 625/R‐ 92 ‐ 004 (cited in) Guidelines and Standards for Wastewater Reuse
(https://cgi.tuharburg.de/~awwweb/wbt/emwater/documents/lesson_d1.pdf)
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Wastewater Reuse Standards: Irrigation FAO guidelines for trace metals in irrigation water FAO guidelines for
Wastewater Reuse Standards: Irrigation
FAO guidelines for trace metals in irrigation water
FAO guidelines for interpretation of water quality for irrigation
Source :
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665
/116515/dsa1184.pdf;jsessionid=0CBE6A609837
6FF9A870FADD88AD6949?sequence=1
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
7
Wastewater Treatment Processes o A typical wastewater treatment plant consists of several treatment steps encompassing
Wastewater Treatment Processes
o
A typical wastewater treatment plant consists of several treatment steps encompassing
unit operations and unit processes.
o
Treatment units (methods) in which the application of physical forces predominate are
called Unit Operations . Here primarily physical separation of the pollutant occurs (e.g.
screening, grit chamber, sedimentation etc.).
o
Treatment units (methods) in which chemical or biological reactions predominate are
called Unit Processes . In such units, the pollutant is chemically or biologically
transformed to usually smaller compounds (e.g. biodegradation or chemical
degradation steps ).
o
Since, the municipal as well as industrial wastewaters contain physical as well as
chemical pollutants, often a combination of several unit operations and unit
processes are needed for the complete treatment of wastewater .
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Typical Processes Preliminary and primary treatment are grouped under primary treatment
Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Typical Processes
Preliminary and primary treatment
are grouped under primary treatment
in several references
Image Source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0551e/t0551e0j.gif
(Cited Source) Asano T., Smith R.G. and Tchobanoglous G. (1985)
Municipal wastewater: Treatment and reclaimed water characteristics.
Irrigation with Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater ‐ A Guidance Manual,
G.S. Pettygrove and T. Asano (eds). Lewis Publishers Inc., Mississippi
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
9
Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Stages o Preliminary treatment – for screening of large floating material and
Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Stages
o
Preliminary treatment – for screening of large floating material and removal of grits.
o
Primary treatment ‐ the physical settling of insoluble solids from a wastewater
stream, usually called primary settling.
o
Secondary treatment ‐ the biological treatment system followed by secondary
clarification for the separation of biological solids from the main wastewater stream
o
Tertiary (or Advanced) treatment ‐ Any treatment following secondary treatment,
usually for the removal of nutrients, high TDS, microbial pollutions etc.
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
10
Primary Treatment

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08 2018

Wastewater Treatment Plants Nagpur Wastewater Treatment Plant South Bend Wastewater Treatment Plant, Indiana Image
Wastewater Treatment Plants
Nagpur Wastewater Treatment Plant
South Bend Wastewater Treatment Plant, Indiana
Image Source:
Image Source:
http://vilindia.com/waste ‐ water/200 ‐ mld‐waste ‐ water‐treatment ‐project ‐in‐nagpur/
https://www.southbendin.gov/government/content/treatment‐plant
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
11
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING Wastewater Treatment Units: Screening Week 5- Lecture 24 Dr. MANOJ KUMAR
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING
Wastewater Treatment Units: Screening
Week 5- Lecture 24
Dr. MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
12

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08 2018

Screening o Screening is the first unit operation in a wastewater treatment plant. o A
Screening
o
Screening is the first unit operation in a
wastewater treatment plant.
o
A screen is a device with openings, generally
of uniform size, used to retain suspended or
floating coarse materials (pieces of cloths,
wood, leaves, plastics, rags, papers etc.) found
in the influent wastewater.
o
These materials must be removed at the
beginning of treatment process, otherwise
could damage subsequent process equipment
e.g. pumps, valves, pipe lines, impellers,
thereby reducing overall treatment process
reliability & effectiveness.
Image Source : http://industrialwatertreatments.com/screening/
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
13
Features of the Screen o The screening element may consist any of the following :
Features of the Screen
o
The screening element may consist any of
the following :
 Parallel bars or rods,
 Gratings
 Wire meshes
 Perforated plates
o
The openings are usually rectangular or
circular, however could be of any shape.
o
Depending on the size of opening, the
screens may be coarse, medium or fine .
Image Source : https://www.wateronline.com/doc/wwema‐ window‐ slots‐ vs‐ holes‐in‐
preliminary‐treatment‐ screening‐0001
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Types of Screens Screening Coarse Screens (Bar racks or Bar Screens) 6 to 150 mm
Types of Screens
Screening
Coarse Screens (Bar racks or Bar Screens)
6 to 150 mm
Fine Screens
< 6mm
Micro Screens
< 0.5 µm
Hand
Mechanically
Static wedgewire
Drum
Step
cleaned
cleaned
Chain driven
Reciprocating Rake
Catenary
Continuous Belt
Source : Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, p: 315; Metcalf &Eddy, 2003
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
15
Coarse Screens o Coarse screens, usually bar screens or bar racks and sometimes used in
Coarse Screens
o
Coarse screens, usually bar screens or bar racks
and sometimes used in conjunction with
comminuting devices, have clear openings
ranging from 6 ‐ 150 mm (0.25 ‐ 6 in).
o
They serve more as protective devices,
specifically used to remove rags and large objects
that might damage other appurtenances.
o
A bar screen is composed of vertical or inclined
bars spaced at equal intervals with relatively large
openings of approx. 25 mm (may be in the range
of 15 mm to 40 mm) across the channel through
which wastewater flows.
Image Sources : https://aosts.com/types‐wastewater‐screening/
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Coarse Screen: Bar Racks Image Sources : https://www.aboutcivil.org/preliminary‐treatment‐process‐ of ‐ waste ‐
Coarse Screen: Bar Racks
Image Sources : https://www.aboutcivil.org/preliminary‐treatment‐process‐ of ‐ waste ‐ water.html
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
17
Coarse Screen: Cleaning o Bar screens are usually hand cleaned, and sometimes provided with mechanical
Coarse Screen: Cleaning
o
Bar screens are usually hand cleaned, and sometimes
provided with mechanical devices .
o
These cleaning devices are rakes which periodically
sweep the entire screen removing the solids for further
processing or disposal. Some mechanical cleaners utilize
chains/cables to move the rake through screen openings.
Screenings are raked to a platform with perforations
which permits the drainage of water back to the unit.
o
Hand cleaned racks are set usually at an angle of 45 0 to
increase the effective cleaning surface.
o
Mechanically cleaned racks are generally erected almost
vertically. Such bar screens have openings 25% in excess
of the cross section of the sewage channel. Their area is
usually half of that required for hand raked screens .
Image Sources:
http://www.astim.web.tr/ur unler.php?kat_1=6512bd43d9ca
a6e02c990b0a82652dca&kat_2=c9f0f895fb98ab9159f51fd0
297e236d&kat_3=d3d9446802a44259755d38e6d163e820
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Medium Screens o Medium bar screens have clear openings of around 12 mm . Bars
Medium Screens
o
Medium bar screens have clear openings of around 12 mm . Bars are usually
10 mm thick on the upstream side and taper slightly to the downstream
side.
o
These mechanically raked units are used before all pumps or treatment
units such as the stabilization ponds. The bars used for the screens are
rectangular in cross ‐ section usually about 10 mm × 50 mm and are placed
with the larger dimension parallel to the flow. A weir on the side of the
screen may be used as an overflow bypass.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
19
Fine Screens o Fine screens are mechanically cleaned devices using perforated plates, woven wire cloth
Fine Screens
o
Fine screens are mechanically cleaned devices
using perforated plates, woven wire cloth or
closely spaced bars with clear openings of
typically less than 6 mm (Commonly available in
the opening size ranging from 0.035 to 6 mm).
o
Fine screens are generally used for pre ‐treatment
of industrial wastes to remove materials which
tend to produce excessive scum or foam.
o
Fine screens are not normally suitable for sewage
because of the clogging possibilities.
o
Fine screens may be of the drum or disc type,
mechanically cleaned and continuously operated.
Image Sources : https://engineeringcivil.org/articles/environmental‐
engineering/wastewater ‐screening‐classification ‐ screens‐ complete ‐list ‐
wastewater‐ treatment/attachment/perforated‐fine ‐ screen‐water ‐online/
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Micro Screens o Not used as preliminary treatment, but suspended solids are removed using micro
Micro Screens
o Not used as preliminary treatment,
but suspended solids are removed
using micro screens from secondary
effluent and stabilizing pond
effluent .
o Not
very
popular
due
to
disadvantages including improper
removal of solids and inefficiency in
handling solids fluctuations.
Image Sources : http://www.huber.co.uk/products/screens ‐ and‐fine ‐
screens/ultra‐fine ‐screens.html
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
21
Comminuting Devices (Grinder) o A comminuting device is a mechanically cleaned screen that shred the
Comminuting Devices (Grinder)
o
A comminuting device is a mechanically
cleaned screen that shred the coarse solid
materials and return these materials into the
wastewater flow .
o
These devices cut the retained solids, thus
enabling them to pass along with the sewage.
The solids from the comminuting devices may
lead to more scum in the digester.
o
They are recommended for smaller sized STPs
of up to 1 MLD.
Image Sources : https://franklinmiller.com/white ‐
papers/grinders‐ shredders‐comminutors‐ evolving‐technology/
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Location and Housing of Screens o Screening devices are usually located where they are readily
Location and Housing of Screens
o
Screening devices are usually located where they are readily accessible as it
requires frequent inspection and maintenance. Where screens are placed in
deep pits or channels, it is necessary to provide sufficiently wide approaches
from the top and ample working space for easy access and maintenance.
o
The screen chamber to house the screening equipment depends on the type
of equipment and the climatic conditions. Screen house (chamber) can be
omitted for hand cleaned screens if climatic conditions are not severe.
o
Mechanically cleaned screens generally need suitable housing to protect the
equipment, and ensure proper operation. Ventilation of the housing is
necessary to prevent moisture accumulation and corrosive atmosphere.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
23
Hydraulics of Screens o Screens are provided to remove the materials which would impede the
Hydraulics of Screens
o
Screens are provided to remove the materials which would impede the flow
in the treatment plant. Hence, continuous cleaning arrangement can keep
the interference of the solid materials to a minimum .
o
On the other hand, periodic cleaning arrangements may cause surges of high
flow after cleaning.
o
Usually, the base of the screen is placed a few centimeters below the invert
of the base channel and the grade of the influent conduit is steepened
immediately preceding the screen.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Velocity through the Screens o The velocity through the screen should be such that maximum
Velocity through the Screens
o The velocity through the screen should be such that maximum amount of
screenings (preferably 100%) are retained without undue deposition.
o Velocities of 0.6 to 1.2 m/s through the open area for the peak flows have
been used satisfactorily. The velocity should not be less than 0.3 m/s to
prevent the deposition of solids.
o
A velocity of 0.8 m/s is appropriate for considerable amounts of storm water
while preventing grit decomposition at the bottom of the screen
o
A straight channel succeeding the screen assures good velocity distribution
across the screen and maximum effectiveness of the device.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
25
Head Loss through the Screens o Head loss depends on the quantity and nature of
Head Loss through the Screens
o
Head loss depends on the quantity and nature of screenings accumulated.
o
Head loss can be calculated using the following formula:
.
where:
is the head loss in meters.
is the velocity through the screens in meters/second.
is the before the screen in meters/second.
The value of is usually 0.15 and should not exceed 0.3 for clogged hand screen.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Head Loss through the Screens o Another approach to determine head loss through a bar
Head Loss through the Screens
o Another approach to determine head loss through a bar rack is by Kirschmer’s equation:
Types of bars/screens
Values
of
where:
Sharp edged rectangular bar
2.42
h
is the head loss in meters.
Rectangular bar with semicircle
upstream
1.83
is the bar shape factor.
Circular bar
1.79
is the maximum width of bar facing the flow in meters.
1.67
is the minimum clear spacing between bars in meters.
Rectangular bar with both u/s
and d/s face as semi‐ circular
is the velocity head of flow approaching rack in meters and is calculated as:
is the angle of inclination of rack with the horizontal.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
27
Head Loss through the Screens o For fine screens head loss is given by: where:
Head Loss through the Screens
o For fine screens head loss is given by:
where:
• is the discharge in ⁄
• is the coefficient of discharge (usually taken as 0.6)
• is the effective submerged open area in .
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
28

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08 2018

Disposal of Screening o The quantity of screening varies depending on the type of screen
Disposal of Screening
o
The quantity of screening varies depending on the type of screen as well as
sewer system and its characteristics. Quantity of screening removed by bar
screen mostly ranges between 0.0035 to 0.0375 m 3 / 1000 m 3 of wastewater
treated, with an approximate typical value of 0.015 m 3 /1000 m 3 of
wastewater.
o
Screenings is usually disposed off along with municipal solid waste on
sanitary landfill. It can also be brought back to the wastewater after passing
it through grinders or disintegrator pumps. Other options include
incinerating (for large sewage treatment plant) or burring at the plant site
(for smaller plants).
Source : Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, p: 315; Metcalf &Eddy, 2003
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
29
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING Wastewater Treatment Units: Grit Removal and Equalization Week 5- Lecture 25
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING
Wastewater Treatment Units: Grit Removal and Equalization
Week 5- Lecture 25
Dr. MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
30

27

08 2018

Grit Removal o Grit chamber is usually the second unit operation intended to remove grit
Grit Removal
o
Grit chamber is usually the second unit operation intended
to remove grit from the wastewater.
o
Grit is the heaviest material in wastewater and includes
substances such as sand, coffee grounds, gravel, cinders etc.
( specific gravity between 2.4 ‐2.65, much higher than organic solids).
o
Grit removal is necessary to protect the moving mechanical
equipment and pump elements from abrasion and abnormal
wear and tear. Removal of grit also reduces the frequency of
cleaning of digesters and settling tanks.
o
Grit is non‐putrescible and possesses a higher hydraulic
subsidence value than organic solids, therefore can be
separated from organic solids by differential sedimentation
in a grit chamber and sedimentation tank.
Image Source :
https://water.me.vccs.edu/concepts/stoverview.html
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
31
Grit Removal o Both quality and quantity of grit varies depending upon: Types of street
Grit Removal
o
Both quality and quantity of grit varies depending upon:
Types of street surfaces encountered
Types of inlets and catch basins
Construction and condition of sewer system
Ground and ground water characteristics
Amount of storm water diverted through over flows points
Relative areas served
Climatic conditions
Sewer grades
Industrial wastes
Social habits
Night soil and other solids admitting to sewers ( through dumping chutes or pail depots)
o
This is usually limited to municipal wastewater and generally not required for industrial
effluent treatment plant, except some industrial wastewaters which may have grit.
Source : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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Grit Chamber: Types and Classification o In a Grit Chamber, the wastewater passes into a
Grit Chamber: Types and Classification
o
In a Grit Chamber, the wastewater passes into a wide basin, which slows the wastewater's
velocity. The slower flow causes grit to settle out.
o
There are various types of Grit Chamber, depending on flow and design:
As per CPHEEO Manual:
As per Metcalf &Eddy (2003):
As per EPA fact sheet:
i. Velocity controlled V shaped
longish grit channels
i. Horizontal Flow Grit Chamber ‐
of rectangular or square
i. Aerated Grit Chambers
ii. Square shaped chambers
with entry and exit on
opposite sites and mild
hopper
configuration.
ii. Aerated Grit Chamber –
selective removal of grit with
spiral flow aeration tank
ii. Vortex Type (paddle or jet
induced vortex) grit removal
system
iii. Detritus tank (short term
sedimentation basins)
iii. Vortex type conical chambers
where the centrifugal action
plummets the grit to the
bottom
iii. Vortex Type Grit Chambers ‐
cylindrical tank with centrifugal
and gravitational forces as the
cause of separation.
iv. Horizontal flow grit chambers
(velocity controlled)
v. Hydrocyclones (cyclonic inertial
separation)
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering;
Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, p: 315; Metcalf &Eddy, 2003;
https://www3.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/final_sgrit_removal.pdf
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
33
Design of Grit Chamber o Variations of sewage on hourly basis and typical values of
Design of Grit Chamber
o
Variations of sewage on hourly basis and typical values of minimum, average and peak
flows and the flow through velocity are essential for design of grit chambers.
o
The Grit chamber can be designed considering it as a sedimentation basin and the grit as
discrete particles settling at their own settling velocities, which depends on the size and
specific gravity of the grit particles and viscosity of the sewage .
o
As per CPHEEO Manual , the minimum size of grit is 0.2 mm with a preferable range of 0.10
to 0.15 mm while the specific gravity of the grit particles for design is 2.65 .
o
The settling velocity for discrete particles is given by the general equation (Transition Law):
,
• is the settling velocity in ⁄
• is the Newton coefficient of
Drag, approximated as
• is the acceleration due to gravity in
.
• is the mass density of the grit particle in
.
• is the Reynolds Number (from 1 •
is the mass density of the liquid in
to 1000)
• is the size of the particle in
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering; Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, p: 315; Metcalf &Eddy, 2003
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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Design of Grit Chamber o The settling velocity for particles with Reynolds Number < 1
Design of Grit Chamber
o
The settling velocity for particles with Reynolds Number < 1 is given by Stoke’s Law :
where,
• is the settling velocity in ⁄
• is the acceleration due to gravity in
• is the mass density of the grit particle in
• is the mass density of the liquid in
=
• is the size of the particle in
• is the kinematic viscosity of the sewage in ⁄
• is the specific gravity of the grit particles (dimensionless)
o
When particle size exceeds 1 mm and Reynolds number is above 1000, is assumed to be
0.4, and the settling velocity is given by Newton’s Law: .
.
o
The settling velocity may also be given by Hazen’s modified equation for grit particles in
the transition zone, as:
where,
• and are measured in ⁄ and respectively, and
.
• T is the temperature in .
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering; Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, p: 315; Metcalf &Eddy, 2003
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
35
Design of Grit Chamber o The efficiency of an ideal settling basin is expressed as
Design of Grit Chamber
o
The efficiency of an ideal settling basin is expressed as the ratio of the settling velocity of
the particles to be removed ( ) to the Surface Overflow Rate ( ): = /
o
The surface overflow rate (SOR, ) is the ratio of the flow of sewage to be treated in an
ideal settling tank to the plan area of the tank, i.e., / and is equivalent to the settling
velocity of the particles removed completely in an ideal settling tank.
o
The surface areas for the grit chamber is calculated on the basis of the SOR taken as critical
settling velocity for the desired particle size removal.
Settling velocities and surface overflow rates for ideal grit chamber at 10 0 C
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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08 2018

Design of Grit Chamber o In practice, the SOR should be diminished to account for
Design of Grit Chamber
o
In practice, the SOR should be diminished to account for the non ‐ideal basin performance
due to turbulence and short ‐circuiting resulting from eddy, wind and density currents. For a
real basin with a indicated efficiency of grit removal and basin performance, surface area
could be determined from:
where,
• η : Desired efficiency of removal of grit particle
η = 1 – [1+nv s / (Q/A)] -1/n
• v s : Settling velocity of minimum size of grit particle to be removed
• Q/A : Design surface over flow rate applicable for grit chamber to be designed
• n : An index which is a measured the basin performance.
[n are 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 and 1 for very good, good, poor and very poor performance]
o
To achieve 75% removal efficiency in grit chamber, design SOR (= Q/A) will be 66.67%,
58.8%, 50% and 33.3% of the settling velocity of the grit particles to be removed with very
good, good, poor and very poor tank performance respectively. In practice, values of two
thirds to one half are used in design depending upon the type of the grit chamber.
o
Typically, at average flow, detention time in a grit chamber should not exceed 60 seconds.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
37
Design of Grit Chamber o The optimum velocity of flow through the grit chamber also
Design of Grit Chamber
o
The optimum velocity of flow through the grit chamber also depends on the scouring
process. The critical velocity for scour ( v c ) beyond which particles of a certain size and
density once settled, may be again placed in motion and reintroduced into the stream, may
be calculated from modified Shields’ formula :
v c = K c √(g(S s -1)d) where K c = 3 to 4.5 (a value of 4.0 is usually adopted for grit particles) .
o
There should be min. two units of manually cleaned grit chambers, while for mechanically
cleaned chambers, a manually cleaned chamber should be provided as a by pass.
o
For velocity controlled grit chambers, head loss varies from 0.06 m to 0.6 m depending on
the device used for velocity control.
o
Depending on the interval of clearing, additional depth for storage of grit shall be provided.
Further, a free board of 150 to 300 mm is recommended. Bottom slopes are based on the
type of scraper mechanism used.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
38

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Clearing of the Grit o Grits can be removed manually or mechanically, however manual clearing
Clearing of the Grit
o
Grits can be removed manually or mechanically, however manual clearing should be
avoided except in the case of very small STPs (< 1 MLD) where velocity controlled channels
can be cleared by the operator using a shovel.
o
In mechanical clearing, equipments are provided for collection as well as washing of grit
(mostly by agitation mechanisms), and can be operated on either a continuous or
intermittent basis.
o
The settled grit on the floor is collected by scrapper blades or ploughs and elevated to the
ground level by various mechanisms such as bucket elevators, jet pump, screws and air lift.
o
In intermittently (normally once or twice a day) operated type, sufficient storage capacity
to hold the grit between intervals of grit elevation should be provided.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
39
Disposal of Grit o Clean grit is odourless and may be disposed by dumping or
Disposal of Grit
o
Clean grit is odourless and may be disposed by dumping
or burying or by sanitary landfill.
o
If not washed, grit particles may contain organic matter
which adds odour and is not suitable for disposal.
o
However, the ultimate method of disposal depends on
the quantity and other characteristics of the particles
and further on the availability of the land for dumping
or burial.
o
The odorous grit particles are preferably buried, unless
washed.
Image Source : https://www.evcsl.com/industrial‐
services/cdenviro ‐ dmax‐ mobile ‐grit‐screenings‐ separation ‐unit
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
40

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Equalization Tank (Optional) o For domestic and industrial wastewater streams with significant variations in wastewater
Equalization Tank (Optional)
o
For domestic and industrial wastewater streams with significant variations in
wastewater flow and/or characteristics, equalization tank is provided to ensure
consistent flow and quality of influent to the subsequent treatment units, thereby
avoiding hydraulic or organic shock loading.
o
It is often not needed when the inflow source and quantity does not vary significantly,
such as large STPs.
o
The objectives of providing equalization tank includes:
 to balance fluctuating flows or concentrations,
 to assist self neutralization, or
 to even out the effect of a periodic "slug" discharge from a batch process
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
41
Equalization Tank: Benefits o Shock loading eliminated or minimized , hence biological processes are enhanced.
Equalization Tank: Benefits
o
Shock loading eliminated or minimized , hence biological processes are enhanced.
o
Effluent from biological treatment have better quality and improved thickening .
o
Effluent filtration surface area requirements are reduced with improved filter
performance and more uniform filter back‐wash cycles.
o
In chemical treatment, chemical feed control and process reliability are improved due
to damping of mass loading.
o
Provides protection against higher level of toxic loads .
o
Risk of plant failures are reduced .
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
42

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Equalization Tank: Design Considerations o Generally of three types: o Flow through type o Intermittent
Equalization Tank: Design Considerations
o
Generally of three types:
o
Flow through type
o
Intermittent flow type
o
Variable inflow/constant discharge type
Image Source : https://www.aireo2.com/en/applications/equalization ‐basin/
o
The optimum location of the equalization tank varies according to collection system,
wastewater to be handled, land requirements and availability and type of treatment
required.
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
43
Equalization Tank: Design Considerations o Volume Requirements for the Equalization Basin are obtained from an
Equalization Tank: Design Considerations
o
Volume Requirements for the
Equalization Basin are obtained from
an inflow cumulative volume diagram
where cumulative inflow volume is
plotted against the time of the day.
Typical wastewater treatment plant incorporating in ‐ line flow equalization
Source: Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy, 2003
o
Other factors considered for design
include:
o
Basin geometry,
o
Basin construction,
o
Mixing and air requirements,
o
Operational appurtenances and
o
Pumping systems.
Typical wastewater treatment plant incorporating off ‐ line flow equalization
Source: Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy, 2003
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
44

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING Wastewater Treatment Units: Primary Sedimentation Week 5- Lecture 26 Dr. MANOJ
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING
Wastewater Treatment Units: Primary Sedimentation
Week 5- Lecture 26
Dr. MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
45
Primary Sedimentation in Wastewater Treatment Image Source : https://www.lenntech.com/wwtp/wwtp ‐ overview.htm o
Primary Sedimentation in Wastewater Treatment
Image Source : https://www.lenntech.com/wwtp/wwtp ‐ overview.htm
o
After removal of larger floating and suspended materials (through screening) and heavier
grit materials (in grit chamber), the wastewater is typically directed to Primary Clarifier
(Sedimentation) for the removal of suspended organics as well as finer inorganic solids .
o
Sedimentation is essentially a phase separation operation for separating liquid and
solids.
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Sedimentation / Settling / Clarification To settle out the suspended materials due to gravity. Suspended
Sedimentation / Settling / Clarification
To settle out the suspended materials due to gravity. Suspended material may be:
o
The particles originally present in source waters, such as clay or silts.
Plain (or primary) Settling
o
The flocs created through coagulation‐flocculation process
Chemical added settling (coagulant assisted settling)
o
Biomass produced in biological treatment units (wastewater treatment)
Secondary Settling
Settling is accomplished by decreasing the velocity of water to a point below which it no
longer supports the transport of the particles, therefore gravity removes them from the flow.
47
Types of Settling o TYPE I ‐ Discrete (or Free) settling: The particles settle without
Types of Settling
o
TYPE I ‐ Discrete (or Free) settling: The particles settle without interaction and
occurs under low solids concentration. A typical occurrence of this type of
settling is the removal of sand particles.
o
TYPE II ‐ Flocculent settling: This is defined as a condition where particles initially
settle independently, but flocculate in the depth of the clarification unit. The
velocity of settling particles are usually increasing as the particles aggregates.
The mechanisms of flocculent settling are not well understood.
o
TYPE III ‐ Hindered (or Zone) settling: Inter‐particle forces are sufficient to hinder
the settling of neighbouring particles. The particles tend to remain in a fixed
positions with respect to each others. This type of settling is typical in the settler
for the activated sludge process (secondary clarifier).
o
TYPE IV ‐ Compression settling: This occurs when the particle concentration is so
high that so that particles at one level are mechanically influenced by particles
on lower levels. The settling velocity then drastically reduces.
Image Source :
Source : http://www.it.uu.se/research/project/jass/material/sett98.pdf
A Numerical Model of Flow and Settling in
Sedimentation Tanks in Potable Water
Treatment Plants. Ph.D. Thesis by A. H. Ghawi
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Sedimentation Theory Forces acting on a particle under discrete settling: F B Gravity Force =
Sedimentation Theory
Forces acting on a particle under discrete settling:
F B
Gravity Force
= m.g = ρ p .( πd 3 /6) .g
F D
F D
Buoyancy Force =m w .g = ρ w .( πd 3 /6) .g
Drag Force:
=(1/2) ρv s 2 . C D .A
Force balance (at Steady State):
Gravity Force ‐ Buoyancy Force = Drag Force
For spherical particle under laminar flow conditions (C D = 24/R e , and R e = ρ vd/µ):
F G
v s = g(ρ p ‐ρ w )d 2 /18µ
For transition flow conditions (C D = 24/R e + 3/R e 1/2 + 0.34):
49
Sedimentation Theory Ideal settling of discrete particle Assumptions  The flow is laminar flow. 
Sedimentation Theory
Ideal settling of discrete particle
Assumptions
 The flow is laminar flow.
 Impurities particles are
evenly distributed on the
whole area of the tank
 The case of entrance and
exit does not affect the
sedimentation efficiency
 The settled particles
does not resuspended
Image Source : http://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/academics/myounes/uploads/course%20materials/Sanitary/part%20iv.pdf
50

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Sedimentation Basin Zones Inlet zone o The inlet or influent zone should provide a smooth
Sedimentation Basin Zones
Inlet zone
o
The inlet or influent zone should provide a smooth transition of water and should
distribute the flow uniformly across the inlet to the tank.
o
The normal design includes baffles that gently spread the flow across the total inlet of the
tank and prevent short circuiting in the tank.
o
The baffle could include a wall across the inlet, perforated with holes across the width of
the tank.
Settling Zone
o
The settling zone is the largest portion of the sedimentation basin.
o
This zone provides the calm area necessary for the suspended particles to settle.
51
Sedimentation Basin Zones Sludge zone o Located at the bottom of the tank, provides a
Sedimentation Basin Zones
Sludge zone
o
Located at the bottom of the tank, provides a storage area for the sludge before it is
removed for additional treatment or disposal.
o
High flow velocities near the sludge zone should be minimized.
o
Sludge is removed for further treatment from the sludge zone by scraper or vacuum
devices which move along the bottom.
Outlet Zone
o
The basin outlet zone or launder should provide a smooth transition from the
sedimentation zone to the outlet from the tank.
o
This area of the tank also controls the depth of water in the basin.
o
Weirs are set at the end of the tank to control the overflow rate and prevent the solids
from leaving the tank before they settle out.
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Sedimentation Basin Types Intermittent and Continuous Types: o The intermittent tanks, also called quiescent type
Sedimentation Basin Types
Intermittent and Continuous Types:
o
The intermittent tanks, also called quiescent type tanks, are those which store water for a
certain period and keep it in complete rest.
o
In a continuous flow type tank, the flow velocity is only reduced and the water is not
brought to complete rest as is done in an intermittent type.
Rectangular or Circular Types:
o
Settling basins may be either long rectangular or circular in plan.
o
Long narrow rectangular tanks with horizontal flow are generally preferred to the circular
tanks with radial or spiral flow.
Source : https://nptel.ac.in/courses/105104102/Lecture%206.htm
53
Sedimentation Basin Types Intermittently and Continuous Types: o The intermittent tanks, also called quiescent type
Sedimentation Basin Types
Intermittently and Continuous Types:
o
The intermittent tanks, also called quiescent type tanks, are those which store water for a
certain period and keep it in complete rest.
o
In a continuous flow type tank, the flow velocity is only reduced and the water is not
brought to complete rest as is done in an intermittent type.
Rectangular or Circular Types:
o
Settling basins may be either long rectangular or circular in plan.
o
Long narrow rectangular tanks with horizontal flow are generally preferred to the circular
tanks with radial or spiral flow.
Source : https://nptel.ac.in/courses/105104102/Lecture%206.htm
54

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING Wastewater Treatment Units: Primary Sedimentation Week 5- Lecture 27 Dr. MANOJ
WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND RECYCLING
Wastewater Treatment Units: Primary Sedimentation
Week 5- Lecture 27
Dr. MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
55
Rectangular Sedimentation Basin Image Source : http://www.thewatertreatments.com/wastewater‐ sewage ‐
Rectangular Sedimentation Basin
Image Source : http://www.thewatertreatments.com/wastewater‐ sewage ‐ treatment/zones‐
sedimentation ‐basin/
Image Source : http://www.orazio.it/index.php/sedimentation‐tank‐ design ‐parameters/
Image Source : Fair and Geyer, Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal, McGraw Hill, 1964
56

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Circular Sedimentation Basin Image Source : http://www.thewatertreatments.com/wastewater‐ sewage ‐ treatment/zones‐
Circular Sedimentation Basin
Image Source : http://www.thewatertreatments.com/wastewater‐ sewage ‐ treatment/zones‐
sedimentation ‐basin/
Image Source : https://theconstructor.org/environmental ‐engg/types‐ of‐sedimentation‐
tank/14711/
Image Source : Fair and Geyer, Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal, McGraw Hill, 1964
57
Settling Model Consider a particle of dia d, which is just removed with a settling
Settling Model
Consider a particle of dia d, which is just removed with a settling velocity of v s . in a settling
basin of size V = l*b*h. In that case:
v s = h/t = h/(V/Q) = (h*Q)/(l*b*h) = Q/(l*b) = Q/A
where:
t = detention time = V/Q
A = surface area of the basin = l*b
v s = settling velocity of the particle
The volume of water flowing in a unit time per unit surface area of the settling basin is
known as Surface Overflow Rate (or Overflow Rate).
FlowRate m
(
3 /
s
)
OverflowRate 
settling surface area m
(
2 )
v o = Q/A (m 3 /m 2 /s).
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Settling Model o If a particle is settling with vertical speed v s , its
Settling Model
o
If a particle is settling with vertical speed v s , its vertical fall over the
length of the tank will be: h = v s *t
o
Further, a Critical Settling Speed (v c ) can be defined for which all
particles of specific diameter get just collected. So, the vertical fall (h)
in time t would be equal to the depth of the settling basin (H).
v c = H/t = H/(V/Q)= Q/A = v o (equal to overflow rate)
o
For the particle selling with speed v s faster than v c , h ≥ H and all such
particles get collected leading to 100% collection efficiency.
o
For particles settling with speed v s slower than v c ,h<H and particle
may or may not hit the bottom, depending on the level at which it
enter the basin. In such case, the collection efficiency = h/H (= v s /v c ).
Image Source : http://www.dartmouth.edu/~cushman/courses/engs37/Settling.pdf
59
Settling Velocity Distribution o The sizes of the numerous particles present in the wastewater is
Settling Velocity Distribution
o
The sizes of the numerous particles present in the wastewater is not essentially same, and a large gradation of
particle sizes are typically observed in the most wastewater suspensions. In order to determine the removal
efficiency of sediments, it is necessary to consider entire range of particles having different settling velocities.
o
The distribution of settling velocity for a water or wastewater
suspension can be determined from a column settling test, and
a velocity settling curve may be constructed based on the data.
o
For a given flow rate Q, particles having v s ≥ v c (= Q/A, or v o )
will be completely removed, while remaining particles will be
removed in the ration of v s / v c .
o
The total fraction of particles removed η
where, is fraction of particles with v s ≥ v c
And,
is removed fraction of particles with v s < v c
Source : Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, p: 315; Metcalf &Eddy, 2003
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Discrete or Flocculent Settling o For real settling basins, the assumptions of ideal discrete particle
Discrete or Flocculent Settling
o For real settling basins, the assumptions of ideal discrete
particle settling may not hold true, as suspended particles in
water or wastewater exhibit a natural tendency to
agglomerate. Particularly in wastewaters, the suspended
solids are not usually discrete particles and various light and
small particles agglomerate and grow in size as they come
in contact. Such flocculation leads to Flocculent or Type II
sedimentation where the mass of the particles increases
and they settle faster. Due to the flocculated settling, the
sediments removal efficiency is increased.
o However, the models to describe such settling
mathematically, are absent. Settling-column analysis is
usually performed to determine the settling characteristics
of flocculated particles.
Source : http://kuliah.ftsl.itb.ac.id/wp ‐content/uploads/2016/10/Sedimentasi.pdf
61
Settling Basin Efficiency o Similar to that of Grit Chamber, the efficiency of real settling
Settling Basin Efficiency
o
Similar to that of Grit Chamber, the efficiency of real settling basin is reduced to account
for the non ‐ideal basin performance due to turbulence and short ‐circuiting resulting from
eddy, wind and density currents. The efficiency of a real basin is given as:
where,
η = 1 – [1+nv s / (Q/A)] -1/n
• η : Desired efficiency of removal of sediment particle
• v s : Settling velocity of minimum size of particle to be removed
• Q/A : Design surface over flow rate for the sedimentation basin
• n : An index which is a measured the basin performance.
o
The value of n is chosen as 0 for the best possible performance, 1/8 for very good
performance, 1/4 for good performance, 1/2 for poor performance and 1 for very poor
performance.
Sources : CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
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Factors Affecting Sedimentation o Shape, Size, Density and Nature of particles o Viscosity, density and
Factors Affecting Sedimentation
o
Shape, Size, Density and Nature of particles
o
Viscosity, density and temperature of water
o
Surface overflow rate
o
Velocity of flow
o
Inlet and outlet arrangements
o
Detention period
o
Effective depth of settling zone
63
Design of Primary Clarifier  Compute critical settling velocity (for the smallest size particle to
Design of Primary Clarifier
 Compute critical settling velocity (for the smallest size particle to be removed).
Step 1:
 Equate critical settling velocity to overflow rate incorporating basin efficiency,
and compute surface area.
Step 2:
 Fix the dimensions (length and width, or dia), and select an appropriate
depth/detention time.
Step 3:
 Checks for the adequacy of design criteria (overflow rate, depth detention time,
solid loading rate, weir loading, scouring velocity etc.).
Step 4:
 Design inlet, outlet and sludge withdrawal arrangement.
Step 5:
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Recommended Design Parameters Source: CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
Recommended Design Parameters
Source: CPHEEO (2012) Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, Part A: Engineering
65
Recommended Dimensions of Sedimentation Basin Description Dimensions Range Typical Rectangular Depth, m 3-5 3.5
Recommended Dimensions of Sedimentation Basin
Description
Dimensions
Range
Typical
Rectangular
Depth, m
3-5
3.5
Length, m
15-90
25-40
Width, m
3-24
6-10
Circular
Diameter, m
4-60
12-45
Depth, m
3-5
4.5
As per CPHEEO
Bottom Slope, mm/m
60-160
80
Rectangular: Tank dimensions: L:B = 3 to 5:1.
Length = 30 m (common) maximum 100 m; Width= 6 to 10 m.
Circular:
Depth:
Diameter not greater than 60 m. generally 20 to 40 m.
2.5 to 5.0 m (3 m).
Bottom Slopes: Rectangular 1% towards inlet and circular 8%.
Source: CPHEEO (1999) Manual on Water Supply and Treatment Systems
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Inlet and Outlet Arrangements Typical Inlet Designs Typical Outlet Designs Sources: CPHEEO (1999) Manual on
Inlet and Outlet Arrangements
Typical Inlet Designs
Typical Outlet Designs
Sources: CPHEEO (1999) Manual on Water Supply and Treatment Systems; https://esemag.com/wastewater/improving‐wastewater‐ optimization‐through‐flow‐ distribution/ ;
http://www.orazio.it/index.php/sedimentation‐tank‐ design‐parameters/
67
Alternates to Sedimentation Tanks Plate and Tube Settlers (Lamella Clarifier):  Water flows up through
Alternates to Sedimentation Tanks
Plate and Tube Settlers (Lamella Clarifier):
 Water flows up through slanted tubes or along slanted plates,
and particles settles out in the tubes or plates and drifts back
down into the lower portions of the sedimentation basin.
 Clarified water passes through the tubes or between the plates
and then flows out of the basin.
 These are compact units and therefore usually requiring only 65 ‐
80 % of the area of conventional clarifiers. Also energy inputs
are lower due to absence of mechanical or moving parts.
 High chances of clogging, and therefore regular maintenance is
needed.
Image Source: http://www.thewatertreatments.com/wastewater‐ sewage ‐ treatment/clariflocculator/
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Plate and Tube Settlers Image Sources: https://www.pvccoolingfill.com/products/lamella ‐clarifier‐inclined‐tube
Plate and Tube Settlers
Image Sources: https://www.pvccoolingfill.com/products/lamella ‐clarifier‐inclined‐tube ‐settler.html; https://www.brentwoodindustries.com/water ‐ wastewater‐
products/tube ‐settlers/; https://www.ovivowater.com/fr/application/municipal/municipal ‐drinking ‐water/clarification‐sedimentation‐2/inclined‐ plate ‐separator/
69
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES IIT KHARAGPUR 70
MANOJ KUMAR TIWARI
SCHOOL OF WATER RESOURCES
IIT KHARAGPUR
70