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CELL - structural & functional units of living body.

• Chloroplast
- it is the smallest structure that is able to carry out the basic functions of - disk shaped that specialize in photosynthesis.
life. • Mitochondrion
- place of cell respiration & where most ATP is generated.
HOW WERE CELLS DISCOVERED? c. CYTOSKELETON
• ROBERT HOOKE first discovered cell while viewing cork specimen. -system of interconnected protein filament.
He noticed little rooms that resembled cells, & thus the term "CELL" was • Actin Filaments
born. Hooke was not able to observe living cells but they were remnants - provide structural support to plasma membrane & facilitate mov't of the
of a cell specifically the cell wall. cell.
• ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK invention of a much better microscope • Intermediate Filaments
led to the study of living cells. - provide structure to cell.
The following years, other scientists also studied living cells. Their • Microtubules
collective work led to the formulation of the CELL THEORY. - important during cell division.
WHAT DOES THE CELL THEORY STATE? WHAT ARE THE TWO MAIN GROUP OF CELLS?
a. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells, based on the basis of nucleus are classified into two large groups:
b. Cell is the structural unit of all living organisms. 1. PROKARYOTIC CELL (pro =early/primitive)
• MATTIAS JAKOB SCHLEIDEN proposed that all plants are composed 2. EUKARYOTIC CELL (eu=true karyon/nucleus)
of cells. The following year, THEODORE SCHWAN made a similar ▪PLANT CELL ORGANELLES
statement regarding animals. • Nucleus
a. Cells come from pre-existing cells. • Nucleolus
• RUDOLPH VIRCHOW showed that cells self reproduce which • Mitochondria
contributed to the third principle of the cell theory. • Plasma membrane
WHAT'S INSIDE A CELL? • Cytoplasm
Cell is made up of organelles, structures with a membrane that perform • Vacuole
a variety of functions such as protein production, storage of materials, • Cell wall
harvesting energy & digestion of substance, & among others. Organelles • Chloroplast
roles are interdependent. • Starch granules
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE ORGANELLES? ▪ANIMAL CELL ORGANELLES
a. ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM • Nucleus
• Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • Nucleolus
- filled with ribosomes, production of glycoprotein. • Mitochondria
• Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • Cytoplasm
- lacks ribosomes, responsible for lipid and hormone production. • Vacuole
• Golgi Apparatus • Endoplasmic Reticulum
- packaging center of the cell. • Centriole
• Vacuole • Pinocyte
- serve as storage of the cell. WHAT MAKES UP A TISSUE?
• Lysosome Tissue is a group of same or similar cells that perform a specific function
- contains digestive enzymes, organelle - recycling facility of an animal in the body.
cell.
b. ENERGY RELATED ORGANELLES
Two Major Types of Tissue identical copies of itself. This process is important for growth and repair
1. PLANT TISSUE of the body. (PMAT)
• Meristematic Tissue Importance of Mitosis
• Primary Plant Tissue a. It ensures equal distribution of nucleus material down to each
2. ANIMAL TISSUE daughter cell.
• Epithelial Tissue - for protection & coverings. b. Constancy of species is maintained by keeping a constant
• Connective Tissue - it connects. chromosome number of each daughter cell that is genetically identical to
• Nerve Tissue - for signal & supports. the parent cell.
• Muscle Tissue - for movements. c. It restores wear & tear of the body tissues heals wounds & replaces
WHAT IS CELL MODIFICATION? damaged or lost organs through regeneration .
It is a features or structure of the cell that makes it different from another d. It is a means of asexual reproduction for some organisms.
type of the cell that makes it different from another type of cell & at the e. Facilitates growth from a single fertilized egg to an individual with
same time enables it to carry out unusual functions. billions or trillions of cells.
WHY DOES CELL MODIFICATION OCCUR? FOUR MITOTIC STAGES
Plant & animal cells are specialized to be able to carry out their tasks A. PROPHASE -chromosomes condense & organize nuclear membrane
efficiently. They have particular adaptation to their structure to suits its & nucleoli disapper, spindle apparatus assembled & attached to
function. centromeres of duplicated chromosomes.
WHAT IS CELL CYCLE? B. METAPHASE -spindles line up duplicated chromosomes along
Cell cycle is an orderly sequence of stages that takes place from the time equator of cell, one spindle to each half or chromatid of duplicated
an eukaryotic cell divides to the time the resulting daughter also divides. chromosome.
Its two main parts are: INTERPHASE & M PHASE. C. ANAPHASE -centromere of each duplicated chromosome is
separated and paired chromatids are pulled apart.
INTERPHASE is the longest stage of cell cycle. It has three stages: D. TELOPHASE -chromosomes uncoil; nucleoli reappear; cytokinesis
a. G1, the first interval when the cell grows before DNA replication. occurs and two genetically identical daughter cell are produced.
b. S, the time of DNA replication.
c. G2, the second interval when the cell prepares to divide. MEIOSIS is a kind of cell division exclusive to gametes or reproductive
cell. This process reduces the number of chromosomes from a diploid
M PHASE or Mitotic Phase, replicated DNA & cytoplasm divide to make (2n) number to a haploid [n] number.
two new diploid cells, both the same chromosome number. It occurs in two stages as a diploid nucleus cannot be split into a haploid
It involves CYTOKINESIS which is the splitting of the cytoplasm in two nucleus in a single division. (Meiosis1 & Meiosis2)
making two new cells.
Importance of Meiosis
CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINT a. It reduces the number of gametes in half which allows them to unite
It is a stage where the cell examines internal & external cues & decides during fertilization without increasing the normal no. of chromosome in
whether to go through with cell division or not. the offspring.
THREE MAJOR CHECKPOINTS: b. It produces new chromosome combination in the gamete through the
G1 Checkpoint process of crossing over.
G2 Checkpoint c. It promotes genetic diversity, which is essential for the survival of the
Spindle Checkpoint population.
WHAT IS MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS? STAGES OF MEIOSIS
MITOSIS is a process of cell division in which a cell divides produces Meiosis 1
A. Prophase 1 -spindle microtubules become attached to them as the
nuclear membrane breaks up. substance.
B. Metaphase 1 -homologous chromosome pairs line up in the middle of 3. Osmosis -diffusion across a semi-permeable membrane.
the cell. The two chromosomes of each pair become joined the 4. Bulk flow -mass movements of fluids affected by pressure & solutes.
microtubules at the opposite side of the cell. B. Active Transport
C. Anaphase 1 - all of the homologous chromosome separate and move 1. Membrane Pumps -permeable used to move substance usually in
towards the spindle pole. the opposite direction of diffusion.
D. Telophase 1 -homologous chromosome pairs reach the spindle poles, 2. Endocytosis -materials are brought into cell via:
nuclear membrane form around them & cytokinesis follows to produce • Phagocytosis: SOLIDS (cell eating)
two cells • Pinocytosis: LIQUIDS (cell drinking)
Meiosis 2 3. Exocytosis -expel materials from cell.
You may think of meiosis 2 as a process similar to mitosis except the -----CHAPTER 2: BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES-----
chromosomes does not replicate before division. Objectives:
A. Prophase 2 -the centrioles will duplicate & separate into two At the end of each topic the learners will be able to understand the:
centrosomes. The nuclear membrane breaksdown & the spindle 1. Role, structure & functions of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and
apparatus forms. Nucleic Acid.
B. Metaphase 2 -chromosomes which are still duplicated, are aligned in 2. Components of an enzyme
the middle of the cell (metaphase plate). 3.Factors that may affect the enzyme activity.
C. Anaphase 2 -sister chromatids of each chromosome separate & 4. Oxidation / Reduction Reactions
move towards the opposite poles.
D. Telophase 2 -nuclear membrane forms around each set of WHAT IS BIOMOLECULE?
chromosomes & cytokinesis occur, producing 4 haploid daughter cells. BIOMOLECULES are molecules that occur naturally in living organisms
like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acid.
WHAT IS CROSSING OVER & WHEN DOES IT HAPPEN?
Crossing over is the process that involves an exchange of genetic A. CARBOHYDRATES
material between non sister chromatids during meiosis. It occurs during Structures:
the leptotene stahes of prophase 1. • Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen.
• Simple six carbon sugar (glucose) is called a monosaccharide.
HOW DOES CROSSING OVER HAPPEN? • Two molecules or units join together to form disaccharide (sucrose).
Crossing over happens in prophase 1 when chromosomes condense. • More than ten units of monosaccharides join in a chain to form a
Each is drawn closer to its homologous partner, so that non- sister polysaccharide like starch and cellulose.
chromatids align along their length. The tight parallel orientation Functions:
facilitates crossing over. • Most abundant organic substance present in nature which occurs in the
WHY DO CHROMOSOME CROSS OVER? form of cellulose in plant cell wall.
Crossing over greatly contributes to variations among individuals. • In both plants and animals it is used as a source of energy (sugar).
Maternal & paternal genes get shuffles to introduce new allele • An important storage form in plants is starch and in animals it is
combinations which results in the combination of trairs among offspring. glycogen.
Without crossing over an organism's offspring would just be cloned of • Present in Nucleic acid as five carbon sugar
themselves. (Ribose in RNA & Deoxyribose in DNA).
WHAT ARE THE TRANSPORT MECHANISMS IN CELL? B. PROTEINS
A. Passive Transport Structures:
1. Diffusion - movement from an area of high to low concentration. • Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen.
2. Facilitated Diffusion - a permease, or membrane enzyme, carries • Amino acid join together by peptide bonds to form protein molecules.
• Twenty different amino acid make numerous simple & complex proteins. photosynthesis & many others.
• Based on the complexity of structure the proteins can have primary, They are globular proteins with a specific tertiary shape.
secondary, tertiary & quaternary structures. They are usually specific to only one reaction.
• When proteins exist with other molecules they are known ad The part of the enzyme that acts as catalyst is called the ACTIVE SITE.
conjugated proteins like glycoprotein, lipoprotein & chromoprotein. WHAT ARE THE COMPOSITION OF ENZYMES?
Functions: The composition of enzymes is based on two main components, namely:
• Structurally proteins from integral part of the membranes. 1. PROTEINIC COMPONENT
• Functionally in the form of enzymes they play a vital role in metabolic Enzymes are protein in nature & the proteinic component of enzymes is
reactions. called Apoenzyme.
• Synthesis of DNA is regulated by proteins (enzymes). 2. NON PROTEINIC COMPONENT
C. NUCLEIC ACID Most of the enzymes need a non proteinic component for their activity,
Structure: which is known as cofactor.
• They are of two types: DNA & RNA Without cofactor enzymes cannot show any enzymatic activity. In some
• They are long chain polymers composed of units called enzymes the cofactor is simply metal ion or organic molecules or ions.
NUCLEOTIDES as PURINES (Adenine & Guanine) and PYRIMIDINES WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF ENZYMES?
(Thymine, Cytosine & Uracil)
• Each nucleotide has pentose sugar, nitrogen base & phosphate group. CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES
• DNA had one Oxygen less in its sugar molecule. (Accdg. to the type of rexn catalyzed)
Functions: 1. OXIDO REDUCTASES
• DNA is the main genetic material for almost all organisms except -oxidation-reduction rexns
certain viruses. 2. TRANSFERASES
• RNA molecules are involved in information transfer & protein synthesis; -group trabsfer rexns
& RNA acts as genetic material in some viruses like TMV (Tobacco 3. HYDROLASES
Mosaic Virus). -hydrolysis rexns
4. LYASES
D. LIPIDS -removal or addition rexns
Structure: 5. ISOMERASES
• Composed of C, H, O. An amount of Oxygen is very less. -isomerization rexns
• They are synthesized from fatty acids and glycerol. Simple lipids are 6. LIGASES
called glycerides. -the joining to two molecules.
• Fats can be saturated or unsaturated. -condensation rexns.
• Fats are solid at room temperature, those remain liquid at room
temperature are called oils. WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT THE ACTIVITY OF
Functions: AN ENZYME?
• Due to their low oxygen content, & higher number of C-H bonds they FACTORS AFFECTING AN ENZYME ACTIVITY
store higher amount of energy & release more energy during their 1. pH
oxidation. Every enzyme has its own optimum pH at which it shows maximum
• A molecule of fat can yield twice as much energy as from carbohydrate. activity.
• Phospholipids are important components of cell membranes. 2. TEMPERATURE
WHAT IS ENZYMES? Most of the enzymes show maximum activity between 37°C to 50°C.
Enzymes are chemical catalysts & speed up chemical reactions. 3. SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION
They play an important role in all cellular reactions such as respiration,
ENZYME CONCENTRATION & A-P-P-P (ATP)------------energy release l
PRESENCE OF CERTAIN ION ^l-----------------A-P-P (ADP) + P ----l
OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS WHAT IS PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
OXIDATION is the loses of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion. It is a process by which plant convey light energy into chemical energy.
REDUCTION is the gain of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion. 6 CO2+ 6 H2O ---> C6H1206 +6O2
LEO GER Sunlight (radiant energy) is captured by chlorophyll and carotenoid photo
Oxidized element is called reducing agent. sigments (found in cytoplasm in prokaryotes and chloroplasts in
Reduced element is called oxidising agent. eukaryotes) in two main steps:
Mg + Cl2 ----> MgCl2 A. Light-dependent reactions (LIGHT REXNS):
Mg ---->Mg(2+) + 2e The captured light energy is transferred to electrons that come from H2O
Oxidised (lost 2 e) (water). Oxygen(O2) is a by-product.
B. Light-independent reactions (DARK REXNS):
Cl2 + 2e ---->2Cl- Energized electrons are transferred to CO2 (reduction rexns) to form
Reduced (gained e) glucose (in the Cavin-Benson Cycle)
MgCl2 WHAT IS CELL RESPIRATION?
1 atom of Mg Oxidation no. of +2 It is a process by which the chemical energy of food is converted to ATP.
2 atoms of Cl Oxidation no. Of -1 C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ----> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
(+2 x1) + (-1 ×2) = 0
Highly energized electrons stored temporarily in glucose are removed
----CHAPTER 3: ENERGY TRANSFORMATION---- (oxidation rexns) in a step-wise fashion to maximise energy capture at
Objectives: each step:
At the end of each topic the learners will be able to understand the: A. GLYCOLYSIS : Anaerobic ,without oxygen, process in cytoplasm in
1. ATP-ADP Cycle which glucose ,a 6 carbon cpd., is oxidized to 2 pyruvates which are both
2. Photosynthesis: Light & Dark Reactions 3 carbon chains.
3. Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic B.KREBS CYCLE: Aerobic ,with oxygen, process that oxidizes
THE SUN pyruvates to carbondioxide.
Organisms must use the Sun's energy directly or indirectly to become C. CHEMIOSMOTIC PHOSPHORYLATION : The energized electrons
and remain in an organized state. released during the previous steps are used to concentrate hydrogen
WHAT IS METABOLISM? ions in one area (of the cell membrane in prokaryotes; of the
It is a series of chemical reactions involved in storing (ANABOLISM) or mitochondrion in eukaryotes) to create a chemical gradient between
releasing (CATABOLISM) energy. positively & negatively charged ions. The potential energy resulting from
this osmotic gradient is used to resynthesis ATP from ADP & AMP. After
WHAT IS ATP? electrons have been used, they must be transferred to oxygen (O2).
ATP or adenosine triphosphate is a high energy molecule with three
phosphate. Energy stored in ATP is released by breaking
phosphate-to-phosphate bonds and creating ADP (with two phosphate)
or AMP (with one phosphate).
ATP is recycled by adding back phosphate groups using energy from the
sun.
ATP-ADP Cycle
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